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Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 COMPUTATIONAL AERODYNAMICS-II (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Consider a constant - strength source distribution along the x-axis at x1 =0.5 and x2 =0.75 with the source strength σ =0.2 (SI units).Obtain the u and w components of the velocity at a point P(1.5,0.5). What if there were a point source of the same strength at x2 ? Derive the formula used. [6+4+6] 2. Consider a constant - strength Vortex distribution along the x-axis at x1 =0.15 and x2 =0.65 with the vortex strength Γ =0.35 (SI units).Obtain the u and w components of the velocity at a point P(0.5,0.75). What if there were a point vortex of the same strength at x1 ? Derive the formula used. [6+4+6] 3. A supersonic nozzle with a test section Mach number of 1.503 and Test section height of 27 cm is desired to be designed with a single-step of characteristic methods .Make use of gas tables and graph sheets. Start with M=1.0.Show the nozzle boundaries / contour with a neat diagram. Illustrate the procedure adopted. [10+6] 4. Show that the compatibility relations below

∂ ∂η ∂ ∂ξ

(v − θ) = 0 (v + θ) = 0

∂u ∂y

**are derivable from
**

∂v (u2 − a2 ) ∂u + uv ∂u + ∂u + (v 2 − a2 ) ∂y = 0 ∂x ∂y ∂x 2D, inviscid, potential ﬂow of a ﬂuid.

− ∂u = 0 with usual notations in ∂y [16]

5. Deﬁne the term ‘Transonic Parameter’. As an example consider that an airfoil with 12% thickness ratio has critical Cp of 0.62 at about 25% of the chord at M∞ = 0.80.If now an airfoil with the same camber and thickness distribution having a thickness ratio of 9% is kept in the ﬂow with same Mach number, what could be the status of Cp at the same location of the chord. Support your answer with sketches. What if the earlier airfoil were kept at a higher Mach number .Comment on the ﬂow ﬁeld thus resulting, supported with sketches. [2+6+4+4]

2 2 6. Obtain the TSP equation [(1 − M∞ )ϕx − (γ + 1)M∞ ϕ2 /2]x + ϕyy + ϕzz = 0 in 3D x ,irrotational isentropic ﬂow. [16]

7. Show that Prandtl BL equations for ﬂow over a ﬂat plate aligned with a steady uniform free stream of a viscous ﬂuid can be put in the form given as; u ∂u + v ∂u = ∂x ∂y ν ∂ u ∂u + ∂v = 0 From above eqs. obtain the Blasius equation .What are the ∂y 2 ∂x ∂y boundary conditions under these transformed co-ordinates. [6+8+2] 1 of 2

2

Code No: RR412103

Set No. 1

un

**8. One method of obtaining approximations to the wave equation is due to Euler, given
**

j+1 below; j ∆t j + c ∆x = 0 . The above scheme is known to be unconditionally unstable. It is suggested that you replace the forward space diﬀerencing by a backward space diﬀerence for c>0. Work out your scheme , present your result . Is this scheme now stable? [8+8]

un+1 −un

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR412103

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 COMPUTATIONAL AERODYNAMICS-II (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Consider a constant - strength source distribution along the x-axis at x1 =0.5 and x2 =0.75 with the source strength σ =0.25 (SI units).Obtain the u and w components of the velocity at a point P(1.5,0.5). What if there were a point source of the same strength at x1 ? Derive the formula used. [6+4+6] 2. Consider a constant - strength Vortex distribution along the x-axis at x1 =0.15 and x2 =0.67 with the vortex strength Γ =0.35 (SI units).Obtain the u and w components of the velocity at a point P(0.5,0.75). What if there were a point vortex of the same strength at x1 ? Derive the formula used. [6+4+6] 3. A supersonic nozzle with a test section Mach number of 1.571 and Test section height of 31 cm is desired to be designed with a single-step of characteristic methods .Make use of gas tables and graph sheets. Start with M=1.0.Show the nozzle boundaries / contour with a neat diagram. Illustrate the procedure adopted.[10+6] 4. Derive the compatibility relations (ν − θ) = R, (ν + θ) = Q from the full nonlinear equations of motion for a two dimensional, non viscous, irrotational ﬂow as below; (u2 − a2 ) ∂u + uv( ∂u + ∂x ∂y

∂v ) ∂x ∂v ∂v + (v 2 − a2 ) ∂y = 0, ∂x − ∂u ∂y

=0

[16]

5. Deﬁne the term transonic range of ﬂow of a ﬂuid .Describe all aspects of this ﬂow over a cambered airfoil at non zero angle of attack with sketches and plots. Hence explain the terms Critical Mach number, sub-Critical Mach Number and superCritical Mach number. [2+8+6]

2 2 6. Obtain the TSP equation [(1 − M∞ )ϕx − (γ + 1)M∞ ϕ2 /2]x + ϕyy + ϕzz = 0 in 3D x ,irrotational isentropic ﬂow. [16]

7. Show that the BL equations for ﬂow over a ﬂat plate aligned with a steady uniform 2 free stream of a viscous ﬂuid can be put in the form given as; u ∂u + v ∂u = ν ∂ u , ∂x ∂y ∂y 2 ∂u ∂v + ∂y = 0 Hence obtain the Blasius equation .What are the boundary conditions ∂x under these transformed co-ordinates. [6+8+2] 8. Consider the simple Euler scheme for approximating the solution of the wave equation utt = c2 uxx . It is well known that the above scheme is unconditionally unstable. It is suggested that you replace the forward space diﬀerencing by a backward 1 of 2

Code No: RR412103

Set No. 2

space diﬀerence for c > 0. Work out your scheme , present your result . Is this scheme now stable? [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR412103

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 COMPUTATIONAL AERODYNAMICS-II (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Consider a constant - strength source distribution along the x-axis at x1 =0.5 and x2 =0.95 with the source strength σ =0.2 (SI units).Obtain the u and w components of the velocity at a point P(1.5,0.5). What if there were a point source of the same strength at x2 ? Derive the formula used. [6+4+6] 2. Consider a constant - strength Vortex distribution along the x-axis at x1 =0.15 and x2 =0.65 with the vortex strength Γ =0.35 (SI units).Obtain the u and w components of the velocity at a point P(0.5,0.75). What if there were a point vortex of the same strength at x2 ? Derive the formula used. [6+4+6] 3. A supersonic nozzle with a test section Mach number of 1.571 and Test section height of 24cm is desired to be designed with a single-step of characteristic methods .Make use of gas tables and graph sheets. Start with M=1.0.Show the nozzle boundaries / contour with a neat diagram. Illustrate the procedure adopted.[10+6] 4. Derive the compatibility relations for a supersonic ﬂow ﬁeld from the equations describing 2D, nonviscous ,irrotational ﬂow; (u2 − a2 ) ∂u + uv ∂x

∂u ∂y

+

∂u ∂x

∂v + (v 2 − a2 ) ∂y = 0

∂u ∂y

−

∂u ∂y

=0

[16]

5. Deﬁne the term transonic range of ﬂow of a ﬂuid .Describe all aspects of this ﬂow over a cambered airfoil at non zero angle of attack with sketches and plots. Explain the shock wave-boundary layer interaction and its eﬀect on the lift and drag of the shape and conﬁguration under consideration. [2+6+4+4]

2 2 6. Obtain the TSP equation [(1 − M∞ )ϕx − (γ + 1)M∞ ϕ2 /2]x + ϕyy + ϕzz = 0 in 3D x ,irrotational isentropic ﬂow. [16]

7. The Prandtl BL equations for ﬂow over a ﬂat plate aligned with a steady uniform 2 free stream of a viscous ﬂuid can be put in the form given as; u ∂u + v ∂u = ν ∂ u ∂u + ∂x ∂y ∂y 2 ∂x ∂v = 0 From above eqs. obtain the Blasius equation 2f ′′′ +ﬀ ′ = 0 with appropriate co ∂y ordinate transformation.What are the boundary conditions under these transformed co-ordinates. [14+2] 8. One method of obtaining approximations to the wave equation is due to Euler, given

j+1 below; j ∆t j + c ∆x = 0. The above scheme is known to be unconditionally unstable. It is suggested that you replace the forward space diﬀerencing by a ∆t backward space diﬀerence for r ≤ 0 . where r = c ∆x Work out your scheme , present your result . Is this scheme now stable? [8+8]

un+1 −un

un

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1 of 1

Code No: RR412103

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 COMPUTATIONAL AERODYNAMICS-II (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Consider a constant - strength source distribution along the x-axis at x1 =0.5 and x2 =0.75 with the source strength σ =0.25 (SI units).Obtain the u and w components of the velocity at a point P(1.5,0.5). What if there were a point source of the same strength at x2 ? Derive the formula used. [6+4+6] 2. Consider a constant strength vortex panel AB forming a part of an airfoil section located at A(x1 =0.5,y1 =0.11) ,B(x2 = 0.75,y2 =0.10). Obtain the induced velocity at P(0.97,0.45), in panel coordinates and Global coordinates.Explain the procedure for proceeding further in evaluating ﬂow over this airfoil. [6+4+6] 3. A supersonic nozzle with a test section Mach number of 1.571 and Test section height of 26 cm is desired to be designed with a single-step of characteristic methods .Make use of gas tables and graph sheets. Start with M=1.0.Show the nozzle boundaries / contour with a neat diagram. Illustrate the procedure adopted.[10+6] 4. The diﬀerential equation for potential function φ is expressed in two dimensions is 2 2 ∂2φ (a2 − φ2 ) ∂ φ − 2φx φy ∂x∂y + a2 − φ2 ∂ φ = 0 , where a and φ are speed of sound x ∂x2 y ∂y 2 and velocity potential function respectively. Examine, the condition which makes this equation hyperbolic .Hence deﬁne characteristics and develop the compatibility relations. Make use of sketches and illustrations. [4+6+6] 5. Deﬁne the term transonic range of ﬂow of a ﬂuid .Describe all aspects of this ﬂow over a symmetrical airfoil at positive angle of attack with sketches and plots. Explain the shock wave-boundary layer interaction and its eﬀect on the lift and drag of the shape and conﬁguration under consideration. [2+6+4+4] 6. Consider a uniform velocity ﬁeld in an irrotational isentropic ﬂow in which is kept a thin planar object. Taking the perturbation velocity components to be small as compared with the free stream velocity, develop the small perturbation equation; ∂v u 2 2 (1 − M∞ ) ∂u + ∂y = M∞ (γ + 1) U ∂u . What is the signiﬁcance of this equation in ∂x ∂x aerodynamics? [12+4] 7. The Prandtl BL equations for ﬂow over a ﬂat plate aligned with a steady uniform 2 free stream of a viscous ﬂuid can be put in the form given as; u ∂u + v ∂u = ν ∂ u ∂x ∂y ∂y 2 ∂u + ∂v = 0 From above eqs. obtain the Blasius equation 2f ′′′ +ﬀ ′ = 0 after resorting ∂x ∂y to suitable co-ordinate transformation.What are the boundary conditions under these transformed co-ordinates. [14+2]

1 of 2

Code No: RR412103

Set No. 4

8. Take the 1-D wave equation ϕtt −c2 ϕxx = 0 . Make use of the one step simple Euler Explicit methods .Now explain how will you improve the stability of the scheme by adopting Lax method. Explain the stability of the techniques. [10+6] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

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