# Code No: RR410211

Set No.1

IV B.Tech. I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February -2007 RELIABILTY ENGINEERING AND APPLICATION TO POWER SYSTEMS (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Given that the probability of success in a Bernoulli trial is ‘p’, derive an expression for the probability of occurrence of ‘r’ successes out of ‘n’ trials. (b) A generating station has 5 units each of 20MW capacity. The probability of failure of any unit is 0.06. If the load on the station is 70MW, what is the probability of the load not being supplied. 2. (a) Explain the construction of relability network. (b) The reliability network of a system is given (ﬁgure 1). The ﬁgure on each component indicates its reliability. Calculate the reliability of the system.

Figure 1: 3. (a) A system consists of a single component with failure rate λ and repair rate µ. From the state space analysis derive an expression for its steady state availability. (b) A system consists of two components A and B with independent failure and repair rates. From the state space analysis derive expressions for the steady state probability of occurrence of each state of the system. Calculate their λ = 0.2 ; µA = 9.8 values given A λB = 0.4 ; µB = 9.6 1 of 2

Code No: RR410211 4. (a) Explain brieﬂy the Loss of Energy method.

Set No.1

(b) A power station has 5 generating units of 20 MW capacity with λ = 0.2/yr and µ = 9.8/yr. The load on the station is distributed as below: % time for which Load in MW the load occurred 10% 30 15% 40 25% 50 30% 60 20% 70 Find Loss of Energy per year. 5. (a) Derive the relation between the Reliability function R(t) and the mean time to failure of a component. (b) Show that for exponential distribution, MTTF is the reciprocal of the failure rate λ. (c) A component has MTTF of 950hrs. What is its reliability for a mission time of 100hrs. 6. (a) Explain how the eﬀect of changing weather conditions are modelled. (b) Explain the SDEF load model. 7. (a) State and explain the fundamental assumptions of a Markov process. (b) For the system shown in ﬁgure 2, obtain the time domain expression and the steady state values of probabilities P1 (t) and P2 (t)

Figure 2: 8. Write short notes on: (a) MTTF and MTBF (b) Bath-Tub curve.

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Code No: RR410211

Set No.2

IV B.Tech. I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February -2007 RELIABILTY ENGINEERING AND APPLICATION TO POWER SYSTEMS (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Diﬀerentiate between continuous and discrete random variables. (b) In a large system the average number of cable faults per year per 100km of cable is 0.5. What is the probability of not more than one fault occuring in a year on a cable of 10km long. 2. (a) From fundamentals establish that Poisson distribution is a limiting case of binomial distribution (b) The life in hours of an elactronic gadget is normally distributed with parameters µ=160 in hours and some σ, what would be the maximum allowable value for S if the life of the gadget is to have a probability of 0.80 of being between 120hrs and 200hrs. 3. (a) A system consists of simple component with failure rate λ and repair rate µ. From the state space analysis derive an expression for its steady state availability. (b) A system consists of two components A and B with independent failure and repair rates. From the state space analysis derive expressions for the steady state probability of occurence of each state of the system. Calculate their values given λA = 0.2; µA = 9.8 λB = 0.4; µB = 9.6 4. (a) A system has four generating units A, B, C and D. A, B and C have a capacity of 40MW each while D has capacity of 80MW. The failure and repair rates are 0.4/yr and 9.6/yr. Obtain the state space model with equal capacity states merged. (b) Explain MTTF and MTBF 5. (a) Derive the relation between the Reliability function R(t) and the mean time to failure of a component. (b) Show that for exponential distribution, MTTF is the reciprocal of the failure rate λ (c) A component has MTTF of 950 hrs. What is its reliability for a mission time of 100hrs.

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Code No: RR410211

Set No.2

6. A system consists of two 80MW and one 100MW generating units with forced outage rates of 0.03 for all. The monthly load duration curve is assumed to be a straight line, varying from 100 % to 20% of peak load is 100hrs. The peak load is 200MW. Find the loss of load probability. 7. (a) Describe with state space diagram, the Markov model of a single transmission line under two weather environment. (b) Explain with state space diagram the Pf and ff of system consisting of two independent transmission lines under two weather environment. 8. Write short notes on: (a) Bath - tub curve (b) Reliability evaluation of series and parallel systems.

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Code No: RR410211

Set No.3

IV B.Tech. I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February -2007 RELIABILTY ENGINEERING AND APPLICATION TO POWER SYSTEMS (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Deﬁne and explain the concept of reliability (b) In a certain manufacturing process, one percent of the products are known to be defective. If 50 items are purchased by a customer, what is the probability of getting two or less number of defectives? Use the Binomial distribution and Poisson distribution and compare the answers. 2. (a) Derive the general expression for ﬁnding the reliability of series and parallel systems. (b) Find the reliability of the network shown in ﬁgure 3.

Figure 3: 3. (a) State and explain the fundamental assumptions of Markov process. (b) For the system shown in ﬁgure4, obtain the time domain expression and the steady state values of probabilities P1 (t) and P2 (t)

Figure 4:

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Code No: RR410211

Set No.3

4. (a) Obtain the state space model for a system with four identical generating units each having a failure rate λ and a repair rate µ. (b) Consider a system with 4 generating units A,B,C and D. A,B and C have each a capacity of 20MW and the capacity of D is 40MW. Each of the units has λ = 0.4/yr and µ = 9.6/yr. Draw the state space model after merging states of identical capacities. 5. (a) Explain brieﬂy the Loss of Energy method. (b) A power station has 5 generating units of 20MW capacity with λ = 0.2/yr and µ = 9.8/yr. The load on the station is distributed as below: % time for which Load in mw the load occurred 10% 30 15% 40 25% 50 30% 60 20% 70 Find loss of Energy per year. 6. (a) Deﬁne the terms FOR and EFOR of a Generation system. (b) A generation system consists of two units of capacity 20MW and 30MW with forced outage rates of 0.1 and 0.05/day respectively. If the mean time to repair of either unit is 20 days, calculate the probability and frequency of failure of the system. 7. (a) Explain the frequency and duration method of generation system reliability. (b) Explain SDEF load model. 8. Write short notes: (a) MTTR and MTBF (b) Exact margin states.

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Code No: RR410211

Set No.4

IV B.Tech. I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February -2007 RELIABILTY ENGINEERING AND APPLICATION TO POWER SYSTEMS (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Diﬀerentiate between continuous and discrete random variables. (b) A generating station has 5 units each of 20MW capacity. The probability of failure of any unit is 0.06. If the load on the station is 70MW, What is the probability of the load not being supplied. 2. (a) From the fundamentals establish that Poisson distribution is a limiting case of Binomial distribution. (b) In a certain manufacturing process, one percent of the products are known to be defective. If 50 items are purchased by a customer, what is the probability of getting two or less number of defectives? Use the Binomial distribution and Poisson distribution and compare the answers. 3. (a) Derive the relation between the Reliability function R(t) and the mean time to failure of a component. (b) Find the reliability of the network shown in ﬁgure5.

Figure 5: 4. (a) State and explain the fundamental assumptions of a Markov process. (b) For the system shown in ﬁgure6, obtain the time domain expression and the steady state values of probabilities P1 (t) and P2 (t). 5. (a) Explain brieﬂy the loss of energy method. (b) A power station has 5 generating units of 20MW capacity with λ = 0.2/yr and µ = 9.8/yr. The load on the station is distributed as below: 1 of 2

Code No: RR410211

Set No.4

Figure 6: % time for which Load in MW the load occurred 10% 30 15% 40 25% 50 30% 60 20% 70 Find loss of energy per year. 6. (a) Explain how the eﬀect of changing weather conditions are modelled. (b) Explain the SDEF model. 7. (a) Explain the frequency and duration method of generation system reliability. (b) Explain the concept of exact margin states. 8. Write short notes on: (a) Bath-Tub curve (b) Reliability evaluation of non-series-parallel system.

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