Code No: RR410406

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. List the various advantages and disadvantages of satellite communication. Explain the various reason for preferring satellites than optical fibers which are providing very high bandwidth. [16] 2. Discuss in detail the orbital effects in satellite communication system performance. [16] 3. (a) What is spin stabilization? Why is it necessary? Explain various effects that is to be avoided and its remedial solution. [8] (b) What is station keeping? Explain various methods of station keeping. [8]

4. Explain the operation of (14/12)GHz communication systems, with a neat block diagram. [16] 5. (a) Explain the following terms: i. ii. iii. iv. Link reliability. CCIR model for rain alteration. Figure to merit. Noise temperature. [4x2=8]

(b) Discuss various parameters involved in link calculations and link budget. [8] 6. (a) A 36 MHz satellite transponder is accessed by sequence-synchronous CDMA users with bit rate 9.6 kbps. Gold sequences with a length of m=10 are used. The link carrier-to-noise plus interference ratio is C/N = - 8 dB. Assume PSK is used as carrier modulation. Find the number of users the transponder can accommodate at Pe = 10−5 . [8] (b) Consider a fast-hop FSK-FH-CDMA satellite channel where M hops are performed per bit. The number of frequency slots in the channel is n. Find the probability of intercepting k users in one bit interval. [8] 7. (a) Analyze atmosphere of earth related with factors affecting signal propagation. [8] (b) Analyse the earth environment for selecting the antenna site for transmission and reception. [8] 8. (a) What is up conversion process? What for it is used in satellite communication? Explain how it is being done in satellite communication. [10] 1 of 2

Code No: RR410406

Set No. 1
[6] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

(b) Describe various encoding codes employed in satellite communication.

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Code No: RR410406

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Mention some important milestones in the development of satellite communication and describe its growth. [16] 2. (a) Prove that the smallest value that the inclination angle can have is equal to the latitude of the launch site in the plane of the orbit. [8] (b) A satellite is in a circular equatorial orbit at an altitude of 10000 km from earth’s surface. Determine the maximum eclipse time in a day during the full eclipse period. [8] 3. What is attitude of satellite? Explain control mechanism employed for it. [16]

4. (a) Explain about redundancy configuration of power generation? How is it being implemented? [6] (b) With neat block diagram explain the operation of communication subsystem. [10] 5. (a) What is the implication of G/T being negative. [3]

(b) An earth station antenna has a diameter of 30m, has an overall efficiency of 68% and is used to receive a signal at 4150 MHZ. At this frequency the system Noise temperature is 79k when the antenna points at the satellite an elevation angle of 280 . What is the earth station G/T under these conditions? If heavy rain causes the sky temperature to increase so that the system noise temperature noise to 88k, what is the new G/T value? [8] (c) List the salient details of INTELSAT-IV down link specification. [5]

6. Explain the Time Division Multiple Access of Satellite System with one example. [16] 7. (a) A 14/11 GHz antenna has a G/T ratio of 40.3dB at 11.2 GHz. The antenna gain is 64dB and the system noise temperature at 10 deg elevation angle in clear air conditions is 234k. The antenna aperture efficiency and noise temperature are detailed in the list below. During heavy rain, the slant path attenuation reaches 8dB for 0.01 percent of the year. Calculate G/T ratio for their fraction of the year and the corresponding reduction in C/N for the received signal. [10] Aperture efficiency: 71.3% Sky noise at 10deg elevation: 30k LNA noise temperature: 150k 1 of 2

Code No: RR410406

Set No. 2
[16]

(b) Explain in detail how geostationary satellites are tracked from the earth station? [6] 8. Explain the operation of Digital Earth station with neat block diagram. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR410406

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Explain in detail the role of satellite in communication applications such as TV, Telephone and data transfer. [16] 2. Describe the salient features of Direct Broadcast Satellite system with neat sketches. [16] 3. (a) What is spin stabilization? Why is it necessary? Explain various effects that is to be avoided and its remedial solution. [8] (b) What is station keeping? Explain various methods of station keeping. [8]

4. (a) Explain about redundancy configuration of power generation? How is it being implemented? [6] (b) With neat block diagram explain the operation of communication subsystem. [10] 5. (a) What do you mean by FM improvement. [4]

(b) How is C/N calculated when only transponder and earth station C/N are involved. [6] (c) What are the precautions to be observed in the design of satellite links to achieve a specified performance. [6] 6. (a) A 10 MHz transponder is occupied by 200 identical carriers, half servicing stations with G/T = 40 dB/K, the other half servicing stations with G/T = 37 dB/K. All stations have a requirement to operate with a bit error probability of 10−5. [10] i. what is the maximum possible bandwidth for each carrier?. ii. suppose that each carrier has a bandwidth of 40 kHz , how many stations can the transponder handle?. (b) Describe the differences between FDMA, TDMA and CDMA methods. [6]

7. (a) A 14/11 GHz antenna has a G/T ratio of 40.3dB at 11.2 GHz. The antenna gain is 64dB and the system noise temperature at 10 deg elevation angle in clear air conditions is 234k. The antenna aperture efficiency and noise temperature are detailed in the list below. During heavy rain, the slant path attenuation reaches 8dB for 0.01 percent of the year. Calculate G/T ratio for their fraction of the year and the corresponding reduction in C/N for the 1 of 2

Code No: RR410406 received signal. Aperture efficiency: 71.3% Sky noise at 10deg elevation: 30k LNA noise temperature: 150k

Set No. 3
[10]

(b) Explain in detail how geostationary satellites are tracked from the earth station? [6] 8. (a) What is LNA? Why it is required at the front-end of the receiver? Explain.[8] (b) What is a TVRO? Explain various components of a TVRO system. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8]

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Code No: RR410406

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Mention some important milestones in the development of satellite communication and describe its growth. [16] 2. (a) Prove that the smallest value that the inclination angle can have is equal to the latitude of the launch site in the plane of the orbit. [8] (b) A satellite is in a circular equatorial orbit at an altitude of 10000 km from earth’s surface. Determine the maximum eclipse time in a day during the full eclipse period. [8] 3. (a) What are all effects on satellite by galactic sources? How do you avoid it? [8] (b) Why is it necessary to go for three axes stabilization? Explain in detail. [8] 4. Explain about the various effects and their remedies of external satellite environment around satellite antenna. [16] 5. (a) What are the different reasons for the difference in uplink and downlink frequencies. [8] (b) A satellite down link at 12GHZ operates with a transmit power of 6W and an antenna gain of 48.2dBW. Calculate EIRP in dBW. [8] 6. (a) A 10 MHz transponder is occupied by 200 identical carriers, half servicing stations with G/T = 40 dB/K, the other half servicing stations with G/T = 37 dB/K. All stations have a requirement to operate with a bit error probability of 10−5. [10] i. what is the maximum possible bandwidth for each carrier?. ii. suppose that each carrier has a bandwidth of 40 kHz , how many stations can the transponder handle?. (b) Describe the differences between FDMA, TDMA and CDMA methods. [6] 7. (a) What is Faraday rotation? How is it avoided in Satellite communication? Explain which type of antenna is preferred to avoid it. [8] (b) How do you select the site for earth station? Explain in detail. (b) What is a TVRO? Explain various components of a TVRO system. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1 of 1 [8] [8] 8. (a) What is LNA? Why it is required at the front-end of the receiver? Explain.[8]