# Code No: RR410104

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FINITE ELEMENT METHODS (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Explain how the principle of minimum potential energy forms the basis for the displacement formulation for Finite element Analysis? [16] 2. (a) What do you understand by Functional approximation? (b) Explain how the Raleigh-Ritz method can be used to approximate the solution of a problem. [6+10] 3. (a) What are the assumptions made in plane stress problems? (b) Develop stress-strain relationship for a plane stress problem and express it in matrix form. [4+12] 4. Deﬁne: (a) Local coordinate system and global coordinate system. (b) Discuss the necessity for adopting local coordinate System for one dimensional element? [10+6] 5. (a) Derive the shape functions for a one dimensional linear ﬁnite element. (b) Describe the properties of shape functions. [10+6]

6. For a three Noded Triangular element shown in ﬁgure 1. Derive the shape functions in terms of global coordinates. [16]

Figure 1: 7. Using Area Coordinates, develop shape functions for a six Node Triangular element. [16] 1 of 2

Code No: RR410104

Set No. 1
[16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

8. Compare and contrast Lagrangian Elements and Serendipity Elements.

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Code No: RR410104

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FINITE ELEMENT METHODS (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Discuss in detail the general steps involved in Finite Element Methods. 2. (a) What do you understand by Functional approximation? (b) Explain how the Raleigh-Ritz method can be used to approximate the solution of a problem. [6+10] 3. For a state of strain, if a displacement ﬁeld is described by u=(-x2 + 2y 2 + 6xy)10−4 v= (3x+6y-y 2)10−4 Determine the εx , εy and yxy at the point x=1, y=0 also ﬁnd the stresses σx σy and τxy , if E=200 Gpa, υ =0.30. [16] 4. Formulate the Element Stiﬀness Matrix for a Truss element using generalized coordinates. [16] 5. (a) Derive the shape functions for a one dimensional linear ﬁnite element. (b) Describe the properties of shape functions. [10+6] [16]

6. For a three Noded Triangular element shown in ﬁgure 1. Derive the shape functions in terms of global coordinates. [16]

Figure 1: 7. Show that Area Coordinate are related to shape functions for a three Node Triangular element and that area Coordinates lead to a diﬀerent but equivalent formulation for the shape function. [16]

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Code No: RR410104

Set No. 2

8. Determine the Jacobian for the (x,y) (ξ, η) transformation for the element shown in ﬁgure 2 also ﬁnd the area of the triangle. [16] Coordinates of Node 1 (3,2) Node 2 (12,5) Node 3 (7,9)

Figure 2:

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Code No: RR410104

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FINITE ELEMENT METHODS (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Explain how the principle of minimum potential energy forms the basis for the displacement formulation for Finite element Analysis? [16] 2. A cantilever beam of under uniformly distributed load of Intensity Po per unit length and end moment Mo . Find the Transverse deﬂection using Raleigh-Ritz functional evaluation and compare the result with exact Analytical solution. [16] 3. For the state of strain shown in ﬁgure 1.

Figure 1: (a) Determin the three strains : εx , εy and yxy (b) Determine the stresses : σx σy and τxy . If E=200 Gpa and υ = 0.3. 4. (a) Explain local and global axes? (b) What is meant by higher order element? How does it eﬀect the solution of a problem? [6+10] 5. (a) Derive the shape functions for a one dimensional linear ﬁnite element. (b) Describe the properties of shape functions. [10+6] [8+8]

6. A Rectangular Element with dimensions axb is deﬁned in an x,y coordinate system. Derive the shape functions interms of global coordinates. as shown in ﬁgure 2[16]

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Code No: RR410104

Set No. 3

Figure 2: 7. Show that Volume Coordinates are Related to shape functions for a Four Node quadrilateral element. [16] 8. (a) What is meant by an Isoparametric Element? (b) Mention the Advantages of Isoparametric formulation. (c) Diﬀerentiate between local and global Coordinates? ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [4+6+6]

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Code No: RR410104

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FINITE ELEMENT METHODS (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Discuss in detail the three methods that provides Approximate solutions for Engineering problems. [16] 2. (a) What do you understand by Functional approximation? (b) Explain how the Raleigh-Ritz method can be used to approximate the solution of a problem. [6+10] 3. In a plane strain problem, σx = 130 Mpa, σy = -65 Mpa, E= 200 Gpa, υ =0.30 Determine the value of stress σz . [16] 4. (a) Prove that structure stiﬀness matrix is always symmetric? (b) Does the determinant of an element stiﬀness matrix exist? Explain. 5. For the three stepped bar shown in ﬁgure 1. [8+8]

Figure 1: Determine (a) The displacements at Nodes 2 and 3 (b) Stresses in three sections (c) Reactions at the ends. [16]

6. For a three Noded Triangular element shown in ﬁgure 2. Derive the shape functions in terms of global coordinates. [16] 7. Using Area Coordinates, develop shape functions for a six Node Triangular element. [16] 1 of 2

Code No: RR410104

Set No. 4

Figure 2:

Figure 3: 8. Evaluate the Jacobian matrix [J] for the element shown in ﬁgure 3. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16]

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