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Lime Kiln Principles And Operations Lime Kiln Principles And Operations
Terry N. Adams Terry N. Adams
Technical Consultant Technical Consultant
Seattle WA Seattle WA
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Outline Outline
Lime kiln equipment Lime kiln equipment
flames, chains, refractories flames, chains, refractories
product coolers, external mud dryers product coolers, external mud dryers
Lime kiln energy efficiency Lime kiln energy efficiency
Alternative fuels for lime kilns Alternative fuels for lime kilns
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Exterior Of A Lime Reburning Kiln Exterior Of A Lime Reburning Kiln
Burner Burner
Flue gas Flue gas
to the ID fan to the ID fan
Reburn lime Reburn lime
discharge discharge
Lime Lime
mud mud
slurry slurry
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Interior Of A Lime Reburning Kiln Interior Of A Lime Reburning Kiln
Dam Dam
Flame Flame
Refractory Refractory
Lifters Lifters Chains Chains
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Rotary Kiln Flame Shapes Rotary Kiln Flame Shapes
Long lazy Long lazy
flame flame
Short bushy Short bushy
flame flame
Compact Compact
medium medium- -
length flame length flame
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Rotary Kiln Chain Systems Rotary Kiln Chain Systems
Low Low- -density density
curtain chain curtain chain
High High- -density density
curtain chain curtain chain
Garland Garland
chain chain
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Lime Kiln Chain Systems Lime Kiln Chain Systems
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Rotary Kiln Refractory Systems Rotary Kiln Refractory Systems
Single Single- -Brick System Brick System
Two Two- -Brick System Brick System
Refractory
bricks
Refractory
bricks
Insulating
bricks
Steel Shell Steel Shell
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Refractory Wastage Refractory Wastage
Most refractory damage due to wastage Most refractory damage due to wastage
Smooth, Smooth, bird bath bird bath refractory thinning refractory thinning
Due to high temperature chemical attack Due to high temperature chemical attack
Protect refractory with a coating of lime Protect refractory with a coating of lime
Operate kiln for lower refractory face temp Operate kiln for lower refractory face temp
Low primary air flow, avoid flame impingement Low primary air flow, avoid flame impingement
Cold Cold- -end excess O end excess O
2 2
> 1 > 1 % %
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Refractory Damage Photos Refractory Damage Photos
Refractory Wastage Refractory Collapse
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Lifters And Discharge Dams Lifters And Discharge Dams
Lifters
Cold end
of kiln
Lifters
Lime bed
Hot end
of kiln
Dam
Discharge Dam
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Rotary Kiln Product Coolers Rotary Kiln Product Coolers
Satellite Product Coolers Satellite Product Coolers
Induced Induced
secondary air secondary air
Reburned lime Reburned lime
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External Lime Mud Drying External Lime Mud Drying
Electrostatic
precipitator
Precipitator Precipitator
catch catch
Kiln
Cyclone Cyclone
Gas Gas
Mud screw Mud screw
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Fans, Draft, And O Fans, Draft, And O
2 2
PA fan only for flame shaping PA fan only for flame shaping
ID fan is main air moving fan ID fan is main air moving fan
Use ID fan to control O Use ID fan to control O
2 2
Often limits production capacity Often limits production capacity
Wet scrubber is main flow restriction Wet scrubber is main flow restriction
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Lime Kiln Heat Rate Lime Kiln Heat Rate
Heat rate is a measure of energy efficiency Heat rate is a measure of energy efficiency
Units are MM Btu/ton CaO or GJ/ Units are MM Btu/ton CaO or GJ/tonne tonne CaO CaO
Often stated as MM Btu/ton Often stated as MM Btu/ton product product
Typical range Typical range
5 to 9 MM Btu/ton CaO 5 to 9 MM Btu/ton CaO
5.8 to 10.5 GJ/ 5.8 to 10.5 GJ/tonne tonne CaO CaO
Lower is better Lower is better
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Lime Kiln Energy Balance Components Lime Kiln Energy Balance Components
Drying Drying
Calcining : CaCO Calcining : CaCO
3 3
+ heat + heat CaO + CO CaO + CO
2 2
Losses Losses
Heat loss through shell Heat loss through shell
Heat loss in hot lime product Heat loss in hot lime product
Heat loss with gas and dust exiting at cold end Heat loss with gas and dust exiting at cold end
A portion of fuel higher heating value is unavailable A portion of fuel higher heating value is unavailable
HHV is measured and reported HHV is measured and reported
Only Lower Heating Value (LHV) is actually available Only Lower Heating Value (LHV) is actually available
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Example for Kiln Heat Rate Example for Kiln Heat Rate
KILN PARAMETERS
Fuel Nat Gas
Production rate 250 TPD
Mud dry solids 78%
Kiln exit O2 3%
Lime availability 85%
Dust loss 18%
Product temp 600F
Cold end gas temp 600F
Shell Heat Loss 11.4 MM Btu/hr
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Lime Kiln Heat Rate Lime Kiln Heat Rate
Overall Heat Rate = 8.4 MM Btu/ton CaO Overall Heat Rate = 8.4 MM Btu/ton CaO
Contribution Heat rate Fraction Remedy
Calcining reaction 2.82 34% No change possible
Heat to evap water 1.75 21% Increase mud dry solids
Heat in exit gas 1.50 18% Decrease exit gas temp
Shell heat loss 1.10 13% Insulating refractory
LHV/HHV loss 0.82 10% Change fuel
Heat in product 0.29 3% Product coolers
Heat in dust 0.11 1% Improve chain system
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Caution With Heat Rate Calculation Caution With Heat Rate Calculation
Gives instantaneous value Gives instantaneous value
Doesn Doesn t include down time, upsets t include down time, upsets
Good to assess where improvements needed Good to assess where improvements needed
Some changes affect more than one parameter Some changes affect more than one parameter
Refractory changes shell loss & exit temp Refractory changes shell loss & exit temp
Mud solids affects evaporation loss and exit temp Mud solids affects evaporation loss and exit temp
Fuel changes LHV/HHV, exit gas temp, and dust loss Fuel changes LHV/HHV, exit gas temp, and dust loss
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Impact of Mud Dry Solids on Heat Rate Impact of Mud Dry Solids on Heat Rate
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
60 65 70 75 80 85 90
Lime Mud Dry Solids, %
H
e
a
t

R
a
t
e
,

G
J
/
t
o
n
n
e
C
a
O
Mill data
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Major Heat Rate Improvements Major Heat Rate Improvements
KILN PARAMETERS Base Refractory Fuel Type Chains
Fuel Nat Gas Nat Gas Fuel Oil Nat Gas
Production rate, TPD 250 250 250 250
Mud dry solids 78% 78% 78% 78%
Kiln exit O2 3% 3% 3% 3%
Lime availability 85% 85% 85% 85%
Dust loss 18% 12% 18% 18%
Product temp, F 600 600 600 600
Cold end gas temp, F 600 475 500 525
Shell Heat Loss, MM Btu/hr 11.4 6.3 11.4 11.4
Heat Rate, MM Btu/ton 8.4 7.0 7.4 8.0
Change -17% -11% -4%
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Minor Heat Rate Improvements Minor Heat Rate Improvements
KILN PARAMETERS Base Excess air Dust Inerts
Fuel Nat Gas Nat Gas Nat Gas Nat Gas
Production rate, TPD 250 250 250 250
Mud dry solids 78% 78% 78% 78%
Kiln exit O2 3% 2% 3% 3%
Lime availability 85% 85% 85% 92%
Dust loss 18% 18% 12% 18%
Product temp, F 600 600 600 600
Cold end gas temp, F 600 575 600 600
Shell Heat Loss, MM Btu/hr 11.4 11.4 11.4 11.4
Heat Rate, MM Btu/ton 8.4 8.1 8.2 8.2
Change -3% -3% -2%
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Common Lime Reburning Kiln Fuels Common Lime Reburning Kiln Fuels
Nat gas and fuel oil are most common Nat gas and fuel oil are most common
Fuel oil is more efficient, gives higher capacity Fuel oil is more efficient, gives higher capacity
Petroleum coke Petroleum coke
Many applications, low cost Many applications, low cost
Sulfur and metals can be high Sulfur and metals can be high
Thermal NOx can be high Thermal NOx can be high
Improves heat rate Improves heat rate
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Other Solid/Liquid Kiln Fuels Other Solid/Liquid Kiln Fuels
Wood and bark powder Wood and bark powder
NPEs can be high NPEs can be high
Lime purge & makeup needed to control NPEs Lime purge & makeup needed to control NPEs
Lignin Lignin
Sulfur can be high Sulfur can be high
Pyrolysis oils Pyrolysis oils
Not currently used, pH & Not currently used, pH & possible issues possible issues
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Gasification Fuels Gasification Fuels
Coal, wood and other fuels can be gasified Coal, wood and other fuels can be gasified
Fuel Fuel- -gas can be used to fire kiln gas can be used to fire kiln
Similar to natural gas Similar to natural gas
Lower inert level, well established technology Lower inert level, well established technology
O On n- -line availability ~ 85% line availability ~ 85%
Wet gasifier feedstocks Wet gasifier feedstocks derate derate kiln kiln
Burner and chains must be designed for fuel Burner and chains must be designed for fuel- -gas gas
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Fuels From the Pulp Mill Fuels From the Pulp Mill
Turpentine or methanol liquid Turpentine or methanol liquid
Stripper Off Stripper Off- -Gas (SOG) Gas (SOG)
Non Non- -condensable gas (NCG) condensable gas (NCG)
Can be wet and sulfur level can be high Can be wet and sulfur level can be high
Tall oil and tall oil pitch Tall oil and tall oil pitch
Can fire 100% tall oil, similar to fuel oil Can fire 100% tall oil, similar to fuel oil
16,000 Btu/lb and 16,000 Btu/lb and low sulfur low sulfur
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How To Improve Lime Kiln Performance How To Improve Lime Kiln Performance
Improve refractory system Improve refractory system
thicker bricks, two thicker bricks, two- -brick system brick system
Switch fuels Switch fuels
Improve chain system Improve chain system
amount for heat transfer, layout for dust amount for heat transfer, layout for dust
Improve ID fan/scrubber Improve ID fan/scrubber
Dry mud externally Dry mud externally