Code No: RR410807

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 BIO-CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What are spirilla, cocci and bacilli? Draw a neat diagram to represent them. (b) What are procaryotes? Describe their general characteristics with a neat sketch. (c) What is the difference between mitochondria and chloroplast? [6+6+4]

2. (a) What are the errors involved in using the Lineweaver-Burk plot and EadieHofstee plot? Suggest a suitable strategy for evaluating vmax and Km . (b) An enzyme with a Km of 1 x 10−3 M was assayed using initial substrate concentration of 3 x 10−5 M. After 2 min, 5 percent of the substrate was converted. How much substrate will be converted after 5,15, and 25 min? [8+8] 3. (a) Competitive, noncompetitive and mixed inhibitions can be easily distinguished in a Lineweaver-Burk plot. Explain how this can be done with the help of neat figures. What is the effect on vmax and Km values for these types of inhibitions? (b) Explain in detail allosteric control and substrate analogs. [8+8]

4. (a) With a schematic diagram explain the use of a hollow fiber system permitting continuous operation of an enzyme cofactor reaction. (b) Discuss briefly about chemical methods of immobilization. 5. Discuss in detail about the respiratory chain. [6+10] [16]

6. With the help of typical growth curve, discuss in detail growth cycle phases for batch cultivation and suggest ways of reducing lag times. [16] 7. Write short notes on (a) Alternate bioreactor configurations (b) Medium formation 8. Describe penicillin production process with a neat flow diagram. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8] [16]

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Code No: RR410807

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 BIO-CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Give a brief account of DNA and RNA. [16]

2. (a) What are the differences and similarities between enzymes and synthetic catalysts? Explain. (b) Give the classification of enzymes and the major classes of reactions that they catalyze. [8+8] 3. Give a detailed account of the effect of pH and temperature on enzyme activity. [16] 4. (a) With a schematic diagram explain the use of a hollow fiber system permitting continuous operation of an enzyme cofactor reaction. (b) Discuss briefly about chemical methods of immobilization. 5. (a) What is the importance of membrane transport in cells? (b) Define membrane permeability and give its units. (c) Compare the salient features of passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport. [4+4+8] 6. With the help of typical growth curve, discuss in detail growth cycle phases for batch cultivation and suggest ways of reducing lag times. [16] 7. (a) Describe the various configurations of CSTRs used for enzyme-catalyzed reactions. (b) Derive the general substrate balance equation for the single enzyme catalyzed reaction S → P taking place in a CSTR. [10+6] 8. (a) Discuss about continuous sterilization of media with neat schematic diagrams. (b) Mention the advantages and drawbacks of continuous sterilization. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [10+6] [6+10]

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Code No: RR410807

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 BIO-CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What are the three components that make up all nucleotides? Write the general chemical structure of ribonucleotide and deoxiribonucleotide. (b) Discuss in detail about the three distinct classes of RNAs. [7+9]

2. Suppose that an enzyme has two active sites so that substrate is converted to product via the reaction sequence
1 E + S −→ (ES) ←−

k

k1

2 (E + S) + S −→ (ESS) ←−

k

k2

3 (ESS) −→ (ES) + P

k

4 (ES) −→ E + P

k

Derive a rate expression for P formation by assuming quasi-steady-state for (ES) and for (ESS). [16] 3. (a) Explain substrate activation and inhibition with suitable figures. (b) Derive the relationship between substrate concentration and reaction rate for substrate-inhibited reactions. [6+10] 4. (a) The physical and mechanical properties of the support are important for immobilization of enzymes. Discuss. (b) Discuss about selection of support for chemical or adsorption immobilization of enzymes. [6+10] 5. (a) State the two distinguishing characteristics of active transport and give its applications briefly. (b) Thermodynamic considerations show that passive diffusion is spontaneous. Prove this statement. What will the free energy change be equal to if the component being transferred is charged? (c) State the characteristic features of facilitated diffusion. [8+4+4]

6. (a) Discuss the effect of dilution rate D on effluent substrate concentration, cell concentration, and cell production rate in continuous culture. 1 of 2

Code No: RR410807

Set No. 3

(b) Define yield coefficients for biomass and product. Show how they can be used in the steady state mass balance for cells and product. [10+6] 7. (a) Describe the various configurations of CSTRs used for enzyme-catalyzed reactions. (b) Derive the general substrate balance equation for the single enzyme catalyzed reaction S → P taking place in a CSTR. [10+6] 8. (a) Explain the following continuous sterilizer designs with a schematic diagram: i. Direct heating using steam injection ii. Indirect heating using plate heat exchangers. (b) Discuss the several advantages of continuous sterilization and also mention its drawbacks. [5+5+6] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR410807

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 BIO-CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What are the three components that make up all nucleotides? Write the general chemical structure of ribonucleotide and deoxiribonucleotide. (b) Discuss in detail about the three distinct classes of RNAs. [7+9] 2. (a) Starting with the Michealis-Menten equation for simple enzyme kinetics with one substrate, obtain the expression relating time and substrate concentration. (b) An enzyme with a Km of 1 x 10−3 M was assayed using initial substrate concentration of 3 x 10−5 M. After 2 min, 5 percent of the substrate was converted. How much substrate will be converted after 10, 30, and 60 min? [8+8] 3. Write the reaction steps and derive the Michealis-Menten form of rate equation for totally competitive inhibition. [16] 4. (a) Name at least two natural supports and two synthetic supports used for immobilization by covalent attachment. (b) Describe the methods of physical entrapment by polyacrylamide gel and microencapsulation. [4+12] 5. (a) State the two distinguishing characteristics of active transport and give its applications briefly. (b) Thermodynamic considerations show that passive diffusion is spontaneous. Prove this statement. What will the free energy change be equal to if the component being transferred is charged? (c) State the characteristic features of facilitated diffusion. [8+4+4] 6. (a) Define specific growth rate and give its units. Using this and the dilution rate write the steady state material balance for cell mass. (b) What is diauxic growth? Explain with a figure. (c) In a typical growth curve for batch cell cultivation, explain the reasons for length of lag and suggest ways to reduce lag. [4+4+8] 7. (a) Describe the various configurations of CSTRs used for enzyme-catalyzed reactions. (b) Derive the general substrate balance equation for the single enzyme catalyzed reaction S → P taking place in a CSTR. [10+6] 8. Write an essay on continuous sterilization of air and media. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1 of 1 [16]

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