# Code No: RR410206

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) List out Various non -Conventional Sources of energy. (b) Brieﬂy explain the advantages of renewable sources of energy. (c) Explain brieﬂy the causes of low power factor and how it can be corrected? [6+4+6] 2. Calculate the angle made by beam radiation with the normal to a ﬂat collector on December 1 at 9.00AM, solar time for a location at 280 35’ N. The collection is tilted at an angle of latitude plus 100 , with the horizontal and is pointing due south. [16] 3. (a) Explain brieﬂy the formation of wind and the energy potential of it. (b) Describe with neat sketches, the working of diﬀerent kinds of wind energy conversion systems. [8+8] 4. (a) What is the basic principle of OTEC? Discuss the advantages of the closed cycle system over open cycle system. (b) The eﬃciency of power plant working on OTEC system is very less. However, the secondary advantages make it commercially attractive. Discuss. [8+8] 5. Derive expressions for power and energy from the waves. What are the limitations and advantages of wave energy conversion? [16] 6. (a) Explain with neat sketches the basic principle of tidal power generation. What are the limitations of each method. (b) A tidal project has installed capacity of 2176MW in 64 units each of 34MW rated output. The head at rated output is 5.52m. The embankment is 6.4 km long. Assume 93% eﬃciency for both turbine and generators. The generation is 5 hours twice a day calculate: i. The quality of water ﬂowing through each turbine. ii. The surface area of reservoir behind the embankment. [8+8]

7. (a) Show the cross-section of the earth and temperature of diﬀerent depths. (b) Explain how geothermal energy is used for power generation. (c) Derive an expression to estimate the energy content of a hot dry rock geothermal resource, assigning linear variation of temperature. Hence obtain an expression for the time constant of a geo-thermal well. [6+4+6] 1 of 2

Code No: RR410206

Set No. 1

8. (a) Explain in detail the various principal routes of Bio mass energy conversion to useful energy? (b) Explain the origin of Bio-mass energy in detail. (c) Explain the diﬀerence between bio mass energy resources and fossil fuel. [6+5+5] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR410206

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What do you mean by renewable energy sources ? (b) Explain various sources of energy brieﬂy. (c) Compare synchronous condenser with static capacitors with regard to pf improvement. [6+4+6] 2. (a) Explain clearly the Beam and diﬀuse radiation. (b) Explain the Construction and operation of solar pond for electric power generation with a line diagram. [8+8] 3. (a) What are the various types of wind energy conversion systems? (b) Discuss the merits and limitations of wind energy conversion. (c) Draw typical performance curves of wind machines and discuss. [6+4+6]

4. (a) Draw a neat layout diagram of a typical OTEC plant showing salient features and explain the principle of operation. (b) In a Claude’s cycle of OTEC conversion producing 100 KW power, warm water at 270 C. is admitted into ﬂash-evaporator, where a pressure corresponding to saturation temperature of water at 250 C is maintained. Saturated vapor is then sent through a turbine having a polytropic eﬃciency of 80%. The pressure in the direct contact condenser is maintained at a value corresponding to saturation temperature of water at 150 C by means of deep sea cold water at 130 C calculate. i. ii. iii. iv. Turbine mass ﬂow rate of vapor Mass ﬂow rate of deep sea cold water. Mass ﬂow rate of warm water. Gross cycle eﬃciency on the basis of energy available from warm surface water. [8+8]

Also explain the reasons of obtaining low value of eﬃciency.

5. How are ocean waves formed? Explain with a schematic diagram how this energy can be tapped. [16] 6. (a) How are energy and power estimated in a simple tidal system? (b) A tidal power plant has the following data; Basin area: 35x106 sq.m Tide range: 12 m 1 of 2

Code No: RR410206 Minimum head for operation: 3 m Turbine- generator eﬃciency: 0.73 Calculate the energy generated in one ﬁlling.

Set No. 2
[8+8]

7. (a) Explain Hot Dry rocks (petrothermal) resources of geothermal energy and how they can be exploited as a source of energy. (b) Explain vapour dominated hydrothermal power plant with neat sketch and its representation on T-S diagram. (c) Describe various disadvantages and operational problems associated with geothermal energy. [5+6+5] 8. (a) What is community biogas plant? What are the main problems encountered in its operation? (b) How biogas can be used as a fuel in I.C engine? Explain the working of such engine with neat sketch. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR410206

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Brieﬂy explain the following i. Energy Planning. ii. Energy Eﬃciency. (b) Explain what are energy eﬃcient electric motors. How do they diﬀer from conventional motors? [10+6] 2. Explain the following with neat sketches: (a) Eppley pyranometer (b) Sun shine recorder 3. (a) Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of wind power. (b) Write short notes on potential wind power in India. (c) List few companies manufacturing WEC devices. [6+6+4] [8+8]

4. (a) Explain the operation of a closed cycle OTEC plant with neat diagram. (b) Estimate the amount of electrical energy obtained from an OTEC plant working with surface water at 27 C and with a temperature diﬀerence of 150 C. Assume the density of ocean water as 1010 kg/m3 , speciﬁc heat of water as 4200 J/kg K, turbine eﬃciency 0.75, generator eﬃciency 0.96 and diameter of tube 60 cm. The velocity of water is limited to 0.2 m/s. [8+8] 5. Discuss the various wave energy conversion devices. [16]

6. (a) With reference to typical examples, explain the nature and magnitude of energy possessed by ocean tides. (b) The observed diﬀerence between the high and low water tide is 0.85meters, for a proposed tidal site. The basin area is about 0.5sq. Km which can generate power for 3 hours in each cycle. The average available head is assumed to be 8 meters and the overall eﬃciency of generation to be 75%. Calculate the power in HP at any instant and the yearly power output. [8+8] 7. (a) Explain the concept of hot dry rock geothermal power plant. (b) Calculate the useful heat content per square kilometer of dry rock granite to a depth of 7km. Take the geo-thermal temperature gradient at 30C/km, the useful temperature as 150C above the surface temperature. Density of rock is 2700kg per m3 and speciﬁc heat of rock is 820 J/kg/k. [8+8] 1 of 2

Code No: RR410206

Set No. 3

8. (a) What is the diﬀerence between biomass and Biogas? (b) What are the techniques suggested for maintaining the biogas production? (c) What is community biogas plant? What are the main problems encountered in its operation? [4+6+6] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR410206

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain spaghetti & pie diagrams brieﬂy with the help of neat sketches. (b) Explain the various steps necessary to avoid low pf. Give examples. 2. Explain the following with neat sketches: (a) Eppley pyranometer (b) Sun shine recorder [8+8] [8+8]

3. (a) Draw the schematic diagram for the following horizontal axis wind mills and brieﬂy explain its functioning. i. Single blade wind mill. ii. Multi blade wind mill. (b) Discuss the disadvantages of horizontal axis wind mill. What methods are used to overcome the ﬂuctuating power generation in wind mills? [8+8] 4. (a) Explain the operation of a closed cycle OTEC plant with neat diagram. (b) Estimate the amount of electrical energy obtained from an OTEC plant working with surface water at 27 C and with a temperature diﬀerence of 150 C. Assume the density of ocean water as 1010 kg/m3 , speciﬁc heat of water as 4200 J/kg K, turbine eﬃciency 0.75, generator eﬃciency 0.96 and diameter of tube 60 cm. The velocity of water is limited to 0.2 m/s. [8+8] 5. With neat sketches explain the working of wave energy conversion machines. [16] 6. (a) What are the diﬀerent methods of getting power from tides? Describe them with neat sketches? (b) Calculate the theoretical maximum power and the reasonable obtainable power output of a tidal power plant when the basin size is 10 km x 25 km and the tidal range is 3 meters. Assume a suitable eﬃciency value to take into account the frictional loss and ineﬃciencies in turbines and generators, state clearly this assumed value. [8+8] 7. (a) Explain Hot Dry rocks (petrothermal) resources of geothermal energy and how they can be exploited as a source of energy. (b) Explain vapour dominated hydrothermal power plant with neat sketch and its representation on T-S diagram. 1 of 2

Code No: RR410206

Set No. 4

(c) Describe various disadvantages and operational problems associated with geothermal energy. [5+6+5] 8. (a) What is community biogas plant? What are the main problems encountered in its operation? (b) How biogas can be used as a fuel in I.C engine? Explain the working of such engine with neat sketch. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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