Code No: RR411802

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 STEEL MAKING (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Describe the side-blown converter practice for refining haematite grade pig iron. [6] (b) Differentiae between side-blown converter and bottom blown converter with the help of diagram. [6] (c) Explain the various reactions during the side-blown practice. 2. (a) What is fundamental departure of Kaldo-process from L.D. process? (b) Explain the Kaldo-process of steel making with the help of a diagram. (c) What is the major draw back of Kaldo process. [4] [4] [8] [4]

3. (a) Name the oxide products of silicon and phosphorous in steel making? What needs to be added to lesson the danger of backward-reaction of oxide-products? [8] (b) Explain how both the above oxides get transferred to slag-phase? What is the slag-composition obtained for each? [8] 4. Explain the P-reaction taking place in a Basic-Bessemer process with chemical reactions. [16] 5. (a) What are the different ways of preparing working hearth of a basic-open hearth furnace? Explain. [8] (b) What are the different ramming mixes that can be used for cold-rammed hearth of basic OH furnace. [8] 6. Explain the refining method of an electric arc furnace heat by (a) Oxidising single slag practice (b) Oxidising double slag practice (c) Oxidising slag-off and reducing slag practice 7. Explain the different types of stream-degassing with help of neat diagrams. 8. Write a short notes on VOD and VAR processes of refining? ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [4] [6] [6] [16] [16]

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Code No: RR411802

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 STEEL MAKING (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What is the general principle underlying the development of Acid Bessemer process. [4] (b) Give the chemical reactions that are responsible for exothermicity in Acid Bessemer process. [6] (c) What is metallic yield? How do you calculate metallic yield in an Acid Bessemer converter? [6] 2. (a) How is dephosphorisation rate increased in a LDAC process? Explain it with the help of chemical reactions. [6] (b) How are the decarburisation and dephosphorisation controlled by lance-movement? [6] (c) What practice has to be followed to obtain extra low ’P’ steel in LDACprocess? [4] 3. (a) With the help of chemical reactions, explain the chemistry of steel refining process? [8] (b) Which reactions is different from all other chemical reactions during impurity oxidation in steel making? Explain? [8] 4. (a) Explain the partitioning of phosphorous between slag and metal with the help of chemical reactions? [8] (b) What is dephosphorisation-index? How does it vary with respect to basicity and oxidising power of slag? [8] 5. (a) Discuss as to how the slag control will be able to control the refining in acidopen hearth? [8] (b) How can you assess the progress of refining during acid open-hearth process of steel making? [8] 6. Draw a simple cross-section diagram of an electric-arc furnace showing the details of cross-section lining. Show the lining in two half-sections for acid as well as basic processes. [16] 7. Explain how C, Si, Mn, S and P are controlled within specific limits in steel making?

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Code No: RR411802

Set No. 2
[16] [16]

8. Write a short notes on Hybrid-refining processes of steel? ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR411802

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 STEEL MAKING (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the various reactions taking place in a Basic Bessemer converter? [6] (b) Why the basic Bessemer slag can be employed as a fertilizer-grade slag? (c) How the basic Bessemer slag differs from Acid Bessemer slag? 2. (a) When a steel could be termed as blister steel. [6] [10] [5] [5]

(b) Explain the cementation process of producing blister steel in detail?

3. (a) Name the oxide products of silicon and phosphorous in steel making? What needs to be added to lesson the danger of backward-reaction of oxide-products? [8] (b) Explain how both the above oxides get transferred to slag-phase? What is the slag-composition obtained for each? [8] 4. (a) How do the mechanically entrapped particles arise in steel? What are the characteristics of inclusions that determine the mechanical properties of steel? [8] (b) What is killing of steel? Why is it necessary before metal-casting? 5. Explain the basic open-hearth cold metal practice in detail. [8] [16]

6. (a) Explain the oxidizing-single slag practice and oxidising-double slag practice of electric arc furnace steel making? [8] (b) How can the oxidizing as well as reducing conditions for refining be maintained in an electric arc process? [8] 7. Explain the Bottom-teeming method of liquid steel with the help of a neat diagram. [16] 8. (a) Explain the Aston Byer’s process of making wrought iron in detail? (c) Give some of applications of wrought iron? ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8] [4]

(b) What are the properties of wrought iron and how does it differ from steel? [4]

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Code No: RR411802

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 STEEL MAKING (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Draw a schematic diagram showing the sequence of elimination of impurities (C, Si, Mn, P) during blowing in Acid Bessemer and Thomas processes. [6] (b) Explain the basic Bessemer process for refining of pig-iron containing 3.5% carbon, 23.5% silicon,15% phosphorous, 0.7% manganese. What are the slagconstituents, if intermediate slagging is done? [10] 2. (a) What is refractory-material used for lining of Acid Open Hearth and Basic open hearth? [4] (b) Distinguish between designs of acidic-roofs and basic roofs in open hearth furnace. [6] (c) Why silicon is earlier considered a safe-refractory lining material for acid as well as basic roofs of open hearth furnace? [6] 3. (a) Into how many broad categories is steel making classified on basis of impurity removal explain? [8] (b) Why is there a limitation on sulphur and phosphorous content to below 0.05% in steels? What happens when sulphur content is high? [8] 4. (a) Explain how the excess - oxygen present in the steel leads to an unsoundcasting? [8] (b) What is meant by deoxidation of steel? What are the two types of deoxidation? [8] 5. (a) Explain the refining, blocking and finishing stages of acid-open hearth process? [8] (b) What should be done if Carbon-level in the metal is lower than specificationlevel? [8] 6. (a) What are the different types of electric furnaces? [8] [8] 7. (a) Describe the development of secondary steel making processes through the years? [8] (b) Explain the difference between primary steel making and secondary steel making? [8] 1 of 2

(b) What are the temperatures achievable with electric arcing using carbon-electrodes.

Code No: RR411802

Set No. 4
[16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

8. Write a short notes on VOD and VAR processes of refining?

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