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ALKANES 1. Draw structural formula for: a) 2,2,4-trimethylpentane See 4. a) b) 3,4-diethylheptane See 4.

b)

c) 3-methylheptane See 4. c)

d) 4-ethyl-3-methylheptane See 4. d)

e) 3-chloro-2-methylhexane See 4. e)

f) 2-chloro-2-methylpentane See 4. f)

g) 4-bromo-5-iodo-2,2,3-trimethylhexane See 4. g)

h) 5,6-dichloro-3-ethyl-2,3-dimethyloctane See 4. h)

2. Draw and name 3 isomers of C5H12. • have the same chemical formula, but different structures – different branching.
C

C

C C

C C

C C

C C

C

C C C

C

n - pentane

2 – methylbutane

2,2-dimethylpropane

3. Which compound has the higher melting point: propane or pentane? Explain. n – pentane has the higher melting point as the molecule can pack closer together causing stronger London Dispersion forces. More energy is needed to overcome these forces and allow the molecules to move further apart and melt.

4. Name the following: a)

CH3 CH3 CH CH2

CH3 C CH3 CH3
See 1. a)

b)

CH3

CH2 CH3

CH

CH

CH2

CH2

CH3
See 1. b)

CH2 CH2 CH3

c)

CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH CH3 CH3 CH2
See 1. c)

d)

CH3

CH2

CH

CH

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH3
See 1. d)

CH3 CH2 CH3
Cl
e)

CH3

CH CH3 Cl

CH

CH2

CH2

CH3
See 1. e)

f)

CH3

C CH2 CH3

CH2

CH3

See 1. f)

g)

CH3 CH3 Br CH3 C CH3 CH CH CH I Cl CH2 CH CH Cl CH2 CH3
See 1. h)

CH3
See 1. g)

h)

CH3 CH2 CH3 CH C CH3 CH3

ALKENES 1. Draw structural formula for the following: a) 2-methylpropene See 3. a) b) trans-2,3-dibromobut-2-ene See 3. b)

c) cis-hex-3-ene See 3. c)

d) 2-ethylpent-1-ene See 3. d)

e) cis-4-chloro-5-methylhex-2-ene See 3. e)

f) 4,4-dimethylhex-1-ene See 3. f)

g) trans-3-bromo-2-iodo-4,5,5-trimethylhex-2-ene See 3. g)

h) trans-3,4-dichloro-6-ethyl-6,7-dimethyloct-3-ene See 3. h)

2. a) Draw and name the geometric isomers of C2H2Cl2.
H C Cl H C Cl
H C C Cl H

or

Cl

cis-1,2-dichloroethane

H C Cl

Cl C H

H C C

Cl

or

Cl

H

trans-1,2-dichloroethane

b) Which of the two compounds above has the higher melting point? Explain. cis-1,2-dichloroethane has the higher melting point as it is more polar than the trans isomer.

3. Name the following: a) CH3 C CH2

CH3
b)

See 1. a)

Br C CH3 C

CH3
See 1. b)

Br

c)

CH3

CH2

C H
CH2

C H

CH2

CH3
See 1. c)

d)

CH3

CH2

C

CH2

CH2

CH3
See 1. d)

Cl
e)

CH3

CH CH3

CH

C H

C H

CH3
See 1. e)

f)

CH2 CH3 CH3 C CH3 CH2 CH CH2
See 1. f)

g)

CH3 CH3 H3C C CH3 CH

Br C C I CH3
See 1. g)

h)

CH3 CH3 CH CH3

CH2 C CH3 CH2

Cl C C Cl CH2 CH3
See 1. h)

ALKYNES 1. Draw structural formula for the following: a) 4,5-dimethyl-2-heptane See 3. a) c) 4-methyl-2-pentyne See 3. c) e) 4-chloro-5-methyl-2-hexyne See 3. e) g) 1-iodo-3,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentyne See 3. g) b) 3,3-dimethyl-1-butyne See 3. b) d) 4-ethyl-2-hexyne See 3. d) f) 5,5-dimethyl-1-heptyne See 3. f) h) 6-ethyl-6,7-dimethyl-3-octyne See 3. h)

2. a) Draw and name the isomers of C4H5Cl. There are several, here are a few:
H Cl C C C H H C H H

Cl H H C C C C H

1-chlorobut-1-ene
H H C C C H H C H Cl

H H 3-chlorobut-1-ene
H H C H C C H C H Cl

4-chlorobut-1-ene

1-chlorobut-2-ene
H

H

C

C

C

C

Cl

H

C H

C

C H

C H

Cl

H H H H 1-chlorobuta-1,3-diene
H H C H C C C H

4-chloro-1,2-butadiene
H H C C C C H

Cl H

3-chloro-1,2-butadiene

Cl H H 1-chloro-1,2-butadiene

b) Which of the isomer compounds above has the higher melting point? Explain. The dienes have more electrons and 1-chlorobuta-1,3-diene has the closest packing.

3. Name the following: a)

CH3

C

C

CH CH3

CH CH2

CH3 CH3
See 1. a)

b)

CH3 HC C C CH3 CH3
See 1. b)

c)

CH3 CH3 C C CH CH3 CH3 C C CH3
See 1. d) See 1. c)

d)

CH2 CH3 CH2 CH

e)

Cl CH3 CH CH3 CH C C CH3
See 1. e)

f)

CH2 CH3 C CH3

CH3 CH2 CH2 C CH
See 1. f)

g)

CH3 CH3 CH3 C CH3 CH C C I
See 1. g)

h)

CH3 CH3 CH CH3

CH2 C CH3 CH2 C C CH2 CH3
See 1. h)

Practice Intermolecular Forces
1. For each of the molecules below complete the following: a) Are the bonds polar? b) Pick the most polar bond in each and indicate the positive and negative portion of the bond by using a vector. c) Which of these are polar molecules (have a net dipole moment)? CH4
H C H H H

(a) ΔEN (CH) = 0.4 non-polar (b) no polar bonds (c) non-polar molecule

CH3OH
H H O H C H

(a) ΔEN (CO) = 1.0 ; polar, ΔEN (OH) = 1.4 ; polar (b) O-H (c) polar molecule

CO2
O C O

(a) ΔEN (CO) = 1.0 ; polar (b) both C-O (c) non-polar molecule

C2H6
H H H C C H H H

(a) ΔEN (CH) = 0.4 ; non-polar (b) non-polar (c) non-polar molecule

CCl4
Cl C Cl Cl Cl

(a) ΔEN (CCl) = 0.5 ; polar (b) all C-Cl (c) non-polar molecule

CH3Cl
H C Cl H H

(a) ΔEN (CCl) = 0.5 ; polar (b) one C-Cl (c) polar molecule

CH3CN
H C N C H H

(a) ΔEN (CN) = 0.5 ; polar (b) C-N (c) polar molecule

2. a)

Rank the following from substances from strongest to weakest intermolecular forces. CH4 LD ΔEN = 0.4 weak Cl2 LD ΔEN = 0 weakest CH3Cl LD, D-D ΔEN = 0.5 strongest

b)

What features must a molecule have to exhibit the above attractive forces? Non-polar molecule – non-polar bond or symmetrical shape – LD only Polar molecule – polar bond(s) and a nonsymmetrical shape – LD and D-D

c)

What type of intermolecular attraction would occur between identical molecules of the following? CH3Cl D-D CH3CH3 LD CH2CH2 LD CH3OH HB CH3CH2OH HB

3. Are ammonia (NH3) and water miscible? Explain Yes, ammonia will dissolve in water as both are polar molecules and the dipoles will attract each other. 4. Indicate which compound in the following pairs would have the higher boiling point and greater water solubility. Explain your order.

O
a) CH3 CH2 OH vs CH3 CH HB D-D Higher b.p. Greater H2O solubility

O
b) CH CH CH 3 2 3 vs CH3 C CH3 LD D-D Higher b.p. Greater H2O solubility

c) CH3CH2CH2Cl vs CH3CH2CH3 D-D LD Higher b.p. Greater H2O solubility

BALANCING SKELETAL EQUATIONS
Balance the following skeletal equations: a) 2 Li + 2 H2O  2 LiOH + H2

b)

2 Mg

+

Pb(SO4)2

2 MgSO4

+

Pb

c)

FeSO4

+

2 HCN

Fe(CN)2

+

H2SO4

d)

3 H2S

+

Al2(CO3)3 

Al2S3

+

3 H2O

+

3 CO2

e)

2 H3PO4

+

3 Ca(OH)2 

Ca3(PO4)2

+

6 H2O

f)

Na2O

+

H2O

2 NaOH

g)

4 Fe +

3 O2 

2 Fe2O3

h)

2 Fe(OH)3 

Fe2O3

+

3 H2O

i)

C12H22O11

+

12 O2

12 CO2

+

11 H2O

BALANCING WORD EQUATIONS
Balance the following word equations: j) iron 4 Fe + + oxygen 3 O2     iron (III) oxide 2 Fe2O3

k)

sodium chlorate 2 NaClO3

sodium chloride 2 NaCl

+ +

oxygen 3 O2

l)

copper (II) oxide CuO +

+ H2

hydrogen  Cu

 +

copper H2O  +

+

water

m)

sodium hydroxide + 2 NaOH +

carbon dioxide Na2CO3 

sodium carbonate H2O

+

water

CO2 

n)

hydrogen 3 H2

+ +

nitrogen N2 

ammonia

2 NH3  +

o)

tin (IV) oxide SnO2 +

+ 2C

carbon  Sn

tin 2 CO

+

carbon monoxide

p)

calcium chloride CaCl2 

 Ca

calcium + Cl2

+

chlorine

A) Synthesis Reactions For each of the following, complete and give the Balanced Chemical equation: 1. sodium 2 Na (s) 2. carbon C (s) 3. carbon dioxide CO2 (g) 4. calcium 2 Ca (s) 5. dinitrogen pentoxide N2O5 (g) 6. calcium oxide 2 CaO (s) 7. sodium oxide Na2O (s) + + + + + + + + + + + + + + iodine I2 (s) oxygen O2 (g) water H2O (l) oxygen O2 (g) water H2O (l) water H2O (l) SO3 (g)             sodium iodide 2 NaI (s) carbon dioxide CO2 (g) carbonic acid H2CO3 (aq) calcium oxide 2 CaO (s) nitric acid 2 HNO3 (aq) calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 (aq) sodium sulfate Na2SO4 (s)

sulfur trioxide  

B) Decomposition Reactions 8. carbonic acid H2CO3 (l) 9. copper (II) carbonate CuCO3 (s) 10. sodium bicarbonate 2 NaHCO3 (s) 11. magnesium chloride MgCl2 (s)  
hea t 

carbon dioxide CO2 (g)

+ +

water H2O (l) carbon dioxide CO2 (g) carbon dioxide + 2 CO2 (g) chlorine Cl2 (g) + water H2O (l)

copper (II) oxide + CuO (s) sodium oxide Na2O (s) + + + + +


hea t 


electrolys is 

magnesium Mg (s)

C) Single Displacement Reactions For each of the following, complete and give the Balanced Chemical equation: 1. nickel + copper (II) nitrate sol’n  nickel (II) nitrate sol’n + copper

Ni (s)

+ Cu(NO3)2 (aq)

 Ni(NO3)2 (aq)

+ Cu (s)

2. zinc

+ hydrochloric acid

 zinc chloride sol’n

+ hydrogen

Zn (s)

+ 2 HCl (aq)

 ZnCl2 (aq)

+ H2 (g)

3. barium

+ iron (III) chloride sol’n

 barium chloride sol’n

+ iron

3 Ba (s)

+ 2 FeCl3 (aq)

 3 BaCl2 (aq)

+ 2 Fe (s)

4. aluminum + zinc hydroxide sol’n

 aluminum hydroxide sol’n

+ zinc

2 Al (s)

+ 3 Zn(OH)2 (aq)

 2 Al(OH)3 (aq)

+ 3 Zn (s)

5. lead Pb (s)

+ magnesium sulfate sol’n  no reaction (NR) + MgSO4 (aq)  NR

6. chlorine Cl2 (g)

+ sodium iodide sol’n + 2 NaI (aq)

 sodium chloride sol’n  2 NaCl (aq)

+ iodine + I2 (s)

D) Double Displacement Reactions NOTE: Due to lack of space, assume all products and reactants are solutions (aq) unless otherwise stated For each of the following, complete and give the Balanced Chemical equation: 1. silver nitrate 3 AgNO3 (aq) 2. nitric acid 2 HNO3 (aq) + iron (III) chloride + FeCl3 (aq) + sodium carbonate + Na2CO3 (aq)  silver chloride solid + iron (III) nitate  3 AgCl (s)  sodium nitrate + water + CO2 (g)  2 NaNO3 (aq) + H2O (l) + Fe(NO3)3 (aq) + carbon dioxide

3. phosphoric acid H3PO4 (aq) 4. lithium hydroxide 2 LiOH (aq) 5. ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 (aq)

+ potassium hydroxide  potassium phosphate + water + 3 KOH (aq) + sulfuric acid + H2SO4 (aq) + sodium hydroxide + NaOH (aq)  K3PO4 (aq)  lithium sulfate  Li2SO4 (aq)  sodium nitrate + water + NH3 (g)  NaNO3 (aq) + H2O(l) + ammonia + 2 NH3 (g) + 3 H2O (l) + water + 2 H2O (l) + ammonia

6. barium hydroxide Ba(OH)2 (aq)

+ ammonium sulfate + (NH4)2SO4 (aq)

 barium sulfate + water  BaSO4 (aq) + 2H2O(l)

Organic Reactions Alkanes 1. What is the equation for the complete combustion of pentane? C5H12 (l) + 8 O2 (g) → 5 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (l)

2. Give an example of a cracking of an alkane. C15H32 (l) + H2 (g) → C7H16 (l) + C8H18 (l)

3. Give the equation of the reaction of bromine with ethane. C2H6 (g)
H H C H H C H H C H

+
H C H

Br2 (l)
H C H H C H

C2H5Br (l)

+

HBr (l)
H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H Br

H

+

Br

Br

H

C H

+

HBr

Alkenes 4. What is the equation for the complete combustion of 2-pentene? 2 C5H10 (l) + 10 O2 (g) → 5 CO2 (g) + 10 H2O (l)

5. Give the equation of the reaction of bromine with 2-hexene. C6H12 (l)
H H C H C H C H

+

Br2 (l)
H C H H C H H C H

C6H12Br2 (l)
H Br C H Br H C H C H H C H H C H H

H

+

Br

Br

H

C H

6. Give the equation of the reaction of water with propene. C3H6 (g)
H C H H CH C H H

+

H2O (l)

C3H7OH (l)
H OH H C H C H H O H H C H

+

H

Alkynes 7. What is the equation for the complete combustion of propyne? C3H4 (l) + 4 O2 (g) → 3 CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (l)

8. Give the equation of the reaction of hydrogen chloride with 2-hexyne. C6H10 (l)
H H C H C C

+

HCl (l)
H C H H C H


H C H

C6H11Cl (l)
H H H C H C Cl C H H C H H C H H

+

H

Cl

H

C H

9. Give the equation of the reaction of water with propyne. C3H4 (g) +
H H C C C H H

H2O (l)

C3H5OH (l)
H OH H C C H H

+

H

O

H

C H

EQUATION DRILL WORKSHEET For each of the following, give the: a) completed word equation b) the balanced chemical equation c) electron dot diagrams for all reactants and products d) reaction type(s) [as many classes as possible] 1. barium + iodine → barium iodide Ba (s)
Ba

+

I2 (s) →
I I

BaI2 (s)
Ba
2+

I

-

2

Synthesis, exothermic 2. dinitrogen pentoxide N2O5 (g)
O O N O O N O

+

water →

nitric acid

H2O (l)

2 HNO3 (aq)
O

H O H

H O

N

O

Synthesis, exothermic 3. eg. carbon dioxide CO2 (g)
O C O

+

water → →

carbonic acid H2CO3 (aq)
O H O C O H

+

H2O (l)
H O H

Synthesis, exothermic 4. eg. sodium oxide Na2O (s)
Na
+

+ +

water → →

sodium hydroxide NaOH (aq)
Na
+ -

H2O (l)

2

O

2-

H O H

OH

Synthesis, exothermic 5. sodium oxide Na2O (s) +
Na
+

+

sulfur trioxide → →

sodium sulfate

SO3 (g)
O
2-

Na2SO4 (s)
O

2

O

O

S

O
Na

+

O

S O

O

2
heat 

Synthesis, exothermic 6. aluminum hydroxide 2 Al(OH)3 (s) → aluminum oxide + + water

Al2O3 (s)

2 H2O (l)

Al

3+

OH

-

3

Al

3+

2

O

2-

3

H O H

Decomposition, endothermic 7. copper (II) carbonate CuCO3 (s)
O Cu
2+

heat 

copper (II) oxide + CO2 (g)

+

carbon dioxide


2O

CuO (s)
2+

O

C

Cu

O

2-

O C O

Decomposition, endothermic 8. nickel Ni (s) + + copper (II) nitrate sol’n Cu(NO3)2 (aq)
O

nickel (II) nitrate +
1O

+ Cu (s)

copper

Ni(NO3)2 (aq)
O Ni
2+

1O

Ni

Cu

2+

O

N

2

O

N

Cu
2

Single Displacement 9. zinc Zn (s) + +
K
+

potassium hydroxide sol’n KOH (aq)
OH
-

→ NR

No Reaction (NR)

Zn

Single Displacement 10. chlorine Cl2 (g)
Cl Cl

+

gallium iodide sol’n → +
Ga

gallium chloride →
Ga
3+

+ + 3 I2 (s)
I I

iodine

2 GaI3 (s)
3+

GaCl3 (s)
Cl
-

I

-

3

3

Single Displacement 11. magnesium sulfide sol’n + iron (III) chloride sol’n → iron (III) sulfide + magnesium chloride sol’n 3 MgS (aq)
Mg
2+

+

FeCl3 (aq)
Fe
3+


-

Fe2S3 (s)
Fe
3+

+
S
2-

3 MgCl2 (aq)
Mg
2+

S

2-

Cl

3

2

3

Cl

-

2

Double Displacement 12. aluminum chloride sol’n + sodium carbonate sol’n → sodium chloride sol’n + aluminum oxide + carbon dioxide “boiled dry and then heated”

2 AlCl3 (aq) (g)

+

3 Na2CO3 (aq)
O 2-

heat 

6NaCl (s)

+

Al2O3 (s)

+

3 CO2

Al

3+

Cl

-

3

Na

+

2

O

C

O

Na

+

Cl

-

Al

3+

2

O

2-

3

O C O

Double Displacement, Decomposition 13. phosphoric acid + potassium hydroxide sol’n → potassium phosphate + water H3PO4 (aq)
O H O P O H O H

+

3 KOH (aq) →

K3PO4 (aq) +
O

3 H2O (l)
3-

K

+

OH

-

K

+

O

P O

O

H O H

3

Double Displacement 14. lithium hydroxide sol’n + LiOH (aq)
Li
+

sulfur trioxide gas →

→ lithium hydrogen sulfate

+
-

SO3 (g)
O O S O

LiHSO4 (s)
O Li
+

1O H

OH

O

S O

Synthesis, Exothermic 15. ammonium chloride sol’n + calcium hydroxide sol’n → calcium chloride sol’n + ammonium + water 2 NH4Cl (aq)
H H N H
+ -

+

Ca(OH)2 (aq) →
Ca
2+

CaCl2 (aq)
Ca
2+

+
-

2 NH3 (g)
2
H N H H

+ 2 H2O (l)

H

Cl

OH 2

-

Cl

H O H

Double Displacement, Decomposition 16. barium hydroxide sol’n + ammonium sulphate sol’n → barium sulfate + ammonia + water Ba(OH)2 (aq)
Ba
2+

+

(NH4)2SO4 (aq)
H H N H
+

BaSO4 (s)
2+

+
O

2 NH3 (g)
2O

+ 2 H2O (l)
H

OH 2

-

O H O S O O
Ba O

H

N H

H O H

S O

2

Double Displacement, Decomposition