Code No: RR411804

Set No.1

IV B.Tech. I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February -2007 SEMI-CONDUCTORS AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Explain free electron theory of electrical conductivity in metals. (b) Outline Sommerfield’s quantum theory of electrical conductivity of metals. [10+6] 2. (a) Explain how Pauli and Sommerfield modified the free electron theory to remove its shortcomings. (b) Discuss the motion of electrons in a periodic potential. (c) Explain what you understand by the terms potential well and potential barrier. [8+4+4] 3. (a) State the sources of resistance in metals. Explain why and how the conductivity varies with temperature and composition. (b) What are the various modes of thermal conduction in metals. Explain them in detail. [6+10] 4. Explain with suitable diagrams the conduction band, valence band and forbidden band and hence explain the behavior of conductor, semi conductor and insulator. Explain the contribution of electrons and holes to electrical conduction. [16] 5. Discuss the following: (a) Amorpous semi-conductors (b) Ionic conductivity in solids. (c) Single crystals and Poly crystals (d) Applications of semi-conductors. 6. (a) Explain ‘MEISSNER’ effect. (b) Give an account of the occurence, properties and uses of superconductors. (c) Explain the term critical magnetic field in a superconductor. How does the critical magnetic field vary with temperature in Type 1 and Type II super conductors. [4+6+6] 7. (a) What are Ferro magnetic domains? How is their existence explained? (b) Distinguish between Ferromagnetic; Ferrimagnetic and antiferromagnetic materials. Give an example for each class of material. Discuss the various uses of Ferrites. [7+9] 1 of 2 [4×4=16]

Code No: RR411804 8. Write short notes on the following: (a) BCS theory (b) Soft and hard magnets (c) Hysteresis curve (d) DEBYE’s characteristic temperature.

Set No.1

[4×4=16]

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Code No: RR411804

Set No.2

IV B.Tech. I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February -2007 SEMI-CONDUCTORS AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Discuss relaxation time, collision time and mean free path of free electrons in metals. (b) Explain the electrical conductivity of metals on the basis free electron gas model. [8+8] 2. (a) What do you mean by density of energy states in metals? Explain. (b) Wha are the sources of electrical resistivity in metals? Explain. (c) What do you understand by ‘Fermi-level’ ? Explain its significance in metals and semi-conductors. [5+6+5] 3. (a) Write a short note on thermal conductivity in metals. (b) What are semi-conductors? How do they differ from conductors? Why an increase in temperature decreases the resistivity of a semi-conductor? Explain. [7+9] 4. (a) Differentiate between intrinsic semi-conductors and extrinsic semi-conductors. (b) Distinguish between thermal velocity and drift velocity of carriers. Which is normally larger? Which controls the mean time between collisions with the crystal lattice? Explain how does a rise in temperature affect each velocity in a semi-conductor. [6+10] 5. Discuss the following: (a) Hall effect and physical origin of Hall effect. (b) Ionic conductivity in solids (c) Drift and diffusion phenomena in semi-conductors. (d) P-N Junction. [16]

6. (a) Write an essay on superconductivity bringing out the importance of London’s equations in explaining several experimental facts related to this phenomenon. (b) Explain the important property changes that occur in materials when they change from normal to superconducting state. [10+6] 7. (a) Explain the physical basis of diamagnetism and paramagnetism of materials. (b) Why Ferromagnetic domain subdivide until they reach a small size? Explain. (c) What are ferrites? How are they superior to ferromagnetic materials?[6+6+4] 1 of 2

Code No: RR411804 8. Write short notes on the following: (a) Cooper Pairs (b) Soft and hard magnetic materials (c) Magnetostriction and coercive force (d) Ferrimagnetic materials.

Set No.2

[4×4=16]

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Code No: RR411804

Set No.3

IV B.Tech. I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February -2007 SEMI-CONDUCTORS AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Briefly describe Drude’s free electron theory of metals. (b) Explain the terms: i. Mobility of charge carriers. ii. Collision time. iii. Relaxation time.

[10+6]

2. (a) Explain how does the electrical conductivity of a metal change with the frequency of an applied alternating electric field. (b) Discuss the electrical conductivity in metals and alloys. Explain the various factors that affect the resistivity of electric materials. [6+10] 3. (a) Explain Dulong-Petit’s rule. (b) Explain Debye’s characteristic temperature. (c) Write a short note on ‘Hall-effect’. (d) Explain how the Hall-coefficient is used to determine the mobility of charge carriers. [4+4+4+4] 4. (a) What are the density of energy states in semi-conductors? Explain. (b) When does an intrinsic semi-conductor behave as an insulator? Explain. (c) What is a hole in a semi-conductor and how is it formed? Explain. (d) How N-Type and P-Type semi-conductors are produced. [4+4+4+4]

5. (a) What is superconductivity? Outline the experimental facts about the phenomenon of superconductivity. (b) Explain the important property changes that occur in materials when they change from normal to superconducting state. (c) Explain how does the superconducting transition temperature vary with magnetic field. (d) Mention three important applications of superconducting materials. [5+5+3+3] 6. (a) What is Magnetostriction? Explain. What are the important applications of Magnetostriction? (b) Explain the terms susceptibility and permeability in Magnetism. (c) How does the paramagnetic susceptibility of a metal vary with temperature? Explain. [6+5+5] 1 of 2

Code No: RR411804

Set No.3

7. (a) Explain relationships between magnetic susceptibility; Magnetization and Magnetic field. (b) Explain the origin of diamagnetism in a free atom. (c) Explain the Neel’s theory of Antiferro magnetism. (d) What is Hysteresis? Discuss its importance in industries. 8. Write short notes on the following: (a) Ferrites (b) Meissner-effect (c) Antiferromagnetic materials (d) Soft magnetic materials. [4+4+4+4] [[5+5+3+3]

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Code No: RR411804

Set No.4

IV B.Tech. I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February -2007 SEMI-CONDUCTORS AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Explain main drawbacks of classical free electron theory. (b) What are the assumptions made by Drude and Lorentz in explaining the bahavior of free electrons in metals? Explain them in detail. [6+10] 2. (a) The energy of an electron in a metal is quantized. Explain. (b) What is Fermi energy? Write down its relation with the concentration of electrons in metals. (c) Discuss the drawbacks of Sommerfields free electron theory of metals.[6+6+4] 3. Write short notes on the following: (a) Dulong-Petit’s rule (b) DEBYE’s specific heat (c) P-Type semi-conductors (d) HALL-effect. [4×4=16]

4. (a) Discuss how the resistance of an intrinsic semi-conductor varies with temperature. Explain further how such a study could be used to measure the energy gap of the semi-conductor. (b) When the donor type of inpurities are added to a semi-conductor the concentration of holes decreases. Explain with reasons. [10+6] 5. (a) Bring out the salient experimental features of superconductivity. (b) Discuss how does the critical magnetic field vary with temperature in Type-II superconductors. (c) Explain how Cooper pairs one formed in superconductors. 6. (a) Distinguish fully Type 1 and Type II super conductors. (b) Explain BCS theory of super conductivity and discuss the energy gap based on this theory. [8+8] 7. (a) Describe Weiss theory of Ferro magnetism. (b) Explain the reasons for the strong ferro magnetic property found in Iron, cobalt and nickle. [8+8] 8. Write short notes on the following: 1 of 2 [4+6+6]

Code No: RR411804 (a) Paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials (b) B-H curves (c) Anti Ferromagnetic materials (d) Recent developments in super conductors.

Set No.4

[4×4=16]

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