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# Strength of material

Stress ( o) :-When a material is subjected to an external force, a resisting force is set up within
the component. The internal resistance force per unit area acting on a material or intensity of
the forces distributed over a given section is called the stress at a point.
. It uses original cross section area of the specimen and also known
as engineering stress or conventional stress. Therefore, P/ A o=
. P is expressed in Newton (N) and A, original area, in square
meters (m2), the stress o will be expresses in N/m2. This unit is
called Pascal (Pa).
Tensile stress ( )
t : o
- when a bar of member is subjected to pull then stress developed is known
as tensile stress
Compressive stress ( )
c : o
- when a bar of member is subjected to push then stress develped is
known as compressive stress.

Shear stress (fs):- When forces are transmitted from one of a body to other, the stresses devel-
oped in plane parallel to the applied force are the shear stress. Shear stress acts parallel to plane
of interest. Forces P is applied transversely to the member
Strain ( ) :- The displacement per unit length (dismensionless) is known as strain.
Tensile strain ( ) t : - The elongation per unit length as shown in the figure is known as tensile
strain.
t L / Lo = o
It is engineering strain or conventional strain. Here we divide the elongation to original length
not actual length ( ) Lo L +o
Compressive strain ( ) c :- If the applied force is compressive then the reduction of length
per unit length is known as compressive strain. It is negative. Then
( ) c L / Lo = o
KAPIL GOYAL 9982030151
Mechnical Engineering
Strength of Material Page No. 1
Shear Strain ( ) :- When a force P is applied tangentially to the element shown Its edge
displaced to dotted line. Where
o
is the lateral displacement of the upper face of the element
relative to the lower face and L is the distance between these faces.
Then the shear strain is ( ) /1 =o
True stress and True Strain:- The true stress is defined as the ratio of the load to the cross
section area at any instant.
( ) ( )
r
1
Instantaneousarea
o = o = + c
Where o and
c
is the engineering stress and engineering strain respectively
True strain:-
( ) ( )
0
L
0 0
r
L
A d dl
l 1 ln 2ln
l A d
| | | |
c = = + c = =
| |
\ . \ .
}
Or engineering strain ( )
0
1 c = u
The volume of the specimen is assumed to be constant during plastic deformation.
0 0
[ A L AL] It is validtill theneck formation =
Hooks law:- According to Hooks law the stress is directly proportional to strain i.e. normal
stress ( ) o normal Strain ( ) and shearing stress (fs) shearing strain ( ).
E andfs G o= =
The co-efficient E is called the modulus of elasticity i.e. its resistance to elastic strain. The
coefficient G is called the shear modulus of elasticity or modulus of rigidity.
Volumetric strain ( ) v : - it is defined as change in volume to original volume of the body,,
volumetric strain also is a dimensionless quantity.
( ) v V Vo / Vo =
Where V
0
=original volume and V=final volume
For a body v x y z = + +
Youngs modulus or Modulus of elasticity (E)
PL
A
o
= =
o e
Modulus of rigidity or Shear modulus of elasticity (G)
PL
A
t
= ==
o
Bulk Moduls or Volume modulus of elasticity (K)
P P
v R
A A
= =
A A
Relationship between the elastic constants E, G, K ,
( ) ( )
9KG
E 2G 1 3K 1 2
3K G
= + = =
+
Where K =Bulk Moldulus, =Poissons Ratio E = Youngs modulus, G=Modulus of rigidity
. For a linearly elastic, isotropic and homogeneous material, the number of elastic
constants required to relate stress and strain is two. i.e. any two of the four must be known. If
vv
R
.
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Mechnical Engineering
Strength of Material Page No. 2
the material is non-isotropic (i.e. anisotropic). then the elastic modulii will vary with
additional stresses appearing since there is a coupling between shear stresses and normal stresses
for an anisotropic material.
Poissons Ratio ( ): ratio between lateral strain to linear strain is defined as poisson ratio.
Minus sign indicates that both lateral and linear strain are perpendicular to each other
lateral strain/ linear strain =
Theoretically the value of is 0 to 0.5, but practically the value of is - 1 to 0.5, for rubber
poissons ratio is taken as .48 to .50 while for concrete it is negative and for cast iron it is
Elongation:- A primatic bar loaded in tension by an axial force P
For a prismatic bar loaded in tension by an axial force P.The elongation of the bar can be
determined as
Elongation of a body due to its self weight
(i) Elonation of a uniform rod of length L due to its own weight W
WL / 2AE o=
The deformation of a bar under its own weight as compared to that when subjected toa
direct axial load equal to its own weight will be half.
(ii) Total extension produced in rod of length L due to its own weight
e
per with
length.
( )
3
L2/ 2E specific weight N/ m o=e e=
(iii) Elongation of a conical bar due to its self weight
max
L2/ 6E WL / 2A E o= e =
Elognation in uniformly circular tapring bar
1 2
4PL / Edd o = t
Elongationin uniformly rectangular bar ( )( ) PLln a/ b a b tE o =
Factor of safety (F.O.S) :- permissible stress/working stress
F.O.S is always taken as greater than l, in aviation industry margin of safety
Which is taken as margin of safety=F.O.S - 1
Thermal or Temperature stress and strain:- When a material undergoes a change in tem-
perature, it either elongates or contracts depending upon whether temperature is increased or
decreased of the material. If the elongation or contractionis not restricted, i.e. free then the
material does not experience any stress despite the fact that it undergoes a strain. The strain
due to temperature change is called thermal strain and is expressed as,
t T = oA
Where
o
is co-efficient of thermal expansion, a material property, and
A
T is the change in
temperature.
The Free expansion or contraction l of materials, when restrained induces stress in the material
KAPIL GOYAL 9982030151
Mechnical Engineering
Strength of Material Page No. 3
and it is Referred to as thermal stress.
`
t
E T whereE Modulusof Elasticity o = o A =
Thermal stress produces the same effect in the material as mechanical stress. A compressive
stress will produce in the material with increase in temperature and the stress developed is
tensile stress with decrease in temperature.
Elasticity:- This is the property of a material to regain its original shape after deformation
when the external forces are removed. When the material is in elastic the strain disappears
completely after removal of the load, the stress-strain Relationship in elastic region need not
be linear and can be non-linear (example rubber). Mild steel and rubber are elastic materials
but steel is more elastic than rubber.
Plasticity:- When the stress in the material exceeds the elastic limit, the material enters into
plastic phase where the strain can no Longer be completely removed. Under plastic conditions
materials ideally deform without any increase in stress.
Principle stresses:- principle stresses are maximum or minimum normal stresses which may
be produced in a loaded body. The plane s which contains principle strees are known as prin-
ciple planes. Plane containing maximum and minimum normal stress always have zero shear
stress. But plane containing maximum shear stress dons have zero normal stress.
Analytical method for frinding out complex stress:
1. When the member is subjected to uniaxial load
{ }
2 0
n nmax
0 0
t tmax
Cos P/ A when 0
sin2 / 2 when 45 ,135 / 2
=
=
( o =o u o= u= o o

( o = o u u= o o

2. When member is biaxially loaded
( ) ( ) { }
nl y y
/ 2 cos2 / 2
_ _
o = o + o + o o u
( ) ( ) { }
n2 y y
/ 2 cos2 / 2
_ _
o = o +o o o u
( ) { } ( )
0 0
tl t2 y tmax y
sin2 / 2 if 45 or135 then / 2
_ _
o = o = o o u u= o = o o
( )
tmax, nl n2 y
Ontheplanewhere then / 2
_
o o = o = o + o
3. When member is subjected to only shear
KAPIL GOYAL 9982030151
Mechnical Engineering
Strength of Material Page No. 4
( )
0 0
n y
sin2 maxi mumwhen 45 andminimumwhen 135
_
o = t u u= u=
( )
0 0
t xy
cos2 maximumwhen 45 andminimumwhen 135 o = t u u= u =
4. when member in subjected to combined load
( ) ( ) { }
( ) { }
n x y x y xy
t x y xy
/ 2 cos2 / 2 sin2
sin2 / 2 cos2
(
o = o + o + o o u + t u

(
o = o o u + t u

Note : if
u
occupies a position where shear stress becomes zero, then such a plane is called
principle and angle
p
u is known as principle angle
xy
p
x y
2
tan2
t
u =
o o
Strain Energy:- it is defined as ability of a material to abosrb when it is strained
U P / 2 T / 2 = o = u
o
T = Applied torque
u
=angle of twist due to applied torque
Resilliance:- Ablility of a material to absorb energy in the elastic region when material is
strained
Proof Resilliance :- maximum energy absorbing capacityin a strained material is known as
proff resilieance.
* Shear Force (v) equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the algebraic sum
(resultant) of the components in the direction perpendicula to the axis of the beam of all
external loads and support reactions acting on either side of the section being condidered.
* Bending Moment (M) equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the algebraic
sum of the moments about (the centroid of the cross section of the beam) the section of
all external loads and support reactions acting on either side of the section being consid
ered.
Notation and sign convention {Shear force (v)}
Positive Shear Force :- A shearing force having a downward direction to the right hand side
of a upward to the left hand of the section will be taken as positive It is the usual sign
conventions to be followed for the shear force
The upward direction shearing force which is on the left hand of the section XX is positive
KAPIL GOYAL 9982030151
Mechnical Engineering
Strength of Material Page No. 5
shear force.
The downward direction shearing force which is on the right hand of the section XX is positive
shear force.
Negative Shear Force:- A shearing force having an upward direction to the right hand side of
a section or downwards to the left hand of the section will be taken as negative.
The downward direction shearing force which is on the left hand of the section XX is negative
.The upward direction shearing force which is on the right hand of the section XX is negative
shear force.
Bending Moment (M):- Positive Bending Moment A bending moment causing concavity
upwards will be taken as positive and called as sagging bending moment.
A bending moment causing convexity upwards will be taken as positive and calledas hog-
ging bending moment.
Relation between ( ) ( ) ( )
x x
S.F. V ,B.M. M &Load w
x

## = value of the distributed load at any point in the beam is equal to

the slope of the shear force curve
x x
dM / dX V = value of the shear force at any point in the beam is equal to the slope of
the bending moment curve.
Standard cases of S.F.D and B.M.D for various types of beams:- Point of Contraflexure
In a beam if the bending moment changes sign at a point itself having zero bending moment,
the beam changes curvature at this point of zero bending moment and this point is called the
point of contra flexure. There can be more than one point of contraflexure in a beam.
KAPIL GOYAL 9982030151
Mechnical Engineering
Strength of Material Page No. 6
KAPIL GOYAL 9982030151
Mechnical Engineering
Strength of Material Page No. 7
Bending stress theory : - Bending Stress equation is given as below
M E
y I R
o
= =
Whereo =Bending Stress
M =Bending Moment
I =Moment of Inertia
E =Modulus of elasticity
y =Distance of th fibre from NA (Neutral axis)
Assumptions in Simple Bending Theory :- theory has been developed for the case of pure
bending i.e. constant B.M along the length of the beam. In such case
. The shear force about neutral surface is zero.
. Normal stress only generate due to bending.
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Mechnical Engineering
Strength of Material Page No. 8
. Beams should be straight before bending.
. The material is homogenous and isotropic i.e. it has a uniform composition and its
mechanical properties are the same in all directions
. The stress-strain relationship should be linear and elastic
. Modulus of elasticity should be same
. Cross section of about N.A should be plane before and after bending
Section modulus (z):- defined as the ration between moment of interia and distance of outer
fiber from N.A, i.e
Z=I/y
I =moment of interia
Y =maximum distance from C.G
Strength of beam can be defined by calculation of section modulus and it is the important
parameter for the design of beam, from bending moment relation we can find out the relation
between M and Z also called flexure formula
M Z =o
Beam which has highest section modulus amongst other beam of same material and same
elastic modulus, has more strength.
Shear stress in bending
Where shear stressinbeam t=
A =Area of element
Y=distance between N.A and c.g of element
b =width of element
I =moment of inertia of body
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Mechnical Engineering
Strength of Material Page No. 9
Torsion of circular shafts
Equation for shafts subjected to torsion T
T G
R J L
t u
= =
KAPIL GOYAL 9982030151
Mechnical Engineering
Strength of Material Page No.10
Where J =Polar moment of inertia
t =Shear stress induced due to torsion T..
G =Modulus of rigidity
u
=Angular deflection of shaft
R,L =Shaft radius & length respectively
Assumptions
. The bar is acted upon by a pure torque.
. Cross sections of shaft remain palin before and after twisting
. The material should be elastic and homogenous
. Cross-sections rotate as if rigid, i.e. every diameter rotates through the same angle
Polar moment of inteia (J ) J =
4
d / 32 t (for solid shaft)
J = ( )
4 4
D d / 32 t (for hollow shaft)
Polar section modulus ( )
p
Z
p
Z J / y = (where y =maximum distance from N.A)

3
p
Z d /16 = t (for solid shaft)
( )
4 4
p
Z D d /16D = t (for hollow shaft)
Safe diameter of Shaft (d)
. Stiffness consideration
T G
J L
u
=
. Shear Stress consideration
T
J R
t
=
. take higher value of diameter of both cases above for overall safety if other param
eters are given.
In twisting
. Solid shaft.
max 3
16T
d
t =
t
( )
0 0
n y
sin2 maxi mumwhen 45 andminimumwhen 135
_
o = t u u= u=
. Hollow shaft.
( )
0
max
4 4
0 1
16Td
d d
t =
t
. Diameter of a shaft to have a maximum deflection a
TL
d 4.9 4
Ga
=
[Where T in N.mm L in mm. G in
2
N/ mm
]
Maximum Principal Stress ( )
max
o & Maximum shear stress ( )
max
t
2 2
max 3
16
M M T
d
(
o = + +

t
KAPIL GOYAL 9982030151
Mechnical Engineering
Strength of Material Page No.11
2 2
max 3
16
M T
d
t = +
t
Location of Principal plane ( ) u
1
1 T
tan
2 M

| |
u =
|
\ .
Equivalent bending moment ( )
e
M & Equivalent torsion ( )
e
T
2 2
e
M M T
M
2
(
+ +
= (
(

2 2
e
T M T = +
Thin cylindrical pressure vessel: when ratio between internal diameters to thickness is than 1/
15 to 1/20, then pressure vessels are known as thin cylindrical pressure vessel.
Hoop or Circum ference stress in thin cylindrical vessel ( )
h
Pd/ 2t maximumstress o =
Longitudinal stress in cylindrical vessel ( )
l
Pd/ 4t minimumstress o =
Maximum shear stress in thin cylindrical vessel
max
Pd/ 8t t =
Volumetric strain and dimension strain in thin cylindrical vessel
( ) { }
v
e Pd 5 4 / 4tE =
( ) { }
d/ d Pd 2 / 4tE A =
( ) { }
1/1 Pd 1 2 / 4tE A =
Thick cylindrical pressure vessel:- when ratio between internal diameters to thickness is
less than 1/15 to 1/20, then pressure vessels.
Difference between the analysis of stresses in thin & thick cylinders
. In thin cylinders, it is assumed that the tangential stress
t
o is uniformly distributed
over the cylinder wall thickness.
. In thick cylinder, the tangential stress
t
o has the highest magnitude at the inner
surface of the cylinder & gradually decreases towards the outer surface.
r
o is neglected in thin cylinders while it is of significant magnitude
in case of thick cylinders.
Stress
. Axial stress,
2
i i
z 2 2
0 i
pr
r r
o =

r 2
B
A
r
o =
. Circumferential/Tangential stress,
r 2
B
A
r
o = +
[Note: Radial stress always compressive so its magnitude always - ive. But in some
books they assume that compressive radial stress is positive and they use,
r 2
B
A
r
o =
]
KAPIL GOYAL 9982030151
Mechnical Engineering
Strength of Material
Page No. 12
Boundary Conditions
i, r i
0 r 0
At r r P
At r r P
= o =
= o =
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
t t 0 0 i 0
i 0 2 2 2 2
0 i
0 i
P r P r
A andB P P
r | r
r r
r r

= =

Cylinders with internal pressure ( )
i 0
p i.e. p 0 =
.
2
i i
z 2 2
0 i
Pr
r r
o =

.
0
2
2
t i
r 2 2 2
0 i
r
Pr
1
r r r
(
o =
(

(

[-ive means compressive stress]
.
0
2
2
t i
r 2 2 2
0 i
r
Pr
1
r r r
(
o =+ +
(

(

(a) At the inner surface of the cylinder
( )
i
i r r =
( )
r i
ii P o =
( )
( )
2 2
i 0 i
t 2 2
0 i
P r r
iii
r r
+
o =+

( )
2
0
max i 2 2
0 i
r
iv P
r r
t =+

## (b) At the outer surface of the cylinder

( )
0
i r r =
( )
r
ii 0 o =
( )
2
i i
r 2 2
0 i
2pr
iii
r r
o =

(c) Radial and circumferential stress distribution within the cylinder wall when only internal
pressure acts.
KAPIL GOYAL 9982030151
Mechnical Engineering
Strength of Material
Page No. 13
Cylinders with External Pressure ( )
0 i
p i.e.p 0 =
.
2 2
0 0 i
r 2 2 2
0 i
p r r
i
r r r
(
o =
(

2 2
0 0 i
r 2 2 2
0 i
P r r
i
r r r
(
o =
(

(a) At the inner surface at the cylinder
(i)
i
r r =
(ii)
r
0 o =
(iii)
2
0 0
t 2 2
0 i
2p r
r r
o =

## (b) At the outer surface of the cylinder

(i)
0
r r =
(ii)
r 0
P o =
(iii)
( )
2 2
0 0 i
t 2 2
0 i
P r r
r r
+
o =

SPRINGS:- Springs are mechanical device which is used to store and relase energy. It my be
classified as given below.
1. Closed coiled Helical spring
2. Open coiled helical spring
3. Semi-elliptical leaf spring
4. Quarter-elliptical leaf spring
Important formulas closed helical spring:
Shear Stress
3
169WR/ d t = t (shear stress is maximum at inner fiber of wire of spring)
in actual practice direct shear stress is also presented in spring wire hence total stress is the
sum of torsional shear stress and direct shear stress.
Hence value of shear
3
K16WR / d t= t (where K is wahls stress correction factor)
( ) ( ) { } { }
K 4C 1/ 4C 4 .615/ C C springindex meandiameter/diameter of spring = + =
KAPIL GOYAL 9982030151
Mechnical Engineering
Strength of Material Page No. 14