# Code No: RR412112

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 APPROXIMATE METHODS IN STRUCTURAL MECHANICS (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. Calculate by Rayleigh-Ritz method displacement at node 2 of a vertical bar of length ‘L’, supported at its upper end, due to its self weight of ‘w’ N/m of length. Comment on the validity of stress distribution based on this displacement ﬁeld. As shown in ﬁgure 1 [16]

Figure 1: 2. (a) A solid circular shaft and a thin tube of the same material and same weight are subjected to twist. If max. stress in both is the same, what is the ratio of their strain energies ? (b) Neglecting strain energy due to axial deformation, calculate strain energy and displacements at D and J of the 2-cylinder crank shaft, with each segment of length ‘L’. As shown in ﬁgure 2 [6+10]

Figure 2: 3. (a) For a given column and speciﬁed axial load, which end conditions will result in maximum Critical buckling load ? (b) Calculate the critical load for stable equilibrium of the combination of two rods AB and BC, connected with a spring as shown in ﬁgure 3. Assume A and C remain along a vertical line. [6+10] 1 of 3

Code No: RR412112

Set No. 1

Figure 3: 4. (a) Distinguish between collocation method and Galerkin method. (b) Calculate the maximum deﬂection in a cantilever beam, subjected to udl of ‘w’ N/m over its length, by 1-term collocation method and 1-term Galerkin method. Compare the results.As shown in ﬁgure 4 [6+10]

Figure 4: 5. (a) Derive ﬁnite diﬀerence expression for d3 y/dx3 using i. forward diﬀerences, ii. central diﬀerences and iii. backward diﬀerences.

[3 x 3]

(b) Calculate maximum deﬂection by ﬁnite diﬀerence method of a simply supported beam of length L, subjected to a udl of w N/m, choosing four equal divisions along the beam. Calculate percentage error, compared to the exact solution.As shown in ﬁgure 5 [7]

Figure 5: 6. (a) Explain diﬀerent methods of applying boundary conditions in ﬁnite element analysis

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Code No: RR412112

Set No. 1

Figure 6: (b) Calculate displacements at nodes 2, 3 and 4 for the spring system shown in ﬁgure6, when node 1 is ﬁxed and node 5 is given a displacement of 5mm. [6+10] 7. (a) Stiﬀness matrices of four diﬀerent elements A, B, C and D are given by 2 −2 3 −3 4 −4 [K]A = 104 ; [K]B = 104 ; [K]C = 104 −2 2 −3 3 −4 4 5 −5 104 −5 5 Assemble element stiﬀness matrices if the truss element connectivity is i. A (1-2) ; B (2-3) ; C (3-4) and D (4-1) ii. A (1-2) ; B (1-3) ; C (2-3) and D (3-4) iii. A (1-2) ; B (2-3) ; C (2-4) and D (3-4) Draw the truss conﬁgurations of the above three combinations. (b) If a truss has 2 members A (1-2) and B (2-3) whose stiﬀness matrices are given 2 −2 4 −4 by, [K]A = 104 ; [K]B = 104 −2 2 −4 4 calculate nodal displacements for a load of 100 N applied at node 2 along the direction 1-2. Assume nodes 1 and 3 are ﬁxed. [8+8] 8. Calculate displacements and stress in a triangular plate, ﬁxed along edge AC and subjected to concentrated loads at its end B. Assume E = 70,000 MPa, t = 10 mm and ν = 0.3.As shown in ﬁgure7 [16]

; [K]D =

Figure 7:

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Code No: RR412112

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 APPROXIMATE METHODS IN STRUCTURAL MECHANICS (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. Calculate by Rayleigh-Ritz method displacement at mid-point of a vertical bar, supported at both ends, due to its self weight. Let the weight be ‘w’ N/m of length. Comment on the validity of stress distribution based on this displacement ﬁeld.As shown in ﬁgure 1 [16]

Figure 1: 2. (a) A solid circular shaft and a thin tube of the same material and same weight are subjected to twist. If max. stress in both is the same, what is the ratio of their strain energies ? (b) Neglecting strain energy due to axial deformation, calculate strain energy and displacement at D of the crank shaft, with AB=BC=CD=DE=EF=FG=L.As shown in ﬁgure 2 [6+10]

Figure 2: 3. Calculate deﬂections at points A, B and C of the combination of beams shown below ﬁgure 3, if the points B and C do not come in contact with beam DE. Assume I = 0.4m4 and E = 200 GPa. Load applied is ‘P’ at B and C. [16] 4. (a) Discuss basic diﬀerences between Rayleigh-Ritz method and weighted residual methods. 1 of 3

Code No: RR412112

Set No. 2

Figure 3: (b) Indicate any one admissible displacement ﬁeld with 1-term and 2-term options, suitable for the following example, for use in each of the three weighted residual methods and discuss their validity. As shown in ﬁgure 4 [6+10]

Figure 4: 5. (a) Derive ﬁnite diﬀerence expression for d3 y/dx3 using i. forward diﬀerences, ii. central diﬀerences and iii. backward diﬀerences.

[3 x 3]

(b) Calculate maximum deﬂection by ﬁnite diﬀerence method of a simply supported beam of length L, subjected to a udl of w N/m, choosing four equal divisions along the beam. Calculate percentage error, compared to the exact solution.As shown in ﬁgure 5 [7]

Figure 5: 6. (a) Explain diﬀerent methods of applying boundary conditions in ﬁnite element analysis (b) Calculate displacements at nodes 2, 3 and 4 for the spring system shown in ﬁgure6, when node 1 is ﬁxed and node 5 is given a displacement of 5mm. [6+10] 7. (a) What are coupled and uncoupled degrees of freedom ? 2 of 3

Code No: RR412112

Set No. 2

Figure 6: (b) Calculate the maximum deﬂection and reactions in a cantilever beam with a concentrated load ‘P’ at the free end of the beam, if its free end is supported by a spring of stiﬀness ‘k’. As shown in ﬁgure 7 [4+12]

Figure 7: 8. (a) Derive elasticity matrix of a plane stress element, from basic principles. (b) In a plane strain problem, if σx = 150 N/mm2 , σy = -100 N/mm2 ,σE = 200000N/mm2 and ν=0.3, determine the value of stress σz . (c) A long rod is subjected to loading and a temperature increase of 300 C. The total strain at a point is measured to be 1.2×10−5 . If E=200 GPa and α = 12×10−6 /0 C, determine the stress at the point. [8+4+4]

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Code No: RR412112

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 APPROXIMATE METHODS IN STRUCTURAL MECHANICS (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Comment on the statement “All engineering solutions are approximate”. [4] (b) Determine the displacements of nodes 2 and 3 of the spring system shown below ﬁgure 1, by potential energy method. [12]

Figure 1: 2. (a) Explain the terms - resilience, proof resilience and modulus of resilience. (b) Calculate the reactions at the three supports of a continuous beam using Castigliano’s theorem.As shown in ﬁgure 2 [6+10]

Figure 2: 3. (a) What is meant by elastic instability? What factors are responsible for it? (b) Calculate minimum length ‘L’ for stable equilibrium of the rod shown in ﬁgure 3 [6+10] 4. (a) Distinguish between collocation method and Galerkin method. (b) Calculate the maximum deﬂection in a cantilever beam, subjected to udl of ‘w’ N/m over its length, by 1-term collocation method and 1-term Galerkin method. Compare the results.As shown in ﬁgure 4 [6+10] 5. (a) Suggest boundary conditions in terms of derivatives of normal deﬂection ‘w’ in a square plate with its four edges clamped and subjected to subjected to uniform bending load over the entire plate. 1 of 3

Code No: RR412112

Set No. 3

Figure 3:

Figure 4: (b) Calculate deﬂections in a propped cantilever of length ‘L’ by ﬁnite diﬀerence method, subjected to udl of ‘w’ N/m, choosing four equal divisions along the beam.As shown in ﬁgure 5 [4+12]

Figure 5: 6. Determine the nodal displacements, element stresses and reactions of the truss, shown below ﬁgure 6, by FEM. Assume A= 100 mm2 , L = 2 m and E = 200GPa for all the three members. [16] 7. (a) Stiﬀness matrices of four diﬀerent elements A, B, C and D are given by 2 −2 3 −3 4 −4 [K]A = 104 ; [K]B = 104 ; [K]C = 104 −2 2 −3 3 −4 4 5 −5 104 −5 5 Assemble element stiﬀness matrices if the truss element connectivity is i. A (1-2) ; B (2-3) ; C (3-4) and D (4-1) ii. A (1-2) ; B (1-3) ; C (2-3) and D (3-4) iii. A (1-2) ; B (2-3) ; C (2-4) and D (3-4) Draw the truss conﬁgurations of the above three combinations. (b) If a truss has 2 members A (1-2) and B (2-3) whose stiﬀness matrices are given 2 −2 4 −4 by, [K]A = 104 ; [K]B = 104 −2 2 −4 4 2 of 3

; [K]D =

Code No: RR412112

Set No. 3

Figure 6: calculate nodal displacements for a load of 100 N applied at node 2 along the direction 1-2. Assume nodes 1 and 3 are ﬁxed. [8+8] 8. (a) If a displacement ﬁeld is described by u = 3x2 -2xy+6y2 ; v = 4x2 +6xy-8y2 ,determine normal strains and shear strain at point x = -1 and y = 1. (b) What are the diﬀerent types of elasticity matrices used for 2-D elements ? Give one example for each type. Derive any one of them from Hooke’s law. [4+12]

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Code No: RR412112

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 APPROXIMATE METHODS IN STRUCTURAL MECHANICS (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Comment on the statement “All engineering solutions are approximate”. [4] (b) Determine the displacements of nodes 2 and 3 of the spring system shown below ﬁgure 1, by potential energy method. [12]

Figure 1: 2. (a) A solid circular shaft and a thin tube of the same material and same weight are subjected to twist. If max. stress in both is the same, what is the ratio of their strain energies ? (b) Calculate load shared by the three bars AD, BD and CD, using Castiglianos theorem. Take BD = L. Assume same moment of inertia for all the beams.As shown in ﬁgure 2 [6+10]

Figure 2: 3. (a) Which factors inﬂuence Critical buckling load in a column ? (b) What is the eﬀective length w.r.t. maximum buckling load in a column. Show the critical length, by simple sketches of deformed shape, for the column end conditions - ﬁxed-free, ﬁxed-ﬁxed, hinged-hinged and ﬁxed-hinged. [6+10] 1 of 3

Code No: RR412112

Set No. 4

4. (a) Distinguish between collocation method and Galerkin method. (b) Calculate the maximum deﬂection in a cantilever beam, subjected to concentrated load ‘P’ at its free end, by 1-term collocation method and 1-term Galerkin method. Compare the results.As shown in ﬁgure 3 [6+10]

Figure 3: 5. (a) Derive ﬁnite diﬀerence expression for d3 y/dx3 using i. forward diﬀerences, ii. central diﬀerences and iii. backward diﬀerences.

[3 x 3]

(b) Calculate maximum deﬂection by ﬁnite diﬀerence method of a simply supported beam of length L, subjected to a udl of w N/m, choosing four equal divisions along the beam. Calculate percentage error, compared to the exact solution.As shown in ﬁgure 4 [7]

Figure 4: 6. For the eight bar truss shown in ﬁgure 5, determine the displacements of all the nodes and stresses in all the elements, assuming that nodes 1 and 2 are ﬁxed and load P is applied at node ‘A’. (Hint : Use symmetry conditions wherever applicable) [16] 7. Two beams AB of length ‘2L’ and BC of length ‘L’ are connected as shown in ﬁgure 6. Calculate the displacements and reactions, when a concentrated load ‘P’ is applied at B at an angle of 450 to BC. [16] 8. (a) If a rectangular plate is modeled by i. a rectangular element, ii. an assembly of two triangular elements and iii. an assembly of four triangular elements, what are the diﬀerences in the assembled stiﬀness matrix ?

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Code No: RR412112

Set No. 4

Figure 5:

Figure 6: (b) Which polynomials do you suggest for representing displacement ﬁeld, for the following cases i. ii. iii. iv. Constant strain 2-D axisymmetric triangular element. Linear strain 2-D plane stress quadrilateral element . Triangular plate bending element . Triangular thin shell element.

[6+10]

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