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A PARAMETER DESIGN STUDY IN A TURNING OPERATION USING THE TAGUCHI METHOD
by E. Daniel Kirby email@example.com Industrial Technology Program, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Iowa State University Abstract: Modern manufacturers, seeking to remain competitive in the market, rely on their manufacturing engineers and production personnel to quickly and effectively set up manufacturing processes for new products. Taguchi Parameter Design is a powerful and efficient method for optimizing quality and performance output of manufacturing processes, thus a powerful tool for meeting this challenge. This paper discusses an investigation into the use of Taguchi Parameter Design for optimizing surface roughness generated by a CNC turning operation. This study utilizes a standard orthogonal array for determining the optimum turning parameters, with an applied noise factor. Controlled factors include spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut; and the noise factor is slightly damaged jaws. The noise factor is included to increase the robustness and applicability of this study. After experimentally turning sample workpieces using the selected orthogonal array and parameters, this study produced a verified combination of controlled factors and a predictive equation for determining surface roughness with a given set of parameters.
Achieving a desired level of surface quality for CNC-turned parts requires practical knowledge and skill to properly set up this type of operation with the given specifications and conditions. A manufacturing engineer or CNC machine setup technician is often expected to utilize experience and published shop guidelines for determining the proper machining parameters to achieve a specified level of surface roughness. This must be done in a timely manner to avoid production delays, effectively to avoid defects, and the produced parts monitored for quality. Therefore, in this situation, it is prudent for the engineer or technician to use past experience to select parameters which will likely yield a surface roughness below that of the specified level, and perhaps make some parameter adjustments as time allows or quality control requires. Engineers and technicians establishing such an operation would ideally consider other implications of setup parameters such as production schedules, processing time, and noise factors. A more methodical, or experimental, approach to setting parameters should be used to ensure that the operation meets the desired level of quality with given noise conditions and without sacrificing production time. Rather than just setting a very low feed rate to assure a low surface roughness, for example, an experimental method might determine that a faster feed rate, in combination with other parameter settings, would produce the desired surface roughness. 1
the most readily controlled factors in a turning operation are feed rate. as all combinations of inputs tested Taguchi method In-depth knowledge required Much smaller number of combinations Included in the basic design Looks at both level and variability of output to select input combinations Advisable. Taguchi Parameter Design allows quality engineers to reduce the need for quality control later . In order to optimize such an operation with such restrictions. Fortunately. spindle speed. using the Taguchi Parameter Design method would be ideal for this case. according to Roy . Furthermore. the very intention of Taguchi Parameter Design is to maximize the performance of a naturally variable production process by modifying the controlled factors. A key idea is the contention that Taguchi Parameter Design uses the non-linearity of a response parameter to decrease the sensitivity of the quality characteristic to variability . and have varying effects on quality characteristics. Spindle speed and depth of cut were found to have differing levels of effect in each study. since it can be done at the design stage. a more efficient experimental method is needed. often uncontrollable. An excellent solution to this issue is an approach known as Taguchi Parameter Design. Taguchi Parameter Design is similar to traditional DOE methods in that multiple input parameters can be considered for a given response. As a type of fractional factorial design. 9. for which Taguchi Parameter Design lends itself well to optimizing a production process . Comparing DOE and Taguchi methods Aspect Knowledge of the process being studied Number of test runs Noise factors Variability of system being studied Confirmation runs DOE method Not required Relatively large. and depth of cut. Several studies exist which explore the effect of feed rate. outlined in Table 1. Vibration as an uncontrolled noise factor can also affect surface 2 . as it would allow for optimization of the turning process with a relatively small number of experimental runs. in most scenarios. Review of Literature Conducting an effective Taguchi Parameter Design study requires review of literature regarding turning parameters and similar studies. 10]. selected combination of inputs may not have been tested II. These studies all supported the idea that feed rate has a strong influence on surface finish. all combinations of inputs Usually not included Ignored. Table 1. Of course. only used to look for most effective combination of inputs Not required. Variability in a manufacturing process can be significant. time is limited and design of experiments (DOE) methods tend to be lengthy and cumbersome when considering the complex factors and noise that affect such an operation . and depth of cut on surface finish [7. each of which may have an effect on surface finish . This would seem to indicate that these controlled parameters would play an important role in optimizing surface roughness. however. some key differences. As indicated in Table 1. cutting speed.the Technology Interface/Fall 2006 Kirby Unfortunately. often playing a stronger role as part of an interaction. There are. 8.
d = 0. 3 . this study will utilize the Taguchi Parameter Design methodology. 15.004. would therefore have an effect on surface finish depending on the degree of out-of-balance condition and the speed of the spindle. depth of cut.002. workpiece length. and other machining parameters. It was also intended that this would allow the selection of an orthogonal array with as few runs as possible. 0. Experimental Design and Setup In order to meet this purpose in terms of both efficiency and effectiveness. Effects of the noise parameter on the response parameter. and unique combination of parameters can be tailored to suit a given situation. utilizing an orthogonal array. This includes selection of parameters. while considering a noise factor. 0. dimensional accuracy. cutting tool material. and verification. for example. These ranges of feed rate would be expected to produce a good finish on the parts . cutting time. or tool wear. while still allowing for a robust experiment. Spindle speed and depth of cut were then given two levels (v = 2500. As suggested in the introduction. Considering that the literature suggested that feed rate has a much higher effect on surface roughness than the other two parameters.the Technology Interface/Fall 2006 Kirby finish. conducting experimental runs. III.005 inches per revolution (ipr). These studies all discovered clear and useful correlations between their control and response parameters. and 0. and found that the amplitude and frequency due to spindle speed both had strong effects on the surface topography. cutting tool geometry. This study will include the following features in order to meet this purpose and distinguish it from the reviewed literature: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ The use of an array with the fewest experimental runs possible. it was determined that a robust but efficient experiment would include feed rate with more levels than the other factors. The purpose of this study is to efficiently determine the optimum turning operation parameters for achieving the lowest surface roughness in that range of parameters. and depth of cut (d) are included as controlled parameters in this study. 12. Relationships between the control parameters and the response parameter. Some very informative studies were found that were conducted using the Taguchi Parameter Design method for the purpose of optimizing turning parameters [10. 3500 rpm. coolant. This would indicate that there are a number of different parameters that can be included in this type of study. Optimum turning operation parameters for surface roughness. 16]. given this noise factor.020 in. These studies made use of various workpiece materials and controlled parameters to optimize surface roughness. determining the optimum combination. The feed rate factor in this experiment therefore has four levels: 0.). and the spindle speed and depth of cut were selected to meet the hardware setup specifications while providing reasonable variability in the experiment.010. Spindle vibrations due to damaged or unbalanced jaws. 13. data analysis. feed rate (ƒ).003. Lin and Chang  studied the effect of radial vibrations on surface finish. feed rate. 14. spindle speed (v). 0. The use of damaged chuck jaws as a noise factor. Each utilized different combinations and levels of cutting speed.
The work pieces selected for this experiment were cut from 1-inch diameter 6061-T6511 Aluminum Alloy rod. customized for this study Inner Control Factor Array Run ƒ v d 1 0.010 Outer Noise Array N1 N2 The experimental setup includes all hardware and software needed to generate turned surfaces. Table 2. Note that this is based on the basic L8 (27) array. per ASTM B221.010 5 0. A customized array. but significant enough to cause vibration due to an out-of-balance condition. with just enough surface area to allow for cutting stabilization and subsequent surface roughness measurement.004 3500 0. with the first three columns combined to allow for a four-level factor.2.004 2500 0.010 6 0.002 2500 0. The N1 noise condition is designated for the damaged jaws.005 2500 0.002 3500 0. two sets of jaws were selected – one set with some damage from extensive use. is a modern CNC slant bed lathe with a Fanuc controller. The major hardware used is listed in Table 4. which allows for one factor at four levels and up to four factors at two levels (Table 2).020 7 0. The damage on the jaws was slight enough to allow safe use in the lathe.003 3500 0. and one set which had never previously been used. collect all necessary data.020 8 0. a source of noise for this experiment would be the condition of the jaws on the chuck. Table 3. which requires a replication of each run in the orthogonal array for each noise condition. with all factors and noise conditions included. shown in Figure 1.003 2500 0. This is included as a separate outer array.010 2 0. is shown in Table 3. and analyze this data. measure their surface roughness.3 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 Control Factors 4 5 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 6 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 7 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 Also suggested in the introduction. The lathe.005 3500 0. These workpieces would be machined with a straight turning operation.020 3 0. Modified L8 orthogonal array Run 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1.the Technology Interface/Fall 2006 Kirby The array selected to meet these criteria is a modified L8 array. Modified L8 orthogonal array. and the N2 noise condition is designated for the new jaws.020 4 0. Therefore. along with specifications applicable 4 .
CNC lathe Table 4.032 inch nose radius) Federal Pocketsurf Stylus Profilometer. Measures Ra in µinch. and each measured for surface roughness four times at approximately 90º intervals around the part.the Technology Interface/Fall 2006 Kirby to this study. Stylus travel 0.1 inch.00005 inch. never used and matched to chuck for correct balance VNE Versa Turn CCGT 432-AF (0. Data Collection A total of sixteen workpieces were turned in accordance with the experimental design.000001 – 4.0001 inch (1) Used jaws with slight damage (operable but with some nicks) (2) New jaws. Ra Lathe Chuck Jaws (3-Jaw Chuck) Cutting Tool Insert Surface Roughness Measurement Device IV. Software used for this study includes Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and SAS Institute Inc. Surface roughness was measured with the workpiece fixtured to the profilometer such that 5 . Accuracy of ±4 µin. JMP statistical package. Figure 1. List of hardware Item CNC Lathe Specifications Clausing/Colchester Storm A50 Slant Bed Lathe Spindle speed range: 1000-4000 rpm Feed rate range: 0. Resolution 1 µin.000000 inch per revolution (ipr) Least input movement increment: X 0. Z 0. Ra.
010 Outer Noise Array N1 y1 20 17 34 32 42 38 49 55 y2 21 22 42 30 46 41 52 51 y3 19 18 30 25 41 40 54 52 y4 19 19 30 26 38 40 49 54 y1 16 17 24 25 31 31 43 54 N2 y2 y3 y4 18 16 17 16 18 15 20 20 22 21 22 26 26 30 33 32 32 34 45 52 41 57 38 55 Overall Means Ra 18. the surface roughness measurements were taken at random points around each workpiece.002 2500 0. In this case. The S/N ratio is a summary statistic which indicates the value and dispersion of the response variable with the given noise factors .010 6 0.010 5 0. the S/N ratio equation is based on the Taguchi smaller-thebetter loss function. Replication was therefore provided given the two noise conditions as well four surface roughness measurements.020 8 0. yi = the individual surface roughness measurements in a run for both noise conditions. the filled array in Table 5 includes the Signal-to Noise (S/N) ratio of the individual runs. While the setup is a three-jaw chuck as noted in Table 4.004 2500 0. Note that a full factorial design with the same number of factors and levels would require thirtytwo workpieces (4 levels of ƒ × 2 levels of v × 2 levels of d × 2 levels of N).010 2 0.003 3500 0. which can also be a significant source of variability .70 η -25. and n = the number of replications (in this case.25 17.005 3500 0.37 -29.004 3500 0. as the idea is to minimize the response.23 -31.18 -33.68 -34.002 3500 0.26 -25. n = 8).00 48.020 4 0. Array complete with experimental data Inner Control Factor Array Ru n ƒ v d 1 0.003 2500 0. The individual surface roughness measurements (indicated by yi). and the mean for each run ( Ra ) is in the next column to the right.04 -29.the Technology Interface/Fall 2006 Kirby measurements were taken across the lay.78 V. 6 . Table 5. Future studies may include measurement points with respect to each jaw as a possible source of noise. This study therefore cuts the number of workpieces and experimental runs in half.13 52. are in this inner array.005 2500 0. Data Analysis In addition to Ra . This helped avoid possibly biased measurements should the damaged jaws create a directional vibration or wobble strong enough to cause a variance in surface roughness around the turned surface. which is calculated as: 1) η = −10 log ⎢ ⎡1 ⎣n (∑ y )⎤ ⎥ 2 i ⎦ where η = the S/N ratio.020 3 0.33 -31.75 27. which is the orthogonal array with an expanded inner array for replications.88 35. The tabulation of the collected data is found in Table 5.88 36.020 7 0.15 -28.75 25.00 32.
Figures 2 through 4 indicate a much stronger effect on Ra for feed rate than the other two parameters. Fowlkes and Creveling  suggest looking at the F-ratios calculated in the ANOVA for each parameter to determine this. A steeper slope in the graphed response and S/N ratio effects indicates a greater effect of the parameter on the response.00 25. which are shown in Table 6.00 -26.00 7 . The effects are merely the means of the response and S/N ratio at each level for each factor.50 31.00 26.76 ƒ 50.74 -31.00 10.00 -33.00 1 2 Level 3 4 Ra Effects η Effects -25.00 -32. This can also be statistically tested.the Technology Interface/Fall 2006 Kirby The data in Table 5 can then be analyzed using informal and statistical methods.80 -29.00 35.00 -28. F ≈ 2: Control factor has only a moderate effect compared with experimental error.00 -31.00 32. using analysis of variance (ANOVA).41 d -29. with the following criteria: ♦ ♦ ♦ F < 1: Control factor effect is insignificant (experimental error outweighs the control factor effect).81 35.00 40. Response and S/N ratio main effects Ra Effects level level 1 level 2 level 3 level 4 η Effects level level 1 level 2 level 3 level 4 ƒ 18. as was expected by the literature review.06 ƒ -25.00 45. These values can then be graphically analyzed (Figures 2 through 4). This begins with determining the effects of each treatment level on the response and S/N ratio.00 -34.99 -29.21 -34. Table 6.57 - d 33.91 v -29.03 v 33.00 -27. F > 4: Control factor has a strong (clearly significant) effect.00 30.00 20.00 -30.15 -28. to look for relative effects on the response.94 50.00 -29.00 15. to analyze the effects of parameters on the response.
00 -30.00 -28.00 -33.00 -33.00 -26.00 -32.00 25.00 -31.00 Figure 3.00 15.00 -26. however has an F-ratio smaller than one.00 15.00 -29. indicating only a moderate effect in this setup.00 -27.00 Figure 4.00 -28.the Technology Interface/Fall 2006 Kirby Figure 2. Response and S/N ratio effects for depth of cut An ANOVA was run using the whole model analysis feature in JMP.00 -31.00 1 Level 2 η Effects Ra Effects -25.00 30.00 -34.00 40.00 1 Level 2 η Effects Ra Effects -25. Response and S/N ratio effects for spindle speed d 50.00 25.00 -34.00 30. feed rate has an F-ratio much greater than four.00 -32. spindle speed has various effects depending on feed rate and other factors. 8 .00 35. in order to look at the combined effects of the parameters.00 10.00 -27. Spindle speed has an F-ratio which is just a little greater than two.00 10. As seen in the ANOVA in Table 7.00 45.00 40. and thus had no significant effect in this study. Response and S/N ratio effects for feed rate v 50.00 35.00 -29.00 45.00 20. indicating that it is very significant. Depth of cut.00 -30. This is perhaps an indication that as the literature review found.00 20.
it appears that the difference between the means for N1 and N2 are not significantly different.354.2356 0.0801 0. as this type of experiment includes noise factors for the sole purpose of determining a combination of control factors that results in a response variable that is the most immune to noise factors .7051 3. Total DF 3 1 1 2 7 Sum of Squares 1125. it cannot be determined from this experiment that this noise condition significantly affects surface roughness. However. Mean responses for noise factor Run 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 N1 20 19 34 28 42 40 51 53 N2 17 17 22 24 30 32 45 51 Table 9.580 -7.050 or less.354 0.6133 1134.39 -7.830 19. for half of the runs.581 19.5959 The effects of the noise factors can also be determined using both informal and formal statistical means.7793 F Ratio 207. ANOVA for controlled factors Source ƒ v d Error C. and p-value of 0.125 Std. This could be because the vibration dampening features of the lathe used was sufficient to overcome any imbalance in the jaws. This is beyond the scope of this study.39 6. warranting a t-test to more accurately determine the effect of the noise. Therefore. or because the number of runs was insufficient to allow statistical detection of differences. Table 8.3809 5.959 df 14 14 p-value 0. Difference Difference Lower Upper 6.354 9 .6378 2. As seen in Table 9. Noise factor t-test Mean Difference 6.8119 0.125 6. this t-test resulted in a confidence interval of differences between the means for N1 and N2 that includes zero. L.3903 Prob > F 0.831 t Equal Variance 0. this difference is within the accuracy of the profilometer. Assuming that statistically significant differences would yield a p-value of 0.959 Unequal Variance 0.0048 0. Error 95% C. One can see in Table 8 that the means for the N1 (damaged jaws) noise condition tended to be slightly higher than the N2 (new jaws) noise condition. however.the Technology Interface/Fall 2006 Kirby Table 7.
91 µin. the depth of cut will be run at the higher level that is more likely to produce chatter . the robustness of this parameter optimization can be verified experimentally.020 in. and depth of cut at 0. Next. this requires a separate analysis which considers all possible treatment combinations. a predicted response at the ideal condition is 16. Since the ANOVA indicated that depth of cut is not a significant factor here. including response and S/N ratio. and its value can be further analyzed and verified. The optimum combination is therefore ƒ1-N2-d3. Predictive Equation and Verification The first step in verifying the optimum combination is to use a predictive equation to predict a response value given the contributions of each factor at its level in the optimum combination. however. 10 . Ra. spindle speed at 3500 rpm. which is basically the optimum combination of treatment levels for the given response and noise conditions. and a predicted S/N ratio is -24. However.the Technology Interface/Fall 2006 Kirby VI.002 ipr. the smallest response is the ideal level for a parameter. v. ƒ. The S/N ratio. B. The graphs of Figures 2 through 4 can be used to determine the optimum treatment combination. and then five workpieces were run at these combinations and measured using the same experimental setup. This requires prediction and confirmation runs of both the optimum condition and one of the other experimental combinations. This combination has actually been run in the experimental procedure (Run 2). Each treatment combination was predicted. or feed rate at 0. is a smaller-the-better characteristic. These confirmation runs were performed at both levels of noise.. and y A . Since not all treatment combinations have been run in the experiment. since we always want the signal to be much higher than the noise. Determining the Optimum Condition Both the response and S/N ratio can be used to derive the optimum condition. which has been indicated by the enlarged points on these graphs. Applying this formula to the data in Tables 5 and 6. Since the quality characteristic. A simple yet effective equation generally used for this type of study is given by Fowlkes and Creveling : 2) y predicted = y exp + ( y A − y exp ) + ( y B − y exp ) + ( y C − y exp ) where ypredicted = the predicted response value (in this case Ra) or S/N ratio. Ra ) or S/N ratio. y B . y C = the response or S/N ratio effects for factors A. it can actually be run at either level. The results of these confirmation runs. for a total of 20 runs. & C (in this case.92. will always be highest at the optimum condition. One can do a quick inspection at this point to verify that this appears to be in line with the data in Table 5. are shown in Table 10. & d) at a given level for each. VII. since the literature review suggests a possible effect. y exp = the overall mean response of the experimental runs (in this case.
33 9.92 -24.96 0.96 -33. Conclusions and Recommendations 11 .38 49.60 -24.87 -24.43 -33.74 -34.38 53.30 9. Confirmation runs Run 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 19 17 21 18 19 55 58 51 59 59 N1 19 18 16 18 19 18 20 18 18 17 51 55 50 55 59 52 55 52 60 54 18 15 18 18 19 54 59 50 49 56 16 16 15 16 16 45 54 42 42 41 N2 16 16 13 16 16 13 18 16 17 14 18 17 17 17 17 Overall Means 46 43 41 57 38 55 42 43 44 38 46 46 40 42 43 Overall Means Ra 16.84 -24.75 49.02 -24. however.25 -33.96 Optimum Non-optimum Table 11 shows the results of this process.25 -32.08 48.05 -25.80 η -24.68 0. The “non-optimum” condition was the treatment combination which yielded the highest response in the experimental runs.88 46.75 17. This indicates a good confirmation that this study yielded a valid optimum control factor treatment combination.91 17.38 17.08 0.25 -34.05 (1) Optimum (2) Non-optimum (1-2) Difference VIII. As seen in Table 11.17 51.the Technology Interface/Fall 2006 Kirby Table 10.68 -33.53 -1. Verification Predicted Verification Error Predicted Verification Error Predicted Verification Error Ra 16. Table 11.16 49.63 -34.28 -0.88 17. and even within the measurement accuracy of the profilometer. The difference between the two predictions and verifications is used to help interpret any uniform data shifts.25 49.53 η -24.69 -33. which can be interpreted in terms of robustness of this experiment.50 17.88 15.45 1.97 -33. errors between predicted and confirmation run results were very low.
(2002). 4. V. 122-129. The noise factor. New York: Wiley. S.the Technology Interface/Fall 2006 Kirby This study utilized an efficient method for determining the optimum turning operation parameters for surface finish under varying noise conditions. 84. and depth of cut had an insignificant effect. 36–40. 64-66. such as a manufacturing plant. “damaged” and new chuck jaws. A parameter design yielded an optimum condition of the controlled parameters. such as steel bar stock. Design of experiments using the Taguchi approach: 16 steps to product and process improvement. although the literature review would caution against ruling out depth of cut altogether. coolant. was not found to have a statistically significant effect here. This would indicate that feed rate and spindle speed might be included alone in future studies. This area of research would benefit from future studies taking place in an industrial environment. DC: National Academies Press. Washington. W. 22(2). with three control parameters and one noise factor. Feed rate had the highest effect on surface roughness. Conclusions can be summed up with the following: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ The use of a modified L8 orthogonal array. Addressing issues such as numerous uncontrolled noise factors and time constraints for experimentation and implementation would be important in demonstrating Taguchi Parameter Design as a valuable and manageable tool for off-line quality engineering and production optimization. J. as well as a predictive equation. K. half the number required for a full factorial design. (2001). Y. (2001). 2. IIE Solutions 33(11). Sriraman. & Tarng. and cutting tool variations would provide a more robust and applicable study. 5. 12 . Approaches to improve engineering design. National Research Council. Additionally. The Journal of Technology Studies. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. Cesarone. the addition of more representative conditions and materials. The power of Taguchi. R. Most research to date in this area has taken place in controlled environments with limited or simulated noise. 3. required only sixteen workpieces to conduct the experimental portion. Yang. Roy. the practical application of this requires more research.. although the inclusion of this noise could still help make this experiment robust. While this study (as well as others) has demonstrated that this method of machining parameter optimization can be accomplished with minimal down time. References 1. A verification procedure was then performed. Design optimization of cutting parameters for turning operations based on the Taguchi method. which indicated that the selected parameter and predictive equation were accurate to within the limits of the measurement instrument. (1996). H. (1998). through the use of the Taguchi parameter design process. A primer on the Taguchi system of quality engineering. spindle speed had a moderate effect.
T. S. Parameter design optimisation of computerised numerical control turning tool steels for high dimensional precision and accuracy. A note on the determination of optimal cutting conditions for surface roughness obtained in turning using design of experiments.. X. B. Blacksburg. E. H. Paper presented at the 17th International Conference on Production Research. Effects of cutting edge geometry. workpiece hardness. 305-308. Basic precision machining for metalworking trainees. Yih-Fong. 19(2). A. Hsu. Investigation for optimal parametric combination for achieving better surface finish during turning of Al /SiC-MMC. (1973). C. UPB Scientific Bulletin. Nelson. (2004). (1978). Use of the Taguchi method and grey relational analysis to optimize turning operations with multiple performance characteristics. 15. Virginia. IL: American Technical Publishers. International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture. Influence of feed rate on surface roughness in turning processes with different tool inserts. Die. & Zeren. 41-44. 67(2). & Porter.-K. C. (2003). 7. Manna. Feng. C. Drews. P. 38(7).. 13 . 262269.. C. M. Study on the effects of vibrations on the surface finish using a surface topography simulation model for turning. E. (2005). Lin. & Precision Machining Association. Özel. D. C. 763-782. Vernon.-F. (1992).. T. T. J. 8. 116(2/3). Surface roughness predictive modeling: neural networks versus regression. H. Quality. & Chang. 25(3-4).. W. J. 16. (2003). (2001).. DC: National Tool. 14.P. & Wang. Materials and Manufacturing Processes. O. Cirstoiu. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. Lascoe.the Technology Interface/Fall 2006 Kirby 6. 11–27.. & Bhattacharyya. Design of optimisation of cutting parameters for turning metal matrix composites based on the orthogonal arrays.-X. Materials and Design. 27(8). A. & Özel. 11. 340–344. 23. Davim. Harig. 658-665. 12. 9. T. 10. F. A. Series D: Mechanical Engineering. (2006). 209-220. 31(10). 132. Davim. Alsip. Factors affecting surface roughness in finish hard turning. (2003).. (1998). Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. 63-70. 17. Washington. 18. L. feed rate and cutting speed on surface roughness and forces in finish turning of hardened AISI H13 steel. Surface texture measurement errors–stylus type instruments. Lin. (2004). W. 13. A. Machine shop operations and setups. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. IIE Transactions 35(1). Journal of Materials Processing Technology. (2005). 665-675.
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