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Optimal conditions for alginate production by Azotobacter vinelandii

Abstract
Alginate production from glucose-based media by Azotobacter vinelandii DSM 576 was studied in the shaken-flask scale at different temperatures ( !"# $%&' shaking speeds ( 5("#5( min )*&' and initial concentrations of yields glucose (*("*(( g l)*&+ ,hen buffering the culture medium' alginate ( & and bacterial biomass were optimi-ed with respect to the ratio and acetate (Ac& and phosphate (.h& concentrations by performing a composite design e/periment+ 0he e/perimental yields were fitted to the only statistically significant factors with mean percentage errors smaller than *51 and * 1' respecti2ely+ 0he resulting empiric models were used to estimate the ratio (**( g-atom % per gatom 3& and concentrations of acetate and phosphate associated with optimum alginate yields ranging from 5 to !!1 of the glucose supplied+ More specifically' phosphate limitation ((+(!5 g l )*& and no acetate addition resulted in ma/imum alginate production with respect to the case of e/cess of phosphate (!+5 g l)*& and acetate (! g l)*&+ 4urther trials permitted us to assess that the alginate yield was hampered by any sodium acetate addition5 howe2er' 6A78 was insensiti2e to .h concentrations and ratios in the ranges (+(!5"*+9 g l)* and 6("**( g-atom % per g-atom 3' respecti2ely' in acetatefree media+

Keywords
• • • • • • Alginate5 bacteria5 Azotobacter vinelandii5 polysaccharide5 optimi-ation5 e/perimental design

Production of microbial alginate in a membrane bioreactor Abstract 0he e/traction of bacterial alginate from fermentation broths of Azotobacter vinelandii 3%:M. <(69 was performed using crossflow filtration through ceramic membranes of 2arying nominal pore si-es ((+ "*+# =m&+ 0he *+# =m membrane did not retain bacteria and was found inade>uate for this application+ 4or the other membranes' the permeation percentage and the (2iscometric& a2erage molecular weight of filtered alginate increased with the membrane pore si-e+ Membrane fouling was obser2ed with all membranes but decreased with the pore si-e+ 0herefore' the (+9 =m membrane was selected for continuous alginate production in a membrane bioreactor+ Alginate production was efficient for about 7( h' membrane fouling subse>uently occurred+ A total of 7+55 g of polysaccharide was reco2ered from the permeate' the production rate ((+(< g h)*&' yield ((+ * g filtered alginate g)* sucrose&' the 2olumetric producti2ity ((+(*# g alginate dm)! h)*& and the specific producti2ity ((+( g alginate g)* cell h)*& being significantly higher than in the batch process+ 0he a2erage molecular weight of alginate 2aried o2er the production period to stabili-e at a 2ery low 2alue (6 kDa& in the later phase of incubation+ Keywords • • • • • Alginate5 Azotobacter vinelandii5 ?/opolysaccharide5 Microfiltration5 Membrane bioreactor .