# Code No: RR410507

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 DIGITAL SPEECH & IMAGE PROCESSING SPEECH & IMAGE PROCESSING ( Common to Computer Science & Engineering, Information Technology and Electronics & Computer Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. What are the elements required to acquire digital images? Explain in detail about various imaging systems. [16] 2. Given an image of size 3× 3 as shown below:   1 0 3  4 2 1  0 2 5 (a) Find the output image using power-law transformation function when C = 2 and γ (gamma) = 1. (b) Draw the histogram of the original and transformed (output) images. 3. How the following spatially dependent transforms are performed: (a) Gradation removal by averaging and (b) Masking. [8+8] [8+8]

4. Explain various discontinuity detection methods in detail with suitable examples. [16] 5. Show that the Sobel and Prewitt gradient masks give isotropic results only for horizontal and vertical edges oriented at ± 450 . [16] 6. (a) List the principle applications of morphology. (b) Deﬁne Dilation and Erosion operations. Give examples (c) Let A and B are two sets ofZ 2 andΦ is the empty set, show that A ⊕ B = x/(B)x ∩ A = Φ= {c ⊂ Z2 /c = a + b B} for some a ∈ Aandb ∈ [4+6+6]

7. (a) What do you mean by compression? Brieﬂy explain its requirement. (b) Diﬀerentiate lossy compression and lossless compression. Mention their applications. (c) What do you mean by improved Gray Scale Quantization? (d) Explain the ﬁdelity criteria in image compression. 1 of 2 [3+5+4+4]

Code No: RR410507

Set No. 1

8. (a) On what basis the Huﬀman coding and arithmetic coding are useful for image compression? Explain. (b) What are the applications of lossy compression and lossless compression? (c) Diﬀerentiate the Huﬀman coding and truncated Huﬀman coding. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [6+5+5]

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Code No: RR410507

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 DIGITAL SPEECH & IMAGE PROCESSING SPEECH & IMAGE PROCESSING ( Common to Computer Science & Engineering, Information Technology and Electronics & Computer Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Explain in detail about diﬀerent active acquisition methods to acquire range images. [16] 2. What is meant by histogram equalization. List the steps involved in histogram equalization. What are the advantages of histogram equalization. [16] 3. (a) What procedure is followed to perform spatially dependent transforms. (b) Deﬁne the convolution operation performed in image processing. [8+8]

4. Explain various discontinuity detection methods in detail with suitable examples. [16] 5. (a) List and explain various operators suitable for detection of diagonal edges. (b) Brieﬂy explain how the crack edge relaxation is implemented. [6+10]

6. (a) What is granulometry? Explain the diﬀerent morphological operations used in granulometry? (b) A gray scale image, f(x,y), is corrupted by overlapping noise spikes that can be modeled as small, cylindrical artifacts of radii Rmin ≤ r ≤ Rmax and amplitude Amin ≤ a ≤ Amax Develop a morphological ﬁltering approach for cleaning up the image. [8+8] 7. (a) What is false contouring? (b) Diﬀerentiate i. compression and decompression ii. coding and decoding and iii. mapper and demapper (c) How the word distance is related with hamming code? 8. (a) What is meant by statistical coding? Classify. (b) Explain brieﬂy about the types of statistical coding. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [6+10] [3+9+4]

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Code No: RR410507

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 DIGITAL SPEECH & IMAGE PROCESSING SPEECH & IMAGE PROCESSING ( Common to Computer Science & Engineering, Information Technology and Electronics & Computer Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. With a neat block diagram, explain an image capturing system. Also, explain various image capturing devices. [16] 2. Give a detailed note about diﬀerent point processing techniques. 3. (a) State and explain convolution theorem on images. (b) Discuss various factors that inﬂuence the brightness of a pixel in an image. [8+8] 4. The mean and standard deviation of the background pixels in the image shown are 110 and 15 respectively. The object pixels have mean and standard deviation values of 200 and 40 respectively. Give a thresholding solution for segmenting the objects of the image. [16] 5. Design a technique for detecting gaps of length ranging between 1 and L pixels in line segments of a binary image. Assume that the lines are 1 pixel thick. [16] 6. (a) With necessary diagrams explain the operation of opening. (b) Let A and B are two sets in Z 2 . Show that 7. (a) What is false contouring? (b) Diﬀerentiate i. compression and decompression ii. coding and decoding and iii. mapper and demapper (c) How the word distance is related with hamming code? [3+9+4] AΘB = ∩(A)−b b∈B [8+8] [16]

8. (a) On what basis the Huﬀman coding and arithmetic coding are useful for image compression? Explain. (b) What are the applications of lossy compression and lossless compression? (c) Diﬀerentiate the Huﬀman coding and truncated Huﬀman coding. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [6+5+5]

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Code No: RR410507

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 DIGITAL SPEECH & IMAGE PROCESSING SPEECH & IMAGE PROCESSING ( Common to Computer Science & Engineering, Information Technology and Electronics & Computer Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain in detail about diﬀerent colour co-ordinate systems. (b) Describe the chromaticity diagram. 2. (a) Explain the following gray level transformations : i. Image negatives ii. Log tansformations iii. Power law transformations. (b) Explain the need for histogram equalization. [8+8] [8+8]

3. (a) Explain smoothing using rotating mask and the algorithm for this type of smoothing. (b) Explain what is spatial ﬁltering. 4. Write short notes on the following: (a) Region splitting and merging (b) Image segmentation based on boundary characteristics. 5. Write short notes on the following: (a) Second order detection (b) Compass operators. 6. (a) List the principle applications of morphology. (b) Deﬁne Dilation and Erosion operations. Give examples (c) Let A and B are two sets ofZ 2 andΦ is the empty set, show that A ⊕ B = x/(B)x ∩ A = Φ= {c ⊂ Z2 /c = a + b B} 7. (a) Explain about i. two dimensional run length coding ii. contour coding. (b) What do you mean by reversible in compression. 1 of 2 [12+4] for some a ∈ Aandb ∈ [4+6+6] [8+8] [8+8] [10+6]

Code No: RR410507 8. (a) What is meant by statistical coding? Classify.

Set No. 4
[6+10]

(b) Explain brieﬂy about the types of statistical coding. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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