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Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 COMPUTER GRAPHICS (Computer Science & Systems Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the terms i. Framebuﬀer ii. Resolution (b) Suppose an RGB raster system is to be designed using and 8 inch by 10 inch screen with a resolution of 100 pixels per inch in each direction. If we want to store 6 bits per primary color per pixel, how much storage (in bytes) do we need for the frame buﬀer? [10+6] 2. What is meant by aliasing? Discuss about the two antialiasing methods. [6+5+5] 3. (a) What is meant by composite transformations? (b) Write the general form of a scaling matrix with respect to a ﬁxed point P(h,k) where the scaling factors in x and y directions are a and b respectively. [6+10] 4. (a) Find the general form of the transformation N which maps a rectangular window with x extent xwmin to xwmax in the x-direction and y extent ywmin to ymax in the y-direction on to a rectangular view port with x extent xvmax to xvmax and y extent yvmin to yvmax . (b) Distinguish between Cohen-Sutherland outcode and Sutherland-Hodgeman algorithm. [8+8] 5. A unit cube is deﬁned such that the three of its planes are aligned with three principle planes. Determine the perspective transformation when the distance between the viewport and view plane is 10 units. [16] 6. (a) Discuss about the characteristics of the following illumination parameters. i. Diﬀuse refection ii. Specular reﬂection and iii. Refraction. (b) At a surface point p, if the surface normal, light vector and sight vectors are given by n = j, L = -I + 2j-k and s = I + 1.5j + 05k respectively, ﬁnd the vector of reﬂected ray and the angle it is making with surface normal. [9+7] 7. What is parametric function? How the points on a curve are represented using parametric function. [6+10] 8. (a) Explain the constraint-based controlling animation. 1 of 2

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(b) Distinguish between procedural control and constraint based controlling. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 COMPUTER GRAPHICS (Computer Science & Systems Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the design issues in color CRT monitors. (b) Distinguish between CRT monitors and direct view storage tube (DVST) devices. [8+8] 2. What is meant by aliasing? Discuss about the two antialiasing methods. [6+5+5] 3. (a) Suppose an octant of the origin centered circle is generated, discuss about the steps involved in generation of complete circle using basic transformations. (b) Find the new co ordinates of a triangle A(0,0), B(1,1) and C(1,0) after it has been magniﬁed to twice its size, keeping the vertex A ﬁxed. [8+8] 4. (a) Draw a ﬂow chart illustrating the logic of the Sutherland-Hodgeman algorithm. (b) Demonstrate the working of Sutherland-Hodgeman algorithm with a suitable example. [8+8] 5. The transformation matrix Av denotes the alignment of an arbitrary vector with the Z-axis. Show that the alignment transformation satisﬁes the relation A−1 = AT . v v [16] 6. (a) Show how the calculations of the intersection of an edge with a scan line can be made incremental as opposed to absolute. (b) What diﬃculties are encountered in implementing the painter’s algorithm? [8+8] 7. (a) Distinguish zero-order, ﬁrst-order and second-order continuity. (b) What is the organization of control points followed in Bezier’s method to ensure second order continuity? (c) What are the properties of Bezier’s curve? 8. (a) Discuss about the following: i. Slow-in and Slow-out ii. Moving-points path iii. Euler angles. (b) Discuss about the algebraic structure-“quaternions”. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [9+7] [5+5+6]

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Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 COMPUTER GRAPHICS (Computer Science & Systems Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the functioning of ﬂat-panel displays. (b) Distinguish between CRT monitors and ﬂat panel displays. [8+8]

2. What is meant by aliasing? Discuss about the two antialiasing methods. [6+5+5] 3. (a) Derive the transformation matrix to achieve the eﬀect of shearing. (b) Magnify the triangle with vertices A(0,0), B(1,1) and C(0,1) to twice its original size while keeping C(0,1) ﬁxed. [8+8] 4. (a) Using steps followed in Sutherland-Hodgeman algorithm, determine the intersection point of the line segment P1 P2 against a clipping window P3 P4 where coordinate of end points are P1 (0, 0) P2 (3, 2) P3 (3, 0) and P4 (0, 2). (b) Why the Sutherland-Hodgeman algorithm is called as re-entrant algorithm. [8+8] 5. Derive the matrix form for the following basic geometric transformations in 3-D graphics: (a) Rotation (b) Mirror reﬂection. 6. (a) How is the depth of a polygon determined by the painter’s algorithm? (b) Assuming that one allows 128 depth value levels to be used, how much memory would a 512 × 512 pixel display require to store the Z-buﬀer? If the seence consists of 14 objects what is the frame buﬀer memory requirement. [8+8] 7. (a) State the blending function suitable for Bezier surface and explain the terms involved in it. (b) Demonstrate that Bezier curve is axis independent. 8. (a) Discuss about the following: i. Slow-in and Slow-out ii. Moving-points path iii. Euler angles. (b) Discuss about the algebraic structure-“quaternions”. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [9+7] [8+8] [8+8]

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Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 COMPUTER GRAPHICS (Computer Science & Systems Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the following terms. i. ii. iii. iv. Persistence of phosphor Flicker Refresh rate Blurring

(b) What are the advantages and disadvantages of LCD over raster-scan CRT? [8+8] 2. (a) Distinguish the merits and demerits of scan line algorithm and ﬂood ﬁll algorithm. (b) Discuss about the super sampling approach followed for antialiasing. [10+6] 3. (a) Prove that the multiplication of two successive translation matrices are commutative. (b) Prove or disprove that the reﬂection operation could be simulated by other basic transformations. [8+8] 4. (a) Let R be the rectangular window whose lower left hand corner is at L (-3,1) and upper right-hand corner is at R (2,6). Find the end bit codes for the following points. i. ii. iii. iv. A(-4,2) B(-1,7) C(-1,5) D(3,8)

(b) How do we determine whether a point p(x,y) lies to the left or to the right of a line segment joining the points A(x1 , y1 ) and B(x2 , y2)? [8+8] 5. (a) Demonstrate with suitable ﬁgures how the arbitrary vector L passing through the origin in 3-D space aligns with Z-axis, in two steps. (b) List the sequence of operations to perform a ϕ -degrees rotation about vector L. [8+8] 6. (a) Show how the calculations of the intersection of an edge with a scan line can be made incremental as opposed to absolute.

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[16] [16]

(b) What diﬃculties are encountered in implementing the painter’s algorithm? [8+8] 7. Explain the steps involved in Bezier’s method for curve generation. 8. Discuss about diﬀerent methods of controlling animation. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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