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1314026565IJMMEIJENS © April 2013 IJENS
I J E N S
Abstract To help in facing the two top challenges in
developing mechatronic systems, while maintaining desired
accuracy and to optimize system level performance to meet the
design requirements, this paper proposes an accurate
mathematical and simulink models for accurate mechatronics
design and verification of both system and control of motions
throughout Mechatronics systems design and development
process, including proper selection, analysis, integration and
verification of the overall system and subsystems performance
in terms of output speed, angle, torque, current, acceleration
and signals, resulting in simplifying and accelerating
Mechatronics systems design process. The proposed models
intended to be used for research purposes in mechatronics
motion systems design, motion control applications, as well as,
for the application in educational process. The proposed model
can be modified to include any control strategy and/or any
actuator. The model was created and verified using MATLAB
simulink software
I ndex Term— Mechatronics system, Motion control,
Mathematical and simulink function block models.
I. INTRODUCTION
Mechatronics system design is Modern interdisciplinary
design procedure; it is a concurrent selection, integration and
optimization of the system and all its components as a whole
and concurrently, all the design disciplines work in parallel and
collaboratively throughout the design and development
process to produce an overall optimal design. Mechatronics
design approach tends to develop products with synergy and
integration toward constrains like higher performance, speed,
precision, efficiency, lower costs and functionality. The two
top challenges faced in developing mechatronic systems are
the early identifying system level problems and ensuring that
all design requirements are met, in order to evaluate concepts
generated during the design process, without building and
testing each one, mechatronics engineer, must be skilled in
modeling, simulation, analysis, and control of dynamic systems
and understand the key issues in hardware implementation [1
6].
Motion control is a subfield of control engineering, in which
the position or velocity of a given machine are controlled using
some type of actuating device. Most used actuating devices
in mechatronics applications are electric actuating machines,
which are used in many, if not most, modern machines (e.g.
electric cars, locomotives, fans, turbines, and drills), robotics
(e.g. Mobile robot and robot arm), industrial and
manufacturing (e.g. conveyer belts, rolling, cutting, welding,
saws and bending machines as well as to spin gears and food
and medical industry mixers), also, many kitchen appliances
use DC motors. Two main motion control applications are of
concern; mobile robots and robot arms.
Accurate control of motion is a fundamental concern in
mechatronics applications, where placing an object in the
exact desired location with the exact possible amount of force
and torque at the correct exact time, while consuming minimum
power, at minim cost, is essential for efficient system operation,
while maintaining accuracy, to simplify and accelerate
Mechatronics systems design process, and considering the
two top challenges faced in developing mechatronic systems,
including proper selection, analysis, integration and
verification of the overall system and subsystems
performance throughout the development process, and
optimize system level performance to meet the design
requirements, this paper proposes an accurate general
mathematical and simulink models of system, motions and
control in mechatronics applications, in terms of output speed ,
angle, torque, current, acceleration and signals, in terms of best
selection and integration of system's mechanical parts,
controller and components, as an application example the
proposed model will be tested in mechatronics design of two
systems a mobile robotic platform and robotic arm systems,
where an electric motor, a motion control system and
corresponding components are selected, designed and
integrated to move a given mechanical system to/with a
desired output (speed and/or position), corresponding to
applied input voltage ,V
in
, achieving and maintaining all design
requirements.
Mechatronics Design of Motion Systems;
Modeling, Control and Verification.
Farhan A. Salem
1,2
1
Mechatronics program,. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Taif University, 888, Taif,
Saudi Arabia.
2
Alpha Center for Engineering Studies and Technology Researches, Amman, Jordan.
Email: salem_farh@yahoo.com
International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMMEIJENS Vol:13 No:02 2
1314026565IJMMEIJENS © April 2013 IJENS
I J E N S
Mobile robot is a platform with a large mobility within its
environment (air, land, underwater) it is not fixed to one
physical location. Mobile robots have potential application in
industrial and domestic applications. Accurate designing and
control of mobile robot is not a simple task in that operation of
a mobile robot is essentially timevariant, where the operation
parameters of mobile robot, environment and the road
conditions are always varying, therefore, the mobile robot as
whole as well as the controller should be designed to make the
system robust and adaptive, improving the system on both
dynamic and steady state performances [1].Single joint robot
arm system consists of three main parts; arm, connected to
actuator through gear train.
The following nominal values for the various parameters of two
different eclectic motor can be used and tested: First motor:
V
in
=12 Volts; J
m
=0.02 kg·m²; b
m
=0.03;K
t
=0.023 Nm/A; K
b
=0.023 Vs/rad; R
a
=1 Ohm; L
a
=0.23 Henry; T
Load
, gear ratio,
for simplicity ,n=1. Second motor: V
in
=12 Volts; Motor torque
constant, Kt = 1.1882 Nm/A; Armature Resistance, R
a
=
0.1557 Ohms (Ω) ; Armature Inductance, L
a
= 0.82 MH
;GearedMotor Inertia: J
m
= 0.271 kg.m
2
, GearedMotor Viscous
damping b
m
= 0.271 Nms; Motor back EMF constant, K
b
=
1.185 rad/s/V, gear ratio, for simplicity , n=1, 10.
The robot arm system to be designed, has the following
nominal values; arm mass, M= 8 Kg, arm length, L=0.4 m, and
viscous damping constant, b = 0.09 N.sec/m. so that a voltage
range of 0 to 12 volts corresponds linearly of an Robot arm
output angle range of 0 to 180, that is to move the robot arm to
the desired output angular position, θ
L
, corresponding to the
applied input voltage ,V
in
. The mobile robot system to be
designed, has the following nominal values wheel radius r
=0.075 m, wheelchair height,h= 0.920 m, wheelchair width ,b =
0.580 m, the distance between wheels centers = 0.4 m, The
most suitable linear output speed of used, domestic, mobile
robot is to move with 0.5 meter per second, (that is ω=V/r =
0.5/ 0.075 = 6.6667 rad/s,). Tachometer constant, K
tac
= 12 /
6.6667=1.8 (rad/sec)
II. SYSTEM MODELING
We are to model overall systems and subsystems including
mechanical system, actuator, system dynamics, control
systems and sensors. The control of mechatronics system's
motion is simplified to electric machines motion control that
may or not include gear system . Motion control system and
components, A negative closed loop feedback control system
with forward controller and corresponding simulink model
shown in Fig.1 are to be used. Electric machine is powered and
desired output movements will rely on how the electric motor is
commanded, by using a simple controller of e.g. PIC
microcontroller, and corresponding feedback element,
interfaces and electric machine, the output movements (the
rotation to a fixed speed or angle) can be controlled easily.
Different researches on this theme, can be found, most of it
study separate systems and control design. In [14] modeling,
simulation and analysis of the basic open loop DC motor
system using different approaches; different simplified and
accurate models are derived for different application. In [15]
analysis of how to choose DC motor to be balance with their
applications for a given mobile robot, also, specification of DC
Motor that can be used with desire mobile robot is determined
using MATLAB Simulink model. In [16] an accurate general
purpose mobile robotic platform for system and controller,
selection, design, modeling, testing and validation. In [17] a
model and control of mobile robots are presented. [18]
Addresses mechatronics design, modeling, controller
selection, design, simulation and analysis issues of a simple
robot arm considering all the forces applied upon the system.
In [18] a proposed mechatronics design including modeling
and control selection are introduced.
Meanwhile Mobile system dynamics depends on dynamics
between the surface, wheels and mobile platform, robot arm
dynamics depends on arm's mass, length and shape. The
geometry of the mechanical part determines the moment of
inertia, for simplicity, the mobile platform can be considered to
be of the cuboide or cubic shape. Also, arm is considered as a
rod of mass m, length ℓ, (so that m = ρ*ℓ*s), this rod is rotating
around the axis which passes through its center and is
perpendicular to the rod .The total equivalent inertia, J
equiv
and
total equivalent damping, b
equiv
at the armature of the motor
with gears attaches, can be calculated from known formulae.
Input units Control unit Output unit
Sensors Converters Microcontroller Motor driver
Fig. 1. (a) Mot ion cont rol syst em and component s
Fig. 1. (b) mot ion cont rol using microcont roller, and corresponding
feedback element .
International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMMEIJENS Vol:13 No:02 3
1314026565IJMMEIJENS © April 2013 IJENS
I J E N S
Controller
(angle, speed)
Control voltage,
Vc
Angle or Speed measure e,.g
Potentiometer, Tachometer
Sensor
+

Error, Volt
Angle or Speed
reference (desired)
Volt
Motor shaft
ω or θ
Fig. 1. (c)Two Block diagram represent at ions of PMDC mot or cont rol
Error Angl e or speed
Vpot or Vtach
Robot.mat
To Fi l e
Reference i nput
Output shft
angl e, speed
K
Kpot or Ktach
In1 Out1
DC Motor
Subsystem
P(s)
Control l er to be
sel ected and desi gned
Fig. 1. (d) Preliminary simulink model for negat ive feedback wit h
forward compensat ion
II.I ELECTRIC MOTOR MODELING
The actuators most used in mechatronics motion control
systems, are DC machines (motors). Because their torque
speed characteristics are achievable with different electrical
configurations and their speeds can be smoothly controlled
and in most cases are reversible, also, DC Motor and its
features can be analyzed both by Control System design
calculation and by MATLAB software .There are many DC
motors that may be more or less appropriate to a specific type
of application each has its advantages, limitations and
disadvantages. The designer must select the best one for
specific application. In [11] different types of DC machines, are
introduced with their mathematical models, current and torque
characteristics, it was shown that allmostly, all DC machines
has identical models, therefore any DC machine can be used to
build the proposed motion model, to be accurate for each
particular case, it is required, only, to modify the used actuator
model. DC motors are an example of electromechanical
systems with electrical and mechanical components, it turns
electrical energy into mechanical energy and produces the
torque required to move the load to the desired output
position, θ
L
, or rotate with the desired output angular speed,
ω
L
. The produced torque is exerted to accelerate the rotor and
ultimately this mechanical power will be transmitted through a
gear set to mechanical system part. The fundamental system of
electromagnetic equations for any electric motor is given by
[1415]:
( )
k s
s s s s
k R
s R R b m R
s s s R
R R R S
d
u R i j
dt
d
u R i j P
dt
L i L i
L i L i
µ
µ
¢
e ¢
¢
e e ¢
¢
¢
¹
= + +
¦
¦
¦
= + + ÷
`
¦
= +
¦
¦
= +
)
(1)
Where:
k
e
the angular speed of rotating coordinate system
(reference frame), Depending on motor construction (AC or
DC), the method of the supply and the coordinate system
(stationary or rotating with the rotor or stator flux) the above
mentioned model becomes transformed to the desirable form
[16]. To write the equivalent electric actuator model, for output
speed control, model of a symmetric half of the mobile robot
platform is constructed, the same model is used for output
angle control, as well as for current, torque and acceleration.
The PMDC motor open loop transfer functions without any
load attached relating the input voltage, V
in
(s), to the motor
shaft output angle, θ
m
(s), and speed ω
m
(s), are given by:
{ }
{ }
3 2
2
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
t
in
a m a m m a a m t b
t
in
a m a m m a a m t b
K s
V s
L J s R J b L s R b K K s
K s
V s
L J s R J b L s R b K K
u
e
=
( + + + +
¸ ¸
=
( + + + +
¸ ¸
( ) 2
The transfer function of PMDC, equivalent to robot arm
transfer function, in terms of input volt and output angular
position, is given by:
( ) { }
3 2
( ) *
( )
( ( )
arm t
in
a equiv a equiv equiv a a equiv t b
s K n
V s
L J s R J b L s R b K K s
u
=
(
+ + + +
¸ ¸
( ) 3
The transfer function of PMDC, equivalent to mobile robot
platform transfer function, in terms of input volt and output
angular speed is given by:
2
( ) /
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
mobile t
in a equiv a equiv equiv a a equiv t b
s K n
V s L J s R J b L s R b K K
e
=
( + + + +
¸ ¸
( ) 4
Major mechanical and electrical nonlinearities, (e.g. coulomb
friction), can be included, in this model, which is considered as
disturbance torque, and is given by:
T
e
– T
α
– T
ω
 T
EMF
 T
f
= 0
At steady is given by:
T
f
= T
e
 b*ω
In the following calculation the disturbance torque, T, is all
torques including coulomb friction, and given by T=T
load
+T
f
,
and correspondingly, the openloop transfer function of the
PMDC, is given by:
( ) ( )( )
2
( )
( )
t
open
a a equiv equiv a a b t
K
G s
L s R J s b s L s R T K K
=
+ + + + +
( ) 5
The geometry of the part determines the moment of inertia (e.g.
cuboide, Cylindrical, rod, disc, sphere etc), equations for the
total equivalent inertia, J
equiv
and total equivalent damping,
b
equiv
at the armature of the motor with gears attaches are given
in tables, for mobile robot the mobile platform can be
International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMMEIJENS Vol:13 No:02 4
1314026565IJMMEIJENS © April 2013 IJENS
I J E N S
considered to be of the cuboid or cubic shape and calculated
by Eq.(6), also the total inertia can be calculated from the
energy conservation principle.
2
2 2
1 1
2 2
3
2 2
2
2
1
12 12
0.5* * 0.5* *
*
equiv m Load equiv m Load
mobile arm
total load
total
load
N N
b b b J J J
N N
bh
J J ml
m J
m
J
u e
u
e
   
= + · = +
 
\ . \ .
= · =
=
=
( ) 6
Considering that linear velocity of platform, depends on
motor's angular speed, wheels radius, r, and gear ratio, n,
substituting, gives:
2 2 2
2 2 2
* ,
* * *
*
shaft
total total
load
n r
n
r n
m r m r
J
n n
u e
e e u
e
e
= = ¬ =
= =
Form robot arm application: The moment of inertia of the
robot arm can be found by computing the following integral:
2
/ 2 3 3
/ 2
2
/ 2
/ 2
/ 8 1
2
3 3 12
l
l
l
l
x m l
x sdx s s ml
sl
µ µ
÷
÷
= = =
}
Calculating and substituting values in (6) gives:
J
Load
= (8*(0.4) ^2)/12 = 0.106666666666667 kg.m
2
Substituting, we obtain, J
equiv
,to be :
J
equiv
= J
m
+ J
load *
(1/1)
J
equiv
=0.02+0.107= 0.1267 kg·m²
Obtaining the total damping, b
total
, gives:
b
equiv
= b
m
+ b
load
(1/1)
b
equiv_arm
= 0.03 + 0.09 = 0.12 N.sec/m
Form mobile robot application: The total equivalent inertia,
J
equiv
and total equivalent damping, b
equiv
at the mobile robot
armature of the motor are ,J
equiv
=0.2752 kg.m
2
, b
equiv
= 0.3922
N.m.s. Neglecting the DC motor’s inductance, by assuming L
≈0, we have, transfer function relating input voltage and
output speed:
/
( )
( )
1
t a equiv
t b
equiv
equiv a
K R J
s
V s K K
s b
J R
e
=
 
+ +

\ .
Transfer function relating input V
in
(s) and output current:
1
( )
( )
1
equiv
a equiv
t b
equiv
equiv a
b
s
R J
I s
V s K K
s b
J R
 
+ 

\ .
=
 
+ +

\ .
The transfer function relating the input voltage, V
in
(s), to the
output armature current, I
a
(s), directly follows:
2
1
( )
( )
a
a m a
in equiv a equiv
a b t
a equiv a m a equiv
L
s
L J I s
V s b R b
R K K
s s
L J L J L J
 
+

\ .
=
   
+ + + +  
 
\ . \ .
Equation relating the torque developed by the motor and the
motor shaft angle is given by:
( )
2
( ) 1
( )
m
m equiv equiv
s
T s J s b s
u
=
+
II.II SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODELING
When deriving an accurate mathematical model for motion
system it is important to study and analyze dynamics between
system and surroundings, and considering all the forces
applied upon the system. The suggested model will tested for
mechatronics motion control design applications of two
systems mobile robot and robot arm. For other systems the
proposed model will include a separate block for load torques
of particular application form and dimensions, such that the
model can be applied to any motion control system.
For robotic arm; Torque, T is defined as a turning or twisting
force and is calculated as given next: * T F L = , Where: F The
force acts at a length, L, from a pivot point. The torque
required to hold a mass, m, at a given distance from a pivot is
therefore:
( * ) * T m g L =
To calculate the extra torque required to move (i.e. create an
angular acceleration), we calculate the moment of inertia of the
part from the end to the pivot. For mobile robotic platform; In
[4,13,17] an accurate derivation of all forces acting on mobile
platform system, when it is running are introduced. For mobile
robot, considering dimensions, and the following most acting
forces and corresponding torques, can be considered:
Rolling resistance force,
_ r r
F C C cos( )
R normal force
F Mg o = =
( ) 7
In terms of the vehicle linear speed Eq.(7) becomes:
( )
r0 r1
F M *g* C C * * ( )
R
sign u u =
The rolling resistance torque is given by:
( )
R r
T * *C *cos( ) *
w
M g r o =
( ) 8
The hillclimbing resistance force is given by:
climb
F * *sin( ) M g o =
( ) 9
The hillclimbing resistance, slope, torque, is given by:
( ) 10
( )
climb slope
T T = * *sin( ) *
wheel
M g r o =
The total inertia force of the mobile platform,
slope
F F =M
inertia
d
dt
u
=
The inertia torque is given by:
2
slope
F F =r M
inertia
d
dt
u
=
Aerodynamic Drag force, given by:
2
aerod d
F 0.5 AC
vehicl
µ u =
The aerodynamics torque is given by:
2
aerod d
1
T AC
2
vehicle w
r µ u
 
=

\ .
The angular acceleration force is given by:
International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMMEIJENS Vol:13 No:02 5
1314026565IJMMEIJENS © April 2013 IJENS
I J E N S
2
acc_ angle 2
F
wheel
G
J
r
o =
( ) 11
The angular acceleration torque is given by:
( ) 12
2 2
acc_ angle 2 w
w w
G G
T r J J
r r
o o = =
III. CONTROLLER SELECTION AND DESIGN
The goal for a control system is to achieve a fast response to a
step command with minimal overshoot, and minimum error or
follow a given reference input signal [17]. The modern
advances in electric motors and controllers improve motors
speed, acceleration, controllability, and reliability; also allow
designers a wider choice of power and torque. The term
control system design refers to the process of selecting
feedback gains that meet design specifications in a closedloop
control system. Most design methods are iterative, combining
parameter selection with analysis, simulation, and insight into
the dynamics of the plant [18]. There are many motor motion
control strategies that may be more or less appropriate to a
specific type of application each has its advantages and
disadvantages. The designer must select the best one for
specific application, in [11] most suitable control strategies for
DC motor motion control, are suggested, were different control
strategies were selected, designed, applied and their action
were compared to select the most suitable control of a given
DC motor in terms of output speed and angle, Most of these
suggested control strategies will be applied in suggested
system model, mainly PID, PI, PD as separate blocks to be
applied with and without deadbeat response, also lead and lag
compensators, the designer must select the best controller for
specific application.
Systems design with prefilter: Prefilter is defined as a transfer
function G
p
(s) that filters the input signal R(s) prior to
calculating the error signal. Adding a control system to plant,
will result in the addition of poles and/or zeros, that will effect
the response, mainly the added zero, will significantly inversely
effect the response and should be cancelled by prefilter,
therefore the required prefilter transfer function to cancel the
zero is given by (13). In general. The prefilter is added for
systems with lead networks or PI compensators. A prefilter for
a system with a lag network, mainly, is not, since we expect the
effect of the zero to be insignificant.
( )
Pr
( ) /
efilter O O
G s Z s Z = +
( ) 13
PID controller design: PID controllers are most used to
regulate and direct many different types of dynamic plants the
timedomain, The PID gains are to be designed and tuned to
obtain the desired overall desired response. The PID controller
transfer function is given by:
2
I D P I
PID P D
K K s K s K
G K K
s s
+ +
= + + =
( ) 14
Proportional Integral  PI controller is widely used in variable
speed applications and current regulation of electric motors,
because of its simplicity and ease of design. PI controller
transfer function is given by:
( )
( )
( )
( )
P I I
PI P
I
P
P o P
PI
K s K K
G s K
s s
K
K s
K s Z K
G s
s s
+
= + = =
 
+

+
\ .
= =
( ) 15
Where, Zo: Zero of the PIcontroller, K
P
: The proportional gain.
The PI zero, Z
o
= K
I
/ K
P
, will significantly and inversely effect
the response and should be cancelled by prefilter given by
(13).
Proportional Derivative  PD controller: The transfer
function of PDcontroller is given by Eq.(15) :
( ) ( ) ( )
P
PD P D D D PD
D
K
G s K K s K s K s Z
K
= + = + = +
( ) 16
The PDcontroller is equivalent to the addition of a simple
zero at:
/
PD P D
Z K K =
The required prefilter transfer function to cancel the PI zero at
Z
PI
=K
I
/ K
P
is given by:
( )
_ Pr
( ) /
PI efilter PI PI
G s Z s Z = + (17)
For systems with PD compensators, a prefilter is used to
eliminate any undesired effects of the term s + z introduced in
the closedloop transfer function, the required prefilter transfer
function is given by:
( )
_ Pr
( )
PD
PI efilter
PD
Z
G s
s Z
=
+
Lead compensator: Lead compensator is a soft approximation
of PDcontroller, the following approximated controller transfer
function of PD controller, and called lead compensator is given
by:
( ) Where :
o
C o o
o
s Z
G s K Z P
s P
+
= · <
+
( ) 18
If Z < P this controller is called a lead controller (or lead
compensator). If Z > P : this controller is called a lag controller
(or lag compensator) .
Lag compensator; The Lag compensator is a soft
approximation of PI controller, The Lag compensator transfer
function is given by.
( ) 19
( )
( )
( )
o
lag c
o
s Z
G s K
s P
+
=
+
Where: Z
o
> P
o
, and Z
o
small numbers near zero and Z
o
=K
I
/K
P
, the lag compensator zero. P
o
: small number ,The smaller we
make P
o
, the better this controller approximates the PI
controller.
Lead integral compensator controller transfer function is given
by:
_
( ) ( ) 1
( )
( ) ( )
o o
Lead Integral C C
o o
s Z s Z
G s K K
s s P s s P
+ +
= =
+ +
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I J E N S
Eliminating the steady state error, but disturb transient
response settling time, and overshoot.
III.I POSITION AND VELOCITY FEEDBACK SENSORS
MODELING; POTENTIOMETER AND TACHOMETER
To calculate the error, we need to convert the actual output
(position, speed, torque, current) into voltage, V, then compare
this voltage with the input voltage V
in
, the difference is the
error signal in volts.
Potentiometer is a sensor used to measure the actual output
robot position, θ
L
,convert into corresponding volt, V
p
and
then feeding back this value to controller, the Potentiometer
output is proportional to the actual position, θ
L
, this can be
accomplished as follows: The output voltage of potentiometer
is given by:
V
p
= θ
L
* K
pot
Where: θ
L
:The actual position. K
pot
the potentiometer
constant; It is equal to the ratio of the voltage change to the
corresponding angle change, and given
by:
pot
K (Voltage change) / (Degree change) = . Depending on
maximum desired output arm angle, the potentiometer can be
chosen. for our case, input volt range V
in
= 0:12, and input
angle range θ= 0:180 degrees, substituting, we have:
( ) ( ) 12 0 / 180 0 0.0667 V/ degree
pot
K = ÷ ÷ =
Potentiometer constant K
pot
= 0.0667 V/degree. This value
(0.0667), means that each one input volt corresponds to
180/12= 15 output angle in radians , to obtain a desired output
angular position of 180 , we need to apply 12 volts, to obtain
an angular position of 90 we need to apply
( 90*0.0667= 6.0030 Volts).
Tachometer is a sensor used to measure the actual output
mobile robot angular speed, ω
L .
. Dynamics of tachometer can
be represented using the following equation:
( ) ( ) ( ) * / *
out tac out tac
V t K d t dt V t K u e = = =
The transfer function of the tachometer is given by:
V
out
(s) / ω(s) =K
tac
A suitable linear output speed of domestic mobile robot is to
move with 0.5 m/s, that is:
V/r 0.5/0.075 6.6667 rad / s, e = = =
Tachometer constant, K
tac
= 12 / 6.6667=1.8
III.II THE CONTROL OF OUTPUT POSITION (ROBOT
ARM) WITH POSITION AND VELOCITY FEEDBACK.
For the feedback system shown in Fig.2, a velocity feedback is
used to stabilize systems that tend to oscillate, for this system
the output is the angular displacement, θ
L
, the rate of change of
angular position , dθ
L
(s) /dt, is actual output angular speed,
and the error signal , Ve ,is given by:
* /
e in pot o tac o
V V K K d dt u u = ÷ ÷
Taking Laplace transform, and separating we have:
V
e
(s) = V
in
(s)  θ
L
(s) *(K
pot
 K
tac
*s)
θ
L
(s) = V
e
(s)* K
con
*G
arm
(s)
Substituting, V
e
, we have:
θ
L
(s) = V
e
(s)*K
cont
* G
arm
(s)= K*G(s)[ V
in
(s)  θ
L
(s) *( K
pot

K
tac
*s)]
θ
L
(s) = K
cont
* G
arm
(s)*[ V
in
(s)  θ
L
(s) *( K
pot
+ K
tac
*s)]
θ
L
(s) = K
cont
* G
arm
(s)* V
in
(s)  K
cont
* G
arm
(s)* θ
L
(s) *( K
pot
+
K
tac
*s)
θ
L
(s) + K
cont
* G
arm
(s)* θ
L
(s) *( K
pot
+ Ktac*s ) = K
cont
*
G
arm
(s)* V
in
(s)
θ
L
(s) [ 1 + K
con
t * G
arm
(s)*( K
pot
+ K
tac
*s )] = K
cont
* G
arm
(s)* V
in
(s)
The overall transfer function in terms of input voltage and
output angular position
( )
con arm
arm
K *G ( ) ( )
( )
1 *G ( ) *
L
in
cont pot tac
s s
TF
V s
K s K K s
u
= =
(
+ +
¸ ¸
For this transfer function, if given the DC motor transfer
functions and parameters, controller transfer function and
sensors gains K
pot
, K
tac
, we can evaluate the behavior of our
system
Fig. 2. The cont rol of out put posit ion wit h posit ion and velocit y
feedback.
IV. SYSTEM SIMULATIONS
In the proposed model the following subsystems will be
simulated; electric actuator, input signals, most used and
proved control strategies for motion control, dynamics
between system and surroundings considering all the forces
applied upon the system. Based on derived equations, the
driving torques, can be simulated, with function block model as
shown in Fig. 3(a)(b) , also a repeating sequence stair model
can be used to simulate different disturbance torques. Different
inputs can be applied to the suggested model, to simulate
different real life inputs including; constant input, step, ramp,
motion reference profile, the simulation of motion profile is
shown in Fig. 3(d). PM Motor subsystem simulation is shown
in Fig. 4(a). The proposed model for mechatronics motion
control applications in terms of output speed and/or angle, as
well as torque, current, acceleration and controller action, is
shown in Fig. 4(b), While maintaining accuracy, this model will
simplify as well as accelerate Mechatronics systems design
process, both mechanical system and controller selection,
analysis, design and validation. This model can be used for
International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMMEIJENS Vol:13 No:02 7
1314026565IJMMEIJENS © April 2013 IJENS
I J E N S
any mechatronics motion control application the use PM motor
as prime mover. The model allows designer, using manual
switches, to select each of the following; system to be deigned
and tested, (e.g. mobile robot, robot arm, conveyer ), select
control strategy ( PID, PI, PD, PI, with or without dead beat
response, lead or lag as well as lead integral compensator),
also, select input and disturbances type. The model, also,
allows visual readings of output speed, angle, as well as
torque, current, acceleration and controller action. It is
important to consider that this model can be modified to
include any control strategy, as well as, any DC machine,
depending on particular application, it is required, just to
modify, the used actuator model. The presented model allows
the use of MATLAB PID block, to be used as PI, PD and PID
controller with tuning capabilities, also a separate PD, PI
controllers models are included, as well as prefilter. Also, the
presented is support with MATLAB m.file to define and select
all system's parameters, dimensions and coefficients; that is
PMDC, mobile robot, robot arm, sensor, system dynamics and
controllers gains, poles and zeros, also this m.file can be used
separately to design, analyze derive and plot system's open
loop and closed loop transfer function in terms of output
speed and/or angle, as well as torque, current and acceleration.
r^2*m*g/2
1 Load torqe
si n(u)
cos(u)
Si nCos
Product4
Product2
Product13
Product1
du/dt
Deri vati ve1
C
g
0.5
5
Incl i nati on angl e
4
Angul ar speed
3 r, wheel radi us
2 m ,Load mass
1 Rol l i ng fri cti on coeffi ci ent
Fig. 3. (a) Load t orque simulat ion, considering and not considering
coulomb frict ion
r^2*m*g/2
Coloumb friction
1 Load torqe
sin(u)
cos(u)
SinCos
Product4
Product3
Product2
Product13
Product1
du/dt
Derivative1
C
g
0.5
7
bm
6
motor Torque, Kt*i
5
Inclination angle
4
Angular speed
3 r, wheel radius
2 m ,Load mass
1
Rolling friction coefficient
Fig. 3. (b) Load t orque simulat ion, considering and not considering
coulomb frict ion
Rolling f riction coef f icient
m ,Load mass
r, wheel radius
Angular speed
Inclination angle
Load torqe
Load Subsystem
Fig. 3. (c) Load t orque funct ion block model
1
Out1
Swi tch1
Swi tch
Ramp
sl ope=2
Ramp
sl ope=1
12
Constant
7.999
Cl ock
Fig. 3. (d) mot ion profile simulat ion.
International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMMEIJENS Vol:13 No:02 8
1314026565IJMMEIJENS © April 2013 IJENS
I J E N S
Current
Torque
13 POSITION l i near speed
12 mobi l e l i near speed
11 POSITION LINEAR Accel erati on
10
OUTPUT from angl e feedback
9
OUTPUT from speed feedback
8
control l er si ngal
7
OUTPUT from summi ng to control l er
6
From i nput Vol t to PI fi l ter
5 SPEED LINEAR Accel erati on
4 Torque
3 Curent
2 Angul ar posi ti on
1 Angul ar speed
Sum.4
Sum.1
Product9
Product8
Product7
Product5
Product4
Product3
Product2
Product13 Product12
Product11
Product10
1
s
Integrator.2
1
s
Integrator..4
1
s
Integrator..1
du/dt .
du/dt ,1
du/dt ,
15 Wheel radi us
14 sensor output
13
Ktach, speed feedback
12 n, Gear rati o
11
From PI fi l ter
10
Control l er output
9
Kpot, angl e feedback
8
bm
7
T, Load torque
6
Ra
5
Input Vol tage
4 Kt, Torque constant
3
Kb, EMF constant
2 Jm
1 La
Fig. 4. (a) Mot or subsyst em model.
IV.I MATLAB M.FILE
V.I.I SUPPORTING MATLAB PROGRAM
The model is support with, written below, MATLAB
m.file to define and select all system's parameters,
dimensions and coefficients, controller selection (PID, PI
with deadbeat, PD with deadbeat) analyze, derive and to plot
system's response output results in terms of speed and/or
angle, as well as torque, current and acceleration. Also this
m.file can be used separately to design, motion system and
controller selection (PID, PI with deadbeat, and PD with
deadbeat) analyze, derive and plot system's open loop and
closed loop transfer function and corresponding plots of
response curves:
clc, close all, clear all
format short
% First DC motor (used)parameters
% Vin=12 ; Kt= 1.1882 ; Ra = 0.1557; La
= 0.82; Jm = 0.271; bm=0.271; Kb =
1.185; Jm =0.271 ;n=1;
%Second DC motor (used) parameters
Vin=12 ;V=12; Kt= 0.023 ; Ra = 1; La =
0.23 ; Jm = 0.271; bm=0.03; Kb = 0.023;
n=1;Jm =0.02 ;n=1;
r=0.075;% m wheel radius
g=9.79379 ;% m/s^2, grav. acc.
mobile_robot_wedth=0.580 ;% m
mobile_robot_height=0.920 ;% m
desired_linear_speed=0.5;% m/s
desired_angular_speed=
(desired_linear_speed)/r;
m=100;% mobile total mass
b_mobile=0.09;rolling_f=0.01;Kp_PI=2;Kd_
PD=2;Zo=0.1;
Po=0.11;Kp_compensator=2;Tl=10;
Cr= 0.014; % Rolling Resistance
Coefficient
inclination_angle=45;
M= 8 ; Length=0.4 ; b_arm = 0.09 ;
angle_max=90;V_max =12;
Ktach =Vin/ desired_angular_speed;
Kpot=V_max /angle_max;
Kp_PI=2;Kd_PD=2;Zo=0.1;Po=0.2;
Kp_compensator=2;Tl=10;inclination_angle
=45;
Cr= 0.014; % Rolling Resistance Coe.
% Jm = input(' Enter Motor armature
moment of inertia (Jm) :');
% bm = input(' Enter damping constant
of the the motor system (bm):');
% Kb = input(' Enter ElectroMotive
Force constant (Kb):');
% Kt = input(' Enter Torque constant
(Kt):');
% Ra = input(' Enter electric
resistance of the motor armature (ohms),
(Ra):');
% La =input(' Enter electric
inductance of the motor armature
,Henry,(La) :');
% inclination_angle=input(' Enter
inclination angle :');
disp(' ')
disp( ' ==============================')
num1 = [1];
den1= [La ,Ra];
num2 = [1];
den2= [Jm ,bm];
A = conv( [La ,Ra], [Jm ,bm]);
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1314026565IJMMEIJENS © April 2013 IJENS
I J E N S
TF1 =tf(Kt*n, A);
%obtaining open loop transfer functions
of DC motor system and step response
disp('DC motor OPEN loop transfer
function, Speed/Volt: ')
Gv= feedback(TF1,Kt)
disp( ' ==============================')
disp(' DC motor OPEN loop transfer
function, Angle/Volt: ')
Ga=tf(1,[1,0] )*Gv
subplot(2,1,1),step (V*Ga);title('
Position step response , open loop DC
motor system')
subplot(2,1,2),step (V*Gv);title(' Speed
step response , open loop DC motor
system')
disp( ' ==============================')
disp( ' DC motor response curves are
ploted')
disp( ' ==============================')
disp(' click any key to continue
');pause,home, disp(' ')
x=1;
while 1==1;
home
disp( ' ==============================')
disp(' It is required to design a
robot ARM or MOBILE robot? ')
disp( ' ==============================')
AA= input(' Enter (1) for Robot arm
design and enter (2) for Mobile robot
design: ','s');
disp( ' ==============================')
if strcmp(AA,'2')==1;
home, disp( ' ')
disp(' YOUR
choice is Mobile robot design ')
disp(' Please enter
robot dimensions and parameters :')
disp( ' ==============================')
disp(' click any key to continue
'); pause, home
% wheel_radius= input( ' Enter
mobile robot wheel radius : ' );
% mobile_robot_height= input( '
Enter mobile robot height : ' );
% mobile_robot_wedth= input(
' Enter mobile robot wedth : ' );
% Dist_wheels= input( '
Enter Disttance between wheels : ' );
% desired_linear_speed=
input( ' Enter mobile robot desired
output linear speed : ' );
% m= input( ' Enter mobile
robot total mass : ' );
% friction= input( ' Enter
rolling friction coefficient between the
wheel and road surface : ');
% V = input(' Enter
applied input voltage Vin :');
J_mobile =(mobile_robot_wedth*
(mobile_robot_height)^3)/12;
Jequiv_mobile = Jm+
J_mobile/(n)^2;
bequiv_mobile = bm +
b_mobile/(n)^2;
desired_angular_speed=
(desired_linear_speed)/r;
Ktach =Vin/
desired_angular_speed ;%tachometer
constant
num_mobile=[ Kt*n];
den_mobile=[La*Jequiv_mobile
,(Ra*Jequiv_mobile+bequiv_mobile*La),(Ra
* bequiv_mobile+Kt*Kb)];
disp( ' ==============================')
disp( ' mobile robot open loop transfer
function and step response')
disp( ' mobile robot open loop
transfer function, Omega/Volt')
G_robot_angular_speed_open=tf(num_mobile
, den_mobile)
disp( ' ==============================')
disp( ' mobile robot open loop
transfer function, linear speed/Volt')
G_robot_linear_speed_open=tf(num_mobile,
den_mobile)*r
disp( ' ==============================')
disp( ' mobile robot open loop
transfer function, Vin/Current')
G_robot_volt_current1=tf((1/Ra)*[1,
bequiv_mobile/Jequiv_mobile ],
[1,(1/Jequiv_mobile)*(bequiv_mobile+(Kt*
Kb)/Ra) ])
disp( ' ==============================')
disp( ' mobile robot open loop transfer
function, Vin/Current')
G_robot_volt_current2=tf((1/La)*[1,
La/Jequiv_mobile ],
[1,(Ra/La)+(bequiv_mobile/Jequiv_mobile)
, (Ra*bequiv_mobile/La*Jequiv_mobile+
Kt*Kb/La*Jequiv_mobile) ])
disp( ' ==============================')
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I J E N S
disp( ' mobile robot open loop transfer
function, Torque/Angle')
G_robot_torque_angle=tf([1 ],
[(Jequiv_mobile)^2, bequiv_mobile,0
])
disp( ' ==============================')
disp( ' mobile robot CLOSED loop
transfer function, Linear speed/Vin')
G_robot_linear_speed_closed=feedback(G_r
obot_linear_speed_open, Ktach)
disp( ' ==============================')
disp( ' mobile robot CLOSED loop
transfer function, Vin/Vtach')
G_robot_linear_Vin_V_tach=tf([2*Kt*Ktach
],[r^2*m+2*bequiv_mobile,(Ra*(r^2*m+2*be
quiv_mobile))+La*(rolling_f
+2*Jequiv_mobile),Ra*(rolling_f
+2*Jequiv_mobile)+2*Kb*Kt ])
disp( ' ==============================')
disp( ' mobile robot CLOSED loop
transfer function, Linear speed/Vin')
G_robot_linear_speed_closed=feedback(G_r
obot_linear_Vin_V_tach,Ktach)
fig., subplot(3,2,1),
step(G_robot_angular_speed_open),ylabel(
'Mobile Angular speed, \omega Rad/s
'),xlabel(' Time '), title('Open loop
Mobile Angular speed Rad/s, '), grid,
subplot(3,2,2),step(G_robot_linear_speed
_open),ylabel('Mobile linear speed, \nu
Rad/s '),xlabel(' Time '), title('Open
loopMobile linear speed m/s, '), grid,
subplot(3,2,3),step(G_robot_linear_speed
_closed),ylabel('Mobile linear speed,
\nu Rad/s '),xlabel(' Time '),
title('Closed loop Mobile linear speed
m/s, '), grid,
subplot(3,2,4),step(G_robot_volt_current
1),ylabel('Mobile current Amp
'),xlabel(' Time '), title('simplified
Input volt vs current, '), grid
subplot(3,2,5),step(G_robot_volt_current
2),ylabel('Mobile current Amp
'),xlabel(' Time '), title(' Input volt
vs current, '), grid
subplot(3,2,6),step(G_robot_torque_angle
),ylabel('Mobile torque '),xlabel(' Time
'), title(' Input torque vs angle, '),
grid, fig.
subplot(2,1,1),step(G_robot_linear_Vin_V
_tach),ylabel('Mobile Vin vs Vtach
'),xlabel(' Time '), title(' Input volt
vs tacho output volt, '), grid
subplot(2,1,2),step(G_robot_linear_speed
_closed),ylabel('Mobile speed
'),xlabel(' Time '), title(' Input volt
vs output speed, '), grid
pause(2); home
disp( ' ==============================')
disp( ' select controller; PID or PI
with dead beat response? ')
WW= input( ' Enter (1) for PID, enter
(2) for PI with deadbeat response:
','s');
disp( ' ==============================')
if strcmp(WW,'1')==1;
home, disp( ' '); disp( '
==============================')
disp(' YOUR choice is PID controller
for mobile robot control ')
disp(' Enter PID gains : ')
disp(' you can run simulink model and
use gain from PID block : ')
disp( ' ==============================')
Kp= input( ' Enter Proportional gain, Kp
= ');Kd= input( ' Enter Derivative
gain, Kd = ');Ki= input( ' Enter
Integral gain, Ki = ');PID_num=[ Kd Kp
Ki];PID_den=[ 1 0];
disp( ' ==============================')
disp( ' PID transfer function')
G_PID=tf(PID_num,PID_den)
G_forward_PID=
series(G_PID,G_robot_linear_Vin_V_tach);
disp( ' ==============================')
disp( ' mobile robot closed loop with
PID transfer function, /linear
speed/Vin')
G_mobile_PID_closed=
feedback(G_forward_PID, Ktach);fig.
step(G_mobile_PID_closed),ylabel('Mobile
Vin vs Vtach '),xlabel(' Time '),
title(' Input volt vs tacho output volt,
'), grid;
step(G_robot_linear_speed_closed),ylabel
('Mobile speed '),xlabel(' Time '),
title(' Input volt vs output speed, '),
grid
else strcmp(WW,'2')=1;
home; disp( ' ')
disp( ' ==============================')
disp(' YOUR choice is PI controller with
deadbeat response for mobile robot
control ')
disp( ' ==============================')
alpha=1.9;bita=2.2;Ts=1.2;omega_n=4.04/T
s;
Kp=((bita*(omega_n^2)*n*La*Jequiv_mobile
)
((n*Ra*bequiv_mobile)+(n*Kt*Kb)))/(Kt*Kt
ach); Kp_PI=Kp;
Ki=omega_n^3*n*La*Jequiv_mobile/(Ktach*K
t); ZPI= Ki/Kp; Home, disp(' ')
disp( ' ==============================')
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I J E N S
disp( ' PI controller & Deadbeat
prefilter gains and zero are :')
fprintf(' Kp_PI =%g , Ki=%g
,ZPI=%g \n',Kp,Ki,ZPI);
num_deadbeat=[Ki*Kt/(n*La*Jequiv_mobile)
]; den_deadbeat=[1 , (Ra*Jequiv_mobile
+bequiv_mobile*La)/(La*Jequiv_mobile) ,
((n*Ra*bequiv_mobile)+(n*Kt*Kb)+(Ktach*K
p*Kt))/(n*La*Jequiv_mobile) ,
(Ktach*Ki*Kt)/(n*La*Jequiv_mobile)];
disp( ' ==============================')
disp('Closed loop transfer function with
PI deadbeat respnse & prefilter ')
T_mobile_deadbeat
=tf(num_deadbeat,den_deadbeat)
;fig., step(12*r*T_mobile_deadbeat);
ylabel('Mobile linear speed \nu
'),xlabel(' Time '), title('Mobile
linear, PI with Dead beat response, '),
grid,
end
else strcmp(AA,'1')==1;home
disp( ' ')
disp( ' ==============================')
disp(' YOUR choice is
Robot arm design ')
disp(' Please enter Arm
dimensions and parameters :')
disp( ' ==============================')
% M= input(' Enter robot
arm mass , M=');
% Length = input(' Enter
robot arm Length, L=');
% b_arm= input(' Enter damping
factor of robot arm, b_arm =');
% n= input( 'Enter gear
ratio n = ');
% V = input(' Enter
applied input voltage Vin :');
% V_max = input(' Enter
maximum allowed voltage , V max :');
% Angle_max = input( ' Enter maximum
allowed angle for robot arm : ');
Kpot=V_max /angle_max; % pot
constsnt
Jequiv=((M* Length^2)/12)+Jm;
bequiv= bm + b_arm;
num_arm_open = [Kt*n*(180/pi)];
den_arm_open=[La*Jequiv
(Ra*Jequiv+La*bequiv)
(Ra*bequiv+Kt*Kb) 0];
disp(' ');
disp(' click any key to continue ');
pause; home; disp( '
==============================')
disp('Arm OPEN loop transfer function :
')
Ga_arm_open=tf(num_arm_open,den_arm_open
)
disp( ' ==============================')
disp('Arm CLOSED loop transfer function
: ');
G_close_arm=feedback(Ga_arm_open,(Kpot/n
)); disp( ' Response plots are plotted
'); fig.; subplot(2,1,1),
step(V*Ga_arm_open);ylabel('Arm
position, \theta Rad '),xlabel(' Time
'), title('OPEN loop Arm Angular
position Rad/s, '), grid;
subplot(2,1,2),step(V*G_close_arm);ylabe
l('Arm position, \theta Rad
'),xlabel(' Time '), title('CLOSED loop
Arm Angular position Rad/s, '), grid,
home; disp( '
==============================')
disp( ' select controller; PID, PD with
dead beat response? ')
WWW= input( ' Enter (1) for PID, enter
(2) for PD with deadbeat response:
','s');
disp( ' ==============================')
if strcmp(WWW,'1')
home, disp( ' ')
disp( ' ==============================')
disp(' YOUR choice is PID
controller for robot arm ')
disp(' Enter PID gains : ')
disp(' you can run simulink
model and use gain from PID block : ')
disp( ' ==============================')
Kp= input( ' Enter Proportional gain,
Kp = ');
Kd= input( ' Enter Derivative gain, Kd =
');
Ki= input( ' Enter Integral gain, Ki =
');
PID_num=[ Kd Kp Ki];PID_den=[ 1 0];
Home, disp( ' ')
disp( ' ==============================')
disp( ' PID transfer function')
G_PID=tf(PID_num,PID_den)
disp( ' ==============================')
disp( ' Closed loop Robot arm transfer
function with PID')
G_forward_PID=
series(G_PID,Ga_arm_open);
G_arm_PID_closed=
feedback(G_forward_PID, Kpot)
fig.
step(V*G_arm_PID_closed),ylabel('Arm
angle \theta Rad '),xlabel(' Time '),
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1314026565IJMMEIJENS © April 2013 IJENS
I J E N S
title(' Input volt vs output
Armangle,PID '), grid
else strcmp(WWW,'2')==1;
home, disp( ' ')
disp( ' ==============================')
disp(' YOUR choice is robot arm design
; PD controller with dead bead
controller response ')
disp( ' ==============================')
omega_n=2.4;alpha=1.82 ;
disp( ' PD transfer function = Kds + Kp
is given by :')
Kp=(omega_n*Ra*Jm)/(Kt*Jequiv);
Kp_PD=Kp;Kd=(((alpha*omega_n)(bm/Jm)
((Kt*Kb)/(Jequiv*Ra)))*Ra*Jequiv)/Kt*Kpo
t;ZPD=Kp/Kd;ZPI=ZPD;G_PD=Kd*[ 1 ZPD];
num_arm_PD =G_PD* [Kt*n];
den_arm_PD=[La*Jequiv
(Ra*Jequiv+La*bequiv)
(Ra*bequiv+Kt*Kb) 0];
G_mobile_PD_tf= tf(num_arm_PD,
den_arm_PD);G_mobile_PD_dead_closed=
feedback(G_mobile_PD_tf, Kpot);
disp(' ')
disp( ' ==============================')
disp( ' PD controller & Deadbeat
prefilter gains and zero are :')
fprintf(' Kp_PI =%g , Kd=%g ,ZPd=%g
\n',Kp,Kd,ZPd);
disp( ' ==============================')
disp( ' Prefilter transfer function :');
prefilter_num=[ZPD];prefilter_den=[1
ZPD];G_prefilter=tf(prefilter_num,prefil
ter_den)
disp( ' ==============================')
disp( ' Robot arm overall closed loop
transfer function :')
G_mobile_PD_dead_overall=series(G_prefil
ter,G_mobile_PD_dead_closed)
Fig.,
step(V*G_mobile_PD_dead_overall),ylabel(
'Mobile speed \nu'),xlabel(' Time '),
title(' Arm PD with deadbeat response,
'), grid
disp(' click any key to continue ');
pause, end, end, end,
x=x+1; end
IV.I.II MATLAB CODE FOR PLOTTING ALL
SIMULATION RESPONSE CURVES
By defining blocks in simulink model, running simulation, all
data will de defined in MATLAB workspace , To plot all
response curves, run simulation then the next code, can be
used:
load model1.mat ,load model2 ,load
model3 ,load model4 ,load model5,load
model6,load model7,load model8,load
model9,load model10,load model11;fig.,
subplot(2,2,1);plot(model_angular_positi
on), ylabel('\Theta , Rad'),xlabel('
'), title('Angular position Rad '), grid
subplot(2,2,2);plot(model_angular_speed)
, ylabel('Angular speed, \omega Rad/s
'),xlabel(' '), title('Angular speed
Rad/Time, '), grid; subplot(2,2,4);
plot(model_angular_speed_RPM),
ylabel('Angular speed, RPM
'),xlabel('Time(sec)'), title('Angular
speed RPM, '), grid;
subplot(2,2,3);plot(model_current),
ylabel('Current, Amp
'),xlabel('Time(sec)'), title('Current
Amp/s, '), grid; fig., subplot(2,2,1);
plot(model_Torque), ylabel('Motor
Torque, Nm'),xlabel(' '), title('Motor
Torque Nm/Time '), grid; subplot(2,2,2);
plot(load_torque), ylabel('Load Torque,
Nm'),xlabel(' '), title('Load Torque
Nm/Time '), grid
subplot(2,2,3);plot(model_linear_acceler
ation), ylabel('Linear speed Accel.,
M/s^2'),xlabel('Time(sec)'),
title('Acceleration of Linear speed
M/Time '), grid; subplot(2,2,4);
plot(model_position_linear_acceleration)
, ylabel(' Position Accel.,
M/s^2'),xlabel('Time(sec)'),
title('Acceleration of Position /Time
'), grid, fig., subplot(2,2,1);
plot(model_linear_speed), ylabel('
Mobile linear speed.,
M/s'),xlabel('Time(sec)'), title('mobile
linear speed M/s '),
grid;subplot(2,2,2);plot(model_angel_lin
ear_speed), ylabel(' Angle linear
speed., M/s'),xlabel(' Time(sec) '),
title('Angle linear speed M/s '), grid
subplot(2,2,3); plot(controller_action),
ylabel(' controller_action'),
xlabel('Time(sec)'), title('controller
signal (mA)'), grid
V. TESTING AND ANALYSIS
VI.I Mechatronics motion control design in terms of output
linear speed of Mobile robot; plant, components, controller
selection, design and evaluation of output speed, current,
torque and acceleration and angle.
It is required to select, design and integrate a Mobile robot
system, with suitable selection of it's corresponding
mechanical parts, actuator's and sensor's parameters and
International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMMEIJENS Vol:13 No:02 13
1314026565IJMMEIJENS © April 2013 IJENS
I J E N S
platform dimensions, to move with linear speed of 0.5 m/s,
(that is with angular speed of ω=V/r = 0.5/ 0.075 = 6.6667
Rad./s,), , here notice that, when defining system
parameters, using m.file, designer can chose and define
tachometer constant K
tach
, corresponding to desired output
linear speed.
Now, switching the proposed model to output speed control
(mobile robot, conveyer belts, rolling) ,by switching sensor
to read output speed, selecting input signal to be step input
of 12 volts, selecting PID controller, running supporting
m.file to define system parameters, dimensions and
constrains, and finally running simulation, will result in
output speed, current, torque, acceleration and angle
response curves shown in Fig. 5, also direct visual readings
of all final outputs values can be taken, directly, from the
general model, the simulation results shows that the mobile
robot system, with selected parameters, dimensions and
applying PID controller with suitable gains, reaches, the
desired output linear speed of 0.5 m/s, in 0.35s, and zero
steady state error, constant current consumption, the PID
gains are K
P
=303.417042667051, K
I
= 414.72923375291,
K
D
=18.789820346901 . Now, to test designed system
robustness, Keeping the same parameters, but switching the
input to profile input signal and applying stair changing
disturbance, will result in response curves shown in Fig. 6,
the response curve show that system, while achieving
design criteria, maintain design criteria under disturbance
effect.
Now, to test and analyze the effect of applying Lead
integral compensator, we replace the PID controller, with
Lead integral compensator with Zo=.1; Kp =0.4; Po=0.091;
Ruining the model, will result in response curves shown in
Fig. 7, the gain , pole and zero can be adjusted for better
response.
Now, to test and analyze the effect of applying PI controller
with deadbeat response, we replace the PID controller with,
PI with deadbeat response, by switching the system to PI
controller and switchingon the prefilter, the PI zero, Z
o
= K
I
/
K
P
, can be defined from either supporting m.file calculations
results or using modified PID block to simulate PI and
tuning. Ruining the model, will result in response curves
shown in Fig. 8.
Using the resulted response curves and/or visual readings
from model, we can evaluate and/or validate our selection
and design and correspondingly we can or adjust or select
most suitable controller or change system parameters to
meet design criteria. In conclusion the design, modeling,
simulation and evaluation processes of motion control are
minimized in time, and also simplified.
VI.II Mechatronics motion control design in terms of output
angular displacement of a robot arm: plant and controller
selection, design and evaluation of output angle, current,
torque and acceleration and speed.
It is required to select, design and integrate a single joint
robot arm system, with suitable selection of it's mechanical
part, actuator, sensor parameters and dimensions , so that an
input voltage in the range of 0 to 12 volts corresponds
linearly of Robot arm output angle range of 0 to 180, that is
to move the robot arm to the desired output angular
position, θ
L
, corresponding to the applied input voltage ,V
in
, K
pot
=(12/180=0.0667), Switching the proposed general
model to output angle control (robot arm), by switching
sensor to read output angular displacement, s witching load
torque ,selecting input signal to step input of 12 volts,
selecting PID controller, running supporting m.file to define
system parameters, constrains and parameters, and finally
running simulation, will result in output angular
displacement, current, torque, acceleration and angle
response curves shown in Fig. 9 . Now, changing the
desired output angle output range to 0 to 45. ( for θ = 45,
K
pot
=12/45=0.2667), Ruining the model, will result in
response curves shown in Fig. 10. Using the resulted
response curves and/or visual readings from model, we can
evaluate or validate our selection, design and
correspondingly we can or adjust or replace controller or
change system parameters to meet design criteria.
The proposed general model can be used to test, evaluate
and validate any given mechatronics motion control system
design e.g. electric cars, locomotives, turbines, robotics,
conveyer belts, rolling, cutting, welding, saws and bending
machines.
0 0.5 1 1.5
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Time(sec)
M
o
b
i
l
e
l
i
n
e
a
r
s
p
e
e
d
.
,
M
/
s
mobile linear speed M/s
0 0.5 1 1.5
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Time(sec)
A
n
g
l
e
l
i
n
e
a
r
s
p
e
e
d
.
,
M
/
s
Angle linear speed M/s
Fig. 5. (a) mobile robot out put linear speed, and angle change vs t ime
responses
0 0.5 1 1.5
5
0
5
10
O
,
R
a
d
Angular position Rad
0 0.5 1 1.5
5
0
5
10
A
n
g
u
l
a
r
s
p
e
e
d
,
e
R
a
d
/
s
Angular speed Rad/Time,
0 0.5 1 1.5
50
0
50
100
Time(sec)
A
n
g
u
l
a
r
s
p
e
e
d
,
R
P
M
Angular speed RPM,
0 0.5 1 1.5
0
100
200
300
Time(sec)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
,
A
m
p
Current Amp/s,
Fig. 5. (b) mobile robot out put angular posit ion, angular speed,
current vs t ime responses
International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMMEIJENS Vol:13 No:02 14
1314026565IJMMEIJENS © April 2013 IJENS
I J E N S
0 0.5 1 1.5
0
100
200
300
M
o
t
o
r
T
o
r
q
u
e
,
N
m
Motor Torque Nm/Time
0 0.5 1 1.5
100
0
100
200
L
o
a
d
T
o
r
q
u
e
,
N
m
Load Torque Nm/Time
0 0.5 1 1.5
10
0
10
20
30
Time(sec)
L
i
n
e
a
r
s
p
e
e
d
A
c
c
e
l
.
,
M
/
s
2
Acceleration of Linear speed M/Time
0 0.5 1 1.5
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Time(sec)
P
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
A
c
c
e
l
.
,
M
/
s
2
Acceleration of Position /Time
Fig. 5. (c) mobile robot out put mot or t orque, load t orque, linear
accelerat ion and accelerat ion vs t ime responses.
0 2 4 6
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Time(sec)
M
o
b
i
l
e
l
i
n
e
a
r
s
p
e
e
d
.
,
M
/
s
mobile linear speed M/s
0 2 4 6 8
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
Time(sec)
A
n
g
l
e
l
i
n
e
a
r
s
p
e
e
d
.
,
M
/
s
Angle linear speed M/s
Fig. 6. (b) mobile robot out put linear speed, and angle change vs t ime
responses applying mot ion profile input .
0 2 4 6
10
0
10
20
30
O
,
R
a
d
Angular position Rad
0 2 4 6
5
0
5
10
A
n
g
u
l
a
r
s
p
e
e
d
,
e
R
a
d
/
s
Angular speed Rad/Time,
0 2 4 6
50
0
50
100
Time(sec)
A
n
g
u
l
a
r
s
p
e
e
d
,
R
P
M
Angular speed RPM,
0 2 4 6
0
50
100
150
Time(sec)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
,
A
m
p
Current Amp/s,
Fig. 6. (b) mobile robot out put angular posit ion, angular speed and
current response curves applying mot ion profile. input
0 5 10 15 20
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Time(sec)
M
o
b
i
l
e
l
i
n
e
a
r
s
p
e
e
d
.
,
M
/
s
mobile linear speed M/s
0 5 10 15 20
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Time(sec)
A
n
g
l
e
l
i
n
e
a
r
s
p
e
e
d
.
,
M
/
s
Angle linear speed M/s
0 5 10 15 20
0
5
10
15
Time(sec)
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
l
e
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
controller signal (mA)
Fig. 7. Mobile robot ; linear speed vs t ime response applying Lead
int egral compensat or
0 2 4 6
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Time(sec)
M
o
b
i
l
e
l
i
n
e
a
r
s
p
e
e
d
.
,
M
/
s
mobile linear speed M/s
0 2 4 6
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Time(sec)
A
n
g
l
e
l
i
n
e
a
r
s
p
e
e
d
.
,
M
/
s
Angle linear speed M/s
0 2 4 6
500
0
500
1000
Time(sec)
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
l
e
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
controller signal (mA)
Fig. 8. Mobile robot out put linear speed vs t ime response of applying
PI wit h deadbeat response.
0 5 10
0
50
100
150
200
O
,
R
a
d
Angular position Rad
0 5 10
50
0
50
100
Time(sec)
A
n
g
u
l
a
r
s
p
e
e
d
,
e
R
a
d
/
s
Angular speed Rad/Time,
0 5 10
1
0
1
2
3
Time(sec)
M
o
t
o
r
T
o
r
q
u
e
,
N
m
Motor Torque Nm/Time
0 5 10
5
0
5
10
Time(sec)
A
n
g
l
e
l
i
n
e
a
r
s
p
e
e
d
.
,
M
/
s
Angle linear speed M/s
Fig. 9. (a) Robot arm response; out put posit ion, t orque, speed vs
t ime response curves
0 5 10
2
0
2
4
6
Time(sec)
P
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
A
c
c
e
l
.
,
M
/
s
2
Acceleration of Position /Time
0 5 10
50
0
50
100
Time(sec)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
,
A
m
p
Current Amp/s,
0 5 10
5
0
5
10
15
x 10
4
Time(sec)
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
l
e
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
controller signal (mA)
0 5 10
500
0
500
1000
Time(sec)
A
n
g
u
l
a
r
s
p
e
e
d
,
R
P
M
Angular speed RPM,
Fig. 9. (b) Robot arm response ; accelerat ion, current and speed vs
t ime response curves
0 1 2 3 4
20
0
20
40
60
Time (seconds)
A
n
g
l
e
Output Angle
0 1 2 3 4
50
0
50
100
150
Time (seconds)
o
m
e
g
a
Output speed
0 1 2 3 4
1000
0
1000
2000
.
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Torque
0 1 2 3 4
50
0
50
100
150
.
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Current
Fig. 10. Robot arm out put posit ion and Speed vs t ime response curves
for desired out put of 45, K
pot
=0.2667
International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMMEIJENS Vol:13 No:02 15
1314026565IJMMEIJENS © April 2013 IJENS
I J E N S
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IT
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Fig. 4. The general purpose model, for mechat ronics mot ion cont rol applicat ions in t erms of out put speed and/or angle, as well as t orque, current and
accelerat ion
VI. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
The proposed model with load torque models is limited to
motion control systems design, and tested particularly, for
mobile robotic platforms speed and single joint robotic arms
position using electric actuators as prime mover, but can,
also, be used for system and motions control design and
verification of any given system, considering system's load
torque and inertia. The proposed model can be modified to
include any control strategy and/or any actuator model
CONCLUSION
To help in facing the two top challenges faced in developing
mechatronic systems, while maintaining desired accuracy
and to optimize system level performance to meet the design
requirements, an accurate mathematical and simulink models
are proposed for accurate mechatronics design and
verification of both system and control of motions
throughout Mechatronics systems design and development
process, including proper selection, analysis, integration
and verification of the overall system and subsystems
performance in terms of output speed, angle, torque, current,
acceleration and signals, resulting in simplifying and
accelerating Mechatronics systems design process. The
proposed models intended to be used for research purposes
in mechatronics motion systems design, motion control
applications, as well as, for the application in educational
process. The proposed model can be modified to include
any control strategy and/or any actuator. The model was
created and verified using MATLAB simulink software.
The proposed model can be used to select most suitable
control strategy (P, PI, PD, PID, lead, lag, lead integral and
deadbeat response) for corresponding motion control and
to ensure achieving all design requirements, also test,
evaluate and validate any given mechatronics motion
International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMMEIJENS Vol:13 No:02 16
1314026565IJMMEIJENS © April 2013 IJENS
I J E N S
control system design including; electric cars, locomotives,
turbines, robotics, conveyer belts, rolling, cutting, welding,
saws and bending machines, where designer using the
resulted, from model, response curves and/or visual
numerical readings, can early identifying system level
problems and ensuring that all design requirements are met ,
therefore the design, modeling, simulation and verifying
processes of motion control are minimized in time and also
simplified.
REFERENCES
[1] Wilfried Voss, ''A Comprehensible Guide t o Servo Mot or Sizing'',
Published by Copperhill Technologies Corporat ion,
Massachuset t s, 2007.
[2] Devdas Shet t y, Richard A. Kolk, Mechat ronics Syst em Design,
Second Edit ion, SI, Cengage Learning, 2011.
[3] K. Craig, F. St olfi, “Teaching cont rol syst em design t hrough
mechat ronics: academic and indust rial perspect ives.”
Mechat ronics, Vol 12, No. 2, pp. 371381, 2002.
[4] Vasilije S. Vasić , Mihailo P. Lazarević, St andard Indust rial
Guideline for Mechat ronic Product Design , FME Transact ions,
104 , vol. 36, No 3, 2008.
[5] Grzegorz Seiklucki,Analysis of t he TransferFunct ion Models of
Elect ric Drives wit h Cont rolled Volt age Source PRZEGL ˛ AD
ELEKTROTECHNICZNY (Elect rical Review), ISSN 0033
2097, R.88NR7a/2012
[6] Yu Wang, Ying Yu,Chun Xie, Xiaoyang Zhang, Weizhi Jiang, A
proposed approach t o mechat ronics design educat ion:
Int egrat ing design met hodology, simulat ion wit h project s,
Mechat ronics, November 2012.
[7] Ahmad A. Mahfouz, Mohammed M. K. , Farhan A. Salem
Modeling, simulat ion and dynamics analysis issues of elect ric
mot or, for mechat ronics applicat ions, using different
approaches and verificat ion by MATLAB/Simulink (I). I.J.
Int elligent Syst ems and Applicat ions, 2013, 05, 3957.
[8] Wai Phyo Aung, Analysis on Modeling and Simulink of DC
Mot or and it s Driving Syst em Used for Wheeled Mobile Robot ,
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 32
2007
[9] Farhan A. Salem ; Mechat ronics design of general and accurat e
model for Mechat ronics mobile robot ic plat form syst em and
cont roller, select ion, design, modeling, t est ing and validat ion.
Submit t ed and under review t o Est onian Journal of Engineering,
2013
[10] Bashir M. Y. Nouri ,modeling and cont rol of mobile robot s
Proceeding of t he First Int ernat ional Conference on Modeling,
Simulat ion and Applied Opt imizat ion, Sharjah, U.A.E. February
13, 2005.
[11] Farhan A. Salem Ahmad A. Mahfouz, Modeling, cont roller
select ion and design of elect ric mot or for mechat ronics mot ion
applicat ions, using different cont rol st rat egies and verificat ion
using MATLAB/Simulink (II). Submit t ed and accept ed, , 2012
[12] Ahmad A. Mahfouz, Ayman A. Aly, Farhan A.
Salem,"Mechat ronics Design of a Mobile Robot Syst em", IJISA,
vol.5, no.3, pp.2336, 2013.
[13] Farhan A. Salem, Mechat ronics design of Small elect ric Vehicle's
,Int ernat ional Journal of Mechanical & Mechat ronics
Engineering 13107015252 IJMME / IJENS
[14] M.P.Kazmierkowski, H.Tunia "Aut omat ic Cont rol of
Convert erFed Drives", Warszawa 1994.
[15] R.D. Doncker, D.W.J. Pulle, and A. Velt man. Advanced Elect ri
cal Drives: Analysis, Modeling, Cont rol. Springer, 2011.
[16] Farhan A. Salem, Mechat ronics mot ion cont rol design of
elect ric mot or for desired deadbeat response specificat ions,
support ed and verified by new MATLAB built in funct ion and
simulink model, Submit t ed t o Int. J. Intelligent Systems
Technologies and Applications, 2012
[17] Hedaya Alasooly, Cont rol of DC mot or using different cont rol
st rat egies, global journal of t echnology and opt imizat ion, volum
2 , 2011.
[18] Mat hWorks, 2001, Int roduct ion t o MATLAB, t he Mat hWorks,
Inc. Cont rol Syst em Toolbox, t he Mat hWorks, Inc.
[19] Richard C. Dorf, Robert H. Bishop, Modern Cont rol Syst ems 12
Ed, Pearson Educat ion, Inc., 2001
[20] Thomas R. Kurfess, “Robot ic and Aut omat ion Handbook,”
Washingt on, D.C., Unit ed St at es of Amarica, 2005.
[21] M.P.Kazmierkowski, H.Tunia "Aut omat ic Cont rol of
Convert erFed Drives", Warszawa 1994.
NAMENCLATURE
Symbol Quantity UNIT
Vin The applied input voltage Volte, V
R
a
Armature resistance Ohm ,Ω
i
a
Armature current Ampere, A
K
t
Motor torque constant N.m/A
K
e
Motor backelectromotive force. V/(rad/s)
ω
m
Motor shaft angular velocity rad/s
T
m
Torque produced by the motor N.m
J
m
Motor armature moment of inertia kg.m
2
J
total
Total inertia=Jm+Jload kg.m
2
L
a
Armature inductance Henry , H
b Viscousdamping friction coefficient N.m/rad.s
e
a
,EMF: The back electromotive force, e
a
,EMF:
θ
m
Motor shaft output angular
position
radians
ω
m
Motor shaft output angular speed rad/sec
M The mass of the platform and
cargo
Kg
g The gravity acceleration m/s
2
α Road or the hill climbing angle,
road slope
Rad
C
r
The rolling resistance coefficients
C
d
Aerodynamic drag coefficient
Zo Zero of the PIcontroller
T
f
coulomb friction torque
K
P
The proportional gain,:
K
I
The Integral gain
K
D
The derivative gain
K
PI
The proportional coefficient
K
pot
The potentiometer constant
International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMMEIJENS Vol:13 No:02 17
1314026565IJMMEIJENS © April 2013 IJENS
I J E N S
K
tac
The tachometer constant
Farhan Atal l ah Sal em AbuMahfouz:
B.Sc., M.Sc and Ph.D., in Mechat ronics of
product ion syst ems. Now he is ass. professor
in Taif Universit y, Mechat ronics sec., Dept .
of Mechanical Engineering and direct or of
alpha cent er for engineering st udies and
t echnology researches. Research Int erest s;
Design, modeling and analysis of primary
Mechat ronics Machines. Cont rol and algorit hm select ion, design and
analysis for Mechat ronics syst ems. Rot or Dynamics and Design for
Mechat ronics applicat ions
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