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Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 SPACE TECHNOLOGY (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Explain with sketches the details and functioning of a laboratory type liquid rocket motor. What are the special requirements in this type of rocket motors? [10+6] 2. Derive the equation of thrust developed by a static rocket motor from the application of momentum equation. Develop an expression for the Speciﬁc Impulse of the rocket. Make use of sketches for the purpose of illustrations. [6+6+4] 3. Prove that the rocket equation Vf = go Isp ln Mo −g(cos θ)tb for an accelerating ﬂight Mb with its longitudinal axis inclined at angle θ at its mass centre with the vertical. Considering that the mass of the rocket reduces every instance of the burning of the fuel and that this results in instantaneous increment in the fwd. velocity. Mb is the burn out velocity ,(cos θ) is the integrated average value of cos θ and tb is the burning period. [16] 4. Consider a sounding rocket of initial mass M0 in vertical ﬂight under the action of the forces of gravity and thrust. Take the mass ﬂow rate of the burnt out fuel to be a constant.Develop the expressions for burn out velocity Vbo , burn out altitude Hbo and maximum altitude Hmax . Make appropriate assumptions if any. [10+4+2] 5. Diﬀerentiate between a Rocket and a Missile. In how many ways you can classify present day missiles from German V-2 missile of WWII onwards. Illustrate with examples preferably with the names given to such missiles . How does the Prithvi missile diﬀer from Agni missile? Provide as much details as you can. [2+6+8] 6. Describe the motion of our planet Earth around the Sun. Show that the path of motion is elliptical. Refer the motion of Earth in polar co ordinates with the origin at the mass center of the Sun. [16] 7. Determine from the equation of the orbit of a space vehicle the velocity required to obtain a circular orbit. Determine this velocity for an earth satellite. [8+8] 8. The equation of orbit of a space vehicle is known as the standard form of a conic p section in polar coordinate and is written in its general form as r = 1+e cos(θ−C) , where p=h2 / k2 , e =A(h2 / k2 ) and C is simply a phase angle with it. Work out an expression each for KE and PE associated with a satellite from this equation. Explain your observations on the sum total of KE and PE. [12+4] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1

Code No: RR412108

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 SPACE TECHNOLOGY (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Explain main features of a solid rocket motor with a sketch. Provide details of the propellant composition and the nozzle. [12+4] 2. Consider a rocket engine burning LOX and LH; the combustion chamber pressure and temperature are 25 atm 3517 K, respectively. The area of the rocket nozzle throat is 0.1 sq m. The area of the exit is designed so that the exit pressure exactly equals the ambient pressure at a standard altitude of 29 km. Assume γ=1.22 for the gas mixture and the molecular weight M =16 . At a standard altitude of 29 km, calculate the throat area and the exit Mach number. [8+8] 3. A rocket with its initial mass M0 is in an accelerating ﬂight with its longitudinal axis inclined at angle θ? at its mass centre with the vertical. Considering that the mass of the rocket reduces every instance of the burning of the fuel and that this results in instantaneous increment in the fwd. velocity, develop the rocket equation Vb = goIsp ln Mo − g(cos θ)tb ,where Mb is the burn out velocity and (cos θ) is the Mb integrated average value of cos θ and tb is the burning period. [16] 4. A single stage rocket has exhaust velocity of 3,100 m/s. It has a payload of 450 kgm, structural load(including engine controls and instruments) of 900 kgm and total initial mass of 6750 kgm. Calculate the velocity to which the payload could be accelerated in a zero gravity ﬁeld. Derive the rocket equation used for the performance. [8+8] 5. What are the general considerations for the estimation of ‘Skin Friction’ over a surface in a supersonic ﬂow? Describe velocity and temperature proﬁles in laminar supersonic ﬂow over an insulated ﬂat plate. Hence describe the ‘Laminar Skin Friction-High Enthalpy Method’ for estimating skin friction drag over a missile. [6+4+6] 6. Describe the motion of our planet Earth around the Sun. Show that the path of motion is elliptical. Refer the motion of Earth in polar co ordinates with the origin at the mass center of the Sun. [16] 7. Find the velocity V0 that is required to place a satellite in orbit around the earth from an altitude of 600 kms above the mean surface of the earth, such that it will reach a maximum altitude of 7000kms. Prove the results used by you. [8+8] 8. The equation of orbit of a space vehicle is known as the standard form of a conic p section in polar coordinate and is written in its general form as r = 1+e cos(θ−C) , where p=h2 / k2 , e =A(h2 / k2 ) and C is simply a phase angle with it. Work out 1 of 2

Code No: RR412108

Set No. 2

an expression each for KE and PE associated with a satellite from this equation. Illustrate your observations on the sum total of KE and PE. [12+4] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR412108

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 SPACE TECHNOLOGY (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Explain with sketches the details and functioning of a liquid rocket motor to be used for demonstration purpose in a laboratory. What are the special requirements in this type of rocket motors? [10+6] 2. Consider a rocket engine where the combustion chamber pressure and temperature are 30 atm and 3756 K,respectively.The area of the rocket nozzle exit is 15 sq.m and is designed so that the net pressure exactly equals ambient pressure at a standard altitude of 25 km .For the gas mixture assume γ=1.18 and the molecular weight M =20. At a standard altitude of 25 km, calculate the exit velocity and throat area.speciﬁc impulse and thrust. [8+8]

Mi 3. Develop the rocket equation Mf = eVb /g0 Isp where the initial mass of a rocket is Mi and Ml , Ms ,Mp respectively are the pay load mass, structural mass and the propellant mass. Isp is the speciﬁc impulse of the rocket. [16]

4. Prove that the performance of a single stage rocket is governed by the exhaust velocity Ve and the ratio of initial to ﬁnal masses m0 /mf . Hence develop the equation for single stage rocket given by Vf = −Ve ln[ε + (1 − ε)π] ,where π and ε are the dimensionless payload ratio and structural ratios respectively. [8+8] 5. Explain the aerodynamics of a missile with rear. controls. Elaborate the action and interaction of ﬂow from the control surfaces on the body of the missile and the main lifting surface. Describe the load factor capability of such a missile. Comment on the static margin in this case. [4+4+4+4] 6. Make use of Lagrangian function and Lagrange?s equation. Develop the equation 2 2 of motion of a mass point in a gravitational ﬁeld as given below; r − h3 + k2 = 0 , ¨ r r where m is the mass of the particle having an instantaneous velocity V and is at a distance r from the centre of the larger body M , h2 and k2 are constants. Proceed now to get the desired equation of the path of the mass point. [8+8] 7. Deﬁne the circular orbit velocity of a satellite launched from earth in terms of mass of the earth, G and the radius of the earth. Prove your result. [16] 8. The equation of orbit of a space vehicle is put in the standard form of a conic p section in polar coordinate and is written in its general form as r = 1+e cos(θ−C) , where p=h2 / k2 , e =A(h2 / k2 ) and C is simply a phase angle with it. Work out an expression each for KE and PE associated with a satellite from this equation. What if KE=PE? [12+4] 1 of 2

Code No: RR412108 ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

Set No. 3

2 of 2

Code No: RR412108

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 SPACE TECHNOLOGY (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Explain with sketches / plots the details and thrust-time characteristics of a MULTIFIN charge in a solid rocket motor. What are your comments? [6+6+4] 2. Consider a rocket engine where the combustion chamber pressure and temperature are 30 atm and 3756 K,respectively.The area of the rocket nozzle exit is 15 sq.m and is designed so that the net pressure exactly equals ambient pressure at a standard altitude of 25 km. for the gas mixture, assume γ=1.18 and the molecular weight M =20. At a standard altitude of 25 km, calculate the speciﬁc impulse and thrust. [8+8] 3. Prove that the rocket equation Vf = go Isp ln Mo −g(cos θ)tb for an accelerating ﬂight Mb with its longitudinal axis inclined at angle θ at its mass centre with the vertical. Considering that the mass of the rocket reduces every instance of the burning of the fuel and that this results in instantaneous increment in the fwd. velocity. Mb is the burn out velocity ,(cos θ) is the integrated average value of cos θ and tb is the burning period. [16] 4. Work out the expression for the maximum height attained by a sounding rocket of initial mass m0 , mass at burn out mf ,engine mass ﬂow rate βand the exhaust velocity Ve , given by Hmax =

2 1 Ve 2 g

ln2

mf m0

g − 2β 2 (mf −m0 )2 − Ve mf ln mf + m0 − mf β 0 [16]

m

5. Deﬁne the term ‘Pressure Foredrag’ of slender bodies. Make use of the complete drag formula of Ward to obtain the pressure foredrag of a slender body with cylindrical base at zero an angle of attack. Explain each term within the double integral. [2+6+8] 6. Start from the Lagrangian function and Lagrange’s equation, develop the equation 4 ˙2 2 of motion of a mass point in a gravitational ﬁeld as given below; m¨−m r rθ + mk = r 3 r2 0, where m is the mass of the particle having an instantaneous velocity V and is at a distance r from the centre of the larger body M. Proceed now to get the desired equation of the path of the mass point. [8+8] 7. Find the velocity V0 that is required to place a satellite in orbit around the earth from an altitude of 600 kms above the mean surface of the earth, such that it will reach a maximum altitude of 7000kms. Prove the results used by you. [8+8] 8. Deﬁne with sketches and plots the following terms; target orbit, parking orbit, transfer orbit, circular orbit, elliptic orbit, equatorial orbit,inclined orbit and geosynchronous orbit . Illustrate all these terms when a satellite is launched from 1 of 2

Code No: RR412108

Set No. 4

Satish Dhawan Spaceport in India and Corou in French Guyana . Detail out the salient features of these space centres as well. [8+6+2] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

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