# Code No: RR410306

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 JET PROPULSION AND ROCKET ENGINEERING (Mechanical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Discuss the methods of improving the speciﬁc output and thermal eﬃciency of the simple open cycle gas turbine plant. (b) In a closed cycle gas turbine the working ﬂuid at 400 C compressed with an adiabatic eﬃciency of 0.82. it is then heated at constant pressure to 1000k, the ﬂuid is then expands down to initial pressure in a turbine with an adiabatic eﬃciency of 0.85. After expansion ﬂuid is cooled to 400 C, the pressure ratio is such that work done per kg of air is maximum. The working ﬂuid is air having Cp = 1.01′ kJ/kg.k and γ = 1.38. Calculate the pressure ratio and cycle eﬃciency. [6+10] 2. (a) Explain the principle of jet propulsion and mention how the jet propulsion engines are classiﬁed. (b) The eﬀective jet velocity from a jet engine is 2700 m/sec. The forward ﬂight velocity is 1350 m/sec and the air ﬂow rate is 78.6 kg/sec. Calculate i. thrust ii. thrust power iii. Propulsive eﬃciency.

[8+8]

3. (a) What is the thermodynamic cycle for turbojet and list out the main components of turbojet unit, and present a schematic lay out. (b) Show the various processes occurring in the engine on a T.S. diagram. [8+8] 4. A ramjet engine operates at M=1.5 at an altitude of 6500 m. The diameter of the inlet diﬀuser at entry is 50 cm and the stagnation temperature at the nozzle entry is 1600 K. The caloriﬁc value of the fuel is 40 MJ/Kg. The properties of the combustion gases are same as those of air (γ = 1.4, R = 287 J/KgK). The velocity of air at the diﬀuser exit is negligible. Calculate (a) the eﬃciency of ideal cycle (b) ﬂight speed (c) air ﬂow rate (d) diﬀuser pressure ratio (e) fuel air ratio (f) nozzle pressure ratio (g) nozzle jet mach number 1 of 2

Code No: RR410306 (h) propulsive eﬃciency and

Set No. 1

(i) thrust. Assume the following values ηD = 0.9, ηs = 0.98, ηj = 0.96, stagnation pressures loss in the combustion chamber = 0.02 P02 . [16] 5. Determine pressure inside the chamber of a rocket engine. Exit pressure for optimum expansion is 1.0 bar atmosphere, exit mach number 2.4. Neglecting approach velocity to the nozzle, ﬁnd nozzle area ratio between throat and the exit. Take speciﬁc heat ratio of combustion products 1.3. [16] 6. (a) Why the pressurization system is necessary in liquid propellant rocket engines? (b) Compare diﬀerent pressurization systems used in rocket engines? [8+8]

7. (a) Draw a simple sketch of multi stage rocket vehicle depicting clearly the booster stage, propellant tanks and exhaust nozzle, instruments and navigational equipment. (b) Explain brieﬂy the meaning of the following. i. Booster rocket stage ii. Sustainer stage iii. Retro Rocket. 8. (a) With the help of a neat diagram, write about nuclear rocket engine. (b) What are the advantages it has over other rocket engines. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

[10+6]

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Code No: RR410306

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 JET PROPULSION AND ROCKET ENGINEERING (Mechanical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. An open cycle gas turbine plant works between the pressure range of 1 bar and 6 bar and temperature range of 300 k and 1023 k. The c.v. of the fuel used 42675 kJ/kg. Find the following (a) A:F ratio used (b) thermal eﬃciency of the plant (c) kw generating capacity of the plant if the ﬂow of air is 10 kg/sec. assume the compression and expansion are isentropic and pressure losses are neglected. [16] 2. (a) Explain the principle of jet propulsion and how you determine the thrust. (b) Explain clearly the various eﬃciencies associated with propulsion devices. [8+8] 3. A turbojet engine is travelling at 270 m/s at an altitude of 5000 m. The compressor pressure ratio is 8:1 and maximum cycle temperature is 1200 K. By assuming the following data, calculate the speciﬁc thrust and TSFC : Ram eﬃciency 93%, Isentropic eﬃciency of compressor 87% pressure loss in combustion chamber 4 % compressor deliver pressure, caloriﬁc value of fuel 43,100 KJ/Kg, combustion eﬃciency 98%, mechanical transmission eﬃciency 99%, isentropic eﬃciency of turbine 90% propelling nozzle eﬃciency 95%. Ambient conditions at 5000 m are 0.5405 bar and 255.7 k. [16] 4. (a) Why a ram jet engine does not require a compressor and a turbine? (b) How an air craft having a ram jet engine takes oﬀ? (c) Give two important diﬀerence between Ram jet and pulse jet engine? [6+6+4] 5. Describe the nuclear rocket engine with a neat sketch and explain its merits and demerits. What are their applications. [16] 6. Describe the liquid propellant rocket engine used for space applications. Discuss its merits and demerits? [16] 7. (a) Draw a neat sketch of turbo pump feed system employed in rockets. (b) How does cavitation occur in this system and what measures are taken to prevent it? (c) What is the eﬀect of cavitations on the operation of the rocket? 1 of 2 [6+6+4]

Code No: RR410306

Set No. 2

8. (a) What is the working principle of plasma arc rocket engine? (b) What are the basic components of the plasma arc rocket engine. Explain the function of each. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR410306

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 JET PROPULSION AND ROCKET ENGINEERING (Mechanical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain with neat sketches the working of a simple constant pressure open cycle gas turbine. (b) What are the advantages and disadvantages of a closed cycle gas turbine over open cycle gas turbine? What are the desirable properties of working ﬂuid suitable for closed cycle operation? [8+8] 2. The leaving velocity is 1750 km/hr from a jet and inlet velocity is 88 km/hr. The speciﬁc fuel consumption is 12 kg/hr for each kg of thrust. Fuel of 42385 kJ/kg lower heating value is used. For 2000 kg thrust, compute the air ﬂow in kg/sec. Also calculate the probable propulsion and thermal eﬃciencies and ﬁnally determine the overall eﬃciency of this unit. [16] 3. A Turboprop engine operates an aircraft at an altitude of 3000 meters above mean sea level at a speed of 525 kmph. The data for the engine is given below. Inlet diﬀuser eﬃciency = 0.875 Compressor eﬃciency = 0.790 Velocity air at compressor entry = 90 m/s. Temperature rise through the compressor = 2300 C Properties of air : γ = 1.4, CP = 1.005 KJ/Kg K. From the above data calculate. (a) Pressure rise through the inlet diﬀuser (b) Pressure ratio developed by the compressor (c) Power required by the compressor per unit ﬂow rate of air and (d) The air standard eﬃciency of the engine. [16]

4. (a) Draw the sketch of a pulse jet engine. Write down its main advantages and disadvantages. (b) Describe the working of a scramjet engine. What is its advantages over the ram jet engine. [8+8] 5. Deﬁne and explain the terms : (a) Thrust (b) Thrust power (c) Eﬀective jet exit velocity (d) Propulsive eﬃciency related to rocket engines? 1 of 2 [16]

Code No: RR410306

Set No. 3

6. Sketch the layout of liquid propellant rocket engine and explain its working. Give its applications. [16] 7. Describe brieﬂy with the aid of graphs, the variation of the following quantities in rocket propulsion. (a) Rocket thrust with altitude. (b) Thrust coeﬃcient Vs Exhaust nozzle pressure ration Po /Pc (c) Thrust coeﬃcient Vs area ratio of exhaust nozzle. (d) Acceleration due to gravity Vs altitude. [4×4]

8. (a) With the help of a neat diagram, explain the working of liquid bi-propellent gas pressurization system. (b) Discuss the possibility of rocket-powered vehicle having a ﬂight velocity greater than the exhaust velocity of the rocket motor. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR410306

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 JET PROPULSION AND ROCKET ENGINEERING (Mechanical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Draw the schematic diagram of a simple cycle with a heat exchanger and explain brieﬂy the working principle, draw also the P-v and T-s diagrams of the cycle. (b) A gas turbine cycle has a perfect heat exchanger. Air enters the compressor at a temperature and pressure of 300 k and 1 bar and discharges at 475 k and 5 bar. After passing through heat exchanger the air temperature increases to 655 k. The temperature of air entering and leaving the turbine are 8700 C and 4500 C. Assume no pressure drop through the heat exchanger. Compute i. the output per kg of air ii. the eﬃciency of the cycle iii. the work required to drive the compressor.

[6+10]

2. (a) Explain the energy ﬂow in an atmospheric thermal jet engine and what are powers corresponding to brake and indicated power of i.c. engines. (b) What is the need for thermal jet engines and discuss the applications of thermal jet engines. [8+8] 3. (a) Describe the working of a Turboprop engine (b) Show the various processes occurring in the engine on h-s diagram. 4. (a) Why a ram jet engine does not require a compressor and a turbine? (b) How an air craft having a ram jet engine takes oﬀ? (c) Give two important diﬀerence between Ram jet and pulse jet engine? [6+6+4] 5. (a) What are the important elements used in the rocket engines? Explain. (b) Explain the arc plasma rocket engine? [8+8] [12+4]

6. What are diﬀerent types of rocket propellants? How the liquid bipropellants are prepared? What are diﬀerent possible combinations of fuels? [16] 7. (a) Describe brieﬂy three important applications of rocket propulsion. (b) What is the purpose of injectors in rocket engines? Describe an injector with the aid of sketch. [4+12] 8. (a) With the help of a neat diagram, explain the working of liquid bi-propellent gas pressurization system.

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Code No: RR410306

Set No. 4

(b) Discuss the possibility of rocket-powered vehicle having a ﬂight velocity greater than the exhaust velocity of the rocket motor. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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