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Northern India Engineering College, New Delhi

Question Bank – Mobile Computing (ETEC – 407) B. Tech. – Computer Science & Engineering VII Semester
Q1. Differentiate between signal and data.
Ans. The term „data‟ represents message or information where the signal is the representation of data, and it is also termed as information bearing signal. Q2. What is a periodic signal? Ans. In a signal if a particular signal pattern repeats over a time period systematically it is a periodic signal. Q3. What is a “Aperiodic” signal? Ans. In a signal if the same signal pattern does not repeat itself over a time period it is known as „Aperiodic‟ signal. Q4. Give an example for periodic and aperiodic signals. Ans. a. periodic signal  x (t + T) = x(t). where - ∞ < t < + ∞ b. Aperiodic signal  x (t + T) ≠ x(t). Q5. Define wavelength. Ans.The wavelength of a signal represents its distance or range it takes for one cycle. It is denoted as „λ‟. Wavelength λ = c/f the

Q6. What is a bandwidth? Ans. Bandwidth is the range of frequencies and represented as BW = f2 – f1, where f1 – f2 are the first and last frequencies of the signal graph. Q7. Define attenuation. Ans. It is nothing but reduction in signal strength mainly at higher frequency ranges, and at receiving end this attenuated signal has reduced voltage levels. Q8. Draw the diagram of multiplexing. Ans. M U X D E M U X Outputs

One link

Input

1 | Saurabh Gupta, AP - CSE

What are the different kinds of mobility? Ans. and in any form. What is personal communication? Ans The vision for the emerging mobile and personal communication services and system is to enable communication with a person.Northern India Engineering College. What is the principle used in multiplexers? Ans. relies on a dynamic association between the terminal and the user. The principle used in multiplexer is „many to one‟ concept. Tech. a) FDMA b) TDMA c) CDMA Q12. Multiplexing Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) Code Division Multiplexing (CDM) Q11. AP . – Computer Science & Engineering VII Semester Q9. What are the multiple access schemes? Ans. Q13. at any time. Terminal mobility: Terminal mobility systems are characterized by their ability to locate and identify mobile terminals as it moves. at any place. Many inputs are combined as one link or one output from a MUX unit where a DEMUX unit at the receiver reproduces the same many units at the end entity. Personal mobility systems are therefore characterize by their ability to identify 2 | Saurabh Gupta. Q10.CSE . so that the call delivery and billing can be based on a personal identity assigned to a user. Personal mobility: personal mobility on the other hand . and services according to their real time needs. New Delhi Question Bank – Mobile Computing (ETEC – 407) B. What are the important multiplexing schemes? Ans. Terminal mobility is associated with wireless access and requires that the user carry a wireless terminal and be with in a radio coverage area. and to allow the mobile terminal to access telecommunication services from any location-even while it is in motion. this vision for personal communication is also underlines the increasing need for users of communication services to be able to manage their individual calls. Besides providing unlimited reach ability and accessibility.

Q14 . Synchronization between transmitter and receiver is a must.Northern India Engineering College. What are the shapes related to a cell? Ans.Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum b) DSSS – Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum. a) FHSS . But coverage of signal was very accurate with hexagonal shaped cells and in later stage it was taken as standard. Service portability: it refers to the capability of a network to provide subscribed services at the terminal or location designated by the user. The exact services the user can invoke at the designated terminal. Q16. in any location. Ans. Ans. The smallest geographical area covered by wireless communication is said to be a cell. Q18.CSE . and allow end users to originate and receive calls. – Computer Science & Engineering VII Semester end users as they move. It is unused (dummy) frequency inserted with actual spectrum to reduce adjacent channel interference to enhance accuracy. AP . Square c. FHSS Signal is transmitted in random series at fixed time intervals. Define guard band. In early days three shapes namely. Define a cell. DSSS Each bit in transmission can be represented as multiple bits. Q15. of course. BTS is the base transceiver station available in each cellular region. depend on the capability of the terminal and the network serving the terminal. What are the types of spread spectrum and differentiate them? Ans.. Circle b. and to access subscribed telecommunication services on any terminal. Q17. New Delhi Question Bank – Mobile Computing (ETEC – 407) B. Ans. a. 3 | Saurabh Gupta. Tech. Hexagon were suggested for a cell. Define BTS.

Handoff is a principle used to continue the call established in mobile communication. a) Hard hand off. Tech. 1/7. Cells may vary in radius in the ranges (1 km to 30 km). Common values for the frequency reuse factor are 1/3. The elements that determine frequency reuse are the reuse distance and the reuse factor. New Delhi Question Bank – Mobile Computing (ETEC – 407) B. however there is no problem with two cells sufficiently far apart operating on the same frequency. SMS and other mobile phone services to be delivered to them. adjacent cells must utilize different frequencies. It is mobile switching center and it enables connectivity between BTS and PSTN. When the subscriber is towards the cell boundary the signal strength reduces by which the BTS of that cell hand over the call to the next BTS of another cell where the subscriber enters. It is 1/K (or K according to some books) where K is the number of cells which cannot use the same frequencies for transmission. The reuse distance. The aim of mobility management is to track where the subscribers are. 1/4. 4. Mobility management is one of the major functions of a GSM or a UMTS network that allows mobile phones to work. 1/9 and 1/12 (or 3. The frequency reuse factor is the rate at which the same frequency can be used in the network. 7.What is frequency reuse in cellular systems? Ans. What is a MSC? What are the functions of MSC in network and switching subsystem? Ans. D is calculated as where R is the cell radius and N is the number of cells per cluster. Q22.What is known as „handoff' ? Ans. AP . call routing etc. (i) It is like a normal switching node for PSTN fixed telephone and for cellular subscribers of the same network. Q21. The boundaries of the cells can also overlap between adjacent cells and large cells can be divided into smaller cells. b) Soft handoff. – Computer Science & Engineering VII Semester Q19. As described above.Northern India Engineering College.CSE . and authentication. What are the types of handoff? Ans. Q 23. Q20. allowing calls. location updating. (ii) It is possible to have functions like registration. 9 and 12 depending on notation). 4 | Saurabh Gupta. What is mobility management? Ans. The key characteristic of a cellular network is the ability to re-use frequencies to increase both coverage and capacity.

A cluster is a group of cells. A reuse pattern of N/K denotes a further division in frequency among N sector antennas per site. Here. each with different direction. the base station site can serve N different sectors. What is cluster? Ans. because the number of available frequencies is 7. Q 24. New Delhi Question Bank – Mobile Computing (ETEC – 407) B. Tech. Cells with the same number have the same set of frequencies. If the total available bandwidth is B. Figure shows 7-cell cluster. AP . – Computer Science & Engineering VII Semester In case of N sector antennas on the same base station site. 5 | Saurabh Gupta. That is each cell is using 1/7 of available cellular channels.CSE .Northern India Engineering College. and each sector can use a bandwidth of B/NK. No channels are reused with in a cluster. N is typically 3. each cell can only utilize a number of frequency channels corresponding to a bandwidth of B/K. Some current and historical reuse patterns are 3/7 (North American AMPS). and 3/4 (GSM). 6/4 (Motorola NAMPS). so the frequency reuse factor is 1/7.

a) Tele services. – Computer Science & Engineering VII Semester Q25. AP . Tech. Q29.The common control channels (CCCH) are used for call establishment and they are basically one way channels. What are the different managements under GSM protocol architecture? Ans. b) Bearer services. It can use up to 16 slots in one frame with a data rate of 11. (i) Mobility management (ii) Connection management (iii) Radio resource management (iv) Message transfer Q28. What is a TCH/H GSM channel? Ans. · User identification · Call redirection · Call forwarding · Closed user groups · Multiparty Communication c) Supplementary services. List all the services provided by GSM. Q26. New Delhi Question Bank – Mobile Computing (ETEC – 407) B.CSE .4 kbps/sec. What are the common control channels? Ans. What are the services provided by supplementary services? Ans. 6 | Saurabh Gupta.Northern India Engineering College. Q27. It is half rate traffic channel that supports traffic channels with half-rate speech coding.

For establishing a call RCH (Random access channel) is used by mobile station to access the base station involved. What are types of CCCH ? Ans.CSE . AP . It is duplicated control channels known as two way channels and it is useful for signaling and control operations for individual subscribers. What is the function of an AuC? Ans.Northern India Engineering College. What is meant by GPRS? Ans. · card type. The General Packet Radio Service provides packet mode transfer for applications that exhibit traffic patterns such as frequent transmission of small volumes. serial no. It is used to protect user‟s database. 7 | Saurabh Gupta. Q37.What are the information in SIM? Ans. Tech. Q32. New Delhi Question Bank – Mobile Computing (ETEC – 407) B. · Radio subsystem(RSS) · Network & Switching subsystem(NSS) · Operation subsystem(OSS) Q35. What are subsystems in GSM system? Ans. (i) Intra cell Handover (ii) Inter cell Intra BSC Handover (iii) Inter BSC Intra MSC handover (iv)Inter MSC Handover Q34. list of subscribed services · Personal Identity Number(PIN) · Pin Unlocking Key(PUK) · An Authentication Key(KI) Q36. DCCH types: (i) Stand alone dedicated control channel (SDCCH) (ii) The slow associated control channel (SACCH) (iii) The fast associated control channel (FACCH) Q33. What are the four types of handover available in GSM? Ans. – Computer Science & Engineering VII Semester Q30. What is a RCH? Ans. What is DCCH? What are the types of DCCH? Ans. (i) Random access channel (RCH) (ii) Paging channel (PCH) (iii) Access grant channel (AGCH) Q31.The authentication center (AuC) maintains copy of secret key that is stored in each and every subscribers SIM card.

Q41. a. Tech. Circuit switching b. (ii)No. roaming prepaid network functions. Q40. no. delay class and service precedence. of channels available = 40 MHz/60KHz = 666 channels No. Packet switching Q39. of channels per cell = 666/7= 95 channels per cell. What are the three types of switching methods? Ans. (ii) The number of channels per cell. Ans. (i) Service precedence (ii) Delay (iii) Throughput (iv) Reliability Q42. (b) SS7 is used for SMS. If a total of 33 MHz of bandwidth is allocated to a particular cellular system which uses two 25 KHz Simplex channels to provide full Duplex voice. – Computer Science & Engineering VII Semester Q38. For 7 cell reuse pattern Area covered by cluster = 7*50 = 350 square miles. (c) SS7 is also used for trunk signaling. So. (i) Radius of a cell = 4 miles Area covered by cell = 50 square miles. Each cell has a radius of 4 miles and the city has 40 MHz spectrum with a full duplex channel bandwidth of 60KHz. Message switching c. In GPRS the users can specify the QoS profile where the profile determines important things like reliability class.Northern India Engineering College. New Delhi Question Bank – Mobile Computing (ETEC – 407) B. What are the parameters considered for defining QoS in GPRS technology? Ans. (iii) Total number of subscribers that can be served. AP . What is QoS in GPRS.CSE . Compute the number of channels available per cell if the system uses: (i) 4 cell reuse (ii) 7 cell reuse 8 | Saurabh Gupta. of cells in a cluster Available frequency = 40MHz Channel bandwidth = 60 KHz No. Find: (i)The number of cells in the service area. Ans. of channels per cell = total no. What is the use of SS7? Ans. A certain city has an area of 1300 square miles and is covered by a cellular system using a seven cell reuse pattern. (a) In network subsystem the SS7 (signaling system number 7) is used for signaling between different functional entities. of channels/no. of cells required to cover 1300 square miles is 28. Q43. (iii)total number of subscriber that can be served =666*4 = 2664 subscribers.

of channels per cell = 1320/4 = 330 channels For 7 cell reuse No. call routing etc. List the types of encapsulation. New Delhi Question Bank – Mobile Computing (ETEC – 407) B. How does a MN identify that it has moved? Ans. Mobile IP describes two methods: agent advertisement and agent solicitation.CSE . the mobility binding contains the lifetime of the registration which is negotiated during the registration process. Q49. of channels available = 1320 simplex channels. Q48. Scalability and efficiency Q46. taking a packet out of the data part of another packet. – Computer Science & Engineering VII Semester Ans. Encapsulation is the mechanism of taking a packet consisting of packet header and data and putting it into the data part of new packet. Ans. What are the contents of mobility binding? Ans. Mobility binding containing the mobile node‟s home IP address and the current COA. Tech. i. AP . (ii)It is possible to have functions like registration. location updating. Care-or address (COA): The COA defines the current location of the MN from an IP point of view. What are the functions of MSC in network and switching subsystem? Ans. (i) (ii) For 4 cell reuse No. and authentication. Available bandwidth = 33 MHz Channel bandwidth = 25 KHz Total no. Additionally. What is COA? How is it assigned? Ans. There are two different possibilities for the location of the COA:  Foreign agent COA  Co-located COA Q47. which are in fact router discovery methods plus extensions. Ans. Q45. Transparency iv Security iii. The reverse operation. of channels per cell = 1320/7 = 188 channels Q44. State the requirements of mobile IP. is called decapsulation. (i) It is like a normal switching node for PSTN fixed telephone and for cellular subscribers of the same network. Compatibility ii.Northern India Engineering College.  IP-in-IP encapsulation 9 | Saurabh Gupta. Define encapsulation.

Ans. – Computer Science & Engineering VII Semester   Minimal encapsulation Generic routing encapsulation Q50.CSE . (i) Text and images representation. Tech. Q51. Combining the features of auto configuration and neighbor discovery means that every mobile node is able to crate or obtain a topologically correct address for the current point of attachment. What are the different security levels offered by WTLS? Ans. Every IPv6 node can send binding updates to another node. AP . New Delhi Question Bank – Mobile Computing (ETEC – 407) B. so the MN can send its current COA directly to the CN and HA. (ii) User interaction (ii) Navigation (iv) Context management. (i) Privacy (ii) data integrity (iii) authentication Q53. Neighbor discovery as a mechanism mandatory for every node is also included in the specification.  Transport layer  Security layer  Transaction layer  Session layer  Application layer Q52. State the layers in WAP architecture. Ans. (i) session management (iii)content encoding (ii) Capability negotiation Q55. What are the functions of WSP? Ans. Ans. List any 4 basic features of WML. (i) duplicate removed (ii) retransmission (iii) acknowledgements (iv) unique transaction identifier. Every IPv6 node masters address auto configuration – the mechanisms for acquiring a COA are already built in. Q54.     No special mechanisms as add-ons are needed for securing mobile IP registration. State any 4 features of IPv6. 10 | Saurabh Gupta.Northern India Engineering College. special foreign agents are no longer needed to advertise services. How is reliability achieved in WTP? Ans.

Characteristic System type Data speed Launched year Global star LEO 7. New Delhi Question Bank – Mobile Computing (ETEC – 407) B.CSE . Q57. (i) Circuit and packet bearer capability up to 144 kbps. (i) Validity check of user input (ii) Access to device facilities (iii) Local user interaction (iv) Extension to the device software. What is a GEO? Ans.4 kbps 1998 11 | Saurabh Gupta. What are examples of global mobile satellite system? Ans. Q60. The communication satellite (GEO) orbits in geo stationary orbit which is at 36000 km above earth's surface. Compare MEO and LEO satellite types. (i) Iridium (ii) Teledesic (iii) Global star Q61. (iii) Multimedia services. Characteristics MEO Satellite lifetime 10 to 15 years Altitude range 10. Ans. AP . What are the benefits of IMT-2000 over 2G systems? Ans. – Computer Science & Engineering VII Semester Q56.000 to 20. Give three specifications of Global star and Iridium systems. (ii) User authentication and ciphering. The satellite revolves with same speed as that of the earth (1 Rev / day) that revolves around sun.2 kbps 1999 Iridium LEO 2.Northern India Engineering College.trip delay 40 to 80 msec LEO 4 to 8 years 500 to 2000 km 5 to 10 msec Q59. Tech. Ans. Ans. Q58. (iv) Emergency and priority calls. List any 4 capabilities of WML script.000 km Round .

11 is a set of standards for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication in the 2. 3. Q67.2 Allowable MIMO streams 1 Modulation DSSS. IEEE 802. Ans. mobile or handheld. (iv) Long period of deployment.FHSS 12 | Saurabh Gupta. (ii) Satellite movement is rapid and analysis is tough.4 Bandwidth (MHz) 20 Data rate per stream (Mbit/s) 1. Q63. What are the demerits of LEO system? Ans. Ans. (iii)The propagation delay is lower (say  5 to 10 msec).CSE .11 Family 802. What are the advantages of LEO satellites? Ans. (iii) Routing mechanism is difficult. What is IEEE 802. AP .6 and 5 GHz frequency bands. New Delhi Question Bank – Mobile Computing (ETEC – 407) B.4. (ii) Number of satellites possible is 66 and 6 numbers of satellites can be maintained as spares. (i) LEO satellites provide higher global coverage. (i) The network architecture is complex. Tech.Northern India Engineering College. Q66.ii family.11? Explain 802. (ii) High spectrum utilization. What are the advantages of Iridium satellite system? (i) Inter-satellite links are possible. Their round trip time delay is long due to high altitudes. Q65. What is the demerit of GEO satellite? Ans. (iii) The terminal types can be of dual mode. (GHz) 2. Q64. and it results in qua1ity degradation.11 protocol ----Freq. Ans. Give few advantages of GEO satellites. – Computer Science & Engineering VII Semester Q62. (ii)Used for communication related applications. (i) They have large footprints and provide large coverage. IEEE 802. They are created and maintained by the IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Committee (IEEE 802).

What is WLL? Draw the WLL setup diagram.DSSS OFDM 6.36. 60. 45.2. 72.24. 120. 90. WLL is a system that connects subscribers to the local telephone station wirelessly.12. 57. AP . 21. Tech.36.18. 28.2/ 15. Ans.48. New Delhi Question Bank – Mobile Computing (ETEC – 407) B.4/5 20 20 20 20/40 6. It is based on: – Cellular – Satellite (specific and adjunct) – Microcellular Its Other names: – Radio In The Loop (RITL) – Fixed-Radio Access (FRA).54 1 7.9.4. 135.Northern India Engineering College. 150 4 Q68.9.CSE .24.4 2.9.7.11 1 OFDM DSSS OFDM. 14.3.5. A general WLL Setup 13 | Saurabh Gupta.12. 43. 30.8. 65.18.48. – Computer Science & Engineering VII Semester a b g n 5 2.4 2.54 1 5.

What are the specifications of „IrDA‟? Ans.0”. (i) Active (ii) Sniff (iii) Hold (iv) Park Q70. State the modes possible when the slave is in connection state in Bluetooth. 14 | Saurabh Gupta. This protocol also involves message exchanges in the form of LMP-PDU‟s. Ans. New Delhi Question Bank – Mobile Computing (ETEC – 407) B. What are elements available under link security of Bluetooth technology? Ans. (iv) It mainly eliminates cables in many user applications. It is a low power short range wireless standard and it can operate in situations where several users are involved. The IrDA standard 1. Q73. a) Authentication b) Change link key c) Encryption Q72. Differentiate piconet and scatternet in Bluetooth technology. for the range up to 1m and next version „IrDA 1. The infrared rays can be used wherever LOS is preferred and useful for this indoor consumer applications.CSE .0 supports the data rate up to 115.2 kb/sec. (i) Authentication (ii) Key management (iii) Encryption Q71. – Computer Science & Engineering VII Semester Q69. (i) Piconet – It is a basic network supported by Bluetooth standard where one master and seven slaves (total eight devices) can interact. „IrDA‟ is a standard that is specified by Infrared Data Association formed in the year 1993. What is Bluetooth? List few functions of Bluetooth. (ii) It can trigger MP3 players on some other machines to download audio signals like music in wireless environment. What is an „IrDA‟ standard? Ans. AP . Q74. Q75. Tech. It is dependant on line of sight (LOS) operation. It is “link manager specification” that is responsible for radio link between the master and slave in Bluetooth. (ii) Scatternet – A device in one piconet either a master or slave can interact with other device that is overlapping of one piconet on other piconet is possible and termed as a “Scatternet”. It was developed mainly to enhanced point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication. Ans. At the maximum eight different devices can communicate in a network using this standard.1” developed later supports data transfers up to 35 times faster when compared to “IrDA 1. Ans. What is a LMP? List three security services under LMP.Northern India Engineering College. Ans. (i) It can make call from a headset (wireless) to a mobile phone which is at a distant place.

object push.1 version? Ans.1 version. file transfer and synchronization profiles.CSE . The system profiles are generic object exchange. It works with data rate of 1 Kbps. The short range Bluetooth technology is improved for meeting the distance of 100m in open air and 30 m within building infrastructures for it‟s operation. Q77. Q78. 15 | Saurabh Gupta. The two main profile classification is nine application profiles and four system profile and as a whole thirteen profiles are supported by Bluetooth 1.Northern India Engineering College. What are the new specifications supported by current Bluetooth? Ans. New Delhi Question Bank – Mobile Computing (ETEC – 407) B. What are the system profiles used in Bluetooth 1. Tech. AP . What re the two kinds of profiles in Bluetooth 1.1 version? Ans. – Computer Science & Engineering VII Semester Q76.