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Benjamin C. Koskiniemi A M A X Arizona, Inc.

Benjamin C . Koskiniemi i s currently the manager of mining and geology for AMAX Arizona, Inc. He graduated from Michigan College of Mining and Technology with a B.S. in mining engineering and a B.S. in engineering administration. He has occupied the following positions: mining engineer for Kennecott Copper Corp. in Salt Lake City, mine evaluation engineer of AMAX in Denver, and mining engineer and later chief mine engineer of ANAMAX Mining Co.

(8) pit slope angles at ultimate pit 11mits (estimated average including roads and ramps and between roads and ramps). ( 6 ) level berm width. longitudinal. An example of a vertical section 1s presented in Fig. based on pre- Design Hand methods of ultimate pit design usually begin with vertical sections (Soderberg and Rausch. thls 1s not possible to answer reliably until the ultimate (final) pit limits have been established. one of the first questions concerns the ore reserves. and radial sections as illustrated in Flg.Introduction When evaluating any ore body. 1968) he pit limits are first located on the vertical sections. and ( 9 ) mlnimum width of pit bottom. These sections should include the mineral block inventory and surface topography as minimum requirements. ( 2 ) horizontal sections for each level. and ( 3 ) comb~ned manual-computer. ( 3 ) stripping curve. . 1. This chapter will describe how manual techniques can be ut~lizedin designing an ultlmate pit Certaln economic and deslgn criteria must be established before the actual design begins In order to beg~ndesigning an ultimate pit. Plan of ore body. LONGITUDINAL SECTION HAUL ROAD AVERAGE P I T SLOPE ANGL 1 ORE L I N E 1 P I T SLOPE ANGLE BETWEEN ROADS -A Fig. Pit slope angles. these areas should also be identified. metric tons waste:metric tons ore (short tons waste:short tons ore). ( 7 ) roadway width. This is especially important when the stripping ratio is on a tonnage basis. - - SURFACE OVERBURDEN TOP OF ROCK WASTE ROCK O R E BLOCKS BY LEVEL WITH GRADE ( % I Fig. In the case of an open plt mine. (4) bench height. wh~ch consist of cross. ( 2 ) computer. 2. If there are materials of significantly different specific gravity. which include allowances for haul roads and ramps. 1. These angles (see Fig. Vertical section. (5) bank slope angle between levels. Fig. 3 ) are approximated. The pit slope angles to be used when working with the vertical sections are the average angles. Techniques used in designing an ultimate pit are classed as ( 1 ) manual. 2. 3. it wlll be assumed that the engineer already has the following data available (1 ) vertlcal sections.

it may be prudent to at least locate the surface intercept for the direct cost pit to ensure that permanent plant facilities and waste dumps are not planned within these limits Locatlng the pit limit on each vertical section is a trial and error process usually requiring a number of approximations. Considerable judgment is required on the part of the engineer during each phase of the design process. for changes in specific gravity). These approximations continue until the pit limit is found that conforms to the stripping curve. and pit slope stability studies t are located on each section so the ore The p ~ limits grade along the pit limit line supports a stripping ratio corresponding to the break-even or allowable stripping ratio. bottom in waste. If the stripping curve includes depreciation and profit. Break-even stripping ratio signifies that the costs used include all direct costs. therefore. if the calculated ratio is greater. Illustrated In Fig. t road and ramp requirements. The grade of the ore along the pit limit intercept selected is calculated. By visually observing the ore grade distribution on the sections and relating these to the break-even stripping ratios. the pit bottom is in waste. Depreciation is usually also included Allowable stripping ratio usually signifies use of a profit factor in addition to direct costs and depreciation (Erickson. Economic pit limits (Halls. 1968) An illustration from Halls (1970) that depicts the pit limits based on use of these different cost assumptions is shown in Fig. 6. 6. and the break-even - X Fig. a first pit limit approximation is arbitrarily made. Itminary estimates of anticipated p ~ dimensions. stripping ratio is determined from the stripping curve. 1970). Stripping curve. the pit limits are reduced in size. 5. and the stripping ratio (W:O) is calculated on the basis of these measurements (adjusting. The calculated stripping ratio is compared to the break-even stripping ratio for the grade calculated and if the calculated ratio is less than break-even. 5. The design methods described apply to any of the cost assumptions. Each ore body and each section within an ore body usually presents a different set of conditions In Fig.190 Open Pit Mine Planning and Design \ \ REVENUE COVERS COSTS AND DEPRECIATION REVENUE COVERS COST ONLY. but. only the ore grade SURFACE ORE GRADE % Cu Fig. Pit limits. the pit limits are expanded. when necessary. The lengths of ore and waste along the pit limits are measured. 4. . 4 is the stripping curve used to evaluate the typlcal sections. DOES NOT PROVIDE A CONTRlBUTlON TOWARDS DEPRECIATION Fig.

Each slope is evaluated ~ndependently. the ore extends to depth. 4.0 break-even stripping ratio. The pit bottom is designed at its minimum width. and therefore. area of influence. . Fig.Hand Methods 191 and ore waste intercepts along the slope lines are used In determining the break-even strrpping ratios and locatlng the final plt limits.2. bottom in ore. and the ore along the entire bottom IS used to calculate the break-even stripping ratio for the slope in waste. and the ore along the bottom is also used to calculate the break-even stripping ratios. 9. the estimated 0 6% Cu grade supports a 3. the grade is estimated at 0 8% Cu. and the slope line meeting this condition is located. bottom and slope in ore. the plt bottom w~llbe In ore. and thls supports a break-even stripping ratio of 6:1 (waste:ore) as determined from the stripping curve in Fig.and the ult~mate pit slope meetIng this condition 1s located: Fig. a grade of 0. Fig. 4.1 ' On the left side. The pit bottom IS designed at ~ t s minimum width. the line is found that gives a 6:l ratio at the designed average final plt slope angle: length of X Y waste -6 length of Y Z ore . If the ore grade changes as the slope llne is moved. the required break-even stripping ratio is also changed. Pit limits. 8. Radial section. SURFACE / \ X WASTE Fig. Assuming that this grade wlll be the same along any slope llne in this area. Each slope is assumed to be ~nfluenced by one-half of the ore exposed along the pit bottom From Fig. 9 2 length of X Y waste -1 length of Y Z 2' ore In Fig. 7.52% Cu has a break-even str~pping ratio of 2. In Fig 7. 8.1.On the right side. the ore extends to depth on an incline wlth the pit bottom and one slope completely In ore.1. Pit limits. Equating pit limit distances directly is acceptable when working with parallel sections. but it can be very Inaccurate when dealing with radial sections.

parallel sectlons usually do not present a problem. the locations of the pit bottom and the surface mtercepts of the plt l~mitsare transferred from the vertlcal sectlons to the plan map. (2) use of simple geometrlc patterns for ease of design. but because thls is usually a cut and try method. . any changes are also transferred to the plan map. 12. as shown in Flg. ( 3 ) location of ramp to pit bottom. The ore Intercepts can also be located. in plan. This means that the break-even strlpping ratio as determined from the strlpping curve must be adjusted before being applied to a vertical radial sectlon. On the basis of simple geometrlc shapes. 10. If the surface Intercept was at X' with X ' Y being equal to YZ.1. ( 1 ) averaging the break-even stripping ratios for adjoining sections. the roads sometimes are not shown. In this example. the engineer has several things to keep in mind. the tonnages can be calculated by methods dlscussed by Popoff (1966) or by the sector methods first discussed by Soderberg (1959). why it IS not feaslble to locate the final pit limlt on a vertical radial section simply by dlvldlng the waste dlstance by the ore dlstance when determining the break-even strlpplng ratlo. and the X . the stripping ratio in plan is approximately 7. both vertically and horizontally. if the waste length XY IS twlce the ore length YZ The stripplng ratlo on the vertical sectlon would actually be measured at 2. and the area of influence is taken as halfway between adjolnlng sections In the case of radial sections. the simpler the geometric shape of the bottom level. If a vertical section does not have a single continuous slope llne from the pit bottom to the surface intercept. The llne plotted for each level on the composite plan is generally the median line. Location of median lines. which is the contour elevation midway between the level elevation and the elevation of the next higher level.DENOTES LEVEL LOCATION OF MEDIAN LINES nap~~fl . 11. 11. Fig. and (4) watching for patterns that mlght lead to slope stability problems. a preliminary ore reserve can be estimated from the sectlons Flrst.192 Open Pit Mine Planning and Design illustrates. if desired. The actual designing of the composite plan generally begins with the pit bottom. 10 illustrates the correction factors required to measure distances directly In locating the pit llmits on the radlal sectlons. ANGLE LEVEL BERM W l DTH FINAL PIT LIMIT MEASURED STRIPPING RATIO BENCH HEIGHT ON RADIAL SECTION Fig. The final ore reserve estlrnates are calculated from level plans (horizontal sections) wlth the plt limits for each level determined from a composite mlne plan map. The final pit limit dewgn will also usually include any roads that wlll be in the final pit slope. Stripping curve for radial section. the design configuration must follow the ore. section A-A of Fig. the stripplng ratio in plan is 3: 1. It should be remembered that the design is Intended to optimize ore recovery and maximize profits. When calculating tonnages. the easier it is to deslgn the remainder of the plt. ~t would measure at 1 : 1. In prellmlnary designs. On the vertical sectlon. Flg. the plt 11mlt on each section must be compared to the adjolnlng sections to see that a logical relationship exlsts in regard to mlnabillty of the ore body. When the ultlmate plt limits have been located on each of the vertical sections. In smooth~ng these and designing the bottom bench. therefore. The points from the sections usually present a very irregular pattern. The mine plan map IS constructed from the vertical sections. As the first step In preparing the composite.5: 1.

and these are usually uniformly spaced and are dependent on the angles of the final plt slopes.Hand Methods 193 medlan llnes will be based on the flatter average overall pit slope. 13).WASTE BLOCK ASSAYS (%j Fig. It IS also Important that condltlons that can lead to slope fallures are not incorporated Into the pit deslgn. the p ~ t deslgn progresses toward the surface. sector. and thls ratio is compared to the calculated stripplng ratlo. or the entire ore body. as shown In Fig. average grade. The ore tons and grade. The final ore reserves and overall strlpplng ratios are determlned from the level maps. . especlally in a potentially unstable area When the composlte ultlmate plt plan IS completed. Level plan with ultimate pit limit. Once the bottom level has been established. The stripping rat~oscan also be compared by transferring the plt limits from the ultimate plt plan to the vertlcal sectlons It should be kept in mind that the break-even and allowable strlpplng ratlos are the ratlos at the final plt surface and do not reflect the overall stripplng ratlo for a sectlon. The plt can then be dlvlded Into sectors to determine whether the break-even stripping ratlo requirements have been achieved. Care must be exercised. 12. especlally if dlfferent areas of the pit have dlfferent slope angles. The ore grade is calculated by measuring the lengths of the dlfferent ore zones exposed in the sector and gettlng a weighted W y MEDIAN LINE . If there are any anomalous sectors. 13. Thls 1s Fig. The stripplng ratlos at the plt llmlts can also be determlned for each sector by overlaying the composlte plan on the individual level plans and marking the ore contacts on the composlte plan and planlmeterlng the ore and waste zones. composite ultimate pit plan. Thls can be done by measuring the lengths of ore and waste on each level at the pit llm~twlthin a glven sector This wlll provide the data for calculating the actual strlpplng ratio along the plt limit intercept. Ore 1s considered to be that material within the pit limits havlng a grade equal to or greater than the grade from the stripping curve at a break-even stripping ratlo of zero. the plt llm~tsare transferred to the lndlv~duallevel plans (see Flg. Polnts for the level median lrnes are located on the plan map. The strlpplng curve IS checked to determine what break-even strlpplng ratlo goes with the calculated grade. and these are accumulated to arrive at the mlne totals. the plan can be revlewed to see how ~t m~ght be affected ~f ~t were shlfted In a given direction. The points for each level are connected to complete the design. 12. and the waste tons wlthln the ultlmate plt Ilm~ts. An example of thls would be an area that bulges Into the plt. are determined for each level.

J L. Open pit vs. eds. there is probably no better way for an englneer to get to know the ore body he IS worklng wlth than by Popoff. I A ." Surface Mining. Glll ( 1966)." Mrtling Congress Journal..." Information Clrcular 8283. ed. M T . D. pp. pp 10-17. and Davey. D. A. 17-19. "Plt Plannlng and Layout. C . AIME. underground mlnlng is also a consideratlon when h ~ g h strlpplng ratlos are involved. A . In Fig. Aprll. or value.. although not mentlonlng underground mlnlng. K. B.3% Dividing the total mine waste tons by the total ore tons results in the overall average str~pping ratio for the ore body. states. AIME. 4. "Elements of Long-Range Open Plt Plann~ng. J. pp." M i r l ~ t ~Congress g Jorlrnal. Conclusions The ultimate (final) plt limits must be determined before the ore reserves can be estimated. New York. if that IS his primary method of deslgn. 1968. 75-78 G111. 1959.. 62.. pp. Even w ~ t h amount of hand des~gnis required In the prellm~nary stages of evaluation and as a check on the final project In fact. References Enckson. "Pit Plannlng and Des~gn. Hand methods are still widely used. R K . the cutoff grade is 0. Pflelder." Pana and Davey (1973) state further that. 1970. Johannesburg Pana. Apr~l. Cummins and Gwen. O. to mine the materlal at a suitable profit. D . some not becomlng a lost art. New York. it is surely the computer. 1973. "Long-Range Open Pit Plannlng." Mining Engrneerrtlg. 54-58. "Open Pit Plannlng. Thls should give h ~ m more confidence in the results obtalned from computer techniques. Soderberg. and Rausch." dolng some hand deslgn. "The dlstinctlon can best be made by determinlng which minlng method generates the largest net profit. 1966. South Afrlcan Inst~tute of Mlnlng and Metallurgy. D. 141-165 . 1966. 48-51 Halls. July. US Bureau of Mlnes Soderberg. "The Bas~cEconomics of Open Plt Minlng. pp." Proceedrngs. Sympos~umon the Theoretical Background to the Plannlng of Open Pit Mlnes w ~ t h Specla1 Reference to Slope Stabdlty.194 Open Pit Mine Planning and Design generally called the ore reserve cutoff grade. "high waste to ore ratios should not be avoided if there 1s enough grade. "Comput~ngReserves of Mlneral Deposits Prlnc~plesand Conventional Methods. 1968. A . E P. and although they are gradually being replaced by computer methods." S M E Minrng Engrneerrng Handbook.