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“Determination of the Relationship Between Temperature and Intermolecular Forces of Attraction During the Evaporation of a Liquid” Shafa Nathani

Sarah Ghivizzani Raneem Maqsood Lorenzo Molina Abstract In this experiment, the concept of Evaporation and Intermolecular Attractions are being examined. Evaporation is when the molecules in the liquid begin to turn into gas/vapor. In regards to this experiments, Evaporation takes place when the thermometer is removed from chemical and is placed on the table. Intermolecular Attractions are the forces between the molecules. There are three types of Intermolecular forces that are DipoleDipole, London Dispersion and Hydrogen Bonding. In this experiment, the forces of Intermolecular Attractions can surveyed by watching the temperature drop. The purpose of the experiment is to examine the strength of the intermolecular forces in the six substances (ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, n-pentane, methanol, and n-hexane) and how they affect the rate of evaporation. In order to determine the intermolecular forces of the chemicals, the tip of the thermometer is wrapped in filter paper with a rubber band securing it. This is then put into the beaker to get the temperature of the chemical. After it stabilizes, the thermometer is removed and placed on the table to see how fast the temperature drops. In the results, it is apparent that the stronger the intermolecular force, the slower the evaporation rate will be. This is because the molecules are bounded together so tightly, it takes up more energy and time to break the bond. Ethanol had a temperature difference of 10.7 which in the middle of the six substances. It has London Dispersion Forces, Hydrogen Bonding, and Dipole-Dipole forces, which is a mixture of strong and weak forces, hence the average temperature change. 1-propanol had a temperature difference of 9.1 and also had London Dispersion Forces, Hydrogen Bonding, and Dipole-Dipole forces, a mixture of strong and weak forces. 1butanol had a temperature difference of 5.3 because it had a strong intermolecular force holding it together. Npentane had a temperature change of 19.5 with the forces of weak dipole-dipole forces acting upon it. Methanol had a temperature change of 17.7, and since it had a small molecular weight it had a strong intermolecular force. Lastly, n-hexane had a temperature change of 19.7 and the low molecular weight yields the strong intermolecular force. Since it is known that substances with Hydrogen bonding (bonds between Hydrogen with Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Fluorine) as their strongest force normally have stronger intermolecular forces, and substances with dispersion forces as their strongest force have weaker intermolecular forces, it helps to reinforce the results received. The limitations that could negatively influence the results in the experiment would be the absence of the probes and computer interface. This would have given more accurate results due to the accuracy of the technology. Furthermore, if more trials of the experiment would have been conducted than the results could’ve been more accurate since there would be more results to analyze from.

Repeat these steps for each substance. Make sure a piece of the rubber band is touching the metal part of the thermometer. Take the thermometer and surround the tip of the thermometer with filter paper. Record the this temperature for the minimum temperature. pour an adequate amount of the chemical in the beaker. Remove the probe from the container and place them on the table with the tip of the probe extending over the edge of the table by 5 cm. This will give the !T. Record the data on the data table. in the container which is filled with the substance. Put the end of the thermometer.Procedure Put on googles. Watch the temperature drop until it does not change anymore. Then. Take the results and compare them with the predictions. due to the chemicals used in this experiments. with the rubber band and filter paper. Leave the thermometer in the chemical for 30 to 45 seconds and write down the initial temperature. take off the rubber band and filter paper and trash it. Pre-Lab Substance Formula Structural Formulas HH | | H–C–C–O–H | | HH H H H | | | H–C–C–C–O–H | | | H H H H H H H | | | | H–C–C–C–C–O–H | | | | H H H H H H H HH | | | | | H–C–C–C–C–C–H | | | | | H H H HH H | H–C–O–H | H H H H HHH | | | | | | H–C–C–C–C–C–C–H | | | | | | H H H HH H Molecular Weight 46 Hydrogen Bond Ethanol C2H5OH Yes 1-propanol C3H7OH 60 Yes 1-butanol C4H9OH 74 Yes n-pentane C5H12 72 No Methanol CH3OH 32 Yes n-hexane C6H14 86 No . Carefully. subtract the initial temperature from the minimum temperature. With gloves. Then secure it with a rubber band.

4 22.9 24. 3. 1-butanol has the strongest intermolecular force of attraction and methanol has the weaker intermolecular force. N-pentane has the strongest intermolecular force of attraction and n-hexane has the weaker intermolecular force. it requires more energy to break the bond.5 17. In contrast. hence.5 3.8 t2 (°C) 12.9 4.2 15. 2. . n-pentane does not have hydrogen bonding so it requires less energy to break the intermolecular attraction. Since 1-butanol exhibits hydrogen bonding.9 5. The temperature change for 1-butanol is greater because of it’s molecular weight and its dipole-dipole bonding between the polar molecules. Processing the Data 1.1 18. 1-butanol had the lowest !t and methanol had the highest !t of all the alcohol substances. The temperature change for methanol will be high since it has hydrogen bonding which slows down the temperature drop because it requires more energy to break. The reason that n-pentane and 1-butanol have different temperature changes even though they have nearly the same molecular weight is because of Hydrogen bonds.7 Predicted !t (°C) 5 12 15 25 Explanation The temperature change for 1-butanol was the smallest since it has a higher Intermolecular Force between molecules.1 !t (t1–t2) (°C) 10.6 24.2 23.7 9.1 5. The temperature change for n-hexane drops the quickest because it has no hydrogen bonding.8 23.Data Table Substance ethanol 1-propanol 1-butanol n-pentane Methanol n-hexane t1 (°C) 22.3 19.7 19. the temperature drops the faster since there is less energy required to break the bond. N-pentane had the lowest !t and n-pentane had the highest !t of all the alcohol substances.

1 1-Propanol 1-Butanol 5.7 Delta T 10 9. 20 Processing the Data 17.3 Methanol 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 Molecular Weight .4.7 15 Ethanol 10.