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Amenophis the son of Hapu Author(s): W. R. Dawson Source: Aegyptus, Anno 7, No. 1/2 (Maggio 1926), pp.

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Amenophisthe son of Hapu.


in Egyptian the son of Hapu is a notablefigure history,but apart from the brief referencesto him whichare to be found in thevariousstandardHistories of Egypt,and fromsuch notes as accompanythe ediassociated with him, I know tions of various specificinscriptions of no studyspeciallydevoted to Amenophisexcept that published by Prof. Sethe nearly thirtyyears ago (1) and a popular article by Maspero (2). As the volume in which Sethe's memoirappeared to obtain (3), and as, moreover, several is rare and very difficult importantdocuments have come to light since it was compiled, for a brief summaryof what is there seemed some justification now known concerningthis remarkable personage. I have undertaken the task at the request of myfriendDr. J.B. Hurry,who is about to publish a memoiron Imhotep,whose career is in many ways similarto that of Amenophis. My paper has been compiled in leisure hours with such equipment as my own small library to completeness, but I trustthat It makes no prtentions afforded. has been overlooked. of nothing importance

I. - Introduction.
As far as we know fromthe records which have come down to us, but fewmen in ancient Egypt were remembered by posterity in their own countryfor long afterthey died. It was not a habit
fr Georg Ebers, Leipzig, 1897,pp. 107-116. (1) Aegyptiaca:Festschrift December des 31st, 1901. Reprintedin Causeries Dbats, (2) Journal d'Egypte, Paris, 1907, pp. 221-228. I did not succeed in obtaininga sight of (3) In spite of every e frort this importantpaper until my manuscriptwas completed. I have since inserted refermesto it in their places, but withoutmodifying appropriate what 1 had already written.
Aegyptus - Anno VII - 8

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Of the Egyptianmrnd to recall the past, and the reason for this is easy to understand. Each Pharaoh was a god: and each regarded a paragon of virtue never surpassed nor even himself as perfect, equalled by his predecessors. He could not tolerate an equal, far withwhich less a superior.Consequentlyin everyroyal inscription the kings adorned theirtemples,we findthe same self-praiseand It is quite by exception that we do occasionally self-sufficiency. find a Pharaoh paying honour to his ancestors or even to his immediatepredecessors. That the kings held their ancient line in scant venerationis amply proved by the numerous instanceswe have of one Pharaoh usurping the monuments of another. What was done by the kings was copied by their nobles and officials. Numerous biographical inscriptionshave come down to us, in which the subject, with a monotonous insistence on the first person,relates the events of his career, his personal braveryor merit,the favours and promotions bestowed upon him by the king,and last, but not least, a long and eloquent testimonial, to his many good qualities and virtues. composed by himself, Two extractswill illustrate the tenor of these texts: The just man in the Two Lands, truly equitable like Thoth, masterof the ceremonies in the temples, superintendent of all the works in the palace, . . . benevolent of heart, kindly in advice, utteringgood words, speaking that which endears, benevolent of heart without equal, courteous when he listens,wise when he speaks,a magistratewho weighs his words and one chosen by his lord fromamongst many, ... (1). The only wise, equipped with knowledge,the really safe one, distinguishingthe simple from the wise, exalting the craftsmanturning his back upon the ignorant,. . . void of deceit, useful to his lords, accurate-mindedwith no lie in him. . . protectorof the weak, husband of the widow, shelter of the orphan . . . praised on account of his character,for whom the worthythankgod because of the greatness of his worth . . . (2).
at Cairo. Maspero, tudes de Mythologie etc. (1) Stela o Sehotepibr* vol. IV, p. 137. (2) Stela o Ante. ' (Louvre . 26). Breasted, AncientRecords,vol. II, pp. 298, 299, 786.

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To cite the name of anyone who had gone before was to admit tacitlythat anotherhad lived who was comparable in effithing ciency and virtuewith the writerhimself- an unthinkable for an Egyptian noble. And yet he wished to be remembered otherwise there could be no possible purpose in comhimself, which cover the stelae posing and engravingthe long inscriptions and the walls of many a tomb-chapel at Thebes and throughout with a petition Egypt. Indeed most of the inscriptionsterminate to the passer-by to recite a funerealformulafor the welfare of the soul of the occupant of the tomb. in these Were we credulousenough to believe the statements we should picture an Egypt governed biographical inscriptions, by saints and supermen, wholly incapable of error,not to say of however much it may wrong. But the verysamenessof the theme, a too be varied in detail, reveals glowing picture to carry conthe felicitous facts belie hard viction,and besides, verbiage of the texts. We have abundant evidence, not of a Utopia, but of a countryin which every sort of corruptionand malpracticewas rifeamong the governing classes. When the writersof the indo, such expressionsas 4 did scriptionsuse, as they frequently not despoil the poor, I did not oppress the weak f the French proverb Qui s1excuse s' accuse must at once occur to our of a nomarchor a thoughts.In spite of the reiteratedstatements no man hungeredand none vizier that duringhis administration evithe land (1) we have very definite was wretchedthroughout dence that the lot of the poor in Egypt was hard, hard almost to the pitch of brutality.The fellhn were overworkedand underpaid, and were deprivedeven of their scanty rations by the who appropriated much and greed of self-seeking officials, rapacity to themselvesand battened on their ill-gotten gains. At times the workmencould bear their oppression no longer,and they lefttheirwork in turbulent bands, formedmass meetingsand demanded justice. Such are the earliest strikeswhich historyhas recorded. In the reign of Ramesses III and again under one of his successors, Ramesses IX, serious strikes occurred amongst the workersin Western Thebes (2).
(1) Inscripton of Ameni at Beni tfasan. Newberry, Beni Hasan, I, pl. VIII, line 19. (2) These strikesare recorded in two papyri in the Turin Museum. eich, 1892; in Pharaotir und Arbeiterbewegung See Spiegelberg, Arbeiter of theNations,pp. 539-541; Elliot Smith and Dawson. Maspero, Struggle EgyptianMummies,pp. 171-183.

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it must be admitted,do not display the The above remarks, Egyptian ruling classes in a very favourable light. Undoubtedly meritand ability. The there were amongstthem men of integrity, to take only one example, achievements material of the Egyptians, must have been conceived, planned show that their undertakings and supervisedby men of genius and ability, and a very high was demanded of his ministers standardof honour and efficiency the But we cannot king (1). by escape the conclusion that the them selfish were greaternumber of braggarts,fawning and obthe ever before Pharaoh, ready to curryfavourand consequious their own advancement and materialwelfare. For tinuallyseeking a pictureof the real Egyptianwe must turn to the documents which give us some account of the daily life of the rank and file. In the Storyof the Two Brothers and the Storyof the Eloquent Peasant for instance,thereis moresincerity and more reality than can be found in a thousand tomb or temple inscriptions (2). The and ostraca which record the events in the papyri daily life of the workpeople at Thebes, the evidence given by and against them in legal prosecutions, the letters,scribblings and jottings made by them,of which we have so large a store, all provide a mine of information and human interest(3). In this connection also reference be made to the stelae dedicatedin the Theban may the humbler membersof the population (4). Necropolis by In spite of their grandiloquent inscriptionsand reiterated most of the nobles and officials, however great in their selfpraise, day, were soon forgottenand passed into oblivion. There are, however,some few who acquired great reputationsand whose memories were kept green for many generations, some of them actuallybeing deifiedmany centuriesafterthey had died. There lived, for instance,in the time of the Pharaoh Assa (or Issi) of
(1) E. g. the Instructionsto the Vizier in the tomb of Rekhmere. See Newberry, Life of Rekhmara,pls. IX & X and Breasted, Ancient Records,vol. II, 268 ff., 666 ff. (2) Maspero, Popular Stories of AncientEgypt, 1915, where translations and full bibliographieswill be found. (3) See above page 115, footnote2. Also , fournal of Egyptian vol. XI (1925), pp. 37-55. Archaeology, Denkstein aus der thebanischen Graberstadt published in (4) tRMAN, the Sitzungsberichte der Kniglichpreussischen Akademieder Wissenschaften,vol. XLIX (1911, pp. 1086-1110,and Gunn, fournal of EgyptianArchaeology,vol. HI (1916), pp. 81-94.

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the FifthDynasty,a certain vizier named Ptah-hotp. Feeling old age creeping upon him he composed a book of precepts or instructions for the benefitof his children,to impart to them the moral conduct and behaviourproper to personsof high rank and entrusted with authority.This book, which certainly has outstanding merits,became a literaryclassic, and was currentin Egypt many centuriesafter its author died. The oldest survivingcopy, known to-day as the Papyrus Prisse, dates from the Middle Kingdom,and in the BritishMuseum is anotherfragmentary copy of about the same age. The late Earl of Carnarvondiscovered at Thebes a writing-tablet on one side of which is written a long extractfrom the Proverbs of Ptah-hotp,and on the other ot is a historical text which enables us to date the manuscript the verybeginningof the EighteenthDynasty(circa 1580 B. C.) Finally in 1910 Sir Ernest Budge published yet anothercopy of the text froma papyrusin the BritishMuseum,also dating from the EighteenthDynasty(1). Dr. Alan Gardiner has pronounced the Precepts of Ptah-hotp to be the most difficult of Egyptian translation the and to no texts, wholly satisfactory up present has appeared (2). The text is of the highest interestand is the oldest Wisdom Book in the world. Anotherman who attainedgreat celebritywas Imhotep,who was architect, priest and physician to king Zoser, a Pharaoh of ' the Third Dynasty, the builder of the celebrated ' Step-Pyramid at Sakkara. Imhotepwas venerated for nearly thirtycenturies, and was finallydeified, becoming the god of medicine. The him withtheirown Greeks, who called him Imouthes,identified of or medicine,Asklepios Aesculapius (3). god Yet another instanceof posthumousfame is afforded by the one of the transliterated Khamwse Khaemuast), prince (otherwise numerous sons of Ramesses II. He acquired a great reputation
(1) EgyptianHieratic Papyri, (First Series) 1910, pp. XVII-XXI and pls. 34-38. The CarnarvonTablet was published by Maspero, Recueil de Travaux, vol. 31, pp. 136 ff. All the texts have been republished by Dntaud,Les Maximes de Ptahhotep.1916. (2) By far the best of the numerous translationshithertoattempted is that of Battiscombe Gunn: The Instruction of Ptah-hotep,2nd. Ed., 1912, In thisbook a bibliographywill be found to which must be added the publicationsrelatingto the since discovered duplicate texts. (3) For an admirable and very full account of Imhotep,see J B. to be published. Hurry, Imhotep, shortly

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for his learning and for his knowledge of magic, and centuries after his death, he became, in Graeco-Roman times, the hero of two popular romances and is also mentionedby Herodotusunder the name of Sethon (I). Finally,we will mentiononly one more - the subject of the present study- Amenhotpthe Son of Hapu. Although familiar to Egyptologists, he is not so widely known outside that circle, and as his claims to celebrityare at least as strong as those of certainothers,it may be interesting to glance throughthe records of him which have survived,and to reconstructhis storyas far as possible. The name Amen-hotp,which means 'Amen is satisfied', was a common one throughout the New Empire,and was borne by four kings of the EighteenthDynasty,when the city of Thebes was the capital of the World and her god Amenobtained supremacy over all other gods. The Greek forms of the name are Amenothesand Amenophis,and it is by the latter of these names that we shall refer to our Amenhotp. The words which follow his name, 'the Son of Hapu' were as necessaryto th$ ancient Egyptiansas they are to us to distinguish him fromhis namesakes. many

II. - The Career of Amenophis.


Amenophis the son of Hapu was born at a propitious time that is to say, duringthe reignof TuthmosisIII the greatwarrior king, who carried out extensivemilitarycampaigns in Asia and elsewhere, and under whose rule Egypt could, to use a contemporary phrase, set her boundaries where she would . The enormous wealth and prestige which resulted from this rapid expansion of the Empire gave unprecedentedscope for men of mark. Amenophis was descended froman ancient familyof the city of Athribisin the Delta. His ancestors had been nomarchs, or local governors,and his fatherbore the title of Chief Prophet in the temple of his native town. Of his motherwe know nothing except that her name was latu. Athribiswas a provincial town, at that time of no great importance,although under the
(1) Griffith, Stories of the High Priest of Memphis,the Sethon of Herodotus,and the Demotic Tales of Khamuas, Oxford, 1900. Also Maspf.ro,Popular Stories of AncientEgypt, 1915, pp. 115-171.

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Saite kings of the Twenty-sixth Dynastyit became an important part in the history religious centre,and played a more prominent of the country. It was the capital of the tenth nome of Lower - was its Egypt, and a formof Horus - Horus Khentekhthai to Thebes, but patron god. Amenophismust have early migrated he never severed the connectionbetween himselfand his native with the Nome of Athribisin many city,for he associates himself and bore the title of Chief of the Prophets of his inscriptions, side by side with his distinctively of Horus the Lord of Athribis Theban titles. He also obtained from his Theban master, the for the city of Athribis, Pharaoh AmenophisIII, certainbenefits his and at as we shall presently see, death,the local Horus finally in an of his city was invoked inscription upon his sarcophagus. to he first rose eminence we do not know, what steps By III we him in the full conin of find the reign but Amenophis and to and fidenceof the sovereign, rising higher higherpromotion by the favourof that king, who eventually paid him the great honour of allowing him to place statues of himselfin the great temple of Karnak. These statues, five of which have been found (1), are describedin the Appendixto this paper, and all of them bear inscriptionsto which we are principally indebtedfor The of his career. on statue No. I, long inscription particulars the the and usual after introductory funerary prayers eulogistic expressions, which state amongst other things, that Amenophis was learned in the hieroglyphs, gives us an account of three successive promotionsconferred upon himby the king. He was first Inferior appointed Royal Scribe, and therebyobtained initiation into the secret wisdom of the god Thoth. From this position he rose to be Superior Royal Scribe, and Scribe of the Recruits. In this capacity Amenophisassumed both civil and military responsibilities. He tells us that he was responsible for the placing of tribute and troops in appropriatepositionsfor the enforcement and also for the of defence customs, purposes against raids of the Bedouins. He was also placed over the expeditionary forces who warred in Syria and Nubia, and had charge of all the spoils of war. Finallythe king appointed him Chief of all Works. By this thirdpromotion he became the Architect in charge of the building and embellishingof the temples and other buildings. He made and transported to Thebes statues of the King, a point to which we will allude again. As a furtherfavourto his miVideinfra. (1) One of theseis not contemporary.

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con nister, the Pharaoh conferred great benefitsupon Athribis, structinga great lake with its banks radiant with flowers. He likewiseembellished the temple of Horus. In the Cairo Museum is a great granitestatue of a serpent,which was placed as a protectingdeity in the temple of Athribis,where it was discovered in recent times. As this statue bears the cartouches of made by thatking(1). III it is doubtless one of the gifts Amenophis of the As a finalfavour,through generosity the sovereign,Amenophis gave his parents,Hapu and Iatu, a splendid burial, a fact which he records with pride. There is no citizen for whom the like has been done states the text (2). A second statue, a colossus, represents Amenophisstanding upright with his leftfoot slightlyadvanced. He wears the thick in the prime of life. Against short wig and kilt,and is portrayed a is which bears an inscription,but the of the back figure pillar that new no this adds Amenophis is called particulars,except General of the Army in addition to his other titles (3). The third statue is of greaterimportance,and represents Amenophis as an old man, with a senile expressionand a wrinkledface, and it is one of the masterpeicesof Egyptiansculpture. The face was retouched, according tho Maspero, in Ptolemaic times (4). This statue bears on its pedestal an inscription recordingthe fact that it was placed in the temple of Karnak by the favourof the king. A longer inscriptionengraved on the knees of the same statue gives us some more personal details. His titles are here given as Treasurerof the King of Lower Egypt, Royal Scribe, Scribe of the Recruits,Amenophis the son of Hapu, of the Nome of . The text is an address to the god Amen in which he Athribis demands the favourof the god, recountinghis good deeds and
(1) Maspero, Guide du Visiteurau Muse du Caire, 4th ed., 1915, p. 140. (2) For a descriptionand bibliographyof this Statue, see Appendix. The textwas first translated Sprache, by Brug~ch,Zeitschrift fr gyptische vol. XIV (1876), pp. 96 f.Certain erroneousconclusions which he drew foni this text were corrected by Sethe, Festschrift fr Georg Ebers, AncientRecords, vol. II, pp. 110-112,and by Breasted in his translation, pp. 373-377, 913-920. (3) See Appendix,Statue n. 2. This statue,according to Sethe is of Graeco-Roman age. (Art. Heroes and Hero Gods (Egyptian), in Hastings Encyc. Religion & Ethics, vol. VI, p. 651. (4) Art in Egypt (Ars Una), 1921 ed., p. 176.

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as a justification for all that he asks, concluding high reputation with the assertion I have attainedthe age of 80 years, may I live to be 110 . Whetherhe realised his ideal or not we cannot tell. The age of 110 was the most honoured goal an Egyptian could reach, in a countryin which old age was greatlyrespected. Many biographical and funerarystelae state with pride that their owners reached a good old age, and a common epistolaryformulawas a polite wish that the recipientmightenjoy prosperity, good health and a ripe (lit. 'high') old age. In this connection we may quote a few other ancient Egyptian referencesto a longevityof 110 years. At the end of the Precepts of Ptah-hotp,we read the concludingwords of the aged author I have gathered 110 years of life, for the king granted more favours than my ancestors, because I acted with truthand justice for the king until my old age (1). In the Westcar Papyrus, the wonderfulprodigies performedby an aged magician are described. There is a man of humblebirthand Djedi is his name ... he is a poor man of 110 years of age, but he can eat 500 loaves and a leg of beef and drinks a hundred jugs of beer to this very day (2). A model letter contained in a papyrus in the British Museum is full of pious wishes*and expresses the hope that the recipientwill fulfil 110 years upon earth before he is gatheredto his fathers(3) and anothersimilartextin the same collectionvoices the same hope (4). dealt with below, it is stated of In the decree of our Amenophis, the faithful that theirbodies shall rest in the necropolis aftera life of 110 years (5). In October 1913, Legrain made the extremely importantdisof statues inscribed two more of at Karnak (6). Amenophis covery In these, which are exact duplicates,Amenophis is represented cross-legged,with an open roll of papyrusupon his knees, sitting,
(1) Papyrus Prisse, 19, 7. (2) Papyrus Westcar,7. 2 (3) Papyrus Anastasi, IV, 4, 4. (4) Papyrus Anastasi, III, 4, 8. Brit.Mus. no. 138, line 16. It may be noted (5) Decree of Amenophis, in passing, as one of the many Egyptiantouches in the Books of Moses, thatJoseph died in Egypt at the age of 110. Genesis, 50, 22. (6) Appendix,nos. 4, 5. Legrain, Annales du service, vol. iv (m*;, pp. 17-29 & pls. I- III.

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like the celebrated cross-leggedscribes of the Old Kingdom(1). are traced Here again, he is in the prime of life. The inscriptions upon the open papyruswhich he holds and upon the pedestal of each statue. Both are stated to have been placed in the temple of Karnak by the favour of the king. On the pedestal of the first reads : statue,the inscription Oh ye of the South and North,all who behold the Aten (the sun's disk) and who fare up the Nile to Thebes, come ye to me! I will transmit your words to. Amen of Karnak if ye will recite for me the Offering-formula (2) and pour out for me a libationfromthat which is in yourarms. For I am the intercessor appointed by the king to hear yourwords of supand to transmiton high the needs of those upon plication, earth. : On the other,we read the following Oh ye people of Karnak who desire to behold Amen, come ye to me ! I will make known your prayers,for I am the intercessor of this god, and Nebmere (AmenophisIII) has here me to repeat the words of those in earth. Recite placed and invoke my name continuallyas ye for me the formula, do that of a blessed one . These inscriptionsare of the greatest interest, indicatingas interceded formortalswith the god Amen. theydo thatAmenophis thisfunction, he was appointed by the king. We have To perform no otherinstanceof a functionary acting in thisway as the oracle of the god, for the titles of Amenophis were all civil, and not have acquired during his lifetime religious,and he must therefore the semi-divineattributesfor which he became famous centuries afterhis death. A further on one of thesestatues states that Ameinscription was bidden to summon to Thebes all the persons who had nophis to take part in the celebrationof the firsts-festival, or jubilee, III. It was evidently of the PharaohAmenophis celebratedin some
(1) For the Old Kindom statues,pictmes of which have been leproduced in numerousbooks on Egypt,see especially Maspero, Essais sur l'Art Egyptien,Paris, 1912, pp. 53-68. {) ror an exhaustiveand admirable study or the Unering-iormula see Gardiner, Tomb of Amenemht, pp. 79-93.

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place distantfromThebes, and as Legrain has pointed out (1), it was probablythe occasion of the dedicationof the temple of Soleb, in Nubia. This temple was of considerable size and was approached, like great temples of Thebes, by an avenue of ram-headed sphinxes(2). On the walls of the ruined facade is a bas-relief the god Amen and the King attendedby his minister, representing Amenophis the son of Hapu. The queen, the princessesand the principalofficersof the stats are also present in ceremonial a tire (3). A statue of this king was placed in this temple,and he was there veneratedas a god. Amenophiswas well versed in the sacred rites proper to such solemn occasions, for we have been told that on his promotionto the officeof Royal Scribe, he thereby had access to the sacred writingsof Thoth. As we have seen, Amenophis lived to be a very old man. When at length he- died, he doubtless had a very magnificent funeral. The site of his tomb is unknown,but it has been supposed, with considerable probability,that his tomb-chapelwas situatedat Deir el Medineh,where in latertimes he was venerated as a god (4). His burial equipment has likewise perished, with the exceptionof some fragments of his great granitesarcophagus, which are now preservedin the Museum of Grenoble(5). Enough
(1) Annales du Service,vol. XIV (1914), p. 22. (2) Lepsius, LettersfromEgypt, Ethiopia and the Peninsula of Sinai, London, 1853, pp. 223. (3) Lepsius, Denkmler,Abth. Ill, pls. 83-88 ; Maspero, Struggle of the Nations, p. 301. of UpperEgypt, 2nd ed. (1913), (4) Weigall, Guide to theAntiquities p. 276. New Series, (5) Described in extensoby Moret. Revue Egyptologique, vol. I, pp. 174-179. We are told in Ancient Egypt,1921,p. 87 that another is in the collection at University piece of thismonument College, London. It is eve to be regretted that museums w II accept fragments of monuof the original piece fromwhich they have mentswhen the whereabouts been detached is known. Fragmentsshould always be restoredto their withoutvalue. Some original places, as by themselvesthey ate entirely the lid of the sarcophagus of Sethos I have been from missing fragments recoveredin recentyears. One series of these fragments, discovered by German archaeologists,has courteouslybeen sent to the Soane Museum and rest>red to its place, but another ser es of fragments 1 es in the Britsh Museum, isolated and bereftof all archaeo ogical value. Lepsius carriedoff to Beri n some fragments of the beautiful sarcophagus of Ai : the sarcophagus has been restoredin the Cairo Museum and the Berlin

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can be seen fromthese fragmentsto show that the sarcophagus when entirewas a very magnificent one, similar in technique and design to those of the sovereignsof the EighteenthDynastydiscovered in recent years in the Valley of the Kings by the late Theodore Davis. On this monument, amongst the usual funerary deities invoked,is the god Horus Khentekhthai, the patron god of Athribis, Amenophis'native city. Thus he remainedto the end of his life faithful to his earliest associations. Granite sarcophagi of this typewere not used forprivateindividualsin the Eighteenth Dynasty,and from the fact that the sarcophagus of Amenophis was of the royal pattern,we are justifiedin assuming that the rest of his equipmentmust have been of a very magnificent kind. We have seen the promotion of Amenophis fromone office to another. His title of HereditaryPrince he bore by birthright, but the othertitles were bestowed upon him by the king. He was made Royal Scribe and then Scribe of the Recruits,and on his colossal statue he is also called General in addition to these titles. His most importantposition however,was that of Chief of all Works. He specifically states in the account of his promotionthat he made statues of the king. Amongst these was one which measured40 cubits, and it was transportedby river and erected at Thebes. In the text,the word statue is, by error,written with the determinative of the plural, but the pronouns relatingto it are in the singularnumber. Overlookingthis latter point and relying on the writing statues it was formerlysupposed by some writers that the two great statues of AmenophisIII, the celebratedColossi of Memnon, are here referred to, and that conwas their architect. Breasted believes that sequently Amenophis the colossus of AmenophisHI which stands before the pylon of Haremhab at Karnak is meant. This statue is about 15 metresin height,and as he pointsout, the text does not state that the statue was 40 cubits high,but that the block in the quarry was 40 cubits long (1). An inscriptionon one of the more recentlydiscovered
portions replace by casts. The body of the sarcophagus of Ramesses III is in the Louvre,and its lid is in Cambridge. Some reliefsand columns taken fromthe tomb of Sethos I are scattered in various European Museums, and theirplaces in the original tomb are taken by moJernbrickworkor plaster.The beautifulreliefsfromthe Memph.tetomb of Haremhab are divided in the collections of three Museums The list mightbe continued indefinitely. (1) AncientRecords,vol. II, p. 376, notes a and b.

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statues however,makes it seem probable that Amenophis was indeed the architectof the Colossi of Memnon. Here ' statues' is clearly writtenin the plural,and the related pronounsare likewise in the plural (1). As the text specificallymentions these great in the form of Statuesof His Majesty and that they monuments rested in theirplaces on the West , it seems probable,as Legrain has pointed out, that the Colossi of Memnon are referred to (2). The Egyptianswere naturally very proud of their great feats and erectionof great monuments. in the transport The well known cases of the Obelisks of queen Hatshepsowetand the Colossus of El Bershehwill at once occur to the mind. Many other instances could be added to these. Amenophis has been stated to be the architectof the original temple of Deir el Medineh,which stood on the spot now occupied by the Ptolemaic building. For this there is no foundationand it is based upon the opinion,however, of misunderstanding a passage in the Decree with which we shall deal (3). It is a possible and even probable supposition presently thatmostof the building operationsof AmenophisHI were planned and carried out by Amenophisthe son of Hapu in his capacity of of works,but the fact remainsthat we have not at present minister evidence which enables us to say definitely that any documentary this or that work was due to him. As AmenophisHI reigned for thirty-five years, and as Amethe son of reached the of Hapu nophis age eightybefore the end of that reign, he must have been of middle age at the time of the king's accession. Only one of his statues representshim as an old man, but it does not necessarilyfollow that the others are earlier. It must always be remembered that to the Egyptians statues were not lifeless figures of wood or stone, they were animatedby the f(a or double of the person portrayed.It was for this reason that the artist strove to make them faithful likenessesof their models. Soon, however,the same interested motive which had induced it [Art] to carve faithful led portraits, it to disregardthis exactitudein certainpoints. It was, of course, bodies sufnecessarythat the Doubles should find their fictitious
(1) See the hieroglyphic text, Annales du Service,vol. XIV, p. 18. (2) Op. cit. p. 22. Sprache,vol. XIII (1875), p. 125; (3) Bruqsch, Zeitschrift Jr gyptische Se the, op. cit., p. 110, has pointed out the error of this opinion, the erroris nevertheless repeated by Budge, Historyof Egypt, vol. V (1902), p. 108.

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like their actual ones to feel at ease in them; but their ficiently second existence would hardly have seemed a blessing to them, had they been condemnedto spend it with limbs weakened by of old age. By substituting for the sickly or all the infirmities the figureof the individualas he was in his youth, decrepitreality the artistconferred on him more or in the vigour of his maturity, his full of faculties. the This is strengthand enjoyment certainly why there are so fewstatues of old men beforethe Saite period; even when a centenarianwas represented, Amenophis the son of their are to what not or RamesesII, protraits verydifferent Hapu, in their been have youth (1). they must The statue which bears the inscriptionrelating to the sedHI was evidently made long afterthe event, festivalof Amenophis of the king,which would not as it specifiesthe First $rf-festival after have been so designated had it been inscribed immediately the event,nor is it likely that Amenophis would have obtained the honour of being allowed to set up effigiesof himselfin the temple of Karnak until he had reached the heightof his fame. We have already pointed out that he was far fromyoung at the accession of his patron,and it is therefore probablethat he began his officialcareer under the two preceding kings,AmenophisII and TuthmosisIV. It is quite evidentfromthe favourshe received and fromthe fact that not less than four statues of him were erected in the (2), that Amenophis was a man of temple during his lifetime to act as intermediary merit. His appointment between exceptional mortals and their god foreshadowsthe belief,expressed in later times,that he was of semi-divine nature. This fact must have paved the way for his posthumouscelebrityand subsequent deification, which we will consider in the next section.

III. - The posthumous fame of Amenophis.


How long afterhis death Amenophisretainedunimpairedhis between Amen and his suppliants reputationas an intermediary we do not know. Under the successor of his patron,his namesake AmenophisIV, there arose the great religious revolutionwhich
(1) Art in Egypt (Ars Una) 1921 ed., p. 297. For the animation of statues see Capart, EgyptianArt (transi.Dawson), 1923, pp. 164 ff. withSethe,that the Colossus is of Graeco-Roman date. (2) Admitting

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placed Amen and his devotees, at least for a time,into the background. A new capital was founded at Tell el Amarna, which became, for the short time it lasted, the political and religious centre of Egypt. Afterthe death of AmenophisIV, who had in the meantimechanged his name to Akhenaten,his successors forsookhis teaching and his capital and returnedto Thebes and of the worship of Amen. It was the triumphof to the orthodoxy Ai Amen and his priests,and under the Pharaohs Tutankhamen, of its Amen regained and Haremhab the worship supremacy. Haremhab extended the temple of Karnak, and placed therein statues of himself. It was at the foot of a colossus of this king that Legrain unearthedthe two seated statues of Amenophis in 1913: so it would seem that he too regained his prestigeand his statues were moved from whatever position they had thitherto occupied and placed next to that of the reigningmonarch. We have no records whateverrelating to Amenophis dating from the NineteenthDynasty,when Sethos I and Ramesses II occupied the throne,nor fromthe Ramesside kings who made up the TwentiethDynasty. Towards the close of that Dynastythe until one high priestsof Amen became more and more powerful, of them,Hrihor,took the reins into his own hands, inscribedhis name in the royal cartouche, and mounted the throne of the Pharaohs as the founder of the Twenty-FirstTheban Dynasty. We must not digress into any discussion,however brief,of this remarkable period, but confineourselves to taking up the threads of Amenophisfromthe point at whichwe lost them of the history at the end of the EighteenthDynasty. Many years ago the British Museum aquired a remarkable documentwrittenin hieratic characters upon a limestonetablet, which is a decree of Amenophisthe son of Hapu, dated in the III. It was at firsttaken for grantedthat 31st year of Amenophis with the events it records,but was contemporary this monument to later scholars it appeared to be a late copy of a contemporary under the original. As the fame of Amenophisbecame prominent see, it was believed to be a PtoPtolemies,as we shall presently lemaiccopy of a lost Eighteenth original(1). In 1910 the Dynasty
(1) First published in transcriptionby Birch in Chabas, Mlanges 2nd series, vol. II, pp. 324-343. Facsimile in Birch, InEgyptologiques, in the Hieratic and DemoticCharacter, scriptions 1868, pl. 29. Photograph in Budge, Guide to the EgyptianGalleries (Sculpture)in the British Museum, 1909, pl. 15. Translated by Brugsch, Zeitschrift fr gyptische

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on hieratic palaeography, late Dr. Mller, the foremost authority and on palaeographical submitted the documentto a minutestudy, as well as philological grounds,proved that the text was not a Ptolemaic copy, nor even a copy at all, but a forgeryof the Twenty-FirstDynasty(1). It was a pious fake made by the the memory of a notable priestsof Amen to bring into prominence devotee of their god, the recollection of whom had fallen into is not withoutparallel. The storyof Weabeyance. This forgery an of Hrihor who was despatched to Syria, and official namen, who had a parlous and adventurousjourney,is drawn up in the formof an officialreportof the officerto his king,and gives a detailednarrativeof his adventures.Althoughat firstit was genehistoricaldocument, rally consideredan authentic Maspero formed a doubt it an attempt to different Without is quite opinion. into that that title [Amon a form of Amon bore bring prominence of the Road], which was supposed to protecttravellersin foreign countries ... It formedpart of the officialcharterof this Amon, and the redactorhas borrowed the historical mannerismsnecesto documentsof this sary to give it an appearance of probability nature (2). In the same way the priests of Khons, at a later period strove to bring their god and his priesthoodprominently forwardand to invest him with greaterantiquityand prestige,by drawing up a stela recording how he had delivered a princess froma possessing spiritunder one of the Ramesside kings. Prof. Erman was the firstto discern the artifice ; he removed the text fromthe place it had thitherto document as a historical occupied of one of the Ramessidekings and placed it in its true orientation as a priestlyforgery made some centurieslater (3). The Decree of Amenophis purportsto be an edict, dated in the 31styear of Amenophis the tombIII to establishin legal form and it was read to an assembled chapel endowmentof Amenophis, company in the temple in the presence of the King, with his vizier and other high officials. After the preamble, the decree begins as follows:
Sprache, vol. 13 (1875), pp. 123 ff. and by Breasted, AncientRecords, vol. II, pp. 377-379, 922-927. des Sohnesdes . Sitzb.Beri Akad., (1) Das Dekretdes Amenophis vol. XLVII, 1910, pp. 932-948. London,1915,p. 203. Egypty (2) Maspero, ThePopular StoriesofAncient fr gyptischeSprache, vol. XXI (1883), pp. 54-60; (3) Zeitschrift Maspero, op. cit., p. 173.

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Hear the commandwhich is given, to furnishthe ka~ chapel of the hereditary prince,the royal scribe, Amenhotep, called Huy, Son of Hapu, whose excellence is extolled, in orderto perpetuatehis ka-chapelwith slaves,male and female, : son to son, heir to heir; in order that none trespass forever upon it forever.It is commendedto Amon-Re,king of gods, he is proas long as it is upon earth; he is king of eternity, tector of the dead (1). A long and remarkablepassage follows,calling down curses upon all and any who shall allow the chapel to fall into decay, the endowment. Neglect of duty in this or shall mis-appropriate respect will incur the immediate displeasure and wrath of the dire of his officeand inflict king,who will deprive the malefactor punishment upon him. If any such there be, they shall be slain, and their bodies dishonouredand deprived of the advantages of proper burial,and the curse shall pass fromfatherto son. If any of the officials presentat the reading of the decree shall disregard it, they shall be especiallyliable to its penalties (2). The following sections of the decree promise the highest theirtrust. They shall be refavours to all that shall perform warded and promotedby the king,and their bodies shall repose in the necropolisof the West aftera life of 110 years. The final clauses are addressed to the necropolis police, who are bidden to exercise the greatest vigilance,under the threatof death but with the reward of goodly burial if faithful to theirtrust. Contractswere oftenmade wi+h the mortuary prieststo per form the necessary ceremoniesfor the ka of the dead man and and contractswere even entered to supply the requisiteofferings, of the Twentyinto with the god Amen under the priest-kings in its legal First Dynasty(3). This decree of Amenophis, however, all who may on retribution its dire its and form, royal patronage, underwas It alone. its stands formerly transgress terms, quite
(1) Breasted, AncientRecords,vol. II, p. 378, 924. (2) A similarseries of penalties and curses is detailed in tne stela oi AntefV discovered at Coptos, which deposes a nomarch fromoffice. p. 10). (Phtrie, Koptos, pl. VII and translationby Griffith, (3) Such is the contract in the papyrus of Eskhons published by Mas pero, Les Momies Royales de Deir el Bahari, pp. 594-614. Other similar documentsof the same kind and period are known.
Aegyptus - Anno VII - 9

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stood to refer to the establishmentof the temple of Deir el Medineh, but this erroneous view has long since been abandoned (1). After this sporadic documentof the Twenty-FirstDynasty, record of Amenophisuntil we reach the time we have no further his reputation of the Ptolemies. In spite of our lack of documents, but continued must have not only increased,and Ameunbroken, the not on scene as a mere mortal, more reappears nophis once a but as god. I may here mentiona document contained in a demotic papyrusat Berlinwhich was cited some yearsago by Spiegelberg(2). for inforAs I cannot read demotic, I applied to Prof. Griffith kindnessarid courmationrespectingit, and with his well-known tesy he promptlyreplied to my query, as follows: Pap. 3111 is a sale of land at Thebes in the sixth year of PtolemyVI (B. 176) by a certain Ammonius to Amenhotp,an Opener (Pastophorus) of the cemetery of ibis and hawks, priestand pastophorusof the house (?) of all the title-deeds(?) of the royal scribe Amenhotpson of Hape. That is all. I do not know what is meant by his title-deedsexactly. In certaintemples of the Ptolemaic period we findAmenophis associated with the traditionalgods of Egypt in company with Imhotep,the physician and architect who flourishedin the time of king Zoser. I) Templeot Piali, (arnak. This temple, which lies to the North of the great templeof Amen and withinits boundarywalls was built by TuthmosisIII and enlarged under the Ethiopian and Ptolemaic Dynasties. On a large bas-relief is depicted a scene in which,behind Ptah, Hathor, Samtawi and Imhotep is represented the royal scribe, scribe of the recruits,Amenophis,justified,son of Hapu, the servantof Amen who loves him . He holds in his right hand a scribe's palette,and in his left,a roll of papyrusand the symbolof life. On the southside of the northern boundary wall of the temple of Amen, are three reliefs a series of gods, which inrepresentingPtolemyXI venerating

Sprache,vol. XIII, 1875, p. 123. fr gyptische (1) Brugsch, Zeitschrift The error was corrected by Sethe, Festschrift fr Georg Ebers, 1897, repeated in some subsequent works, pp. 110-112, but it was nevertheless e. g. by Budge, Historyof Egypt, vol. IV, 1902, p. 108. (2) Recueil de Travaux, vol. XXIII, p. 9S.

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eludes Amen,Mut and Khons, the Theban Triad, and in the last division,Imhotepand Amenophisthe son of Hapu (1). II) Templeof Thothat MedinetHaba. This was built by PtolemyIX (Euergetes II) and on the wall of the second of its three to Thoth, Imhotepand chambers,the king is portrayed sacrificing Amenophis.The latteradresses the kingwith the words I banish all sickness fromthy body (2). III) Templeof Deir el Medineh. This temple was foundedby PtolemyIV and completed by PtolemyIX. On the pillars of the Imhotep and Amenophis. An inscription pronaos are represented says of the latter His name shall endure for ever, his sayings shall not perish (3). On the walls of the chamber the king is to various deities (4). seen sacrificing IV) Templeof Iasr el Algoaz. This temple also was built consistingof by PtolemyIX, and is a small unfinishedstructure a vestibuleand three chambers. On the leftentrance-wallof the second chamber,PtolemyIX pays homage to Thoth, Imhotepand Amenophis. The temple is situated some distance to the South of Medinet Habu, not far fromthe ruins of the palace of Amenophis III (5). V) PtolemaicChamberin theGreat Templeof Deir el BaharL This chamber, likewise built by PtolemyIX, was dedicated to who has here called the Son of Ptah, and to Amenophis, Imhotep, likewise exchanged his earthlyfather Hapu for Apis the sacred bull, whence he was called by the Greeks Amenophis son of Imhotep,followed Paapis (6). There are two scenes; in the first, In the the second Amesix deities,plays predominating part. by He wears the the is long priestlyrobe, principalfigure. nophis and holds in his right hand an emblem resembling the hieroglyphnfr. In his left hand he holds a papyrusroll and the symbol of life. Behind him are five deities,the firstof which is Hathor,
(1) Legrain, Annales du Service, vol. XIV, 1914, p. 20; Bouriant, Recueilde Travaux, vol. XIII, 1891, p. 169. (2) Lepsius, Denkmler,Abth. IV, pl. 32c. Sprache, vol. XIII, 1875, p. 125. fr gyptischer (3) Zeitschrift vol. H, p s. 34-37. V de Antiquits, Egypte, (4) Description (5) Mallet, Le Kasr el Agouz, formingvol. XI of the Mmoiresde VInstitut Cairo, 1909. See especiallyp. 38. Orientale, Franais Archologie was pointed out by Erman, and of The Paapis Hapu identity (6) Sprache, vol. XV, 1877, p. 47. Zeitschrift fr gyptische

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who is called the divine mother of the great god , and replaces Iatu, the earthlymothero Amenophis(1). It will be noted that in these scenes, Amenophisis always associated with Imhotep. The cult of Amenophishowever, seems to have been confinedto Thebes, whilstthatof Imhotepwas more widespread: he had a temple of his own, for instance,at Philae. Maspero's suggestion that Amenophis was deified by the Thebans in order to place a purelyTheban hero side by side withthe Memphite Imhotep, is worthy of the fullest consideration (2). During his lifetime, Amenophiswas not a physician,although in late times he was especially associatedwith medicine. In addition to the inscription at Medinet Habu mentioned above (p. 131) an series of in the Ptolemaic chamber at Deir el interesting graffiti Bahari makes this connectionvery apparent From these graffiti, as well as from certainother texts,it appears that Amenophis was consulted by the sick and that cures were administered by his oracle. A demoticostracon,publishedby Sir HerbertThompson and which he considers to be of mid-Ptolemaic date, is quite specific.It reads as follows: Imouthes says to Horus son of Nes... I have caused enquiryto be made of the gread god Amenhotep. He has given the oracle that there is a fever in the body of Teos the son of Psenamenunis. He has given him two Syrianfigsand they are to be sprinkledwith water fromevening till dawn, and it is to be stopped and their fluid taken; and it is to be put on a vessel (?) of broken bread and theyare to mixed up, and he is to drink(?) this, and he is to do it for four days. He (the god) has given him a ... and a serpent of iron to bind on his arm. There is no deception in it. Signed . . . (3). A fragment of an offering-table acquired by ProfessorSpieinscribedupon gelberg in Luxor in 1911 has a demoticinscription it which reads: Amenophis,Son of Hapu, give life to N. (4). The Deir el Bahari graffiti are equally interesting.From them it appears that the chamberbecame a regular resortof the sick, who (1) Naville, Deir el Bahari,partV, pls. 159-160. (2) Etudesde Mythologie etc.,vol. VIII, 1916,p. 131.

(3) Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology,vol. XXXV, 1913, p. 96. (4) Zeitschrift fr gyptische Sprache, vol. 50 (1912), p. 47.

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recorded their gratitude on the walls. The usual formulaeare Homage of M. to the lord god Asklepios. N. came to worship the great god Askleipios, usually with the addition of the name of Amenophis, and sometimesthat of Hygieia (1). Some of the inscriptions and more original: Andromachus, are less formal : a Macedonian,a worker forhire,came to the good god Amenothes he was sick and the god succouredhimon thatveryday,Farewell. Or again, Eugraphios offershis homage before the lord god of us and grant Asklepiosand Amenothesand Hygieia: be mindful continuedin us healing. Mr. Milne believes that the sanatorium use until the second centuryA. D. (2). Wealthier people recorded their gratitude to the god in a morepermanent formthantheserough scratchings upon the walls. As evidence of this we may referto the stela, also fromDeir el Bahari, and now in the Cairo Museum,which was dedicated to Amenophisby Leon and Lysandra his wife,in gratitudefor the recoveryof theirchild (3). PerhapsAmenophisacquired his reputation for medicinefrom his association with Imhotep: but for in the Egyptianswisdom and learning always implied proficiency related. and and medicine were magic, magic wery closely In the inscriptionin the temple of Deir el Medineh, the sayings of Amenophisare referred no Egyptian to. Apparently to attributed text has yet come to light which can be definitely have name We associated with his comparable Amenophis. nothing of Ptah-hotp, to the Instruction Ani,Dawef and others. A late interalia, some magical funerary papyrusin the Louvre,contains, which to be a purports spell composed by Amenophisthe jargon, Son of Hapu for his own protection(4). Another passage in the same papyrus is attributed to Khamwese,a son of Ramesses II who acquired a great reputationfor his wisdom in late times,as we have already mentioned(5). The attributionof magical or religiousspells to famousmen of former ages was a common arat Del el Bahri, in the Journalof Egyptian il) Milne, TheSanatorium vol. 1 (1914), pp. 96-98 and pls. 12-13. Archaeology, are quoted from this article. (2) Milne, op. cit. The above translations {Cairo MuseumGeneralCatalogue),1905, (3) Milne, Greek Inscriptions p. 37 and pl. IV, no. 9304. (4) Maspero, Mmoiresur Quelques Papyrus du Louvre,Pans, 1875, p. 58. (5) Deveria, Catalogue des Manuscrits Egyptiens..,du Louvre, Paris, 1831, p. 107, no. 3428.

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intendedto enhance the value tificeamongstthe Egyptianpriests, of theirtexts,and is a pious fraud of the kind we have already to. We cannot therefore referred suppose that Amenophisreally to do with the compositionof the spells attributed had anything to him in later years (1). A referenceoccurs in the Ritual of and Maspero believed Embalming to The Book of Amenophis thatthe Louvrepapyrusabove mentionedwas the book in question. There seems to be no evidence,however,to support this conclusion (2). The inscriptionswhich accompany the scenes in the temple of Ptah at Karnak have been supposed by some writersto be attributableto Amenophis. Here again, the proof is lacking. These inscriptions were writtenon the walls, one in the time of PtolemyXI, the other in the time of Tiberius. The only scrap of which we can with any probability attribute to Amenophis writing is a short text,writtenin Greek upon an ostracon,and found at Deir el Bahari. This littletext consists of nine short utterancesor all damaged, which bear the title 'A^evczou/.. aphorisms, Prof. Wilcken,who has publishedthe text, has found three of these sayings amongstthe Sayings of the Seven Wise Men (3)* Although there are other candidates,the seven sages are generally understoodto be : Thaes of Miletus,Solon of Athens,Bias of Priene, Chilon of Sparta, Pittacus of Mityln,Periander of Corinth and Cleobulus of Lindus. These men flourishedin the sixth and seventhcenturiesbeforeChrist,and had great influence in their respectivecities as sages and legislatorstheir reputation the Hellenisticworld. The sayingsattributed extending throughout to them are in some cases borrowed attributions, as even this far to Egypt ostracon testifies. How are indebited fragmentary they It is an interesting would a be most question. interestingstudy to work throughthe sayings (4), and to compare them with the
(1) Rubrics attributecertain spells of the Book of the Dead to the Fourth Dynasty.A passage in the Ebers Papyrus is likewise claimed as having come down from a king of the First Dynasty. Similar instances in late funerary papyri have been noted by Renouf, Life-Work,vol. II, pp. 385-399. (2) Maspero, op. cit. p. 23. fr Georg Ebers, Leipzig, 1897,pp. 142-5. (3) Aegyptiaca: Festschrift This ostracon dates from the 3rd century before Christ according to Wilcken. , (4) In addition to the editions cited by Wilcken,see Mullach, FragmentaPhilosophorum Graecorum,Paris, 1860, vol. I, p. 203 ff.

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in the Egyptianwisdom utterances, manyof whichare verysimilar, the Maxims of Ani,and books,such as the Precepts of Ptah-hotp, especially the newly published Papyrus Budge. This last-named and Prof.Erman has alreadyshown papyrusis of especial interest, that its materialwas drawnupon by the compilersof the Hebrew Book of Proverbs. I commend the theme to Greek scholars and may mentionin passing that the author of the book contained in the Greek equivalent the Budge papyrus is named Amenemope, of which is also Amenophis. The Greek translationof the title of the Precepts of Amenemopewould be 'A^v-ou xoOwat,and in the papyrusexactlycoralthough I cannot recognise anything utterances on the ostracon,the responding to the fragmentary natureof both is verysimilar,and it is quite possible that if we had more than these mere scraps to work upon,the text of which the Deir el Bahari ostracon has preserved a fragmentmight prove to be a Greek version, not of the Sayings of Amenophis the son of Hapu, but of the Precepts of Amenemope the son of Kanakht (1). We must now turn to the mention of Amenophis in the writingsof the historianManetho,as handed down to us by Jowished to sephus. Manetho relates that the Pharaoh Amenophis, behold the gods face to face as his predecessors had done. He communicatedhis desire to Amenophisthe son of Paapis one that seemed to partakeof a divine nature, both as to wisdom and (2). The sage informed the king that the knowledgeof futurities he must firstrid the countryof all lepers and impurepeople, and acting on this advice the king collected some eighty thousand persons and set them to work in the quarries on the East side fromthe Egyptians. of the Nile in order to separate them entirely these captives begged the king After enduring great hardships, to set aside for themthe city of Avaris,which had been deserted since the expulsionof the Hyksos,a request which was granted.
(1) The papyrus Budge and its relationto the Hebrew Proverbshas been studied by prof. Erman, E ine gyptische Quelle der SprucheSalomons in the Sitzungsberichte of the Berlin Academy,1924, pp. 86-94. The text has been publishedby Budge, EgyptianHieraticPapyri (Second Series) 1920, pls. I-XIV.
(2) 0sTa 8oxt5v (AgTSffxevoci cpuaew; , ts aocpiocv xoci 7rpoYvw<rtvt(5v Manetho in Josephus, Contra Apionen, I, 26 ( 232); Dindorf, 6<jo[a6vo3v,

Flavii /osephiOpera, Paris, 1847, vol. II, pp. 358-9; Whiston, The Works of Flavius Josephus,London, 1825, vol. II, pp. 539-540.

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Amenophisthe sage foretoldthat these exiles would receive assistance and would conquer Egypt,and having made this prophesy, he slew himselfand made the king disconsolate. Events turned out accordingly: the exiles and their allies overran Egypt for thirteenyears and the king was obliged to flee to Nubia. Here he gatheredforces, and drovethe invadersout. Such is the outline of the storyas told in Josephus,but a variantof it proves that Manetho had confusedan Egyptian storywith the Hebrew traditions. The storyhas come down to us in two fragmentary papyri of the second and third centuries A. D. (1), which, as Maspero gives good ressons for believing,were probably derived from a Ptolemaic copy of a native Egyptian story(2). In this narrative we have the prophesyto kingAmenophis and as Maspero by itself, has pointed out, it is evidently this story,confusedwith Hebraic that Manethoembodied in his History. Here it is stated traditions, that a prophesywas made, not by Amenophisthe son of Paapis, but by a potter. This potterwas arrestedupon a charge of blasphemy,and when the police laid hands on him in his workshop, he fell into a trance. Whilst in that state he uttereda prophesy in which he predictedthat stormytimeswere in store for Egypt, that the countrywould be invaded by a strange people assisted by the Syrians,that the templeswould be desolated and that the king would have to flyfor refugeto Nubia. This terribleperiod would be accompaniedby variousconvulsions of Nature. The storm and stress was, however,to be succeeded by a period of unprecedented prosperity.The police, instead of bringingtheir captive to justice, led himbeforethe king,in whose presence he repeated his harangue,then fell dead. The Pharaoh was much impressed and was disconsolatewhen the prophetcut short by the prophesy, his discourse in so tragic a manner. Orders were given that his body should be embalmedand buried at Heliopolis, and a copy of his prophesywas drawnup and placed among the royalarchives.
(1) These fragmentswere published by Wessely, Neue griechische Vienna, 1893, p. 399. The text was commentedupon by Zauberpapyrus, Wilcken in Aegyptiaca: Festschrift fr Georg Ebers, 1897, pp. 146-152. The same scholar undertook a new study of the papyrus,with many improvedreadings in Hermes,vol. 40, 1905, pp. 544-560. For the loan of this last named paper I am indebtedto Mr. H I. Bell. See also Maspero, Comment un MinistredevintDieu en Egypte,in Ca usieres d'Egypte,1907, pp. 224 ff.,and Etudes de Mythologie etc., vol. VI, 1912, pp. 315 ff. etc., Vol. VI, pp. 316-317. (2) Maspero, Etudes des Mythologie

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AMENOPHISTHE SON OF HAPU

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Such is the story,and it is not unnatural that Manetho,to should substitutefor the unkwhom it must have been familiar, the sage whose fameunderthe Pharaoh AmenophisHI nown potter, was so well known,and adapt one series of events to meet the case of another. From the documentsdealt with in the above paragraphs,we the son of Hapu over a period have tracedthe fame of Amenophis of a dozen centuries.There are many gaps on the story,but we may hope that futurediscoveries will fill these voids and enable us to trace step by step the stages which his reputationand fame passed throughin the long period between his manhood and his deification (1). The Egyptians for long ages must have resorted to him forcommunionwiththeirgod, forthe hard granitestatues found by Legrain in 1913 were worn and polished by touch of the thousands of suppliants who had placed their hands on his whilstthey invoked his aid. effigy

APPENDIX. The Statues of Amenophis.


The Statues of Amenophisthe son of Hapu are fivein number. and all are now All of themcame fromKarnak,all are of granite, a briefdescriplist contains The in the Cairo Museum. following tion, with bibliographicalreferences. I. - Kneeling statue, head broken off and missing. Height, 1 metre. Maspero, Guide du Visiteurau Muse du Caire, 4th ed., 1915, p. 124, no. 409. Mariette, K^nak, pls. 36-37. De Rouge, Inscriptions pis 23-28. Hiroglyphiques, 1292-1298. VI, pp. Brugsch, Thesaurus, Brugsch, Zeitschrift fr gyptischeSprache, vol. XIV, 1876, pp. 96 ff. Records,vol. II, pp. 373-377, 913-920. Breasted, Ancient
(1) His actual deificationwas probably not anteriorto the time of PtolemyIX. Manetho,who lived in the time of PtolemeyII Philadelphia, does not speak of him as a god.

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II. - Colossal Statue, figure erectwith leftleg advanced,arms on each side of th body, left hand broken off. On the vertically back is a pillar on which is representedAmenophis worshipping Amenvand an inscriptionin three columns. On the pedestal, in one horizontal and eleven vertical columns. offering-formula as On the belt names and titles. On pedestal a Greek inscription follows: KAI2APA 60 TION 6 2EBA2T0N. Height 4 m. 17 cent. Discovered by Daressy at Karnak in 1893 where it had been unearthed by sebakh-diggers. This statue,according to Sethe, is of Graeco-Roman age. Maspero, Guide du Visiteur,p. 6, no. 3. Daressy, Recueil de Travaux, vol. XIX, 1897, pp. 13-14. Maspero, Art in Egypt (Ars Una), 1921, fig. 478 (photogragh). HI. Kneeling statue,discoveredby Legrain in 1901. The face is that of a very old man, and has been retouched,according to Maspero, in Ptolemaic Times. Inscriptionson base and upon the admirable.Height, 1 m. apron coveringthe knees. Workmanship 40 cm. Maspero, Guide du Visiteur,p. 136, fig. 50, no. 459. Leorain, Annales du Service, vol. II, 1901, p. 272. Maspero, Annales du Service, vol. II, 1901, pp. 281-83. Legrain,Statues et Statuettes (Cat. Gen.)fvol. I, pp. 78-80 and pl. 76, no. 42127. Maspero, Art In Egypt (Ars Una), 1921, p. 167, fig. 321. Breasted, AncientRecords, vol. II, pp. 372, 912. IV & V. - Two cross-legged sittingstatues,both indentical, discovered by Legrain in 1913, at the foot of the colossus of Haremhab at Karnak. A roll of papyrus spread over the knees, righthand holding a pen, a scribe's outfitover the leftshoulder. On the breast and right arm the cartouches of Amenophis III. admirable.Height, 1 m. 30 cm. Technique and preservation Legrain,Annales du Services,vol. XIV, 1914, pp. 17-29, pls. I-III. W. R. Dawson.

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