# Code No: RR411812

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 X-RAY METALLOGRAPHY (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What is the frequency (per second) and energy per quantum (in joules) of x-ray beams of wavelength 0.71A0 (Mo Kα ) and 1.54A0 (Cu Kα )? [7] (b) Calculate the velocity and kinetic energy with which the electrons strike the target of an X-ray tube operating at a voltage ‘V’. Determine the shortwavelength limit of the continuous spectrum emitted and the maximum energy per quantum of radiation? [9] 2. Write short notes on the following: (a) Thomson equation (b) Polarisation factor (c) Compton eﬀect. 3. (a) Explain in detail the scattering of X-rays by an atom. [5] [6] [5] [7]

(b) What is structure factor? Derive an expression for the structure factor. Calculate the structure factor for NaCl. [9] 4. (a) Describe Debye-Scherrer method of X-ray diﬀraction. (b) What does each intense point in Debye-Scherrer diﬀraction pattern represent? Explain. [8+8] 5. Giving the principle, Describing the design and with a neat sketch explain the working of focusing Cameras. [16] 6. (a) What is the principle involved in Diﬀractometre with monochromatic crystal. (b) With a neat sketch explain the working of above Diﬀractometre. [8+8] 7. With an example discuss the structure determination in detail. 8. Compare and Contrast Coherent and Incoherent radiation. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16] [16]

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Code No: RR411812

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 X-RAY METALLOGRAPHY (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Distinguish between continuous spectrum and characteristic spectrum with neat sketches and examples. (b) Explain methods for detecting of X-rays. 2. (a) With sketches, explain the atomic scattering factor. (b) With a neat sketch, explain the eﬀects produced by the passage of x-rays through matter. [8+8] 3. (a) Explain in detail the scattering of X-rays by an atom. [7] [8+8]

(b) What is structure factor? Derive an expression for the structure factor. Calculate the structure factor for NaCl. [9] 4. (a) How does Debye-Scherrer diﬀraction pattern look? (b) Where is Debye-Scherrer method useful? [4] [6]

(c) Explain how a powder camera is superior to a Diﬀractometer with examples. [6] 5. Given a square piece of X-ray ﬁlm 10 Cm X 10 Cm radiation of λ =0.152 nm and powdered NaCl with a lattice parameter 0.563 nm, devise a diﬀraction experiment in such a fashion that the rays from (111) planes produce a circle of diameter 0.1m. [16] 6. What is the principle involved in Diﬀractometre method (The texture of Sheet). With neat sketch explain the working of Diﬀractometre method. [16] 7. What is the basic principle involved in crystal structure determination? Explain various steps involved in determination of unknown structures. [16] 8. Explain in detail the steps involved in Determination of Phase Diagram by X-ray diﬀraction methods. Clearly sketch and explain. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR411812

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 X-RAY METALLOGRAPHY (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What is the frequency (per second) and energy per quantum (in joules) of x-ray beams of wavelength 0.71A0 (Mo Kα ) and 1.54A0 (Cu Kα )? [7] (b) Calculate the velocity and kinetic energy with which the electrons strike the target of an X-ray tube operating at a voltage ‘V’. Determine the shortwavelength limit of the continuous spectrum emitted and the maximum energy per quantum of radiation? [9] 2. Write short notes on the following: (a) Thomson equation (b) Polarisation factor (c) Compton eﬀect. 3. Explain the following: (a) Measurement of X-ray intensity (b) Stereographic projection (c) Resolving power of a Camera. [6] [5] [5] [5] [6] [5]

4. Deﬁne a powder photograph? How are powder photographs classiﬁed? Explain in detail. [16] 5. (a) What are back reﬂection Focussing Cameras? What is the principle involved in it? Draw a neat sketch. (b) Explain the reasons for Background radiation in Powder Camera method. [8+8] 6. What is the principle involved in transmission Laue method? With a neat sketch explain the transmission Laue method? [16] 7. With an example discuss the structure determination in detail. 8. Compare and Contrast Coherent and Incoherent radiation. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16] [16]

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Code No: RR411812

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 X-RAY METALLOGRAPHY (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. With a neat sketch, describing the parts of X-ray tube, design a method for X-ray production. [16] 2. Derive structure factor (F) for the following cases: (a) Unit cell containing only one atom at the origin (b) Base centered cell (c) Body centered cell. 3. (a) With a neat sketch, explain transmission Laue method. (b) With a neat sketch, explain back-reﬂection Laue method. 4. Write short notes on the following: (a) High temperature Debye-Scherrer Camera. (b) Low Temperature Debye-Scherrer Camera. [8+8] [8+8] [6] [5] [5]

5. (a) What are back reﬂection Focussing Cameras? What is the principle involved in it? Draw a neat sketch. (b) Explain the reasons for Background radiation in Powder Camera method. [8+8] 6. A back reﬂection Laue photograph is made of an Aluminum crystal with a crystal to ﬁlm distance of 3 Cm. When viewed from the X-ray source, the Laue spots have the following x, y coordinates, measured (in Inches) from the center to the ﬁlm. X +0.13 +0.28 +0.51 +074 -0.76 -0.79 -0.92 Y -1.61 -1.21 -0.69 -0.31 -1.41 -0.95 -0.26

Plot these spots on a sheet of graph paper. By means of a Greninger chart, determine the orientation of the crystal, plot all poles of the form {100}, {110} and {111} , and give the coordinates of the {100} poles in terms of latitude and longitude measured from the center of the projection. [16] 1 of 2

Code No: RR411812

Set No. 4

7. What is the basic principle involved in crystal structure determination? Explain various steps involved in determination of unknown structures. [16] 8. Write short notes on the following: (a) Measurement of line position (b) Subsurface measurements. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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