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Vanessa Cuellar English 1311 November 19, 2013 Stuttering Community Report

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Stuttering has become common affecting a rough estimate of three million people in America. Psychogenic was believed to be the only cause for stuttering, researchers later found a total of three causes; Developmental, Psychogenic, and Neurogenic. Having a speech impediment like stuttering is not an easy process to go through during childhood years, students get bullied for feeling different and lose communication with their peers. A child who stutters loses their self-esteem by not wanting to participate in school activities; such as asking a teacher a question or speaking out loud in front of the classroom. Not only do they lose their self-esteem, but their social life gets ruined which makes them come off as a shy person with little friends due to being nervous over speaking.

Stuttering, a speech impediment that affects an estimate of three million Americans during the ages of 2 to 5 years old. Eighty percent of students that develop stuttering will eventually outgrow it, while the other 20 percent will continue stuttering throughout their adulthood. Three causing factors for stuttering are Neurogenic, Psychogenic, and Developmental. Neurogenic stuttering occurs when an injury or disease affects the nervous system like head traumas, and Ischemic attacks. Developmental stuttering occurs mainly in children attempting to learn language skills. Lastly, Psychogenic which was once known as the main reason for stuttering is now extremely rare and is caused by emotional trauma such as a loved one dying, child neglect, and witnessing a tragic event. Stuttering is a strong speech impediment that can affect a person’s personal life and self-esteem. For an elementary student having a stuttering problem takes a dramatic toll on their social life, they come off as shy and antisocial because of the few friends they have due to being nervous of stuttering around others. Stuttering can also affect a child’s self-esteem by making them feel embarrassed to talk around

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others, participate in school activities and asking the teacher questions in class. With elementary school children having a difficult time copping with stuttering and constantly getting teased by other students, the National Stuttering Association (NSA) provides techniques to help children deal with stuttering. In the United States the NSA offers more than 100 support groups, which provide personal experience on the complications with stuttering such as fears, and frustrations. Due to stuttering becoming common in America, children in elementary school are being bullied for having a speech impediment. Developing stuttering puts people in an emotional state whether they develop it from Developmental, Neurogenic, or Psychogenic. Neurogenic is a form of stuttering that only occurs after an injury or even a disease occurs towards the nervous system. Such diseases include head trauma, tumors, meningitis, stroke and even side effects with some prescription drugs. Neurogenic mainly occurs during adulthood to those who have had developmental stuttering in the past, although the highest population to get infected is geriatric. To differ from other stuttering causes like Developmental and Psychogenic; Neurogenic occurs at any point when pronouncing a word rather than happening at the very beginning of the word. To get diagnosed with Neurogenic Stuttering a Speech Language Pathologist will evaluate the client’s previous illnesses, family background and other impairments. When diagnosed with Neurogenic certain techniques will help overcome stuttering such as talking slower, breathing slower, and using a relaxed posture. Developmental is the most common form of stuttering and runs in families. Developmental stuttering occurs during the age of 2-5 years old when children are first learning how to speak. It varies with different preschoolers whether the child stutters for a short amount of time like a week or progresses throughout adult years. Once known as the only cause of stuttering, Psychogenic is now found to be a rare case of stuttering. When an emotional trauma occurs such as a death in

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the family a person can get Psychogenic stuttering as well as holding in an event that may be worrying that individual. Stuttering is not only a speech impediment but it can also have a social and emotional impact on the victim. When having a common speech disorder like stuttering whether it is caused by neurogenic, psychogenic or developmental, takes a big tole on the lives of an elementary school student. According to a survey conducted by The National Stuttering Association stuttering affects the victim’s life by interfering with work, school and social life. The survey had a total of 1,230 participants which consisted of 686 adults, 31 teens, 164 parents of stutters, and 354 speech language pathologists involved in this study. NSA discovered eight out of ten child have been bullied due to having a stuttering issue. With speech therapy being the only cure to help the impediment, 30 percent of parents have been told to wait to put their child in therapy till there older. Fourteen percent of children have been denied getting the speech therapy they need at a private business due to not having the right health care certain speech- pathologists ask for. When being denied the help at the child’s school, the student needs to qualify and meet the severity of stuttering the school requires. Once the child qualifies for the therapy the child gets titled as communication impaired, many parents don’t agree with the idea of their child being called a negative name and take them out of school therapy. Being bullied in elementary school is common when having a speech impediment up to 75 percent of stuttering interferes with family and social life, while 80 percent are embarrassed to talk. The National Stuttering Association is an association that benefits children that stutter and have issues adapting to their surroundings. With high percentages of people getting affected by stuttering and around three million people having a stuttering impediment throughout America, there is minimum help. The National

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Stuttering Association benefits the stuttering community by providing over 100 self-help groups to help patients with both emotional and self-confidence. When attending the self-help groups, NSA has observed 71 percent attendants leave from the meeting more confident and willing to participate in everyday routines that involve talking to a large group of people. With NSA reaching out to the stuttering community victims across the word break away from being bullied and feeling ashamed. With stuttering affecting so many Americans research has been conducted and has led to three causes; Developmental, Neurogenic, and Psychogenic. Neurogenic occurs when a traumatic incident or disease has affected the nervous system that include a coma, tumors, even from prescription drugs. Psychogenic once known as the only cause of stuttering is now the uncommon form of stuttering which is followed by an emotional incident such as a death in the family. The last cause of stuttering is Developmental occurs around the ages of two to five years old. Developmental stuttering is around the time when children are first learning how to communicate. It depends on the child weather or not they stick with stuttering there whole life or whether it is only temporary. Being an elementary student that stutters is a rough time in a child’s life. With not being able to communicate like the other students, eight out of ten children get bullied during school. According the NSA survey getting into speech therapy can be a difficult process. It has been stated that 14 percent of children have been denied getting speech therapy at both school and a private business. The private business denies a client only if they don’t have the proper insurance the speech therapy business accepts. In order for the speech impediment child to go into speech therapy at the child’s school, the child has to qualify by meeting the standards of the school to get the help they need. Once completing the qualification process the school labels the client as communication impaired. As soon the child’s parents finds

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out about the school giving their child a negative name due to stuttering, the parent pulls their kid from speech therapy and puts them in a private speech therapy business. With not a lot of help to benefit speech therapy, the National Stuttering Association helps avoid emotional and selfesteem issues by providing self- help groups to the stuttering child or adult.

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Work Cited:
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (1997).Stuttering. Retrieved from http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/stuttering.htm Fall09stuttering(2009).Effects of Stuttering. Retrieved from http://fall09stuttering.providence.wikispaces.net/Effects+of+Stuttering National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (2010). Stuttering. Retrieved from http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/voice/pages/stutter.aspx Smart Speech Therapy LLC (2012). Speech Language Services and Insurance Coverage: What Parents Need to Know. Retrieved fromhttp://www.smartspeechtherapy.com/speech-language-services-andinsurance-coverage-what-parents-need-to-know/ National Stuttering Association (2009). The experience of People Who Stutter. A survey by the National Stuttering Association. Retrieved from http://www.westutter.org/what-is-stuttering/the-experience-ofpeople-who-stutter/