Code No: RR411806

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 NUCLEAR METALLURGY (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What is mass defect? Derive the relevant expression for mass defect calculation. (b) Calculate the binding energy of an alpha particle. Express the result both in Mev and ergs. (Mass of the Neutron: 1.00897 amu; Mass of the proton: 1.00758 amu; Mass of the Helium Nucleus: 4.0082 amu) [8+8] 2. (a) Describe the early and delayed somatic effects of radiation. (b) Explain the genetic effects of radiation damage. [8+8]

3. What are the important elements of a nuclear reactor? Explain all of them in detail. [16] 4. (a) Explain the desirable properties of a coolant used in a nuclear reactor. (b) What do you mean by cladding material. Discuss critically about cladding materials. [8+8] 5. (a) What is carnotite? Give the chemical formula of it. give the metallic elements present in the mineral. (b) Explain the important physical and metallurgical characteristic properties of plutonium. [8+8] 6. What is a spent fuel? What are the various methods available to reprocess the spent fuel. Explain them fully. [16] 7. With the help of a flow sheet and necessary chemical reactions, Explain the production of nuclear grade zirconium. [16] 8. (a) What are the important properties of plutonium. (b) Explain the recycling scheme for plutonium in a thermal reactor. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [7+9]

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Code No: RR411806

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 NUCLEAR METALLURGY (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What is half life period. Explain the significance of half life period. Derive on expression for calculating the half life period. (b) What do you mean neutron cross section? Explain the significance of neutron cross section. [8+8] 2. (a) Explain the biological effects of radiation and the damage caused due to radiation. (b) Write a short notes on ‘Radiation protection standards’. [8+8]

3. How are nuclear reactors classified based on fuel materials. Explain them in detail. [16] 4. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the following coolants (a) Water as coolant (b) liquid metal as coolant (c) gas coolants (d) organic liquid as coolants. [4x4]

5. (a) What is carnotite? Give the chemical formula of it. give the metallic elements present in the mineral. (b) Explain the important physical and metallurgical characteristic properties of plutonium. [8+8] 6. (a) Write down the flow sheet and explain for the production of thorium form beach sands. (b) Explain the important properties of thorium. [10+6]

7. With the help of a flow sheet and necessary chemical reactions, Explain the production of nuclear grade zirconium. [16] 8. (a) What are the important properties of plutonium. (b) Explain the recycling scheme for plutonium in a thermal reactor. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [7+9]

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Code No: RR411806

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 NUCLEAR METALLURGY (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Compare and contract between Nuclear fission and Nuclear fusion. (b) What is rate of radioactive decay ?Derive the expression for decay constant. [8+8] 2. What are X-rays and gamma rays. Explain the interaction of these rays with matter [16] 3. How are nuclear reactors classified based on fuel materials. Explain them in detail. [16] 4. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the following coolants (a) Water as coolant (b) liquid metal as coolant (c) gas coolants (d) organic liquid as coolants. [4x4]

5. (a) What are the primary minerals of uranium. Give their chemical formulae. (b) Explain the occurance of minerals of uranium and write their general characteristics. [8+8] 6. (a) What is meant by enrichment of uranium? Explain. (b) Explain the following methods of uranium enrichment. i. gas centrifuge process ii. electromagnetic enrichment process. [4+6+6]

7. With the help of a flow sheet discuss the production of nuclear grade zirconium sponge form pure zirconia. [16] 8. (a) What are the important properties of plutonium. (b) Explain the recycling scheme for plutonium in a thermal reactor. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [7+9]

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Code No: RR411806

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 NUCLEAR METALLURGY (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Write short notes on the following (a) Compton effect (b) Mass number and atomic Number. (c) Structure of Nucleus. (d) Isotopes. 2. (a) Explain the effects of radiation on fissile and non-fissile materials. (b) How can one say that a reactor is in critical state? (c) Explain how the detection of radiation takes place. [6+5+5] [4x4]

3. How are nuclear reactors classified based on fuel materials. Explain them in detail. [16] 4. (a) Describe how the fuel may be arranged in a thermal reactor. (b) What are the requirements of the fuel cladding utilized in a reactor? Explain them. [8+8] 5. (a) What are the primary minerals of uranium. Give their chemical formulae. (b) Explain the occurance of minerals of uranium and write their general characteristics. [8+8] 6. Write an essay on nuclear fuel resources in India. [16]

7. What are the chief sources of Beryllium. What are the various methods used for the extraction of Beryllium. Explain any one of them in detail. [16] 8. Discuss the cost of producing electricity form any nuclear power station in India. Compare the cost of production of nuclear power, with that of electricity produced form thermal power plants. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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