# Code No: RR410108

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 HYDROLOGY (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) There is no starting point and ending point in the hydrology cycle ? Explain the statement along with a neat sketch. [8] (b) Deﬁne hydrology as a science and explain. [8]

2. (a) Rain gauge stations A, B, C, D, E and F have annual normal rainfalls of 610,545,455,656,543 and 432 respectively. During a storm stations B, C, D, E and F have reported rainfalls of 22, 29, 35, 17, and 23 mm respectively and station A has not reported as it was inoperative. Estimate the missing storm rainfall at A by the arithmetic mean method and normal ratio method. [8] (b) How do you check the adequacy of the number of existing rain gauges in a basin according to Indian standards. [8] 3. (a) What is perched water table? Draw a neat sketch and explain. How is it compared with ground water table in an unconﬁned aquifer ? [8] (b) Deﬁne conﬁned aquifer with the help of a neat sketch and what are the factors inﬂuencing ground water recharge to conﬁned aquifer ? [8] 4. (a) A well of size 7.7m × 4.65m and depth 6.15m is made in alluvial soil. The water level is 5m below ground level. By pumping for 90 minutes the water level was depressed to 6m below ground level. The recuperation rates of the well during 4hours after the pumping was stopped, are given below. The quantity of water pumped is 33 m3 . Determine the speciﬁc capacity of the well. [10] Time since pumping stopped(min) Water level below ground level (m) 0 15 6 5.89 30 45 60 90 120 180 240 5.8 5.7 5.63 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.15

(b) Deﬁne draw down. How will it diﬀer in observation wells at diﬀerent radii from the pumping well. [6] 5. (a) What do you understand by potential evapo transpiration ? (b) Explain water balance method of measuring evaporation. [8] [8]

6. (a) The total observed runoﬀ during a 6hr storm with a uniform intensity of 1.5 cm / h is 20 million m3 . The area over which rainfall occurred is 256 km2 . What is the average inﬁltration rate for the basin. [8] (b) Out of forest land, grazed pasture, concrete pavement and rock outcrop, which has highest inﬁltration capacity. Justify. [8]

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Code No: RR410108

Set No. 1

7. (a) What are the uses of ﬂow duration curve? What data is needed to construct the ﬂow duration curve? [8] (b) List out all the basin characteristics that aﬀect runoﬀ from a basin. Describe their inﬂuence on the runoﬀ. [8] 8. (a) Explain the procedure to derive the ﬂood hydrograph if unit hydrograph is known. (b) How is a unit hydrograph of higher duration derived from unit hydrograph of smaller duration. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR410108

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 HYDROLOGY (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What are diﬀerent forms of presenting a hydrological cycle? Explain brieﬂy about their features. [8] (b) Enumerate what are studied in two branches of hydrology namely surface water hydrology and ground water hydrology. [8] 2. (a) What are non recording type of rain gauges? (b) What are diﬀerent forms of precipitation? [8] [8]

3. (a) How does the recharge occur to conﬁned aquifer? Explain with a sketch. [6] (b) What is the relation between speciﬁc yield and speciﬁc retention of an aquifer? [6] (c) Deﬁne transmissibility of an aquifer. [4]

4. (a) Explain how the yield of an open well can be determined using recuperation test. [8] (b) What are the assumptions in Dupuit’s theory to determine the ﬂow from a well made in a conﬁned aquife? What do you mean by interference among well? [8] 5. (a) What do you understand by potential evapo transpiration ? (b) Explain water balance method of measuring evaporation. [8] [8]

6. (a) Explain the inﬁltration process and enumerate the factors inﬂuencing the same. [8] (b) A 12 hour storm has given the following depths in cm over a basin. The surface run oﬀ resulting from the storm is 25 cm depth over the basin. Determine the average inﬁltration index for the basin. [8] 2, 2.5, 7.6, 3.8, 10.6, 5.0, 7.2, 10.2, 6.5, 3.8, 1.5, 1.4 7. (a) Deﬁne and describe the following i. ii. iii. iv. Inter ﬂow Base ﬂow Direct run oﬀ Overland ﬂow [10]

(b) What is time of concentration and what does it reﬂect ? How is it known [6] 8. (a) How do you ﬁx starting and ending points of base ﬂow separation curve? 1 of 2

Code No: RR410108

Set No. 2

(b) Deﬁne Instantaneous unit hydrograph and explain its concept. What are its uses and limitations? [4+12] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR410108

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 HYDROLOGY (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the movement and circulation of water through atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. [8] (b) How do you account for Indian water budget from global water budget ? What are the assumptions implied ? [8] 2. (a) What are non recording type of rain gauges? (b) What are diﬀerent forms of precipitation? 3. (a) Diﬀerentiate between i. Water table and piezometric surface. ii. Artesian well and ﬂowing well. (b) A quantity of 3.68 Million m3 of water was pumped out of an unconﬁned aquifer. The aerial extent of the aquifer is 6.2 Km2 . The water table went down by 2.6 m due to pumping of water. What is the speciﬁc yield of the aquifer ? [8] 4. (a) Explain how the yield of an open well can be determined using recuperation test. [8] (b) What are the assumptions in Dupuit’s theory to determine the ﬂow from a well made in a conﬁned aquife? What do you mean by interference among well? [8] 5. (a) What do you understand by potential evapo transpiration ? (b) Explain water balance method of measuring evaporation. [8] [8] [8] [8] [8]

6. (a) Discuss the inﬁltration equation. Describe how fc , fo , and k can be obtained in Horton’s equation from the experimental data. [8] (b) What is the role played by inﬁltration in the circulation, storage and movement of water in a hydrology cycle. [8] 7. (a) What are diﬀerent components of run oﬀ? Describe them. (b) The average monthly inﬂows in million m3 are given below. If a uniform demand of 230 million m3 is to be met by a reservoir proposed, what should be the capacity? [6+10] Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Flow 52 160 536 778 535 338 267 214 150 107 78 67 1 of 2

Code No: RR410108

Set No. 3

8. (a) Diﬀerentiate between total run oﬀ hydrograph and direct run oﬀ hydrograph. How is the latter obtained from the former. Explain with neat sketches. (b) What is synthetic unit hydrograph? What are its uses and how is it obtained? [6+10] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR410108

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 HYDROLOGY (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What is the quantity of water held in atmosphere in relation to total global water available? Elaborate. [8] (b) Explain clearly what factors inﬂuence the availability of water in atmosphere? [8] 2. (a) The cumulative rainfall with time is given below. Construct the hyetograph of the storm using uniform time interval of 2 hrs. [8] Time(hrs) 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Rainfall 0 11 24 38 57 66 67 (b) Explain how you arrive at the number of rain gauge stations to be provided in a river basin. What are the Indian standards. [8] 3. (a) What is an aquiclude ? What are its water bearing properties ? [6]

(b) What is the relation between coeﬃcient of permeability and transmissibility? [6] (c) Deﬁne water table. How does it ﬂuctuate ? [4]

4. (a) A well of size 7.7m × 4.65m and depth 6.15m is made in alluvial soil. The water level is 5m below ground level. By pumping for 90 minutes the water level was depressed to 6m below ground level. The recuperation rates of the well during 4hours after the pumping was stopped, are given below. The quantity of water pumped is 33 m3 . Determine the speciﬁc capacity of the well. [10] Time since pumping stopped(min) Water level below ground level (m) 0 15 6 5.89 30 45 60 90 120 180 240 5.8 5.7 5.63 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.15

(b) Deﬁne draw down. How will it diﬀer in observation wells at diﬀerent radii from the pumping well. [6] 5. (a) Explain Lysimeter method of measuring evapotranspiration. [8]

(b) Diﬀerentiate among evaporation, transpiration and evapo transpiration with examples. [8] 6. (a) The total observed runoﬀ during a 6hr storm with a uniform intensity of 1.5 cm / h is 20 million m3 . The area over which rainfall occurred is 256 km2 . What is the average inﬁltration rate for the basin. [8] (b) Out of forest land, grazed pasture, concrete pavement and rock outcrop, which has highest inﬁltration capacity. Justify. [8] 1 of 2

Code No: RR410108

Set No. 4

7. (a) What are the uses of ﬂow duration curve? What data is needed to construct the ﬂow duration curve? [8] (b) List out all the basin characteristics that aﬀect runoﬀ from a basin. Describe their inﬂuence on the runoﬀ. [8] 8. (a) What are the uses of unit hydrograph ? Why is it named so ? What are the assumptions ? (b) Give the step by step procedure of constructing an instantaneous unit hydrograph. (c) How do you check whether the derived unit hydrograph is correct? [6+6+4] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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