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Running head: NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS

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Non-Custodial Parents: The Journey within Family Law David J. Collins California State University - Monterey Bay

IST522 Instructional Design Dr. Rosalie Strong and Dr. Miguel A. Lara December 12, 2013

NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTIONS INTRODUCTION ANALYSIS GOAL STATEMENT GOAL ANALYSIS SUBORDINATE SKILLS ANALYSIS ENTRY BEHAVIORS IDENTIFIED LEARNERS ANALYSIS CONTEXT ANALYSIS SETTING ANALYSIS TASK ANALYSIS DESIGN OBJECTIVES LEARNING THEORIES DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION EVALUATION-FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS REFERENCES XXVII XXII XXIII XVII XIV III VI

NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS Executive Summary

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Non-Custodial Parents, primarily fathers, are absent in their children’s lives; this absence has unique factors which contribute to their experience (Non-Custodial Parents and nonresident fathers are phrases that will be use interchangeable throughout the design process). “The nature of the relationship between the nonresident father and the custodial mother has been identified as the one factor that consistently hinders the relationship between the nonresident and his children” (Bloomer, Sipe, & Ruedt, 2002, p. 78). Another factor contributing to the absence of nonresident fathers points towards economic factors; the struggle of providing for their children or face incarceration creates a fearful experience of fatherhood. According to Luckey & Potts (2011), “The threat of incarceration for non-payment of child support may be a deterrent for fathers… individuals who cannot afford to pay…child support…becomes a reality because the resources are not available to make their payments. Furthermore, incarceration does not improve a father’s ability to pay; rather, it pushes him further behind, disconnects him from his children and increases the overall cost to society” (p. 22). A court process may be the healthiest option for nonresident fathers to establish a relationship with their children, but additional resources such as social and economic services need to be provided to nonresident fathers as they are for resident mothers. “Nonresident fathers seemed to gain confidence in their ability to provide for their children when they had social support, encouragement and assistance” (Bloomer, Sipe, & Ruedt, 2002, p. 79). Nonresident fathers need improvement with assistance to obtain a court date within their local superior courthouse. “Case law does not always provide firm guidance on what is necessary to modify custody. Issues that might lead to modification in one case might be insufficient to lead to modification in another” (Forman, 2011, p. 10). Clarity with this process will assist nonresident

NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS fathers; they will become relieved of the uncertainty which is involved with the court process. Nonresident fathers will be able to complete the requirements to obtain a court date in a superior courthouse, ultimately, resulting in visitations or modifications to child custody, thus establishing a frequent relationship between father/child. Once they are made aware of procedural assistance and resources, their experience within the Family Law System will be a less frustrating process for both Non-Custodial Parents & Family Law Clerks. The purpose of this effort is to provide an online resource such as an instructional video for Non-Custodial Parents that can act as an aid in addition to their case workers. Visual aids, video content, court document samples, and access to specific information are some ideas of resources that can better assist Non-Custodial Parents. The most important aspect of this website is to provide needed information for Non-Custodial parents to explore and utilize, thus enabling them to have a more successful outcome with the courts. The benefits of this instruction will be to inform and illustrate important information and guidelines for non-custodial parents. “Child custody should not be primarily about the rights of parents…acknowledging rights in noncustodial parents would help to usher in the ultimate realization that the best the Constitution can ever do in the realm of family privacy is to require sensitivity in balancing the interests of all” (Meyer, 2012, p. 1494). There are online resources with important information available to Non-Custodial Parents, but an instructional component may portray a more personalized experience. With online resources and personal research, an online, user friendly instructional resource that provides information as well as (how-to-do) visual examples will be available for assistance. The instructional resource can assist Non-Custodial Parents with specific direction, which is far more beneficial than information alone.

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NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS The approximate time frame it will take to complete this project is approximately 9 months, if all time is devoted towards completing all the resource objectives. Costs will be incurred for creating the instructional video. Fortunately, the instructional designer has an Associate’s Degree in Digital Arts (Hartnell College); these digital art skills will alleviate most of the costs for this project. Once the instructional video is created and published, implementing this resource may be a challenge. The question then is, “Will the target audience use this resource?” Feedback from the target audience and ongoing observations will serve as the formative evaluation process. There will be an email account set-up specifically for the target audience for questions and feedback.

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NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS Goal Statement

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Upon completion of the training and use of the proposed website, the Non-Custodial Parent will have obtained and completed all the necessary paper work. The completion of the training includes the filing of these documents within their local superior courthouse (Family Law Division) to obtain a court date (visitations, child custody modification etc.).

NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS Goal Analysis

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Non-Custodial Parents will obtain the necessary legal documents from their local superior courthouse website (California Courts (The Judicial Branch), 2013).

Non-Custodial Parents will fill-out (complete) the legal documents, referencing personal information from their child support order (State of California Child Support Services, 2013).

Non-Custodial Parents will file legal documents at their local superior courthouse and receive confirmation of their scheduled court date (The learning goals will be achieved in chronological order).

NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS Subordinate Skills Analysis

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The target audience will be learning an intellectual skill; therefore it is best to use a hierarchical approach for this subordinate skills analysis (Dick, Carey, Carey, 2009). o Computer Literacy (Basic) o Internet Navigation (Basic) o Productive Abilities (Basic) o Applying Information (Basic) o Geographical Awareness (Basic)

NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS Entry Behaviors Identified

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o The ability to read English o The ability to write English o The ability to conduct oneself in a respectful manner o The ability to provide/reference personal information from child support report o The ability to perform basic computer skills

NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS Learner analysis

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My target audience is Non-Custodial Parents. These are parents who do not have physical/legal custody of their child/children, and primarily are court ordered to pay child support. In order to share physical/legal custody or obtain visitations, Non-Custodial Parents need to go through a court process. Utilizing the provided resources, Non-Custodial Parents will reduce frustration regarding the court process compared to Non-Custodial Parents who do not have access to these specific resources. Non-Custodial Parents range from many different cultural backgrounds, financial statuses, age groups, educational levels, and nationalities. However, all Non-Custodial Parents will need to go through the same processes to achieve their goals.

NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS Context analysis

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The context will primarily be online, then completed in person within a superior courthouse. Non-Custodial Parents can access and print legal documents from a computer with internet and printer access at a convenient public facility or at their home. Other informational resources are available online. If they do not have access to a printer, they will need to retrieve the necessary legal documents from their local superior courthouse. Ultimately, interacting with court staff and providing the necessary legal documents are required in order to present a case before a family court judge. (Accessing, filling out, and printing the legal documents prior to the filing process at their local superior courthouse is more efficient and effective.)

NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS Setting Analysis

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Non-Custodial Parents will complete the learning objectives primarily online, except for the terminal objective which is completed at a superior courthouse. The special factor required from the target audience is to gain access to a computer with internet and printer access.

NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS Task Analysis

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View Instructional Video/Tutorial 1.1 1.2 Access instructional video from proposed website Take notes after each section (the instructional video will provide time for learners to perform action)

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Fill out form FL300 2.1 2.2 Reference from notes and from child support order to fill out each section Review the instructional video for further assistance with form FL300 2.2.1 FL300 instructions to establish visitations (use form FL313info and FL314info for informational assistance (courts.ca.gov, 2013). Free Dictionary defines “visitation rights” as, “the right granted by a court to

a parent (or other relative) who is deprived of custody of a child to visit the child on a regular basis” (2013). 2.2.2 FL300 instructions for child custody modifications (use form FL313info and FL314info for informational assistance (courts.ca.gov, 2013). The State of Idaho Judicial Branch defines “mediation of child custody” as “All domestic relations actions involving a controversy over custody or visitation of minor…” (2012). 3.0 File form FL300/Obtain Court Date 3.1 3.2 3.3 Access location of superior courthouse from suggestions from website Travel to superior courthouse and file form FL300 with court clerk Clerk will provide Non-Custodial Parent with a court date

NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS Objectives

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1. Given a link to the appropriate website, Non-Custodial Parents will obtain a copy of their child support order for personal use.—Bloom’s Domains of Learning - Cognitive Domain: Comprehension 2. Operating a computer with an internet connection, Non-Custodial Parents will successfully access their local superior court website by identifying information from the provided website.—Bloom’s Domains of Learning - Cognitive Domain: Comprehension 3. Utilizing the superior court website, Non-Custodial Parents will successfully navigate to the Family Law section and identify form FL300.—Bloom’s Domain of Learning Cognitive Domain: Comprehension 4. Given the instructions for accessing and printing form FL300, Non-Custodial Parents will successfully download and print form FL300.— Bloom’s Domain of Learning Cognitive Domain: Comprehension 5. Utilizing the child support order, notes taken from the instructional video, and a sample form (completed) in the website; Non-Custodial Parents will successfully fill-out and complete form FL300.—Bloom’s Domain of Learning – Cognitive Domain: Application 6. Using sample form FL300, Non-Custodial Parents will successfully review form FL300 and correct any errors for filing process.—Bloom’s Domain of Learning – Cognitive Domain: Analysis 7. Operating a computer with an internet connection, Non-Custodial Parents will successfully locate the address of their local superior courthouse from the superior court website.—Bloom’s Domain of Learning – Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS 8. Utilizing the superior courthouse address, Non-Custodial Parents will successfully travel to the superior courthouse and file form FL300 with a clerk/staff member.—Bloom’s Domain of Learning – Cognitive Domain: Application 9. Through the actions of the superior courthouse clerk, Non-Custodial Parents will successfully obtain confirmation of court date by receiving a document.–Bloom’s Domain of Learning – Cognitive Domain: Comprehension 10. Utilizing the established court document, Non-Custodial Parents will successfully comprehend the need to schedule the time to show for court appearance—Bloom’s Domain of Learning – Cognitive Domain: Application 11. Utilizing the established court document, Non-Custodial Parents will successfully appear at designated location and time stated on established court document—Bloom’s Domain of Learning – Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

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NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS Learning Theories

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Cognitive learning theory seems to be ideal for this instructional design. The cognitivist theory suggests that the ability to learn new information stems from an individual’s existing knowledge or schema (McLeod, 2002, p. 38). “Schema is activated and utilized for the benefit of learning when a [learner] is ‘made aware of his background knowledge’…” (McLeod, 2002, p. 38). The application of the cognitive learning theory will best suit this instructional design because the learners need to have some existing knowledge of the subject matter to successfully complete the terminal objective. However, as the development of the design process progresses, behaviorist and constructivist concepts could produce additional desired results to correlate with my objectives. Although, these learning theories complement group settings, their concepts can possibly be implemented in some aspects of the instruction.

NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS Development

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Lists of materials to be used in development:           Adobe Captivate HD Video Camera PowerPoint Application Research Articles Avid Media Composer External Hard Drive Dropbox Computer Printer Automobile

Approximate costs: $250 to $750, costs will depend on research and revision of instruction. The instructional designer will utilize financial aid to apply design costs. The instructional designer will also follow the timeline to determine when and how the costs will be applied within the design project.

NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS TIMELINE Step Researching Topic Performance Objectives Develop Assessments Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation of Instruction Revise Instruction Design Date October, 2013 through August,2014 November, 2013 through May 2014 December, 2013 through July, 2014 November, 2013 February, 2014, through August 2014 September, 2014 through October, 2014 August, 2014 through December, 2014

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NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS Instructional Materials

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Participants will access and utilize the following instructional materials:     

Website, Instructional video/tutorial Quiz (fill-in-the-blank) Checklist Step-by-step word document (with screen shots) stating the information in the instructional video/tutorial.

NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS Instructional Strategies

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Gagne’s 9 Events 1. Gaining Attention – Show a YouTube video of a daughter running towards her father, giving him a hug and a kiss. 2. Informing learner of the objective – After the intro of the instructional video there will be an overview providing the target audience with their objectives, including the terminal objective. 3. Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning – After the overview, there will be a personal testimony from the instructor (myself); sharing the most memorable moments he’s had with his daughter. He will also state that he has completed the terminal objective as they will soon do. The instructor will ask them to think about the most memorable moments they had with their children. 4. Presenting the stimulus material – After the learners take a few moments to stimulate their thought process, the instructional video will explain the instruction/objectives in chronological order, including the terminal objective. Before the video is shown, the online instructor will encourage the learners to take notes. 5. Providing learning guidance – After objectives are explained, the instructional video will provide guidance about the key elements of this process, and encouraging them to stick with it. 6. Eliciting the performance – The target audience will take a fill-in-the-blank quiz/form FL300; they are encouraged to reference from the instructional video/video screen

NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS captured PowerPoint, their child support order, and informational forms FL313info and FL314info. 8. Assessing the performance – Learners will review and correct their documents, and if necessary, complete a new set of form FL300. Legal documents cannot have any visible errors. 9. Enhancing retention and transfer – Learners will file the legal documents at their local superior courthouse with a clerk/staff member (if needed they will make another round of corrections), completing the terminal objective.

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NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS Implementation

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Anticipated delivery method: The instructional designer will deliver material in an online setting. A website will be created for learners to access at their convenience. YouTube and a Facebook page will be awareness resources; they will be utilized to assist in delivering the design of instruction to the learners.

NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS Evaluation – Formative

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Type of evaluation:

The one-to-one evaluation will be ideal because feedback can be given directly to each user by email. The objectives will be completed sporadically.

Who will participate?:

Since this would be a one-to-one evaluation, the instructional designer will allow an individual who has previously completed the terminal objective to review the instructional materials, the instructional strategies, and test out the assessments; ultimately, giving the instructional designer constructive criticism from an experienced perspective.

Information needed:

There are three specific areas where information is needed which are user performance, understandability and instructional material functionality. In question form: Do the learners understand the instructions? Are the materials sequenced logically? Do the learners know what to do during the assessments?

Tools and Methods:

The tools the learners will use a questionnaire, an anonymous survey/evaluation of the tasks, and a dropbox. The method the instructional designer will use to evaluate the questionnaire and survey will be the dropbox. The data will be collected and reviewed by the instructional designer. After careful review, the information from the questionnaires and surveys will be

NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS utilized to improve the summative evaluation stage. Learners will also be asked to provide suggestions for improving the website and explain why they made that suggestion. Evaluation – Summative

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Please answer the following questions: On a scale from 1 to 10 (1 being the lowest score), rate the effectiveness of the learning objectives __________. How can the instructional designer improve the assessments to accomplish the terminal objective easier? On a scale from 1 to 10 (1 being the lowest score), rate the effectiveness of the instructional materials utilized __________. Was the time spent to complete the learning objectives similar to your expectations? Please circle (Y/N). On a scale from 1 to 10 (1 being the lowest score), rate the overall quality of the design of the project __________. Please include additional constructive criticism here:

NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS Assessments

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(All assessments will be administered after watching instructional video/tutorial) 1. Assessment 1—Quiz (Fill-in-the-blank) Non-Custodial Parent’s contact their assigned ( ) at the designated Child

Support Agency to request a copy of a child support order. Answer: Caseworker 2. Assessment 2—Authentic Assessment Gain access to a computer with internet and printer access, and use a search engine like Google to access the local superior court website. 3. Assessment 3—Authentic Assessment Utilizing the local superior court website, learners will navigate through the website and identify and access the Family Law section. 4. Assessment 4—Authentic Assessment Utilizing the local superior court website, learners will print the (necessary) Family Court documents. 5. Assessment 5—Quiz (Fill-in-the-blank) This quiz will be the same legal documents the learner will use to complete the terminal objective, which is form FL300. Learners can also use the child support order, form FL313info, and form FL314info for informational assistance (courts.ca.gov, 2013). 6. Assessment 6—Authentic Assessment Referencing from the instructional video/tutorial, learners will compare sample form FL300 to their form FL300 to reduce errors. 7. Assessment 7—Authentic Assessment

NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS Locate superior court address from provided website. Proof of completing this task will be checked off (X) on the provided checklist. 8. Assessment 7—Authentic Assessment File Family Court documents with a clerk/staff member by using personal identification. Proof of completing this task will be checked off (X) on the provided checklist. 9. Assessment 8—Authentic Assessment Obtain confirmation of court date from clerk/staff member. Proof or evidence will be a confirmed court document. 10. Assessment 9—Authentic Assessment Schedule and remember date and time to show for court appearance. Proof of completing this task will be checked off (X) on the provided checklist. 11. Assessment 10—Authentic Assessment Arrive at courthouse 10 minutes early and locate courtroom. Proof of completing this task will be checked off (X) on the provided checklist.

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NON-CUSTODIAL PARENTS References Bloomer, S. R., Ann Sipe, T., & Ruedt, D. E. (2002). Child support payment and child visitation: Perspectives from nonresident fathers and resident mothers. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 29(2), 77-91. Dick, W., Carey, L., Carey, J.O. (2009). The systematic design of instruction (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Forman, G. S. (2011). Five common ways to modify child custody. American Journal of Family Law, 25(1), 10-15. Free Dictionary. (2013). Visitation right. Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com Luckey, I., & Potts, L. (2011). Alternative to incarceration for low-income non-custodial parents. Child & Family Social Work, 16(1), 22-32. McLeod, G. (2003). Learning theory and instructional design. Learning Matters, 2, 35–43. Meyer, D. D. (2012). The constitutional rights of non-custodial parents. Hofstra Law Review, 34(4), 1461-1494. State of California, C. S. S. (2013). Noncustodial parent. Retrieved from http://www.childsup.ca.gov/NoncustodialParent.aspx State of Idaho Judicial Branch. (2013). Idaho rules of civil procedure rule 16(j). mediation of child custody and visitation disputes.. Retrieved from http://www.isc.idaho.gov/problemsolving/rosters The Judicial Branch of California, C. C. (2013, October 25). Browsing form files on california courts. Retrieved from http://www.courts.ca.gov/forms.htm WORLDLawDirect (2011, September 07). The family court and you: An informational guide. Retrieved from http://www.worldlawdirect.com/article/1009/family-court-overview.html

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