Code No: RR410802

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-II (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. A liquid-phase reaction is currently carried out commercially in a series of three, equal volume, stirred-tank reactors operating isothermally. It is planned to replace these reactors with a single, tubular-flow reactor. To obtain the same conversion as in the stirred-tank equipment, for the same Vt /Q, what degree of dispersion is necessary in the tubular reactor. That is, determine the value of DL /µL if the flow in the tubular reactor could be represented by the dispersion model. [16] 2. Tubular reactors for thermal cracking are designed on the assumption of plug flow. On the suspicion that non-ideal flow may be an important factor now being ignored, let us make a rough estimate of its role. For this assume isothermal operations in a 2.5-cm ID tubular reactor, using a Reynolds number of 10 000 for flowing fluid. The cracking reaction is approximately first order. If calculations show that 99% decomposition can be obtained in a plug flow reactor 3m long, how much longer must the real reactor be if non-ideal flow is taken into account? [16] 3. (a) Define the following terms: i. ii. iii. iv. Micro fluid Macro fluid Degree of segregation Earliness of mixing

(b) Explain the difference in behaviour of micro fluids and macro fluids in mixed flow reactor. [8+8] 4. In a non-catalytic fluid solid reaction the diffusion through Ash layer is the controlling step. Derive the overall rate expression for the reaction of particles of unchanging size. Express the conversion interms of reaction time. [16] 5. Spherical particles of zinc blende of radius 1 mm are roasted in an 8% oxygen stream at 900C and 1 atm. The reaction is 2ZnS + 3O2 → 2Zno + 2SO2 Assuming that the reaction proceeds by shrinking core model and neglecting the film resistance. Calculate the time needed for complete conversion of a particle and the relative resistance of ash layer during this operation. Data:Density of solid = 4.13Kg/m3 Rate constant = 0.02 m/s Effective diffusivity = 0.08Cm2 /S. [16] 1 of 2

Code No: RR410802

Set No. 1

6. CO2 is to be removed from air by counter-current contact with water at 25o C. (a) What are the relative resistances of gas and liquid films for this operation? (b) What simplest form of rate equation would you use for tower design? (c) For this removal operation would you expect reaction with absorption to be helpful? Why? From the literature we have for CO2 between air and water: kg a = 80mol/hr.lit.atm kl a = 25/hr H = 30 atm.lit/mol

[16]

7. (a) In developing rate equations for catalytic reactions how do you account for the various processes that may cause resistance to reaction? (b) Explain the active site theory. (c) How this theory accounts for the changes in operating pressures? [5+5+6]

8. For the solid catalyzed reaction A2 → R + S, develop an expression for rate equa← tion, if surface reaction is controlling the overall reaction. All components are adsorbed. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR410802

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-II (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. The first order reaction A→B Is carried out in a 10-cm-diameter tubular reactor 6.36m in length. The specific reaction rate is 0.25 min−1 . Following are the results of a tracer test carried out in this reaction t(s) C(mg/liter) 0 1 0 1 2 3 5 8 4 5 6 10 8 6 7 8 9 4 3 2.2 10 12 14 1.5 0.6 0

Calculate conversion using (a) the closed vessel dispersion model (b) the tanks-in-series model. [10+6]

2. A pulse test on a piece of reaction equipment gave the following results: The output concentration rose linearly from zero to 0.5µmol/m3 in 5 min, then fell linearly to zero in 10 min after reaching the maximum value. (a) Calculate in tabular form the values of E(t) and F(t) at 1 min intervals. (b) If the reactor were plug flow with the same flow and volume, what would be the conversion ? [10+6] 3. (a) Define the following terms: i. ii. iii. iv. Micro fluid Macro fluid Degree of segregation Earliness of mixing

(b) Explain the difference in behaviour of micro fluids and macro fluids in mixed flow reactor. [8+8] 4. For a particle which reacts under “Ash diffusion” control, what is the ratio of the time required for the radius of unreacted solid to be reduced to R/2 to that required for complete reaction. Sketch the concentration profiles. [16] 5. Spherical particles of zinc blende of radius 1 mm are roasted in an 8% oxygen stream at 900C and 1 atm. The reaction is 1 of 2

Code No: RR410802

Set No. 2

2ZnS + 3O2 → 2Zno + 2SO2 Assuming that the reaction proceeds by shrinking core model and neglecting the film resistance. Calculate the time needed for complete conversion of a particle and the relative resistance of ash layer during this operation. Data:Density of solid = 4.13Kg/m3 Rate constant = 0.02 m/s Effective diffusivity = 0.08Cm2 /S. [16] 6. Derive a rate equation for an instantaneous reaction of any order between A and B, fluid-fluid reaction A(gas) + bB(liquid) → product And sketch the concentration profiles assuming a two-film theory. [16] 7. (a) What is meant by effectiveness factor? (b) Derive an expression for an isothermal first order reaction to show the dependence of the factor on the parameters. Single pore model is applicable. [4+12] 8. (a) For deactivating catalyst in batch solid and batch fluid develop an expression relating the changing gas concentration with time. (b) For deactivating catalyst in batch solids and mixed flow of fluid, develop an expression relating the changing gas concentration with time. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR410802

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-II (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Cold solids flow continuously into a fluidized bed where they disperse rapidly enough so that they can be taken as well mixed. They then heat up, they devolatilize slowly, and they leave. Devolatilization releases gaseous A which when decomposed by first-order kinetics as it passes through the bed. When the gas leaves the bed decomposition of gaseous A stops. From the following information determine the fraction of gaseous A which has decomposed. Data : Since this is a large-particle fluidized bed containing cloudless bubbles, assume plug flow of gas through the unit. Also assume that the volume of gases released by the solids is small compared to the volume of carrier gas passing through the bed. Mean residence time in the bed: ts = 15 min, tg =2 s for carrier gas For the reaction : A→ products, - rA = kCA = 1 s−1 (figure 1). [16]

Figure 1: 2. Tubular reactors for thermal cracking are designed on the assumption of plug flow. On the suspicion that non-ideal flow may be an important factor now being ignored, let us make a rough estimate of its role. For this assume isothermal operations in a 2.5-cm ID tubular reactor, using a Reynolds number of 10 000 for flowing fluid. The cracking reaction is approximately first order. If calculations show that 99% decomposition can be obtained in a plug flow reactor 3m long, how much longer must the real reactor be if non-ideal flow is taken into account? [16] 3. (a) Derive the general equation for determining conversion for macro fluid in mixed reactors. 1 of 2

Code No: RR410802

Set No. 3

(b) Deduce the above equation for a first order reaction and show that the degree of segregation has no effect on conversion for first order system. [8+8] 4. What are the differences between progressive conversion model and unreacted core model. Explain with the help of concentration profiles, assuming spherical particles. Give some industrial examples of this nature. [16] 5. Spherical particles of zinc blende of radius 1 mm are roasted in an 8% oxygen stream at 900C and 1 atm. The reaction is 2ZnS + 3O2 → 2Zno + 2SO2 Assuming that the reaction proceeds by shrinking core model and neglecting the film resistance. Calculate the time needed for complete conversion of a particle and the relative resistance of ash layer during this operation. Data:Density of solid = 4.13Kg/m3 Rate constant = 0.02 m/s Effective diffusivity = 0.08Cm2 /S. [16] 6. Derive a rate equation for fast reaction with a second-order rate between A and B, fluid-fluid reaction A(gas) + bB(liquid) → product And sketch the concentration profiles assuming a two film theory. [16] 7. Write short notes on: (a) Experimental methods of finding rates of solid catalyzed reactions (b) Experimental determination of pore size and surface area of catalyst. [8+8]

8. For the solid catalyzed reaction A + B → R + S, develop an expression for rate ← equation, if adsorption of A is controlling the overall reaction. Assume only A, R and S are adsorbed and B is in gas phase. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR410802

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-II (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. The first order reaction A→B Is carried out in a 10-cm-diameter tubular reactor 6.36m in length. The specific reaction rate is 0.25 min−1 . Following are the results of a tracer test carried out in this reaction t(s) C(mg/liter) 0 1 0 1 2 3 5 8 4 5 6 10 8 6 7 8 9 4 3 2.2 10 12 14 1.5 0.6 0

Calculate conversion using (a) the closed vessel dispersion model (b) the tanks-in-series model. [10+6]

2. A stream of fully suspended fine solids (v= 1m3 /min) passes through two mixed flow reactors in series, each containing 1 m3 of slurry. As soon as a particle enters the reactors, conversion to product begins and is complete after two minutes in the reactors. When a particle leaves the reactors, reaction stops. What fraction of particles is completely converted to product in this system? [16] 3. (a) Define the following terms: i. ii. iii. iv. Micro fluid Macro fluid Degree of segregation Earliness of mixing

(b) Explain the difference in behaviour of micro fluids and macro fluids in mixed flow reactor. [8+8] 4. In a non-catalytic fluid solid reaction the diffusion through Ash layer is the controlling step. Derive the overall rate expression for the reaction of particles of unchanging size. Express the conversion interms of reaction time. [16] 5. A batch of solids of uniform size is treated by gas in a uniform environment solid is converted give a non flaking product according to the shrinking core model conversion is about 7/8 for a reaction time of one hour, conversion is complete in two hours. What mechanism is rate controlling. [16] 1 of 2

Code No: RR410802

Set No. 4

6. CO2 is to be removed from air by counter-current contact with water at 25o C. (a) What are the relative resistances of gas and liquid films for this operation? (b) What simplest form of rate equation would you use for tower design? (c) For this removal operation would you expect reaction with absorption to be helpful? Why? From the literature we have for CO2 between air and water: kg a = 80mol/hr.lit.atm kl a = 25/hr H = 30 atm.lit/mol 7. Write short notes on: (a) Catalyst poisoning (b) Thiele parameter (c) Catalyst selectivity (d) Catalyst fouling [4×4]

[16]

8. (a) For deactivating catalyst in batch solid and batch fluid develop an expression relating the changing gas concentration with time. (b) For deactivating catalyst in batch solids and mixed flow of fluid, develop an expression relating the changing gas concentration with time. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2