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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Chapter 1: Introducing Chemistry: Its Scope and Measurement EPISODE 1: CHEMISTRY IS EVERYWHERE OVERVIEW This first

episode is an introduction to the science of chemistry. Chemistry is an active, evolving science that is of vital importance in our quest to understand ourselves and our world better, and in our desire to further improve the quality of our lives. The various applications of chemistry contribute greatly to efforts of finding better ways of doing things. This lesson shows how chemistry helps us meet our needs and solve some problems that confront our society and our environment as we strive for a cleaner and safer place to live in. OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to: 1. state the importance of chemistry to oneself and ones environment; 2. cite examples of chemicals and processes that are commonly encountered in daily life; 3. appreciate the valuable contributions of chemistry to improving the quality of life; 4. realize the importance of chemical knowledge in contributing positively to society; and 5. describe the nature of the work of chemists. INTEGRATION WITH OTHER LEARNING AREAS This lesson serves as the springboard to the next episode which defines chemistry and describes its applications. SCIENCE PROCESSES Observing Experimenting Measuring Interpreting Organizing

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION VALUES Appreciation for nature Acknowledging the importance of Gods creations Care for the environment Critical mindedness Humility

LIFE SKILLS Making accurate observations Formulating inferences IMPORTANT CONCEPTS 1. Chemical technology is the application of one or more principles of chemistry to address a particular issue or problem. The technology may be in the form of a new device, process, procedure or chemical product. 2. Chemical processes are events involving one or more chemical reactions. Some commonly used chemical processes include combustion of fuels to produce energy, fractional distillation in the separation of components of liquid mixtures, fermentation or the conversion of sugars into alcohol, and the extraction of valuable metals from ores. 3. Chemistry plays a vital role in the improvement of the quality of life through various applications in the following areas of human needs: food and agriculture, clothing, shelter, health and sanitation, sports and leisure, energy industry, education, transportation and communication. 4. Chemists perform any or all of the following tasks: a. discover and formulate new compounds and chemical processes; b. identify and study the structure, composition and behavior of substances or mixtures; c. purify substances or isolate them from mixtures; and d. evaluate and analyze finished products in industry. BACKGROUND INFORMATION/EPISODE CONTENT Everything Around Us Is Chemicals. Chemistry is the study of everything in us and around us: the air we breathe, the water we drink, the food we eat, the medicines we take, the materials and tools we use, and even the substances that make up our bodies. All these are examples of matter and they are all products of chemical processes. Everything we see, smell, taste, and touch involve chemicals (matter) and hearing, seeing, tasting, and touching all involve intricate series of chemical reactions and 2 Making conclusions

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION interactions in our body. With such an enormous range of coverage, it is essential to know about chemistry at some level in order to understand ourselves and the world around us. Chemical Technology. The science of chemistry touches our lives in many ways. The application of the knowledge and principles of chemistry to address a specific need is called chemical technology. The rapid development in chemical technology has raised our standards of living over the years. Materials for food, clothing, shelter, sports, leisure, health, sanitation, education, transportation, communication, and many other aspects of our lives have been produced and improved through chemical technology. The Work of Chemists. The numerous valuable contributions of chemistry to society are the results of the work of chemists. Chemists analyze and determine the composition of unknown substances and make them known to the public. Many substances are extracted from mixtures and purified by chemists to find new and better uses for these products. With the aid of computers and sophisticated tools, chemists are able to design and synthesize compounds for use in industry, agriculture, and medicine. Complex biological processes and their functions are better understood with the help of the careful studies done by chemists. Working together with other professionals such as doctors, biotechnologists, biologists, pharmacists, and other scientists, chemists contribute in efforts to find cures for diseases, alleviate suffering, and prevent untimely deaths. The Role of Chemistry. Researches in chemistry help us recognize and warn us of emerging environmental problems such as air pollution, global warming, and acid rain. Studies also help us find and develop a wide range of environment-friendly products to make life more convenient. The role that chemistry plays in the improvement of society and of the quality of life cannot be ignored. Chemistry and the application of its principles have helped greatly in making our society safe and self-sufficient. The following are some of the areas of human needs where chemistry has played an important role. Agriculture and Food Production. Scientists all over the world are focused on the efforts of producing more food to feed the worlds increasing population. Chemistry contributes to food production through the development of environment-friendly and cost-effective farm and agrochemical fertilizers, pesticides, plant hormones, and growth regulators. Chemistry has been in the forefront in the development of biotechnological tools to support breeding for disease and pest resistance and improved yield among crops and livestock. The science of chemistry has also made 3

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION significant contributions to the area of food preservation, soil and nutrient conservation, and the discovery and manufacture of food sources. Population Controls. Chemistrys contributions to the management of human population come in the form of researches focused towards a better understanding of the human reproductive cycle. As a result of these studies, drugs have been produced to either enhance human reproduction (e.g. clomiphene, a drug which stimulates ovulations promoting fertility) or help promote manageable family sizes through birth control (e.g. oral contraceptive pills and injectables). Energy. Chemistry has provided man with instant sources of electrical energy such as primary cells with longer discharge lives and secondary cells with better rechargeability. Chemical researches are into improving petroleum-processing technology and developing non-conventional sources such as nuclear energy and solar energy. Shelter and Clothing. Construction materials such as sand, cement, glass, steel, metal roofs, iron nails, wood, paint, plastic, varnishes, and many others are products of chemical processes. Materials for clothing and other garments are also products of chemical processes. Chemistry has likewise helped in the production of synthetic fibers and in the improvement of the quality of natural fibers from plants. Health and Sanitation. Chemistry has made significant contributions in the maintenance of human health through the development of preventive and healing drugs such as sulfa drugs, anesthetics, steroids, vaccines, and antibiotics, and beauty products, such as soaps, toothpastes, shampoos, and other cleaning agents. Education and Communication. Materials used for educational tools such as writing implements, blackboards, and chalk, as well as those for making computers, telephones, radios, televisions, video and facsimile machines, and satellites are products chemistry research and processes. Other Areas. Chemistry has also played an important role in the field of transportation, sports, and recreations. Products like fuel for automobile engines, synthetic rubber for tires, nylon sails for boats, fiber glass-reinforced polyester, plastics for ship bodies, and lighter metal alloy for airplane bodies, have modernized all means of travel by land, water or air. Sports and recreation have also benefited from chemistry applications through improvements in the manufacture of balls, tennis rackets, rubber shoes, golf irons, fishing rods, and skateboards. An interesting way of expressing how much our lives depend on or have been changed by chemistry is to show that many things are not possible without chemistry! Check out the box that follows this section.

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION

No plastic. That means no plastic bags, no CDs or DVDs, no iPods, no plastic silverware or plastic cups and plates, no scotch tape, no styrofoam, no synthetic fabrics (like nylon, fleece, rayon, and kevlar). Many parts of a car are made of plastic too. No gasoline. No driving fancy cars! No pharmaceuticals. Modern medicine wouldn't exist. No aspirin, no pain killers! No water purification. Drinking water would make you sick half the time. Most of sewage treatment is done using chemistry. No synthetic fertilizers. Farming and food production wouldn't be nearly as productive and starvation would be a massive problem. Insecticides are also made by chemists. No paint. No cosmetics. No processed foods. No air conditioning. No refrigeration. No soap and cleaning products. No photography. No televisions. No radios. No computers. No glue. No batteries. No electricity in your house. There's probably nothing you've done or used today that did not involve chemistry. You'd have to go back to living in a cave to get away from all of these!
Source: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_does_chemistry_affect_our_daily_lives

VOCABULARY WORDS 1. Chemical technology - the application of one or more principles of chemistry to address a particular issue or problem. 2. Chemist one who analyzes and determines the composition of unknown substances. 3. Combustion - burning of fuels to produce energy. 4. Fractional distillation a method of separating components of liquid mixtures based on the differences in their boiling points. 5

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 5. Fermentation - the conversion of carbohydrates into alcohols or acids. 6. Extraction a method of separating valuable metals from ores. PRE-VIEWING ACTIVITIES A. Reflection. Ask the students to write on a small sheet of paper what the term chemical means to them and if the word connotes something good or bad. Ask them to give examples of a chemical. B. Research. Ask the students to look around them and cite examples of materials that they think were produced or developed with the use of chemistry or chemical processes. Let them form small groups and select a product whose production or development they are to research on. Ask them to identify any chemistry involved in the preparation of the selected product. C. Pose the Guide Questions which the students will answer after viewing the episode. Ask them to focus on finding the answers to the Guide Questions as they watch the video. Guide Questions/Answers 1. In what ways is chemistry part of our everyday life? Some possible answers are: The many commercial products we are using everyday are the results of the application of chemistry principles. The food we eat are chemicals and there is chemistry involved in their preparation or production. The processes occurring in our body are all chemical processes. 2. What are the contributions of chemistry to society? Answers of the students may vary but should show their reflections on improvements in society and the community that chemistry may have helped bring about. The different areas where chemistry plays an important role include agriculture and food production, population control, clothing and shelter, sources of energy, health and sanitation, education and communication, transportations, sports and recreation. 3. How does chemistry contribute to the improvement of the quality of living? Again, many answers are possible. Students can cite more direct impacts of chemistry on their lives, including health and fitness, food and nutrition, technological advancements that make life more convenient, etc. You may cite how certain activities are done differently now compared to half a decade ago, and the contribution of chemistry in these changes. 6

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 4. What is the role played by chemistry in the preservation of the environment? Answers of students may vary. Chemists continuously develop and discover environment-friendly products. Researches in chemistry help us recognize the source of environmental problems, and warn us of emerging problems such as air pollution, global warming and acid rain. 5. What applications of chemistry are involved in your household activities? Cooking food, cleaning and doing laundry make use of materials that are products of chemistry. In the kitchen alone, salt, sugar, lye, and vinegar are all chemical products. 6. Why do we say that chemistry is mans industrial partners? Factories and industries involved in the production and manufacture of industrial and construction materials and products utilize chemical processes. 7. What are the tasks of a chemist? Answers of students may vary. Chemists analyze and determine the composition of unknown substances or mixtures.. They purify or isolate substances from mixtures; they formulate new and better products from these. They design and synthesize new compounds. They study complex biological processes and their functions. With the help of other health professionals, chemists also help find cures for diseases. VIEWING ACTIVITIES

Let the students view as introduction to the course segments 2:56 8:44 and 12:15 20:00.

POST-VIEWING ACTIVITIES Discuss the answers to the Guide Questions. TEACHING TIPS Suggested Activities A. Collage-Making. Prepare a collage from cutout pictures of different products of chemical technology to show to the class. Have the students identify the field or area of human needs wherein these products are used (Examples: telephone for communication, ceramic tiles for shelter, hamburgers for food). Make a list of these on the board. 7

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Divide the class into five groups. Assign each group to prepare their own collage of chemical products in a specific field of human need. Encourage them to be more creative in their work by asking them to make various designs for their collage. Ask them present their work to the class through group reporting the next day. While one group is reporting, ask the other groups to take note of the ideas being presented. After all the groups have presented, ask the students about the impact of chemistry on their lives in particular and on society in general. B. Role Playing 1. From the collage you presented to the class, instruct each group to select and focus on one chemical product. Ask the groups to develop a short skit portraying life before and after the product they selected was made. Ask them to predict what kind of improvements will be made to this product in the future. After twenty (20) minutes of preparation, allot five (5) minutes for each group to present their skit to the rest of the class. C. Reflective Thinking/Brainstorming. Divide the class into five groups. Ask each group to produce a collective opinion on the questions given below. Ask the groups to share their answers with the rest of the class through group reporting. CHANGES DUE TO CHEMISTRY Change or development at Benefits Home

Ill effects

School

Community

Do you think the good and bad implications are due to changes brought by chemical technology? If not, what are the possible causes of these observed implications? D. Role Playing 2. Ask the students to create a scenario wherein a man from the 21st century was transported in a time machine to the early days of datus and rajahs. Tell the students to write a skit in which this 21 st century man explains to the early Filipinos his way of life brought about by the advances in technology, giving emphasis to the positive and negative effects of chemical technology. E. Recitation. The following are some guide questions for the conduct of a recitation: 8

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 1. Explain how chemistry is related to food and nutrition, agriculture, medicine, energy and power, transportation and communication. 2. Give three chemical processes or activities that people in your community employ or engage in. 3. What are the implications of chemical technology? 4. Explain the statement: Chemistry is everywhere. F. Album Making. Ask the students to make an album showing the many contributions of chemistry to society. G. Written Report. Ask the students to select a news or feature article from a recent newspaper and explain how chemistry can contribute to its solution. ASSESSMENT Quiz. Multiple Choice. Choose the letter corresponding to the best answer. 1. In which condition is technology NOT applied? A. A student manipulating a computer. B. A child playing with battery-operated car. C. A woman washing clothes with laundry soap. D. A girl wearing an amulet for good luck. 2. Which of the following DOES NOT describe the work of chemists? A. Finding new uses for compounds. B. Analyzing the composition of compounds. C. Throwing away unidentified materials. D. Relating the structure of materials to their functions. 3. Which activity involves chemistry? A. Refining of crude oil. B. Making flour from banana waste. C. Recovering waste materials from old batteries. D. All of the above. 4. Which of the following is NOT an example of chemical process utilized for practical purposes? A. Fractional distillation of crude oil B. Fermentation of sugars to alcohol C. Burning of wood D. Cutting hair 5. Which of the following statements is TRUE for chemistry? A. Chemistry can solve all the problems of man. B. Chemistry happens only in the laboratory. 9

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION C. D. Chemicals are harmful to health. Chemists produce useful products for society.

ANSWER KEY Quiz. 1. D 2. C 3. D 4. D 5. D

REFERENCES Magno, M. (1991). Science and technology lll (SEDP Series). QC: Book Media. Catris L. (1990). Science and technology lll. QC: Phoenix. Scott. W. H. (1996). Chemistry basic facts. Great Britain: Harper-Collins. PASMEP & UP-ISMED. (1995). Teaching resource in chemistry. NISMED. QC: UP-

Useful Websites https://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/memberapp?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=PP_TRA NSITIONMAIN&node_id=880&use_sec=false&sec_url_var=region1 https://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/memberapp?nfpb=true&_pageLabel=mapp_sea rch www.chemistry.dit.ie/competition01/hawkesclancy/kitchen/kitchen.html - 6k Source :http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_does_chemistry_affect_our_daily_lives http://www.nature.com/nature/links/020926-2.html www.chemistry.dit.ie/competition01/hawkesclancy/kitchen/kitchen.html-6k

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Chapter 1: Introducing Chemistry: Its Scope and Measurement EPISODE 2: WHAT IS CHEMISTRY? OVERVIEW The previous episode showed us that chemistry is indeed everywhere. Chemistry is part of almost every aspect of our lives, our culture, and our environment. Its scope encompasses the air we breathe, the food we eat, the clothing we wear, the dwelling we live in, and the transportation and fuel that we use. Chemistry is related to other fields such as medicine, psychology, biology, physics, mathematics, to name some. But what really is chemistry? This episode describes and defines chemistry in the segment Chemistry Defined, and shows the activities of chemists, and the instruments that aid them in their work in the second segment, Chemistry and Technology. This later segment also lists some of the contributions of chemistry to human progress. OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to: 1. define chemistry; 2. describe the concerns of chemistry; 3. enumerate some scientific instruments that aid chemists in analyzing substances; 4. appreciate the role of chemistry in daily life; 5. cite contributions of chemistry to other fields and sciences; 6. show concern and initiative for the conservation of the environment; and 7. demonstrate self-awareness, creative thinking, and productive and entrepreneurial skills. INTEGRATION WITH OTHER LEARNING AREAS This episode serves as the second and more substantial introduction to a beginning course in chemistry. The scope of chemistry and some specific areas of study are described. SCIENCE PROCESSES Observing Classifying Inferring Predicting Communicating

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION VALUES Care for the environment Open mindedness Trustworthiness LIFE SKILLS Creative and critical thinking Decision making Self awareness IMPORTANT CONCEPTS 1. Chemistry is the study of matter its composition, properties, structure, and the changes it undergoes. 2. Chemistry is extremely broad and encompassing. Its scope includes the whole universe from the largest object in space to particles too small for us to detect. 3. The tasks of chemists include the following: interpret natural phenomena, devise experiments to reveal the composition and structure of simple and complex substances, study methods for improving natural processes, and synthesize new substances and find applications for them. 4. Chemistry has diverse contributions to human progress, and helps solve the communitys urgent problems. BACKGROUND INFORMATION/EPISODE CONTENT Chemistry Defined. Chemistry is the study of matter, all of it and everything about it. It is the study of what matter is, what it is made of, what properties make it useful, and how it can be changed into other forms. One concern of Chemistry: composition of materials. One of the concerns of Chemistry is to determine the composition of materials. The video lesson made use of a sample of spring water as an example of material whose composition is important to know to enable us to answer questions about its contents and safety characteristics. Instruments Used in Chemical Analysis. An accurate determination of the composition of materials requires analytical procedures that make use of various scientific instruments. Some of these are described below: 12 Interpersonal skills Empathy Recognition of ones accountability Humility

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION The High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC) is used to determine the composition of samples such as pesticide residues by separating the components and detecting them as they emerge from a separation column. The identity and quantity of the components can be determined by comparison against standards. The Ion Chromatograph (IC) is used to determine ionic pollutants such as chlorides, nitrites, and phosphates in parts-per-million levels in aqueous samples. The Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) is used to determine the presence and amounts of metal ions such as lead and mercury, two metals that are among the most hazardous pollutants found in water.

A second concern of Chemistry: changes that matter undergoes. Matter can undergo two types of change: physical and chemical. In physical changes, a substance undergoes changes in physical state solid, liquid or gas without changing composition. In chemical changes, the outcome of the change is a substance whose composition is different from the starting material. The example of a chemical change shown in the video lesson is the reaction of water with calcium carbide to produce hydrogen gas as one of the products. Chemistry and Technology. Chemistry has contributed in diverse ways to other fields and areas of study and to human progress in general. Food and Agriculture. A rapid growth in population is accompanied by concerns in food production and security. Chemistry plays an important role in the development and preparation of agrochemicals such as fertilizers, pesticides, vaccines, and growth promoters for plants and animals that comply with safety standards. The use of agrochemical products results in more bountiful harvests and higher livestock production. Energy Production. Energy production and proper usage of energy are present concerns of everyone. In the petroleum refinery, principles of chemical separations are applied in producing gasoline, bunker oil, and lubricants from petroleum or crude oil. Because we know that our fossil fuel reserves are dwindling, scientists from various areas of study are working together to search and evaluate alternative sources of energy. Among these potential energy sources are biomass, solar energy, wind power, geothermal power, and tidal power. The self-sustaining system of energy production from waste biomass was described in the episode. This system which produces fuel called biogas, was developed by Dr. Maramba and powered 80% of the energy requirement to run farm equipment in Marulas Farm. Biogas is methane gas produced from decomposing plant and animal matter. The use of biogas does not only supply the needed energy but also helps in waste management. The material left after 13

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION biogas production is made into fertilizer. Environment Preservation. Chemistry has contributed well in the field of environmental preservation through the development of more efficient industrial production procedures and better waste management systems to cope with the increase in kind and number of pollutants in land, water, and air. Education and Communication. Chemistry has helped advance civilizations through efforts to improve and modernize the tools used in education and communications. From the papyrus and feathers used in olden times, we now have a wide range of education and communication equipment: projectors, computers, mobile telephones, communication satellites, to name a few. Clothing Technology. Improvements in clothing technology are due in part to the chemical researches in the processing and production of fibers. Fibers can be natural or synthetic. Natural fibers, which come from plants and animals, include cotton and abaca fibers from plants and wool and silk which come from animals. Examples of synthetic fibers are nylon, acrylic, and polyester. Colors and Pigments. Artists, designers, painters, and make-up artists use a wide variety of pigments, oils and dyes to capture natures vast display of color. Through chemistry, colorants are identified and the conditions where they are stable and when they produce colors are determined.

The applications of chemistry presented here are just a few but even with just them, we can say that Chemistry undeniably plays a very significant role in almost every aspect of our lives.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Chemistry is the study of composition of matter properties of matter structure of matter changes in matter laws and principles

Contributions of chemistry to human progress food and agriculture colors and pigments

environment preservation

energy production education and communication

clothing technology

Branches of Chemistry. Chemistry can be divided into branches according to either the substances studied or the type of study conducted. The following are the major branches of chemistry: Organic Chemistry is the study of the compounds of carbon. While carbon is only fourteenth in abundance among the elements on earth, it forms by far the greatest number of different compounds with other elements. Organic chemistry is of vital importance to the petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and textile industries, where new organic molecules and polymers are being synthesized. Inorganic Chemistry is the study of chemical elements and their compounds, other than those of carbon. Inorganic chemistry investigates the structure, properties, and interactions of substances that are not organic, such as nonliving matter and minerals found in the earths crust.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Physical Chemistry is concerned with the physical and thermodynamic properties of materials. These properties include the energy and entropy of materials, their electrical and magnetic behavior, and their interaction with electromagnetic fields. Biochemistry is concerned with the chemistry of biological processes. It attempts to utilize the tools and concepts of chemistry, particularly organic and physical chemistry, to understand the chemical processes occurring in living organisms that enable them to survive. The science has been referred to as physiological chemistry and as biological chemistry. Analytical Chemistry is the study of methods and techniques of analyses that allow accurate laboratory determinations of the composition of a given sample of material. In qualitative analysis, all the atoms and molecules present in a sample are identified, with particular attention to trace elements. In quantitative analysis, the amounts of the constituents present are determined. Environmental Chemistry is the branch of chemistry that helps find ways to detect, counteract or reduce the pollution that damages the ecology and endangers the health of living things.

While many chemists work along the traditional areas of chemistry that were described above, new areas of study have emerged that show collaborative work among scientists whose expertise lie in different fields. Examples of cross and multidisciplinary areas where chemistry plays important roles in developmental research are biotechnology, materials science, forensic science, and nanotechnology. VOCABULARY WORDS 1. Biogas - methane gas produced from decomposing plant and animal matter. 2. Pollution - the introduction into the environment of contaminants that cause harm to human beings or other living organisms or damage the environment. Pollutants can be in the form of chemical substances or energy such as noise, heat or light. 3. Biotechnology - any technological application that uses biological systems or living organisms to modify products or processes for specific use.[1] 4. Materials science - an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. This science

"The Convention on Biological Diversity (Article 2. Use of Terms)." United Nations. 1992.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular levels and their macroscopic properties. 5. Forensic science - often shortened to forensics, the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to a legal system. This may be in relation to a crime or a civil action. Of interest to chemists are the detection and identification of illicit drugs, accelerants used in arson cases, explosive and gunshot residues. 6. Nanotechnology - shortened to "nanotech", the study that deals with structures of the size 100 nanometers or smaller in at least one dimension and involves developing materials or devices within that size. PRE-VIEWING ACTIVITIES A. Ask the students to write definitions of chemistry in their own words. B. Show an unmarked clear bottle containing some clear colorless liquid. Ask the students to list down information (could be in the form of questions) that they would like to know about the liquid. C. Pose the Guide Questions for the students to answer after viewing the episode. Pick out the questions that could be answered in the segment to be viewed by the students. Ask them to focus on finding the answers to the guide questions as they watch the video. Guide Questions/Answers 1. What are some of the questions asked when studying or analyzing a substance (as in the case, a sample of spring water)? Among the questions asked in the video lesson are: a. What are the distinguishing properties of the sample in the bottle? b. Does the bottle contain only one substance or are there other substances present? c. Are these substances safe? d. What is the substance made of? e. What elements compose the substance? f. In what proportions are the elements or substances combined and how are they combined? You may wish to compare these questions with those written by the students in the second pre-viewing activity.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 2. What are the scientific instruments used by chemists in analyzing a substances or a sample? What specific information does each instrument provide to the analyst? How and when are these instruments used? For answers to this question, see the discussion on the instruments used in chemical analysis in the Episode content. 3. What happens to the water sample when calcium carbide is added to it? Does water change into another substance? How can you tell? When calcium carbide is added to water, bubbles ate formed and a flammable gas known as acetylene is produced, together with calcium hydroxide and heat. Thus, the water has been changed to another substance. We can say this because there are new substances formed, and the original materials (water and calcium carbide) are no longer present. They have been transformed to other substances. 4. What is chemistry? Chemistry is the study of matter its composition, properties, structure, and the changes it undergoes. 5. What are the products of chemistry that help farmers obtain larger harvest and higher livestock production? Chemistry is important in food production because it helps in the production of fertilizers, pesticides, growth promoter for plants and vaccines for animals. Thus, we are assured of the supply and safety of food we eat. 6. Why is chemistry important in the petroleum industry? In the petroleum refinery, principles of chemical separation are applied in producing gasoline, bunker oil, lubricant and other fuels from petroleum or crude oil. 7. What alternative sources of energy are scientists investigating? Scientists investigate more lasting sources of energy such as biomass solar energy, wind power, geothermal power, tidal power and biogas. 8. What are the benefits of using biogas as shown in Marulas Farm? Biogas is being used in Marulas Farm to power most of their farm equipment. The use of biogas helps both in energy production, and in recycling of nutrients to the soil. 9. In what other ways does chemistry contribute to human progress? Chemistry helps in environmental preservation by finding ways to counteract or reduce the pollution that damages the ecology and endangers the lives of organisms. Chemistry has also helped advance civilizations by modernizing the tools used in education and communication. Chemistry has contributed to the development of clothing technology, specifically in the processing and 18

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION production of natural and synthetic fibers and dyes. VIEWING ACTIVITIES Let the students view the segments 2:25 8:07, 9:29 13:36 of the episode to help them achieve the objectives set for the days lesson.

POST-VIEWING ACTIVITIES Discuss the answers to the Guide Questions. TEACHING TIPS Suggested Activities A. Invite Resource Persons. The students appreciation of chemistry and their motivation to study will increase if chemistry becomes relevant and contextualized. An excellent way to achieve this is to invite resource persons in chemistry-related fields to speak in class. This will also encourage the students to plan for their college courses or their future careers. You may invite any of the following professionals: chemist, chemistry teacher, chemical technician, forensic chemist, and pharmacologist. B. Conduct Interviews. Ask the students to group themselves and interview any one of the resource persons previously mentioned. This will give them the opportunity to have a close encounter with a person whose job requires a background in chemistry. Have them write a report of their interview. C. Educational Trip. Plan an educational trip to a factory or industry which uses a chemical process. Have your students record their observations on the processes, products, and people they encounter during the trip. Ask the students to submit reaction papers with their observations and opinions regarding what they saw and learned during the trip. D. Collage Making. Have the students make a collage showing how chemistry is related to other fields such as medicine, biology, physics, food technology, etc. E. Reflective-Letter Writing. In order to integrate this lesson with other subjects such as English and Social Studies, let the students make an open letter expressing their concern for their immediate environment. Let them focus on the environmental problems facing their barangay, city, municipality or province.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION You may want to use the following questions to guide them in composing their letters: 1. What do you think is the most serious environmental problem facing your community? 2. What do you think causes this problem? 3. How can you or your community members help address this problem? F. Tie-dyeing Activity. As we have seen in this episode, one of the contributions of chemistry is coloring the world. One way of doing this is by using dyes. In the following group activity, the students will tie-dye a piece of cloth. Students will like this activity because they will be able to showcase their creativity. They will also be able to demonstrate cooperation during group work. The students will also appreciate the science of chemistry and its applications. The steps in tiedyeing a piece of cloth are: 1. Wash the material to be dyed. 2. Dissolve one package of the dye in one liter of water. Add 1 tablespoon of salt to the solution. Apply heat to the dye solution until it boils. 3. Prepare the cloth by placing a small coin or button at its center. Pull the cloth tightly around it and tie securely with a rubber band. 4. Twist the cloth, furling it like an umbrella. Then bind it tightly in several places with rubber bands. 5. Completely wet the tied cloth with water. Then put it into the boiling dye solution. Boil for ten minutes with occasional stirring. 6. Use tongs to remove the tied cloth from the solution and rinse thoroughly under running water. Keep rinsing until the rinse water is colorless. 7. Undo the rubber bands. If you like more color, retie and dye with another color. If you want even colors, wet the cloth before adding it to the dye solution. 8. Hang the cloth to dry and display all tie-dyed pieces of cloth artistically in your classroom. G. Unscramble the Letters. Chemistry is related to other fields and branches of science. In the activity, instruct the students to unscramble the letters of each item in the first column to get a branch of science.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Branch of science 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. EGOYLOG TAYAMNO SAOTNROMY GOLYIBO ATONYB COOYTLYG EMOTEGLOORY ELOPYTROG PYOSIHYLGO OYZLOOG Study focus on

When all the branches of science are written in the second column, ask the students to choose from the list given below that matches the aspect of nature the branch of science investigates and write this in the third column. Choices for focus of study: a. rocks b. animals f. atmosphere

g. heavenly bodies and their motion c. how bodies of plants and h. all forms of life animals function d. plants i. shape and structure of the earth e. cells j. structure of living things Challenge Crossword Puzzle. What have you learned? Use the clues to answer the following crossword puzzle. Across 2. Another name for methane gas obtained from decomposing plant and animal matter. 5. A natural fiber from sheep. 6. The study of matter, its composition, properties, structure, and changes it undergoes. 10. The flammable gas produced when calcium carbide is added to water. 11. In chemistry, this is created with the use of pigment, oils and dyes. 12. A basic human need whose production for sufficiency is a concern that chemistry contributes a lot to. 13. The acronym of the instrument used to determine pesticide residues. 21

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Down 1. The name of the farm that utilizes the biogas it produces from its wastes. 3. An example of an alternative and more lasting energy source. 4. A synthetic fiber. 6. Chemistry has helped in advancing civilizations by modernizing this field. 7. The acronym of the instrument used to determine pollutants. 8. A fuel the world depends on most for its energy needs. 9. Found in graphs, this indicates presence of components of interest. 10. Made from natural or synthetic fibers and used by man mainly for protection.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION ASSESSMENT Quiz. Multiple Choice. Choose the letter corresponding to the best answer. 1. Chemistry is the study of matter and its A. composition. C. structure. B. properties. D. all of these. 2. Which of the following instruments is used to determine pollutants such as chlorides and nitrates? A. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer B. Electron Microscope C. High Performance Liquid Chromatograph D. Ion Chromatograph 3. Which instruments is used to determine the presence and amounts of metal ions? A. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer B. Electron Microscope C. High Performance Liquid Chromatograph D. Ion Chromatograph 4. What energy source comes from decomposing plant and animal matter? A. Biogas C. Geothermal power B. Nuclear power D. Solar energy 5. Which of the following is natural fiber? A. Acrylic C. Polyester B. Nylon D. Wool ANSWER KEY G. Unscramble the Letters. ( under Teaching Tips, Suggested Activities)
1. EGOYLOG 2. TAYAMNO 3. SAOTNROMY 4. GOLYIBO 5. ATONYB 6. COOYTLYG 7. EMOTEGLOORY 8. ELOPYTROG 9. PYOSIHYLGO 10. OYZLOOG Branch of science GEOLOGY ANATOMY ASTRONOMY BIOLOGY BOTANY CYTOLOGY METEOROLOGY PETROLOGY PHYSIOLOGY ZOOLOGY Study focuses on shape and structure of the earth structure of living things heavenly bodies and their motion all forms of life plants cells atmosphere rocks how bodies of plants and animals function animals

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Crossword Puzzle. What have you learned? (under Challenge) Across 2. Biogas 8. Wool 9. Chemistry 10. Acetylene 11. Color 12. Food 13. HPLC Quiz. (under Assessment) 1. D 2. D REFERENCES LeMay, H. E., Jr., Beall H., Robblee, K. M. & D. C. Brower. (2002). Chemistry, connections to our changing world. NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. Morris, H. (1990). Foundations of college chemistry. CA: Wadsworth. Petrucci, R. H. & W. S. Harwood. (1990). General chemistry, principles and modern application. (6th ed.). NY: MacMillan Publishing. Whitten, K. W., Davis, R. E., Peck, M. L. & G. G. Stanley. (2005). General chemistry. (7th ed.). Singapore: Brooks/Cole. The columbia electronic encyclopedia. (2000). Columbia University Press. Useful Websites http://school.discovery.com/ www.csusm.edu/Chemistry/whatchem.htmlwww.cac.yorku.ca/general/intro.html www.chemistry.co.nz/what_is_chemistry.htm www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/pre/chemsci.html www.chem.ubc.ca/undergraduate/brochure/whatchem.shtml 134.68.135.1/jitt/sampler/chemistry/goodfors/goodforBNCT.html 25 3. A Down 1. Marulas 3. Biomass 4. Polyester 6. Communication 7. IC 8. Petroleum 9. Peak 11. Clothes 4. A 5. D

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Chapter 1: Introducing Chemistry: Its Scope and Measurement EPISODE 3: MEASUREMENT IN CHEMISTRY OVERVIEW Chemistry is a quantitative science and many of the properties and behavior of matter are expressed in quantitative ways. This episode shows how important measurements are in the study of matter, and introduces the standards for basic units of measurement, and the instruments used in making measurements. OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to: 1. recognize the importance of measurements in chemistry and in daily life; 2. identify the base units of quantities under the International System of Units (SI); 3. illustrate how careful measurements can ensure more accurate results; 4. differentiate between mass and weight; 5. identify the different instruments used for measuring mass and volume; 6. discuss how these instruments are used properly; and 7. demonstrate honesty and patience in making measurements. INTEGRATION WITH OTHER LEARNING AREAS This episode is the first of the two on measurements. The following episode, Episode 4, is on Measurement and Calculations. Because of the quantitative nature of chemistry, many mathematical operations and concepts are used in the conduct of analyses and other investigations about matter. The laws and principles in physics, such as those on forces, are also important in carrying out measurements. SCIENCE PROCESSES Observing Measuring Using mathematical relationships Inferring Predicting Communicating

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION VALUES Honesty Sincerity Critical-mindedness LIFE SKILLS Productive and entrepreneurial skills Critical thinking IMPORTANT CONCEPTS 1. Making measurements is a key first step in gathering information for an effective scientific method. 2. A measured quantity is written as a numerical figure with an appropriate unit. 3. The SI base units for the quantities length, mass, time, electrical current, temperature, amount of substance, and luminous intensity are meter (m), kilogram (kg) second (s), ampere (A), Kelvin (K), mole (mol), and candela (cd), respectively. 4. Mass is the measure of the amount of matter. Weight is the force that the earth exerts on an object. 5. The precision of a measurement depends on the limitations of the measuring instrument used. 6. Proper techniques should be followed when reading measurements so that accurate values are obtained. 7. Some pieces of glassware are labeled in a way that suggests their uses and applicability. BACKGROUND INFORMATION/EPISODE CONTENT Importance of Measurement. Measurement is an inevitable part of our lives. We were weighed and measured when we were born. When we travel, we take note of how fast we reach our destination and how far we have actually traveled. In the marketplace, we buy goods based on measured quantities. At home, we measure the ingredients needed in the meals we cook. The importance of quantitative work in chemistry was first demonstrated by Antoine Lavoisier, the Father of Modern Chemistry. He was the first to have achieved carefully controlled experiments using measurement. Having set this standard, 27 Problem-solving Open-mindedness Acceptance of ones own weaknesses and limitations

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION todays sciences simply cannot survive without measurement. For example, medical researches analyze the presence and concentration of chemicals in our body. Water pollutants in waterways are also determined through careful measurement techniques. The video lesson includes a demonstration of the preparation of a moisturizing cream and how important careful measurement can ensure that the product will always have the same properties and effectiveness. In this demonstration, everything is measured from the amount of potassium carbonate that is mixed with a measured amount of glycerol to the careful monitoring of the temperature during the addition of stearic acid. The Metric System. Measurement is expressed as the product of a number and a unit. The unit indicates the standard against which the measured quantity is being compared. There are many systems of units by which measurement can be expressed. However, in 1960, an international agreement of scientists adopted the International System of Units (SI, from the French translation Le Systeme International de Unites) to be used in expressing scientific measurement. This system is based on the Metric System, a decimal-based system in which all units of a particular quantity are related to each other by a factor of 10. In the International System of Units, there are seven base units used to measure the fundamental quantities: kilogram (kg) for mass, meter (m) for length, second (s) for time, Kelvin (K) for absolute temperature, mole (mol) for amount of substance or matter, ampere (A) for electric current, and candela (cd) for light intensity. (The technical definitions of these units are given in the Vocabulary Section.). All other units, such as area, volume, density, speed, energy, force, and pressure, are combinations of these base units and are called derived units. Weight, Mass, and Volume. Weight, mass, and volume are three commonly reported quantities. Weight and mass are often used interchangeably but they actually mean different things! Weight is the force that the earth exerts on an object. A block of wood may register only 1/6 of its weight on earth when brought to the moon where gravitational pull is just about 1/6 of what we feel on earth. Mass, on the other hand, is the measure of the amount of matter present in an object and is not affected by gravitational force. Therefore, the mass of an object will remain the same anywhere regardless of the prevailing force of gravity. The same block of wood whose weight on the moon is different from its weight on Earth would have the same mass, whether it is on Earth or on the moon. Weighing Instruments. Although mass and weight are different, we commonly use the term weighing to refer to the process of determining the mass of an object. The instrument used to determine the mass of an object is the balance. There are several types of balances that can be used for weighing objects. These include the double 28

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION and triple beam balances, the top-loading balance, and the analytical balance. Of these, the analytical balance is the most accurate, capable of giving measurements up to 0.1 (1/10) of a milligram. The triple beam balance, the type often seen in schools chemistry laboratories, is sensitive only up to 0.1 (1/10) of a gram. The proper way of using a balance is presented in the video lesson. Volume Measurement. Volume is expressed in units of liters (L) in the metric system. For relatively smaller amounts to be measured, which are what we often deal with, a smaller dimension of the same unit, the milliliter (mL) is used. One milliliter is equivalent to one cubic centimeter (cm3). Several measuring glassware are available in the laboratory to measure volumes of liquids. The most common are graduated cylinders and volumetric flasks. Graduated cylinders are calibrated glass columns that can measure a range of volumes while a volumetric flask measures a single volume, but the latter is very accurate for that single volume. Pipets and burets have finer graduations and are appropriate for measuring very small volumes with reasonable accuracy. The precision of glassware to measure volumes of liquids depend on their calibrations. Burets are typically used in titrations. Titration is a technique wherein a solution containing one reactant is slowly added to the other reactant, one of which is of known concentration or amount, and an indicator is used to signal that equivalent amounts of the two reactants have been mixed and reacted. Some laboratory glassware, usually pipets, have labels TC (to contain) or TD (to deliver). Others are labeled transfer or delivery glassware. The appropriate use of glassware with such labels is shown in the video lesson. When taking volume readings, one must keep in mind the proper techniques, such as reading at eye level, locating the lower meniscus for clear liquids and the upper meniscus for opaque liquids. It is also best to use measuring devices of similar accuracy when carrying out an analysis, since the final reported values of an analysis are as accurate only as the least accurate measuring device. VOCABULARY WORDS 1. Measurement the collection of quantitative data. 2. The technical definitions of the SI base units:1 Meter. The meter (m) is the unit for length. One (1) meter is the length of the path traveled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Kilogram. The kilogram (kg) is the unit for mass. It is the mass of a platinumiridium cylinder kept in France that serves as the international prototype for one (1) kilogram. Second. The second (s) is the unit for time. One (1) second is the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state cesium-133 atom. Ampere. The ampere (A) is the unit for electric current. One (1) ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight, parallel conductors of infinite length and of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1 meter apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 x 107 Newton per meter of length. It is also defined as the flow of one (1) coulomb of charge or 6.23 x 1018 electrons per second. Kelvin. The Kelvin (K), is the unit of temperature. One (1) Kelvin is 1/273.16 of the difference between the lowest attainable temperature, 0 K, and the triple point of water, 0.01oC. Mole. The mole (mol) is unit of the amount of substance. One (1) mole is the amount of substance that contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kg of carbon-12. Candela. The candela (cd) is the unit of light intensity. One (1) candela is the intensity in a given direction of a source of light that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 x 1012 hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian. 3. Period of radiation one (1) period is the duration of a complete wave and is equal to 1/frequency of the wave. PRE-VIEWING ACTIVITIES A. Ask the students to give ways to describe ordinary objects or instances by properties such as size, speed, cost, odor, color, intelligence, courage, or temperature (e.g. size can be small or large for shirts, or 5 or 7 for shoes). Then let the class classify these descriptions as qualitative and quantitative. After this, ask them to identify which things can be described only qualitatively and which are better described quantitatively. B. Make the students list measurements that they did or they have witnessed being done in the past few days. Let them decide whether the measurement has to be very accurate or an estimate would suffice.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION C. Pose the Guide Questions which the students will answer after viewing the episode. Ask them to focus on finding the answers to the Guide Questions as they watch the video. Guide Questions/Answers 1. Give two examples of activities in your daily living where you encounter or use measurements. At the beginning of the episode, several examples are cited. Weights and heights of newborns are taken. In traveling, we are interested in knowing the distance we have traveled and the speed at which we traveled. When buying something, we count pieces, weigh amounts or measure sizes. When we cook, we measure quantities of ingredients that we use. 2. Who was the first to achieve carefully controlled experiments through measurements? Antoine Lavoisier, considered to be the Father of Modern Chemistry, set the precedent in carrying out scientific research with careful control of measured quantities. 3. What are the fundamental measured quantities? What SI units are used to describe these quantities? There are seven measured quantities: length, mass, time, electrical current, temperature, amount of substance, and luminous intensity. Their units are meter (m), kilogram (kg), second (s), ampere (A), Kelvin (K), mole (mol), and candela (cd), respectively. 4. How important were measurements in the successful formulation of moisturizing cream? In the demonstration shown in this episode, accurate measurements of the amounts or proportions of the ingredients and the monitoring of temperature were important in the successful preparation of moisturizing cream. 5. What is the difference between mass and weight? How will your weight on earth compare with your weight on the moon? Mass is a measure of the amount of substance in an object. Weight is the force that the earth exerts on an object. The stronger the gravitational pull on the object, the larger is its weight. Since the gravitational force of the moon is only 1/6 that of the earth, then a person will weigh less on the moon as he or she would on Earth. 6. What devices can be used to measure mass? Which is more accurate? There are several but the most commonly used in the laboratory are the triple beam, the double beam platform, the top-loading, and the analytical balances. The first two can give measurements accurate to about 0.1 (1/10) of a gram. Analytical balances can give weight measurements that are 31

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION accurate up to 0.0001 (1/10,000) of a gram. The analytical balance is the most accurate of these balances. 7. What devices are used to measure volume of liquids? How do they compare in accuracy? There are several types of volumetric glassware. In the laboratory, the most commonly used are the graduated cylinders, beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks, pipets, burets, and volumetric flasks. Beakers and Erlenmeyer flasks are mainly for holding liquids, but they can also be used for making rough measurements of their volumess. Pipets, burets, and volumetric flasks are calibrated in a more accurate manner and are thus used for the more sensitive analytical work. 8. What do TC and TD indicate in pipets and burets? TC means to contain. Glassware pieces such as volumetric flasks, calibrated to contain a certain volume, are meant to contain and hold the indicated volume but are not intended for dispensing liquids. If we need some amount of a solution prepared using a volumetric flask, we will need another measuring device such as a graduated cylinder to measure the volume that we want. TD, on the other hand, means to deliver. Glassware pieces calibrated to deliver such as the burets and delivery pipets dispense the amount indicated by the volume reading. 9. Which of the volumetric glassware is used in titration analysis? Burets are used for titrimetric analysis. In the absence of a buret, liquids can be dispensed as accurately using pipets of appropriate calibration and size. Volumetric flasks, however, are used for preparation of solutions and not for dispensing accurate volumes of liquids that is important in titrations. VIEWING ACTIVITIES This episode deals with measurement, its importance in chemistry and daily life, how it is carried out correctly, and the instruments used to obtain them. Let the students view segments 2:29 7:59, 11:56 23:10 to highlight the objectives of the days lesson.

POST-VIEWING ACTIVITIES Discuss the answers to the Guide Questions.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION TEACHING TIPS Suggested Activities A. One-Day Diary. To emphasize the importance of measurement, ask the students to come up with a one-day diary listing events or instances during the day where they encountered measurements. B. Product Labels. Ask students to choose a product line such as food, cosmetics, drugs, hardware or medical devices, and describe what measured characteristics can be found on their labels. C. Interdisciplinary Activities.1 There are several ways by which this topic on measurements may be made interdisciplinary. The following are a few examples: 1. ART a. Design posters to illustrate the metric system. b. Make cartoons to illustrate the humorous aspects of metric conversion. c. Make an illustration or a poster depicting the history of the metric system. 2. ENGLISH a. Prepare a series of essays for the school or local newspaper on the advantages of the ongoing metric conversion in the Philippines. b. Have a metric bee using words taken from a list of metric terms. 3. HISTORY AND SOCIAL STUDIES a. Prepare and give an illustrated talk on the history of weights and measure in the Philippines. b. Write a brief biographical sketch and description of one of the following persons (based on their involvement with the metric system): James Watt, Andre Ampere, Gabriel Mouton, John Quincy Adams, or Napoleon. 4. HOME ECONOMICS. a. Research how foreign cooks measure food quantities. Then make a metric recipe based on this. b. Research how clothing is sized in some other countries. D. Conduct Interviews. Ask the students to interview working individuals on the significance of measurements in their jobs. Students can ask the interviewees how it would be like if measurements were not made properly. Interviewees may
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http://lamar.colostate.edu/~hillger/active.html; January 2003

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION be asked to cite new technologies or instruments that measure quantities that were not measurable years ago. E. Brainstorming. Measurements need not be very accurate all the time. For example, we do not have to use a pipet to measure a volume of vinegar for cooking a favorite dish. Ask the students to brainstorm and come up with a list of instances where accuracy is not too important. F. Reflection. Ask the students to think or reflect on their answer to the following question: What if each country had its own system of measurement different from any other country? ASSESSMENT Quiz. Choose the letter corresponding to the best answer for each of these multiple choice questions. 1. The SI unit for mass is A. pound. B. kilogram. C. bushels. D. newton.

2. Who was the first to carry out carefully controlled experiments using measurements? A. Antoine Lavoisier C. Steven Metric B. Henry Becquerel D. S.I. Smith 3. Which of the following statements is true about mass and weight? A. Mass and weight are the same quantities. B. Mass changes with location but weight does not. C. Mass is a constant but weight varies with location. D. Both mass and weight will change if location changes. 4. Which among the following enables the most accurate measurement of mass? A. double beam platform balance C. top-loading balance B. triple beam balance D. analytical balance 5. Titration analyses can be carried out using which of the following glassware? A. buret C. graduated cylinder B. beaker D. volumetric flask 6. When reading the volume of clear liquids using a calibrated glassware one must locate the A. upper meniscus of the liquid. B. lower meniscus of the liquid. C. median between the upper and the lower meniscus of the liquid. D. capacity of the glassware. 34

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 7. When a glassware is labeled as TC (to contain), the actual volume of liquid dispensed would always be A. less than the indicated volume. B. more than the indicated volume. C. equal to the indicated volume. D. just a rough estimate. 8. How many millimeters are there in a kilometer? A. 0.001 C. 1,000 B. 0.000001 D. 1,000,000 9. If an object weighs 60 kilograms here on Earth, what weight would it register on the moon? A. 60 kilograms C. 10 kilograms B. 30 kilograms D. 6 kilograms 10. Which of the following is NOT a good practice when weighing objects? A. Weighing a hot object C. Weighing powdered objects directly on the pan B. Weighing a wet object D. All of these are not good techniques ANSWER KEY Quiz. 1. 6. B B 2. 7. A C 3. C 8. D 4. D 9. C 5. 10. A D

REFERENCES American Chemical Society. (2000). Chemistry in context. (3rd ed.). USA: Mc Graw-Hill, Inc. Chang, R. (2003). Chemistry. (7th ed.). NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc. LeMay, H. E., Jr., Beall, H., Robblee, K. M., & D. C. Brower. (2002). Chemistry, connections to our changing world. MA: Prentice Hall, Inc. Snyder, C. H. (1998). The extraordinary chemistry of ordinary things. (3rd ed.). NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Whitten, K. W., Davis, R. E., Peck, M. L. & G. G. Stanley. (2005). General chemistry. (7th ed.). Singapore: Brooks/Cole. 35

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Useful Websites http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/current.html http://lamar.colostate.edu/~hillger/active.html www.resources.knowledgecorridor.com/Atoms/measurements_in_chemistry.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Chapter 1: Introducing Chemistry: Its Scope and Measurement EPISODE 4: MEASUREMENT AND CALCULATION OVERVIEW Episode 3 is the first of two episodes on the importance and applicability of measurements in chemistry. This second episode discusses the measurement and ways of reporting of two important quantities, temperature and density. The use of scientific notations affords a more convenient way of expressing very large and very small numbers. The accuracy of a measurement is appropriately expressed when the reported value has the proper number of significant figures. OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to: 1. differentiate between intensive and extensive properties; 2. explain the concept of temperature and how it is measured; 3. relate the three units used to express temperature; 4. define density and describe the methods used to determine it; 5. give examples of how the concept of density is applied to everyday life; 6. evaluate digits in given measured values as significant or insignificant; 7. convert very large and very small numbers to scientific notation; 8. express answers to mathematical operations in correct significant figures; and 9. distinguish between accuracy and precision. INTEGRATION WITH OTHER LEARNING AREAS Chemistry is an experimental science and measured properties are expected to be reported in the proper significant figures to enable the user of the data to decide whether the reported values are rough estimates or measured with high precision. The basic concepts on measurements and calculations presented here are important in the understanding of numerical data given in the succeeding lessons. SCIENCE PROCESSES Measuring Using mathematical relationships VALUES Teamwork Cooperation Recognizing patterns Making inferences

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION LIFE SKILLS Creative thinking Problem solving IMPORTANT CONCEPTS 1. Properties of materials may be classified as extensive or intensive. Extensive properties are those that depend on the quantity of substance. Intensive properties are those that do not depend on the amount of substance. 2. Temperature is a measure of the average energy of individual particles in a system. The hotness or coldness of the system is determined by how fast the particles in the system are moving. 3. The method of determining density depends on the type of substance. Measurement of volume is done by using the appropriate glassware (for liquids), measuring out dimensions, and subsequent calculations (for regularly-shaped solids, e.g. rectangular block) and water displacement (for irregularly-shaped solids, e.g. rocks). 4. In any given measured value, the last digit is always uncertain. 5. A digit in a number is considered significant only if it gives meaning to the value. 6. Measurement in scientific notation should be expressed with real numbers equal to or greater than 1 but less than 10. 7. Accuracy describes how close a measured value is to the true value of the quantity being measured. Precision indicates how close several measured values are to one another or may indicate the sensitivity of the measuring device. BACKGROUND INFORMATION/EPISODE CONTENT Intensive and Extensive Properties. The physical properties of matter can be classified into two groups based on their dependence on the quantity of matter being described. Intensive properties are those that do not depend on the amount of substance present in the sample. These properties include color, electrical conductivity, hardness, melting point, and density. Extensive properties, on the other hand, are dependent on the amount of substance present. Volume and weight are examples of extensive properties. Temperature. Temperature is one of the intensive properties of matter. It is an indirect indicator of the average motion of particles that constitute a sample of matter. 38 Decision making

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION The device commonly used to measure temperature is the thermometer. The word thermometer comes from two Greek words: thermo (heat) and meter (to measure). The history of thermometers starts from early 11th century when the air thermometer was invented. The Italian inventor Santorio Santorio was the first person to place a numerical scale to the thermometer to give meaning to the readings, particularly for clinical use. The first liquid thermometer was invented by the Italian scientist Galileo Galilei, in 1592, after he discovered that when air is contracted in a tube, liquids are drawn up. The first mercury thermometer was created by the German scientist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit in 1714. Today, mercury and alcohol thermometers have been largely replaced with digital thermometers, also known as electronic thermometers, which are easier to handle and read. Other related equipment like thermistors, thermocouples and silicon band gap temperature sensors, are also used to measure temperature. The three commonly used temperature scales are: Celsius (C), Fahrenheit (F), and Kelvin (K) scales. In the Celsius scale, the range between the freezing and boiling points of water which are 0C and 100C, respectively, is divided into 100 degrees. On the other hand, there are 180 degrees between these two temperature limits (32 F and 212 F, respectively) in the Fahrenheit scale. Thus, the size of one degree on the Fahrenheit scale is 100/180, or 5/9, of a degree on the Celsius scale. Knowing this, a temperature reading in the Fahrenheit scale can be converted to the Celsius scale, and vice versa, using the following equations: ? C = (F 32F) (5C/ 9F) ? F = (9F/5C) (C) + 32F The Kelvin is the SI base unit of temperature and the absolute temperature scale. Both Celsius and Kelvin scales have unit increments of equal magnitude, meaning one degree Celsius is equivalent to one Kelvin. The lowest temperature that can theoretically be attained is absolute zero or 0 K. Note that the Kelvin scale does not have the degree sign, and that temperatures expressed in Kelvin can never be negative. This temperature scale is named after Lord Kelvin, a British scientist who showed in 1848, that it is not possible to reach a temperature lower than 0 K. The relationship between temperatures in oC and K is given by the equation: ? K = (C + 273.15 C) (1 K/ 1 C)

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Among the uses of measurement of temperature are the following: clinical use. laboratory use. domestic use, such as determining the temperature inside the house. cooking use, such as using candy or meat thermometer to measure the internal temperature and stages of cooking. Density. The density, d, of a substance is the ratio of its mass to its volume, d = m/v. The SI-derived unit for density is kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m3). Density is also expressed in units of gram per cubic centimeter (g/cm3) or gram per milliliter (g/mL) particularly for small samples. While mass and volume are extensive properties, density is an intensive property. A 10 milliliter sample of water and a 1 liter of water, when both samples are at the same temperature, will have exactly the same density. Density is temperature-dependent because most substances change in volume when heated or cooled. Most substances increase in volume or expand when heated and compress when cooled. However, water is an exception since it expands between 0 C and 4 C. Some of us may have experienced this unusual property of water when we find glass or plastic containers that are filled with water crack or break when the water freezes. Density of Water. Like most substances, water exhibits a gradual increase in density as it cools. The increase in density continues until the temperature reaches 3.98 C, when a sample of water attains its smallest volume, and its maximum density at 0.999973 g/cm3. If the temperature continues to decrease, the trend reverses. A slight decrease in density happens and water shows an increase in volume as it solidifies and turns to ice. This is why in our ice-cold drink, the ice cubes are floating on liquid water! Although the changes in density of water at temperatures close to its freezing point seem quite small, this peculiar property does have a profound effect on the environment. As water in a lake freezes, its density decreases. This less dense, colder water rises and floats on top, while the denser still liquid water sinks. This sinking and rising leads to the seasonal turnover of lake water. The denser, sinking water carries with it dissolved oxygen, replenishing the oxygen that was used up when plants decay for the metabolic needs of aquatic organisms. Further, the process prevents the lake from freezing over and keeps the bottom part of the lake to remain liquid, enabling the aquatic organisms to survive.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Substances differ in densities. Most metals are denser than nonmetals. An important use of the difference in densities of materials is in the mining industry. One of the first steps in winning metals from their ores is the separation of ores from soil impurities. The high density of gold, for example, allows the separation of small gold pieces from other soil materials through panning in running water. For metals that naturally exist as silicate compounds, a method called froth flotation is used to concentrate the minerals by suspending finely crushed ores in a vat of water through which air is bubbled. The mineral grains attach to the bubbles or froth, which are collected and separated from the contaminants. Accuracy and Precision. Accuracy and precision are two words often used to describe reported numerical data. They may be related but do not have the same meaning. Precision may describe the reproducibility of a certain measurement. If the mass of a certain object was measured several times using the same balance and the values obtained were close to one another, the set of data is said to be precise. Precision may also refer to the uncertainty of a measurement and this is usually related to the sensitivity of the instrument used. For example, an analytical balance is more precise than a triple beam balance. In fact it is 100 times more precise because it can weigh up to the nearest thousandth of a gram while a triple beam balance can weigh only up to the nearest tenth of a gram. The precision of a measurement can therefore be estimated from the uncertainty of the measuring device used. The accuracy of a measurement, on the other hand, refers to how close the measurement is to the true value. Usually, the more precise the measurement, the more accurate it is. However, it may not always the case. The accuracy of a measurement can be estimated only if it can be compared to the true value or to some known or acceptable value. Uncertainty in Measurements. The numbers resulting from measurements have some uncertainties and the manner by which these numbers are reported should reflect the uncertainties of the data. The accepted manner of reporting or recording measurements is to show all digits that are certain plus a final digit that is an estimate. Thus, the last digit of a reported measurement is uncertain and all preceding digits are certain. The important guide to remember is that the reported value of a measurement should have one and only one uncertain digit. All of the digits in a measurement, the certain ones and the last uncertain digit, give meaning to the measured value and are therefore considered significant. A number that is reported to the proper number of significant digits tells a great deal about how the measurement was made and the degree of confidence in the measurement. Note that some of the definitions for the SI base units listed in the Episode 3 are given with a large number of significant figures. For example, the meter is defined as the distance traveled by light in a vacuum in 1/299792458 of a second! This reflects the precision of the measurement. 41

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Counting Significant Figures. The number of significant figures becomes important when the reported measurement has to undergo further calculations. There are guides to follow to determine how many significant figures there are in a number. Guide in counting significant digits: 1. All nonzero digits are significant. 2. Zeros between nonzero digits are significant. 3. Zeros to the right of the decimal point that are situated at the end of the number (terminal zeros) are significant. 4. Zeros that precede the first nonzero digit in a number are NOT significant. Examples showing how these guides are followed are given in the table below. Reported value 30.0 g 29.9801 g 0.03 g # of significant figures 3 6 1 Relevant guide Guide #1 and 3 Guide # 1 and 2 Guide # 1 and 4

The work of the German mathematician Johann Karl Friedrich Gauss (17771855) on the mathematics of error analysis led to the development of rules for determining the number of significant figures to maintain after performing calculations. Rule for addition and subtraction: When experimental quantities are added or subtracted, the number of digits beyond (to the right of) the decimal point in the sum or difference is the same as the quantity with the smallest number of digits beyond the decimal point. Rule for multiplication and division: When experimental values are multiplied or divided, the number of significant digits of the product or quotient is the same as the quantity with the smallest number of significant digits. Scientific Notations. Did you know that Sir Edmund Hillary measured the height of Mount Everest to be exactly 29 000 feet? However, simply writing this height as 29 000 implied that he only made the measurement to the nearest 1000 feet (between 28 500 and 29 500 feet), with only two significant digits. Thus, he listed Everests height at 29 002 feet to emphasize the degree of precision in his measurement. In some reported measurements, the number of significant digits is not immediately apparent. Take for example, a reported mass of a piece of metal to be 300 g. Is there only one significant figure? Or are the zeros significant? If this piece of metal was gold, the two zeros would probably be significant!

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION In science, any ambiguity regarding the number of significant digits in a measurement is often resolved by expressing the measurement in scientific notation (more generally called exponential notation). This method of writing numbers is also a convenient way of writing extremely large numbers such as Avogadros number, or very small numbers such as the mass, in grams, of a single carbon atom. To express a number in scientific notation, it is written in the form: C x 10m where C is a number between 1 and 10, showing the number of significant digits (e.g. 4, 6.2, 9.00), and m is a positive or negative integer such as 2, -2 or -19. To determine m, count the number of places the decimal point is moved to give the number C. If the decimal point is moved to the left, m is positive, and if it is moved to the right, m is negative, as shown in the examples given below. Number 57.92 0.00570 Scientific notation 5.792 x 101 (decimal point is moved 1 place to the left) 5.70 x 10-3 (decimal point is moved 3 places to the right)

If the 300 g piece of metal in the example above is indeed gold, then the two zeros must be significant, and the mass of this piece of gold in scientific notation is 3.00 x 102 g. VOCABULARY WORDS 1. Density a property of a substance is the ratio of its mass to its volume. 2. Ores a natural mineral deposit from which a metal can be mined and purified profitably. 3. Winning metals the process of extracting a metal from its ore. 4. Froth flotation a process of concentrating a mineral and separating most of the soil contaminants in the ore by allowing tiny mineral grains to attach to bubbles or froth while the contaminants sink at the bottom of the vat. 5. Precision refers to the reproducibility of a certain measurement. 6. Accuracy - refers to how close a measurement is to the true value. PRE-VIEWING ACTIVITIES A. Research and Creative Thinking. Activity 1: Ancient Treasures 1. Ask your students to research on the units of measure our ancestors used for distance, volume, area, and other measurable properties during their time. [Some possible answers are dangkal, talampakan, dipa, ganta.] 43

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 2. Let your students identify an aspect of this present life that is affected by measurements and describe how this would be different if we still use the old methods of measuring. B. Demonstration. Activity 2: Den-seed-y 1. Prepare two graduated cylinders: (A) with water and (B) with a solution of sugar and water. 2. Place three to four kalamansi seeds in both cylinders. [Seeds will sink in A, but float in B.] 3. Ask the students to suggest explanations for their observations [in A, seeds are denser than the water so they sink; in B, seeds are less dense than the solution of sugar and water, so they float]. C. Creative Thinking. Activity 3: Fat Floats How fit are you physically? The density of human fat is 0.903 g/mL. Fat will float on water because it is less dense than water. The higher the proportion of body fat, the more buoyant body is in water. Body density is determined from body mass and volume. It is easy to measure a persons mass but what about a persons volume? Think of a way to measure a persons volume. D. Pose the Guide Questions which the students will answer after viewing the episode. Ask them to focus on finding the answers to the Guide Questions as they watch the video. Guide Questions/Answers 1. What are some metals that can be recovered from their ores? Give three examples mentioned in the video clip. The following metals were mentioned in the video clip: gold, copper, aluminum, chromium, and silver. Other possible answers are iron, nickel, platinum and many more. 2. What are collectors and promoters? Collectors and promoters are substances that produce froth or bubbles to which small mineral particles attach to in the flotation vat. These substances are also called flotation reagents. 3. What makes up the tailings after the froth flotation process? The tailings are mostly dirt and rock that are in the ore with the mineral. 4. How are precious metals recovered from their ores using froth flotation? Explain. The bubbles that capture the mineral grains move up to the surface of the vat and the froth is collected by skimming the surface. 44

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION VIEWING ACTIVITIES The section on Density and Industry particularly on Froth Flotation is at 10:19 11:45 of the video lesson.

POST-VIEWING ACTIVITIES Discuss the answers to the Guide Questions. TEACHING TIPS Suggested Activities A. Activity 1: The Density of Water. Construct an events chain to answer the following question: What if the density of ice is greater than that of liquid water? Name one difference that we might expect. B. Activity 2: Invent-a-Gadget. In everyday life, we often make measurements using a variety of instruments. Examples of objects/gadgets that we use to measure are feeding bottle, medicine dropper, measuring spoons, and cups. Some of the appliances we have in the kitchen have marks in them such as rice cooker, coffee maker, and blender. Are there other ordinary everyday objects/gadgets which can be used as alternative devices for measuring? For example, a belt can be used as a measuring tape. List as many as you can. ASSESSMENT A. Multiple Choice. Write the letter corresponding to the best answer. 1. Which of the following pairs of reported measurements are equal in value? A. 1.63 kg and 163 g C. 0.015 mL and 1.5 L B. 0.0704 m and 7.04 mm D. 325 mg and 0.325 g 2. Stone A has a mass of 50.0 g. Stone B has a mass of 12.75 g and stone C has a mass of 46.386 g. What is the total mass of the three stones expressed in the correct number of significant figures? A. 109 g C. 109.14 g B. 109.1 g D. 109.136 g

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 3. The measurements below have three significant figures EXCEPT A. 0.003 C. 0.300 B. 0.303 D. 30.0 4. Which is the correct scientific notation for 0.09853 with four significant figures? A. 9.853 x 102 C. 9.853 x 104 2 B. 9.853 x 10 D. 9.853 x 10-4 5. If a cube has a length 0f 60.0 mm, what is its volume in cubic centimeters? A. 36 cm2 C. 21.6 cm3 2 B. 36.0 cm D. 216 cm3 6. What is the distance in meters between two points that are 125 km apart? A. 1 250 m C. 125 000 m B. 12 500 m D. 1 250 000 m 7. The accuracy of a measurement A. is how close it is to the true value. B. does not depend on the instrument being used to measure the sample. C. indicates that the measurement is also precise. D. is something that scientists rarely achieve. 8. Which statement describes an extensive property? A. Sulfur is a yellow powder. B. Copper is ductile and malleable. C. Diamond is the hardest substance. D. A bottle of milk has a volume of 500 mL. For numbers 9 and 10, your recipe for lasagna involves baking for at least one hour at 325F. 9. What is this temperature in the Celsius scale? A. 131C C. 163C B. 130.8C D. 162.8C 10. What is this temperature in the Kelvin scale? A. 110 K C. 436 K B. 404 K D. 598 K B. Short Answers. 1. Equal amounts of four liquids carbon tetrachloride (D=1.58 g/cm3), mercury (D=13.546 g/cm3), hexane (D=0.66 g/cm3), and water (D=1.00 g/cm3) are mixed together. After mixing, they separate to form four 46

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 2. distinct layers. Draw and label a sketch showing the order of the layers in a test tube. 3. In the manufacture of steel, pure oxygen is blown through molten iron to remove some of the carbon impurity. If the combustion of carbon is efficient, carbon dioxide, CO2, (density = 1.80 g/L) is produced. Incomplete combustion produces the poisonous gas carbon monoxide, CO, (density = 1.15 g/L) and should be avoided. Assuming that all oxygen gas blown into the mixture is completely used up, and the density of the gas produced is measured to be 1.77 g/L, what conclusion can you make? 4. You are going to boil some eggs for breakfast. You want to make sure the eggs are not yet spoiled. The density of fresh egg is about 1.2 g/mL. The density of a spoiled egg is about 0.9 g/mL. What can you do to test whether the eggs are still good or are already spoiled?

For numbers 4 and 5, refer to the figure at the right:

5. What does the straight line on the graph indicate about the relationship between volume and mass? 6. What is the density of metal A? of metal B? 7. You have a cube and a sphere, each with a mass of 10 g. The cube floats in water, the sphere does not. What can you infer about the volume of each object? 8. A rectangular block of lead is 1.20 cm x 2.41 cm x 1.80 cm and has a mass of 59.01 g. Calculate the density of lead and express your result with the maximum number of significant figures permitted in the given data. 9. What is the volume of 227 g olive oil if its density is 0.920 g/mL? 47

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 10. A bottle containing a clear liquid believed to be benzene lost its label and a chemist measured the density of the liquid to verify its identity. A 25.0-mL portion of the liquid had a mass of 21.95 g. A chemistry handbook lists the density of benzene at 25C as 0.8787 g/mL. Is the liquid benzene? Why or why not? ANSWER KEY A. Multiple Choice. 1. 6. D C 2. 7. B A 3. A 8. D 4. B 9. C 5. 10. D C

B. Short Answers. 1. From top to bottom: hexane, water, carbon tetrachloride, mercury. 2. Mostly complete combustion of carbon is happening. The density is close to that of carbon dioxide, so mostly carbon dioxide is produced along with a small amount of carbon monoxide. 3. Place the eggs in a container with enough water such that the eggs can sink or float. The density of water is about 1 g/mL. The eggs that sink are still good and those that float are no longer fresh. 4. Mass increases as volume increases. Mass is directly proportional to volume. 5. Metal A: about 10 g/cm3; Metal B: about 8 g/cm3 6. The volume of the cube is larger than 10 mL, to make its density less than that of water and enable it to float on water. The sphere should have a volume less than 10 mL for it to sink in water. 7. 11.3 g/cm3 8. 247 mL 9. Calculated value = 0.878 g/mL; the liquid could be benzene, but additional tests should be done to confirm that the liquid is benzene before a label is placed on the bottle. REFERENCES Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E., Jr. & B. E. Bursten. (2000). Chemistry: The central science. (8th ed.). NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. Kotz, J. C. & P. Treichel. (1999). Chemistry and chemical reactivity. (4th ed.). FL.: Saunders College Publishing. Myers, R. T., Oldham, K. B., & S. Tocci. ( 2004). Chemistry. TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Chapter 2: Forms and Phases of Matter EPISODE 5: MIXTURES IN OUR DAILY LIFE OVERVIEW Most of the materials that we encounter in our daily activities are mixtures. Mixtures can be classified into three general types. This episode is about these three types of mixtures, how each can be distinguished from the other types, and how the components of mixtures can be separated based on some differences in physical properties. Some of these separation techniques are shown in the episode. OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to: 1. classify mixtures into solutions, suspensions and colloids; 2. give common household examples of solutions, suspensions and colloidal mixtures; 3. give an operational definition for a solution and a colloid using the Tyndall effect; 4. illustrate various ways of separating mixtures; 5. identify industrial processes that use separation techniques to obtain products from mixtures; and 6. appreciate the importance of mixtures in our daily life. INTEGRATION WITH OTHER LEARNING AREAS This episode is an introduction to mixtures and their classification. Solutions and colloids are discussed in greater detail in Episodes 13 And the Solution is . . ., Episode 14 Colloid, The Special Mixture Part I, and Episode 15 Colloid, The Special Mixture Part II. SCIENCE PROCESSES Observing Interpreting data Making inferences VALUES
Teamwork and cooperation

Predicting Formulating hypotheses

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION LIFE SKILLS Creative thinking Problem solving IMPORTANT CONCEPTS 1. Mixtures are composed of two or more substances that are not chemically combined. 2. There are three types of mixtures based on the relative particle sizes of the components: suspensions, solutions, and colloids. 3. A solution is composed of the solute and the solvent. 4. The Tyndall effect is a phenomenon wherein the visible path of light is observed when a beam of light is allowed to pass through a colloid. 5. Various techniques are used to separate the components of mixtures based on differences in one or more physical properties of the components such as particle size, solubility, and density. BACKGROUND INFORMATION /EPISODE CONTENT Mixtures. Mixtures are seen everywhere and we use and make them everyday. At home, or even in a place like the food center in a mall, many examples of mixtures can be found. The tasty halo-halo, all-natural fruit drinks, and the creamy fruit salad are all mixtures. A mixture is a sample of matter that is composed of substances combined in variable or no definite proportions. The important characteristic of mixtures is that their compositions vary. A cup of coffee can have varying amounts of coffee, sugar or cream. The composition of air in a forest may differ from that in an industrial city, particularly in the amounts of pollutants. Some examples of mixtures found at home are: vinegar (usually 95% water and 5% acetic acid by mass) tap water (water, dissolved gases and minerals) muriatic acid (hydrochloric acid and water) Classification of Mixtures. Mixtures can be classified into three types based on the sizes of particles of the components. Fresh guyabano juice, clear vinegar, and milk are each an example of one of the three types of mixtures suspension, solution, and colloid, respectively. A suspension such as fresh guyabano juice is a mixture wherein the dispersed particles are large enough to be visible to the eye or to be separated by gravity. When allowed to stand undisturbed for some time, 50 Decision making

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION the guyabano bits will settle at the bottom of the glass. Other examples of suspensions are medicines (some antibiotic preparations) and food products like fruit juices other drinks that have the shake before use label. Clear vinegar is an example of a solution, the second type of mixture, whose components are evenly distributed throughout the sample. Hence, any portion of the solution contains the same proportion of the components. The dispersed components are at molecular sizes resulting in a homogeneous appearance. In a solution, the dissolved component is called the solute, while the dissolving medium is called the solvent. The solvent is usually present in greater amount or mass than the solute or it can be the component that keeps its phase when the solution is formed. For example, 100 g of water (that is approximately 100 mL) would be able to dissolve about 250 g of table sugar, forming a liquid sugar solution. Even if the mass of sugar is greater than that of water in this solution, water is the solvent. The solutions that we are most familiar with are liquid solutions rubbing alcohol, cola drinks, gasoline, the sea. Rubbing alcohol is a solution of two miscible liquids, water and isopropyl alcohol. Gasoline is a mixture of 5- to 12carbon hydrocarbons. Cola drinks and the sea are aqueous solutions of solids and dissolved gases. Aside from liquid solutions, there are solid solutions and gaseous solutions. Alloys are solid solutions of two or more metals. Some objects found at home that are made of alloys are brass doorknobs (copper and zinc), stainless steel kitchen knives (iron, carbon, chromium, and nickel), decorative metalware like pewter (tin and lead), and jewelry made of sterling silver (copper and silver). Gaseous solutions like the air we breathe are mixtures of a number of gases in varying amounts. Milk is mixture and yet gravity. an example of the third type of mixture a colloid. A colloid is a whose dispersed particles are considerably larger than most molecules not large enough to be visible to the unaided eye or to be separated by Colloids appear homogeneous but when examined through a

microscope, their components can be distinguished clearly. One important characteristic of a colloid is that when a beam of light is allowed to pass through it, the dispersed particles are of sufficient sizes to scatter light, allowing an observer to see the path of light clearly as it goes through the mixture. This scattering effect of light by colloids is called Tyndall effect. Liquid aerosols include sprays, fog, and clouds, while smoke and dusty air are examples of solid aerosols. In the kitchen, we find whipped cream, marshmallows, jelly, and mayonnaise. Even pearls are colloids of the solid sol type. 51

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION There are many examples of colloids that we are familiar with. Liquid aerosols include sprays, fog, and clouds, while smoke and dusty air are examples of solid aerosols. In the kitchen, we find whipped cream, marshmallows, jelly, and mayonnaise. Even pearls are colloids of the solid sol type. Mixtures can also be classified based on physical appearance, whether the sample is uniform throughout and homogeneous, such as solutions and colloids, or nonuniform and heterogeneous, such as suspensions. Some books refer to heterogeneous mixtures with fairly large particles as coarse mixtures. Separation of Mixtures. In the formation of mixtures, the combination of several ingredients or components does not involve a chemical reaction. The components are only physically mixed and thus retain their chemical identity. Mixtures can be separated into their components by physical methods, some as simple as picking out the components by hand or using a fork to separate the fruit salad into pineapples papaya, buko strips, kaong, and nata de coco. Separating the components of the grayish mixture of powdered yellow sulfur and black iron filings may seem more difficult, but the unique property of iron being magnetic makes using a magnet an effective way to separate the mixture. The choice of the separation technique that is useful for a mixture depends on the property in which the components differ largely. Some common separation techniques are given in the following list: 1. Sieving for mixtures of dry solids of different particle sizes, by passing through a framed mesh (e.g. sand and gravel mixture). 2. Sedimentation for mixtures containing heavy or dense particles that settle at the bottom of a mixture (e.g. gold nuggets settling at the bottom of a river bed). 3. Decantation for mixtures with solid and liquid components, the liquid part is separated from the heavy solid particles by pouring off the liquid (as in gold panning), while for mixtures of two immiscible liquids, it is done by pouring off the lighter liquid (as in oil and water). In the laboratory, two immiscible liquids with different densities may be separated using a separatory funnel. 4. Filtration for suspensions of solids in liquid, the solid material is separated from the liquid by allowing the sample to pass through a filter paper. The liquid that passes through the paper is called the filtrate, while the solid component left on the filter paper is the residue. 5. Evaporation for solutions of nonvolatile solids in liquids, the liquid component or solvent is allowed to evaporate and the nonvolatile solute is recovered in the residue. Rapid evaporation through the application of heat is 52

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION useful for a non-flammable solution. Slow evaporation through the natural tendency of liquids to evaporate, without heating or under the heat of the sun is used to recover salt from seawater. Evaporation of flammable solutions makes use of a hot water bath or a heating mantle as source of heat, instead of an open flame. 6. Distillation for mixtures of liquids based on differences in their boiling points. As one component reaches its boiling point, it evaporates from the mixture and may be collected by condensation. 7. Centrifugation for suspensions of solids in liquids, this is a rapid way of separating the components using a centrifuge. As the centrifuge spins, the denser substances settle at the bottom of the centrifuge tube. 8. Chromatography for mixtures containing several components which differ in their solubility in a solvent that is allowed to travel through a solid adsorbent. Each component of the sample travels through the stationary phase at a different rate depending on whether it is more attracted to the solvent, the mobile phase, or to the stationary phase. Industrial Applications. Many industries apply certain techniques to separate the components of a mixture. 1. Salt production in many coastal areas in the country production of salt involves evaporation of seawater. Seawater is first filtered through sand and then allowed to evaporate on shallow flat beds. As water evaporates, salt crystallizes, and when nearly dry, it is raked off the flat beds and dried further. 2. The white solid obtained from this process is 95% salt and 5% impurities. Only about 28 kilograms of salt or sodium chloride can be collected from 1,000 kilograms of seawater. 3. Sugar production also uses several techniques to separate components of mixtures. To obtain raw sugar crystals, sugar cane is first crushed and pressed to extract the cane juice. The juice is filtered to remove solid impurities and treated with lime or calcium oxide, to make the mixture neutral and prevent the decomposition of sugar (which is really sucrose) into glucose and fructose. The juice is heated to allow the liquid to thicken and cooled to form sugar crystals. The raw brown sugar crystals are separated from the supernatant, called molasses, by centrifugation. The brown sugar undergoes a refining process to produce white sugar.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION VOCABULARY WORDS 1. Centrifuge - a device that uses centrifugal force produced from the rapid spinning of its arms to collect substances of greater density or for removing moisture. 2. Miscible can be combined in all proportions to form a solution. 3. Homogeneous characterized by having a uniform physical appearance. 4. Heterogeneous characterized by having parts that are distinguishable from other parts due to differences in physical properties. 5. Aerosol a suspension of fine solid particles and/or liquid droplets in gas. 6. Separatory funnel a pear-shaped laboratory glassware with a provision for drawing liquid at the bottom through a stopcock-controlled stem. PRE-VIEWING ACTIVITIES A. Demonstration. Activity 1: Milky Lights Materials: Laser pointer, large transparent jar, evaporated milk, water, small mirror Procedure: 1. Put two drops of liquid milk into a large transparent container filled with clear water. 2. Shine a focused beam from a laser pointer. Observe. 3. Place a small mirror on the bottom of the container and shine the beam at an angle toward the mirror. Questions for the Activity: 1. What did you observe? 2. Would you have observed the path of light if we put in sugar instead of milk? Why do you think so? 3. How is a mixture of milk and water similar to or different from that of sugar and water? B. Student Activity: Idea Listing. Activity 2: Mix-tery Materials: Paper plates, large packs of mixed nuts Procedure: Have students separate a mixture of nuts (green peas, peanuts, corn, beans). The first group to separate all four ingredients wins the game.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Questions for the Activity: 1. Did you have a plan to make the separation faster and easier? 2. If you knew about the game yesterday and were allowed to bring any utensil or material today to help you work faster and easier, what would you have brought? Why? C. Demonstration. Activity 3: Burning Money Materials: Large shallow pan, rubbing alcohol, P20.00 paper bill, lighter or match Procedure: Place the P20.00 bill on the pan then pour enough rubbing alcohol over the paper to completely cover it. Have students predict what will happen to the paper bill if you put a lighted match into the pan. Carefully drop a lighted match into the pan. [Expected observation: The alcohol will burn but the paper bill will not burn immediately. Why? Rubbing alcohol is a mixture of an alcohol and water. Even while in the mixture, the alcohol retains its property of being flammable, demonstrating that no chemical process happened when the mixture was prepared. The paper bill absorbed both alcohol and water and will not burn while the alcohol is burning because the paper is still wet with water. Make sure that you do this fast enough because if the water evaporates, the paper bill will burn.] D. Demonstration or Student Work. Activity 4: Chalk Chromatography Materials: Chalk, marking pens, food colors, 2 beakers of different sizes, a solvent other than water such as ethyl alcohol or acetone, toothpick Procedure: 1. Use a piece of chalk that does not have a yellow coating. Check if the chalk will stand on one end, if not scrape the surface. 2. With the black felt-tip pen, make a dark dot on the chalk 1.25 cm from the flat end. Place several other dots around the chalk the same distance from the flat end. 3. Stand the chalk on end in a small beaker. 4. Carefully add the solvent until the level is just below the ink dots. 5. Invert the large beaker and use it to cover the small beaker and observe. 6. Do steps 1-5 using other colored pens. For the food colors, dip a toothpick into the colored solution and use this to make a mark on the chalk. Questions for the Activity: 1. What is the purpose of the chalk? What other materials can be used for the same purpose? 2. What is the principle behind the separation of colors? 3. How is the uppermost color different from the one closest to the original mark? 55

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 4. Which color (pen and food color) has the most number of components? Which has the least? 5. What practical use does this technique have? E. Pose the Guide Questions which the students will answer after viewing segments of the episode. Ask them to focus on finding the answers to the Guide Questions as they watch the video clips. Guide Questions/Answers for the segment on Tyndall Effect. 1. Describe how Tyndall effect can be observed. The Tyndall effect is the scattering of light that hit particles of certain sizes. The dispersed particles of colloids are of the right sizes to scatter light. Tyndall effect can be observed when light passes through a colloid such as smoke and the path of light is visible due to light scattering. 2. What other materials exhibit Tyndall effect? Colloids, particularly aerosols and liquid sols, will exhibit Tyndall effect. 3. Will Tyndall effect be observed if we let a beam of light pass through a mixture of coffee crystals and hot water? No, since the mixture is a solution and not a colloid. Guide Questions/Answers for the segment on Industrial Applications. 1. How can salt be obtained from seawater? Salt is obtained from seawater by evaporating the water, allowing salt to crystallize as the solution gets more concentrated. In this country, the evaporation of water is done by solar drying. 2. Why is it necessary to filter the seawater through sand? Filtration of seawater through sand removes solid materials from the seawater. 3. What separation processes are employed in sugar production? Among the separation processes involved in sugar production are extraction, filtration, crystallization, and centrifugation. 4. How is brown sugar separated from molasses? What property of brown sugar is taken into account during this process? Brown sugar is separated from molasses by crystallization. The solubility of brown sugar is lower compared to other sugars left in solution.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 5. Why is a second filtration necessary? The second filtration separates the brown sugar crystals from molasses. VIEWING ACTIVITIES The following portions of the video lessons are particularly useful on the topics indicated: segments 12:53 13:18 on Tyndall Effect and 18:25 21:33 on Industrial Applications.

POST-VIEWING ACTIVITIES Discuss the answers to the Guide Questions. TEACHING TIPS Suggested Activities A. Kinds of Mixtures. Materials: Starch, sugar, water, large test tubes, pen light, carbon paper, alcohol lamp, stirring rod, iron clamp Procedure: 1. Measure 15 mL tap water into test tubes A, B, and C. 2. To test tube A, add a pinch of sugar and shake the test tube vigorously. 3. To test tube B, add a pinch of starch, shake, and heat gently until the mixture thickens. 4. To test tube C, add half-teaspoon of starch and shake. 5. Observe the appearance of mixtures A, B and C. 6. Cover the penlight with carbon paper, and make a small hole at the center, such that only minimum amount of light can pass through. 7. Bring the tubes to a dark room, then direct a beam of light to each test tube. Observe.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Data and Results: A Water and Sugar Is the mixture homogeneous or heterogeneous? Can you see the individual particles? Do the particles settle at the bottom? Does the mixture scatter a beam of light? Questions for this activity: 1. Which of the mixtures is a solution? a suspension? a colloid? 2. Which of the materials used is a solute? Solvent? 3. Give one example of a mixture that is of the same type as Mixture A, Mixture B, and Mixture C. B. Salt from Seawater. Solar evaporation is used widely to separate salt from seawater. In the Philippines, coastal areas like Paranaque, Cavite, and Misamis Oriental take advantage of this method to obtain salt. First, seawater is filtered then allowed to stand on flat shallow beds to evaporate the water. The salt crystals are then raked off the flat beds and further dried. Questions for this activity: 1. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this method. 2. Do you think the salt made from this process is safe for human consumption? Why or why not? 3. Is there a better way to recover salt from seawater than solar evaporation? Think of ideas to improve the current method of obtaining salt from seawater. ASSESSMENT A. Quiz. Multiple Choice. Write the letter corresponding to the best answer. 1. Which is homogeneous? A. Spaghetti sauce B. Muddy water C. Cough syrup D. Vegetable salad B Water and Starch (paste) C Water and Starch

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 2. Which exhibits Tyndall effect? A. Saltwater B. Milk in water

C. Sugar in water D. Carbonated water

3. Which of the following processes allows you to determine whether a colorless liquid is pure water or a solution of salt and water without tasting the liquid? A. Filtration C. Evaporation B. Decantation D. Chromatography For numbers 4 and 5. In an activity on Chalk Chromatography, Ryan obtained the following observations on the chalk. (Movement of solvent is from bottom to top). ------pink ------red ------purple ------blue 4. Which component adsorbed most strongly to the surface of the chalk? A. Pink C. Purple B. Red D. Blue 5. Which component is the most soluble in the solvent used? A. Pink C. Purple B. Red D. Blue 6. Which technique can be used to separate insoluble solids or a precipitate from a liquid? A. Filtration C. Evaporation B. Centrifugation D. Decantation 7. Which is NOT a solution? A. Pancake syrup B. Baking soda C. Toilet bowl cleaner D. Carbonated water

8. Which property distinguishes a colloid from a solution? A. Very tiny particle size C. Stable homogeneous system B. Scatters light D. Allows light to pass through 9. Which technique is based on the differences in the density of the components of a mixture? A. Distillation C. Centrifugation B. Sieving D. Filtration 59

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 10. Which mixture has components that can be separated by filtration? A. Salt and sand C. Iron and aluminum filings B. Sulfur powder and iron filings D. Alcohol and water B. Short Answers. 1. Name the solvent and solute(s) in the following solutions: a. Carbonated water b. Lemon juice c. Coffee 2. Does a solution have to involve a liquid? Explain your answer. 3. After a mixture of iron and sulfur is heated and then cooled, a magnet no longer attracts the iron. How would you classify the resulting material? Explain your answer. 4. Sulfur dissolves in a liquid called methylbenzene but iron does not. Describe a method which uses this fact to separate the iron from the sulfur-iron mixture. 5. To help a child take aspirin, a parent may crush the tablet and add it to a sweet, and tasty applesauce. Is the aspirin-applesauce combination classified as a mixture? Explain your answer. 6. On dark nights, you can clearly see the path of light coming from vehicles when there is fog, or when it is drizzling. Explain why. ANSWER KEY A. Quiz. 1. 6. C A 2. 7. B B 3. C 8. B 4. D 9. C 5. 10. A A

B. Short Answers. 1. a. Carbonated water: solvent-water; solute-carbon dioxide b. Lemon juice: solvent-water; solute - lemon extract, probably sugar c. Coffee: solvent-water; solute - coffee grounds 2. No; a solution is any homogeneous mixture and can be gaseous (e.g. air), liquid like many of those we know, or solid (e.g. alloys).

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 3. Heating may have caused the iron and sulfur to react and the resulting material is a compound of the iron and sulfur. The product is not attracted to a magnet because its properties are now different from those of the original materials. 4. Add some methylbenzene to the mixture of iron and sulfur. The sulfur will dissolve in methylbenzene and leave the iron in the residue. Then filter out the iron filings. 5. Yes, the aspirin-applesauce is a mixture. The two components are not chemically combined and each material keeps its own properties and identity. Hence, the aspirin will still be effective. 6. Fog is a colloid and it exhibits Tyndall effect. This light-scattering effect can also be observed when it is drizzling. REFERENCES Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E., Jr. & B. E. Bursten. (2000). Chemistry: The central science. (8th ed.). NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. Kotz, J. C. & P. Treichel. (1999). Chemistry and chemical reactivity. (4th ed.). Fl.: Saunders College Publishing. Myers, R. T., Oldham, K. B., & S. Tocci. ( 2004). Chemistry. TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Wilbraham, A. C., Staley D. D., Matta, M. S. & E. L. Waterman. (2000). Chemistry. (5th ed.). CA: Prentice Hall, Inc.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Chapter 2: Forms and Phases of Matter EPISODE 6: SUBSTANCES WE USE OVERVIEW Chemists classify matter into two big groups: pure substances and mixtures. Mixtures were described in the previous episode, Episode 5. This episode focuses on the pure substances. OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to: 1. differentiate pure substances from mixtures; 2. classify pure substances into elements or compounds; 3. describe ways of separating the elements that make up a compound; 4. identify biologically important elements and compounds; 5. classify elements into metals and nonmetals; 6. classify substances into acids or bases, and organic or inorganic; and 7. appreciate the importance of classifying substances in our daily lives. INTEGRATION WITH OTHER LEARNING AREAS This episode is best used with Episode 5 Mixtures in Our Daily Lives. When used together, Episodes 5 and 6, give coverage of the classification of matter. This episode introduces the concepts of acids and bases, and of organic and inorganic substances as types of compounds. A more detailed discussion of the different properties of acids and bases is presented in Episode 23. The classification of organic compounds and their properties are discussed in Episodes 31 to 34. SCIENCE PROCESSES Experimenting Observing Measuring Recognizing patterns VALUES Teamwork and cooperation Making inferences Predicting Formulating hypotheses

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION LIFE SKILLS Creative thinking Problem solving IMPORTANT CONCEPTS 1. Matter is classified based on composition into pure substances and mixtures. 2. Pure substances are further classified into elements and compounds. 3. Compounds can be broken down chemically. Elements cannot be broken down into other substances by any means, chemical or otherwise. 4. Elements can be classified as metals, semimetals, or nonmetals. 5. Compounds can be classified as organic or inorganic and may be acids or bases. BACKGROUND INFORMATION/EPISODE CONTENT All things around us are examples of matter. Matter comes in various shapes, sizes, textures, colors, tastes. Some undergo change quickly, others appear to be inert. The similarities and differences in properties of these various samples of matter serve as bases for their classification. Sorting matter into certain groups makes their study more systematic. Classifying Matter. There are many ways of classifying matter. Matter can be classified on the basis of their colors, textures, ability to conduct electricity or maybe their densities. A more useful classification is in terms of their physical states at room temperature solids, liquids or gases. One classification that is most meaningful to chemists is based on composition. All matter in the universe belongs to either of two big groups: pure substances and mixtures. A pure substance is made up of only one kind of atom or one kind of molecule. Pure copper is made up only of copper atoms and pure water is made up of water molecules only. Because there is only one kind of atoms or molecules in a pure substance, then it has a definite or fixed composition that does not vary from one sample to another. A mixture, as was described in Episode 5, is made up of two or more kinds of atoms and/or molecules in varying proportions and its composition may vary over a broad range. The components of a mixture are not chemically combined and can be separated from each other. Because of this difference in composition, pure substances and mixtures can also be distinguished by physical properties that depend Decision making

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION on how many types of substances are present in the sample. Pure substances have sharp or very narrow range of melting and boiling temperatures. The melting and boiling temperatures of a mixture are usually a range rather than just a single temperature value. In fact, some mixtures may end up with some components already vaporizing, other components melting, while some remaining solid when heated. Classes of Pure Substances. Pure substances can be further classified into elements and compounds. An element is a substance made up of only one kind of atom. Copper is made up solely of copper atoms and NO chemical process done on a sample of copper can make some atoms behave one way and some atoms behave another way to produce two or more different substances. Hence, we sometimes use the following operational definition to describe an element: An element is a substance that CANNOT be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means. A compound, on the other hand, is a substance composed of two or more elements chemically combined in fixed proportions. Water, table salt, sugar are all compounds. Every water molecule is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. In any sample of water, there is a 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen atoms. It is not easy to count atoms, but this ratio can also be expressed in percentage by mass Water will always have the composition of 11% hydrogen and 89% oxygen by mass. Hydrogen peroxide is a compound that is also made up of hydrogen and oxygen. In a molecule of hydrogen peroxide, there are two hydrogen atoms and (not just one but) two oxygen atoms, giving a composition of 6% hydrogen and 94% oxygen. The difference in composition of water and hydrogen peroxide gives these two compounds very different properties. Hydrogen peroxide will not be as good to drink as water and water may not be as effective in cleansing wounds and insect bites as hydrogen peroxide. Elements and compounds may differ in their behavior when heated. Sulfur, an element, retains its properties before and after heating and simply undergoes a phase change during heating, from solid to gas. When cooled, gaseous sulfur crystallizes back. When copper is heated in air, it loses its luster as it forms copper oxide, a new substance. Sugar, a compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, breaks down into carbon and water when heated. However, for many compounds like water, simple heating is not sufficient to separate them into their component elements. Electrolysis of Water. Can water be broken down into simpler substances? In water molecules, the hydrogen and oxygen atoms are connected to each other in a specific arrangement. To separate water into the elements hydrogen and oxygen, some amount of energy is needed to break the connection, that which we call a chemical bond, between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms in the molecule. Heating is not enough to break these chemical bonds, but passing electricity through water in a process called electrolysis can accomplish this.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Electrolysis is the process of causing a chemical change by passing electricity through a conducting solution. When water is electrolyzed, the hydrogen gas and oxygen gas produced are collected in separate vessels, since if these two gases combine, the mixture is potentially explosive. Elements. As of 2011, there are 118 known elements. Of these, 94 are naturally occurring, and the rest are prepared in laboratories through nuclear reactions and are short-lived. Of the 94 naturally-occurring elements, only a few are found in reasonable quantities on the earths crust and in living organisms. Notice that only five elements, oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, and calcium make up about 90 percent of earths crust. Figure 1 gives the natural abundance of the elements on the earths crust in percent by mass.

Figure 1. Natural abundance of the elements on the earths crust in percent by mass1.

Of the five most abundant elements in the earths crust, only oxygen is found in substantial amounts in living systems. Carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen are the next three most abundant elements in the human body as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Abundance of elements in the human body in percent by mass1.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION The major elements that make up the substances that in turn make up our bodies are the same elements present in the food we eat. Table 1 shows the seven elements other than oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen that are used by our bodies in substantial quantities. Other elements necessary for healthy human life, but only in very, very small amounts are referred to as trace amounts. Essential trace elements include iodine, cobalt, nickel, tin, silicon, fluorine, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, molybdenum, chromium, and selenium. Table 1. Macronutrients essential to the human body. Element Calcium Phosphorus Potassium Sulfur Chlorine Sodium Magnesium Symbol Role in human body chemistry Ca in bones, teeth; essential for blood clotting and muscle contraction P in bones, teeth; component of nucleic acids, including DNA K present as K+ in all body fluids; also essential for nerve action S component of many proteins; also essential for blood clotting Cl present as Cl in all body fluids; important to maintaining salt balance Na present as Na+ in all body fluids; essential for nerve and muscle action Mg in bones and teeth; essential for muscle action

Metals and Nonmetals. The elements can be classified into metals and nonmetals. Metals are generally solids at room temperature, usually of high densities, lustrous, malleable or ductile and are good conductors of heat and electricity. Examples of elements classified as metals are iron, sodium, gold, cobalt, and uranium. Nonmetals, on the other hand, may be solid, liquid or gaseous at room temperature, with brittle crystals, nonconductors, with usually low densities and melting points. Carbon, iodine, argon, and sulfur are nonmetallic elements. A small group of elements that exhibit properties that are typically midway those of metals and nonmetals are called semimetals or metalloids. Silicon, germanium, and antimony are semimetals and these elements have found exceptional use in this age of rapid growth in information and communication technology. Compounds. Most of the elements, with the exception of the noble gases, tend to interact with other elements to form compounds. There are millions of known compounds and many more are being prepared for specific uses. Acids or bases. There are various ways of classifying compounds, from as simple as based on physical states or solubility in water or whether they are electrolytes or not.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION One classification is based on whether they are acids or bases. Some common acids and their uses are given in Table 2 and a similar list of bases in Table 3. Table 2. Common acids and their uses. 1 Name of Acid Acetic acid (in vinegar) Hydrochloric acid Sulfuric acid Nitric acid Phosphoric acid Carbonic acid Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) Common Uses Seasons and preserves foods; cleans and deodorizes Produced by stomach and aids digestion; used in toilet bowl cleaners and for cleaning metal surfaces Used in automobile batteries and in making fertilizers, dyes, and plastics Used in making explosives and fertilizers Removes hard water deposits; used in making fertilizer Formed in carbonated drinks Reduces pain and inflammation

Table 3. Common bases and their uses.1 Name of Base Sodium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Magnesium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) Common Uses Making soaps, detergents, drain and oven cleaners Softens water; neutralizes acid in soil; used in making mortar, plaster and cement Acts as antacid Component of cleaning solutions Used in baking and cleaning

Compounds like litmus, methyl red, and phenolphthalein, themselves acids or bases, serve as indicators of acids and bases through color changes. A way of expressing the acidity or basicity of solutions is through their pH, which will be discussed in more detail in Episode 23. Organic or inorganic. Compounds can also be classified as organic or inorganic. With a few exceptions, substances that have carbon in their composition are called organic compounds. Rayon, paper, sugar, and gasoline are examples of organic substances. Materials with no carbon in their composition are referred to as inorganic substances. These include water, sand, and salt. Table 4 gives some of

Di Spezio, et al., 1996.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION the differences in properties of organic and inorganic substances. Episodes 31 to 34 are devoted to organic compounds. Table 4. Characteristics of typical organic and inorganic compounds.2 Property Solubility in water Melting point Boiling point Decomposition Reaction with O2 Organic insoluble low low occurs easily when heated combustion (produces CO2 + H2O) Inorganic soluble high high requires very high temperatures no combustion

VOCABULARY WORDS 1. Element - a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means. 2. Metal - an element that is generally solid at room temperature, usually of high density, lustrous, malleable or ductile and is a good conductor of heat and electricity. 3. Nonmetal - an element that may be solid, liquid or gaseous at room temperature, with brittle crystal, nonconductors with usually low density and melting point. 4. Semimetal - also called metalloid, belongs to small a group of elements that exhibit properties that is typically midway that of metal and nonmetal. 5. Compound - a substance composed of two or more elements chemically combined in fixed proportions. 6. Organic compound -a substance that has carbon in its composition. 7. Inorganic compound a material with no carbon in its composition. PRE-VIEWING ACTIVITIES A. Practical Work 1. Pure Substance or Mixture Materials: Distillation set-up, sample A [water], sample B [salt solution] Procedure: 1. Prepare the distillation setup.
2

LeMay, Beall, Robblee & Brower, 1997.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 2. Observe the color, odor, and taste (do this only when samples are known to be safe) of samples A and B. 3. Distill samples one at a time. 4. Observe the color, odor, and taste of each distillate. 5. Look at what remains inside the distillation tube. If there is a residue, observe its color, odor, and taste. Data and Results: Properties Color Odor Taste Questions for the Activity: 1. Were you able to separate Sample A into its components? 2. What evidences support your answer? 3. Were you able to separate Sample B into its components? 4. What evidences support your answer? 5. Which of the two samples is a pure substance? A mixture? 6. What do you think is the identity of Sample A? Sample B? 7. If Sample A was sugar, would you have arrived at the same results? Why or why not? B. Practical Work 2. Heating Substances Materials: Six small test tubes, two small vials, alcohol lamp, test tube holder, iodine crystals, sugar, water, alcohol, small spatula (or small spoon used to stir coffee in fast foods). Procedure: 1. Observe the color and odor of iodine. 2. Pour about 1 cm high of water in a test tube and add a small crystal of iodine. Record your observations. Do the same using alcohol instead of water. Observe. 3. Place a spatula full of iodine crystals in a clean dry vial. 4. Heat gently, then cover the mouth of the vial with another vial half-filled with water. 5. Continue heating until you observe crystals deposited at the upper cooler end of the vial or at the outer bottom of the vial on top of it. 6. Collect the deposited crystals and observe properties as in steps 1 and 2. 7. Repeat steps 1 and 2 using sugar. 8. Put a spatula of sugar crystals in a clean dry test tube. 9. Heat until the sugar crystals are completely burnt or turn black. 10. Collect the black solid and observe properties as in steps 1 and 2. 69 Sample A Before Distillate distilling Sample B Before distilling Distillate

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Data and Results: Substance Iodine Observations Before heating Color Odor Solubility in water Solubility in alcohol Color Odor Solubility in water Solubility in alcohol After Heating Color Odor Solubility in water Solubility in alcohol Color Odor Solubility in water Solubility in alcohol

Sugar

Questions for the Activity: 1. In step 4, what was the purpose of covering the vial containing the iodine crystals with another vial filled with water? 2. Are the properties of iodine you observed before heating the same as those after heating? 3. Are the properties of sugar you observed before heating the same as those after heating? 4. Of the two samples, which is an element? Which is a compound? 5. What elements make up the compound used in this experiment? 6. What is the black substance that was left after the sugar was burned? 7. Will this experiment lead you to the same conclusions if you use tincture of iodine and sugar syrup instead of iodine and sugar crystals? Explain. VIEWING ACTIVITIES Segments 15:26 17:16 would be useful for discussions on the properties of metals and nonmetals. Guide Questions/Answers 1. What properties are common among all metals? nonmetals? Metals, in their solid states, are good conductors of electricity and heat, malleable, ductile, and lustrous. Nonmetals, in their solid states, are brittle and nonconductors of heat and electricity. 2. What metals have economic importance? Some metals that are of economic importance are gold, silver, copper, iron, aluminum, and various others.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION POST-VIEWING ACTIVITIES Discuss the answers to the Guide Questions for the segment on Metals and Nonmetals. TEACHING TIPS A. Activity 1: Metal, Nonmetal, and Metalloid. Materials: Information sheet of different elements Procedure: 1. Divide the class into groups of five and assign each group to study the information sheets of five different elements. 2. Ask each group to classify the elements based on the properties given in the information sheets. 3. Let the class construct a chart showing the properties of each class of elements. Questions for this activity: 1. How are the properties of the elements similar? Different? 2. List the different classification schemes presented in the class, and the scheme agreed on by the class. 3. If you were an element, what would you be? Why? B. Activity 2: Acid-Base Reactions and Turmeric. Materials: Measuring cup, distilled water, three white plastic cups with cover, marker, spoon, turmeric powder, measuring spoons, vinegar, colorless household ammonia solution, straw, and powdered laundry detergent. Procedure: 1. Measure 100 mL distilled water into each of three clear plastic cups. 2. Using the tip of a small spoon, add pea-sized quantities of turmeric to the water in each of the flasks. Swirl to mix its contents. Describe mixture. 3. Label one of the cups ACID. Add 1 mL vinegar to the cup. Swirl to mix its contents. Cover then set aside for color comparison. 4. Label a second cup BASE. Add 1 mL of spirit of ammonia solution to the cup. Swirl to mix its contents. Cover then set aside for color comparison. 5. Label the third cup EXPERIMENTAL. Add a pea-sized quantity of powdered laundry detergent to the turmeric-water mixture. Swirl the cup to thoroughly mix its contents. Observe the color. 6. Through a straw, blow gently into the Experimental cup. Cover the cup and swirl to mix its contents. 7. Repeat step 6 until a color change is observed. Describe what happens. Observe the color. 71

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Questions for this activity: 1. What happened to the color of the turmeric solution after adding detergent? Based on the color changes seen with vinegar and ammonia, is the detergent acidic or basic? 2. What happened to the acidity of the mixture after you blew into it? What substance is responsible for this? 3. Why does the turmeric solution change color? What other natural products give color changes like the turmeric solution in the presence of an acid or a base? C. Activity 3: Common Acids and Bases. Materials: Litmus paper (blue and red), pH paper, spot plate, dropper, solutions of common household materials such as glass cleaner, lye, soap, kalamansi, water, vitamin C, salt, soft drink, toothpaste, shampoo, coffee, feminine wash, antacid tablet, cream of tartar, spirit of ammonia Procedure: 1. Using a dropper, place a small amount of vinegar into three wells of a spot plate. 2. Put a small piece of blue litmus paper into the first well, red litmus paper into the second, and pH paper into the third. Observe the color. 3. Do steps 1 and 2 to the other solutions. Data and Results: Sample Glass cleaner Lye Soap Kalamansi Water Vitamin C C2 DrinkTM Soft drink Toothpaste Shampoo Coffee Feminine wash Antacid tablet Cream of tartar Spirit of ammonia Reaction to Blue Litmus Reaction to Red litmus Acid, Base, or Neither

pH

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Questions for this activity: 1. Which samples are acidic? Basic? Neither acidic nor basic? 2. Which sample is the most acidic? Most basic? 3. What type of compound (acid or base) can be identified by a blue litmus paper? A red litmus paper? 4. Give two advantages of the pH paper over the litmus papers. 5. Give at least three household chemicals with very low pH (perhaps 0-3). 6. Give at least three household chemicals with very high pH (perhaps 11-14). (For nos. 5-6, include your references in the laboratory report). 7. Suppose all hazardous chemicals are banned from home use. Do you think the materials you listed in nos. 7 and 8 should be banned? If so, why? What types of chemicals would you suggest as replacements? D. Activity 4: Vitamins No More. Not enough vitamins, not enough life More energy, mas happy I want to be complete Questions for this activity: 1. Can you recognize these catchphrases? 2. What do these statements mean? 3. Do we really need to take vitamins? 4. Can we eliminate them from our daily routine? 5. Write down all the ideas you can think of to make people want to stop taking them. E. Activity 5: What Does an Antacid Do? Materials: Graduated cylinder, water, 2 beakers (150-ml), dropper, vinegar, stirring rod, 2 pieces blue litmus paper, mortar and pestle, antacid tablet Procedure: Using the materials listed, design a procedure to demonstrate how an antacid works to counteract excess stomach acid. ASSESSMENT A. Multiple Choice. Write the letter corresponding to the best answer. 1. To be classified as a metal, an element must A. be shiny. B. conduct electricity in both solid and molten states. C. react with an acid. D. be solid and dense.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 2. Which element is nonmetallic? A. Iron B. Sodium 3. Which is NOT a compound? A. Glucose B. Table salt

C. Lead D. Helium C. Diamond D. Ethanol

4. Cooking utensils are made of metals such as iron, stainless steel, aluminum, and copper because metals are A. shiny and scratch-free. C. good conductors of heat. B. lightweight and durable. D. good conductors of electricity. For question #5, consider the following boiling temperatures of four liquid samples: Sample Boiling temperature W 65 95 X 67.5 68.0 Y 90.8 91.0 Z 75 98 5. All of the following statements are true EXCEPT A. Sample W is a mixture. B. Sample Z is NOT a mixture. C. Samples X and Y are pure substances. D. Samples W and Z cannot be elements. 6. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all pure substances? A. Homogeneous C. Sharp melting and boiling points B. Fixed composition D. Good electrical conductors 7. Which statement is TRUE? A. Iodine readily dissolves in alcohol. B. Sugar and carbon are water-soluble. C. Iodine and carbon are soluble in alcohol. D. Sugar retains its properties after heating. 8. Which sample turns litmus blue to red? A. Pineapple juice C. Salt solution B. Domex disinfectant D. Ponds facial wash

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION B. Short Answers. 1. Identify each of the following as an element, a compound, a homogeneous mixture or a heterogeneous mixture: CH4, S8, distilled water, sea water, CH2O, and concrete. 2. A white, crystalline material that looks like table salt releases gas when heated under certain conditions. There is no change in the appearance of the solid but the reactivity of the material changes. Was the original material an element or a compound? Explain your answer. 3. In the Philippines, our main source of sucrose is sugarcane. In many other countries, they get sucrose from sugar beets. How do you think would the composition of sucrose purified from sugar cane compare with the composition of sucrose purified from sugar beet? Explain your answer. ANSWER KEY A. Multiple Choice. 1. 5. B B 2. 6. D D 3. 7. C C 4. 8. A A

B. Short Answers. 1. Compound, element, compound, homogeneous mixture, compound, and heterogeneous mixture. 2. A compound. The original material broke down to form a gas and a solid that is different in properties from the original material. 3. The compositions should be identical, otherwise they cannot be both sucrose. Sucrose is a compound, so it must have a definite composition no matter what its source. REFERENCES Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E., Jr. & B. E. Bursten. (2000). Chemistry: The central science. (8th ed.). NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. Chang, R. (2006). General chemistry. (4th ed.). MA: McGraw-Hill, Inc. DiSpezio, M., et al. (1996). Science insights: exploring matter and energy. CA: Addison-Wesley.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Kotz, J. C. & P. Treichel. (1999). Chemistry and chemical reactivity. (4th ed.). FL: Saunders College Publishing. Myers, R. T., Oldham, K. B., & S. Tocci.(2004). Chemistry. TX: Holt Rinehart and Winston. Wilbraham, A. C., Staley D. D., Matta, M. S. & Chemistry. (5th ed.). CA: Prentice Hall, Inc. E. L. Waterman. (2000).

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Chapter 2: Forms and Phases of Matter EPISODE 7: PHASES OF MATTER OVERVIEW This episode is about the different phases of matter. The properties of the three phases, solid, liquid and gas, are described, and the phase changes that matter undergoes in relation to temperature and pressure changes are discussed. OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to: 1. distinguish among solids, liquids and gases; 2. enumerate the properties of solids, liquids and gases; 3. identify the different phase changes that matter undergoes; 4. interpret phase diagrams; and 5. appreciate the importance of our God-given resources. INTEGRATION WITH OTHER LEARNING AREAS The properties of gases are explained using the Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) in Episode 8. KMT can be extended to explain the properties of solids and liquids, which are described in detail in Episode 9 Condensed Phases of Matter.
SCIENCE PROCESSES

Observing Measuring
VALUES

Interpreting

Critical mindedness Appreciation for nature Acknowledging the importance of Gods creations
LIFE SKILLS

Care for the environment Humility

Making accurate observations Formulating inferences

Making conclusions

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION IMPORTANT CONCEPTS 1. The three phases of matter are solid, liquid, and gas, each of which has properties that can be distinguished from the others. 2. Solids have rigid shapes and definite volumes. With the exception of water, substances are more dense in their solid phase than they are in their liquid or gas phases. 3. A liquid has a definite volume but no definite shape. Liquids take the shape of their containers and retain their volume even when poured into another container. 4. Gases tend to diffuse or spread out in space, are compressible, and have no definite shape or volume. 5. The liquid and solid phases are called the condensed phases of matter because they occupy smaller volumes compared to the gases. 6. A phase diagram shows the temperature and pressure combinations at which a substance exist at its solid, liquid or gas phases. 7. For every substance, there are distinct conditions of temperature and pressure when the substance exists in two phases and one combination of temperature and pressure, the triple point, when a substance exists in all three states. BACKGROUND INFORMATION/EPISODE CONTENT The world we live in may be divided into three main parts: the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere. The lithosphere is the solid layer of the Earth that extends about 100 kilometers in thickness and it is where we live on and build our homes. The hydrosphere consists of the different bodies of water that make up about 75% of the Earths surface and includes the rivers, lakes, ground water, glaciers, and oceans. The atmosphere is the gaseous layer of the Earth, which reaches 500 kilometers above the surface with 99% of its contents confined in the first 30 kilometers or so above the Earth. The three parts of the Earth is an analogy to the three phases of matter: the solid, liquid, and gas phases. These components of our physical world support life on Earth. An example is how plants depend on these three phases of matter. The soil (solid phase) provides support and nutrients for plants. Water (liquid phase) is used to transport nutrients from the soil through the roots and stems of plants. Carbon dioxide (gas phase) is absorbed through the leaves to produce food during photosynthesis and is released at night during respiration. 78

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION The Solid and Liquid Phases. The characteristic properties of solids and liquids are listed below:
SOLID LIQUID

has a rigid or definite volume and shape usually most dense compared to the liquid and gas phases of the substance can be hard, soft or brittle some are malleable

has definite volume (even when transferred to different containers) flows or can be poured takes the shape of the container

The solid and liquid phases are called the condensed phases of matter because they occupy smaller volumes compared to the gases. The Gas Phase. The term gas refers to the physical state of matter with the following characteristics: GAS tends to diffuse or spread out in space (fills up a container) no definite volume and shape compressible least dense compared to the liquid and solid phases of the substance

Gases are transparent and are not easily detected by our eyes unless they are colored, such as bromine, which is red-brown, or iodine, a purple gas. Water is colorless, that is why we cannot see it in its gaseous phase. The presence of gaseous water in the air (water vapor) can be inferred from the experiment demonstrated in the video lesson. Two glass containers were tightly capped, one contained water at room temperature and the other was filled with pieces of ice. Water droplets formed on the outside walls of the glass container with ice, but none formed on the other container. The water droplets could have come only from outside the container: the water vapor in the air condensed to liquid water on the cold surface of the glass containing ice. Vapor is the gaseous phase of a substance that exists at a temperature at which the substance normally exists either as a solid or liquid. Water vapor is present in the air even if the temperature of the air or surroundings is below 100oC, or the boiling point of water. Like water vapor, the vapor of any substance can be condensed into the liquid state by a decrease in temperature, or an increase in pressure. Unlike solids and liquids, gases tend to expand or spread out in available spaces, even if other gases are present in the same space. For example, the perfume worn by a person can spread in a room that is also filled with air. This tendency to 79

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION spread or diffuse shows that gases have no definite volume or shape. A container may also be filled with as much of the gas as the container would allow and this property is called compressibility. Gases are the least dense of the three phases. Gases differ in densities, depending on their composition, and on how much gas is present in a given volume. A helium balloon tends to rise in air because the gas in the balloon is less dense than the surrounding air. Phase Diagrams. A substance can undergo a change in phase when the temperature is changed. Liquid water will boil and transform into the gaseous state when heated. Substances can also change phases even if the temperature is kept constant. How? A change in pressure can do this. An example of a phase change at constant temperature but changing pressure is when a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) tank is opened. The fuel inside the tank is under extremely high pressure and it is in the liquid phase, hence its name, liquefied petroleum gas. If the gate valve is opened, the gas pressing over the liquid moves out of the tank, and the pressure over the liquid decreases. The LPG continuously vaporizes as the gas goes out of the tank. Temperature and pressure are indeed two very important factors that determine whether a substance would exist as solid, liquid or gas. Certain combinations of these two factors also allow a substance to undergo a change in phase. For example, we know that water boils at 100oC, and at this temperature, liquid water transforms into a gas. But inside a pressure cooker, water will boil only when the temperature reaches about 120oC since the pressure inside the cooker is about twice the usual atmospheric pressure. On the other hand, on top of Mt. Apo, where air Figure 1. pressure is just about 70% of the A typical phase diagram. atmospheric pressure in Manila, water will already boil at 92oC. So water has several boiling points, and melting points, too - depending on the prevailing atmospheric pressure! All these are best illustrated by a phase diagram. A phase diagram shows the combinations of temperature and pressure at which a substance would exist as solid, liquid and gas phases. A typical phase diagram is shown in Figure 1. 80

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION The phase diagram has the following parts: 1. The triple point the temperature and pressure at which all three phases, solid, liquid and gas co-exist. 2. Critical point the highest possible temperature and lowest pressure when a substance can exist as a liquid. 3. Vapor pressure curve temperature-pressure combinations when a liquid boils and becomes a gas (or when a gas condenses into a liquid); all points on this curve are boiling points (condensation points) of the substance at different pressures. 4. Fusion curve temperature-pressure combinations when a solid becomes a liquid (or a liquid solidifies); all points on this curve are melting points (or freezing points) of the substance at different pressures. 5. Sublimation curve temperature-pressure combinations when a solid becomes a gas (or a gas becomes a solid); all points on this curve are sublimation points (or deposition points) of the substance at different pressures. 6. Solid part all points here are temperature-pressure combinations when the substance is a solid. 7. Liquid part all points when a substance is a liquid. 8. Gas part all points when a substance is a gas. 9. Fluid part all points beyond the critical point when the substance behaves as a fluid.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION The Phase Diagram of Water. The phase diagram of water is given in Figure 2.

Figure 2. The phase diagram for water. Notice the following: The triple point of water is 0.01 C and 4.58 torr (0.006 atm). At this temperature and pressure, all three states of water coexist. Solid water, or ice, sublimes at temperatures less than 0.01C when the pressure is below 4.58 torr. The critical point of water is at 374oC and 225 atm pressure. This means that we cannot condense gaseous water into liquid at temperatures higher than 374oC, and the only way we can liquefy gaseous water at this temperature is to apply a minimum pressure of 225 atm. Water boils at the familiar temperature of 100oC only when the pressure of the atmosphere is 1 atm. We call this boiling point the normal boiling point of water. In the same way, the normal freezing point of water is 0oC, since water freezes at this temperature when the atmospheric pressure is 1 atm. The fusion curve of water leans to the left while the curve in a typical phase diagram leans to the right. This unusual characteristic explains why ice floats on water, and makes water a special liquid! The phase changes of water are important to us in a basic way: life on earth depends on the hydrologic cycle, which describes the phase changes water undergoes on the earths surface. 82

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Temperature and Phase Changes. When a melting point or boiling point of a substance is reached, the substance does not undergo the change in phase instantaneously. If water is boiled at normal conditions, the temperature remains at 100oC even if we continuously heat the liquid. Where does the additional heat go if the temperature does not rise? To pass into the gaseous state, each water molecule has to free itself from the liquid and move away, a process that requires energy. The energy involved is called heat of vaporization. When the temperature of water reaches 100oC, all the molecules are vibrating rapidly, eager to get out of the liquid phase. They need an extra push for vaporization, which corresponds to this amount of energy to free themselves from whatever attractive forces that hold them in the liquid state. So the more water one has to boil, the larger is the amount of heat necessary to transform the whole sample into the gaseous state, and the longer it takes to boil off the liquid, although the temperature remains at 100oC! The equivalent amount of energy needed to convert a solid to its liquid form when the temperature is already at the melting point is called heat of fusion. The Fourth and Fifth States of Matter. There are two other phases that matter has been found to exist, although these phases are difficult to handle and study because of the extreme conditions of their existence. These are the plasma and the Bose-Einstein condensate. Plasma. When matter is heated to very high temperatures (>5000oC), the collisions between particles are so violent that electrons are knocked away from the atoms. This state of matter, composed of electrons and positive ions, is plasma. Plasma is a gaseous mixture of electrons (negatively-charged particles of an atom) and positive ions (atoms that have lost electrons). It has been suggested that 99% of the universe is made of plasma. Stars are in a plasma state, and outer space is not really empty, but is composed of extremely thin plasma. The Van Allen radiation belts that surround the Earth are also made out of plasma. Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC). Eric A. Cornell, Carl E. Weiman, and Wolfgang Ketterle produced in the United States in 1995, what is considered the fifth state of matter, the Bose-Einstein Condensate or BEC. They received the Nobel Prize in Physics for 2001 for their work. In this fifth state of matter, slowmoving atoms combine to form a larger atom (a super atom) that moves and behaves like one particle. VOCABULARY WORDS 1. Malleable ability of a solid to be pounded into sheets without breaking into small pieces. 83

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 2. Brittle a characteristic of some solids to shatter into small pieces when pounded or when pressure is applied. 3. Heat of fusion the amount of heat required to convert a solid at its melting point, to the liquid state. 4. Heat of vaporization the amount of heat needed to convert a liquid substance at its boiling point to the gaseous state. 5. Fluid a substance that has the ability to flow. Liquids and gases are fluids. PRE-VIEWING ACTIVITIES A. Collage Making. Wrap up the discussion of the previous topic of classification of matter by letting the students make a collage graph on the board, showing the properties for the different classifications of matter. Have the class form dyads (pairs) and let them give examples for each classification found in their kitchens. B. States of Water? Focus the next discussion on the freezer portion of the refrigerator. Tell them that if we hold the door of the freezer open for some time, we would see that water droplets start to form from the ice inside. Also, notice that there seems to be a mist of gas, somewhat like a fog, in the freezer. Ask the class the differences they observe among the ice, the fog (mist), and the water vapor inside the freezer. It might be better if a sample of ice floating in a beaker of water is brought in front of the class. Let them notice that ice floats on water and that the cold vapor from the ice tends to go down instead of going up. Ask the class if they think the three samples (ice, water droplets, and mist) are three different states. C. Introduce the episode that will deal with the three different phases of matter and the phase changes that matter undergoes. D. Pose the Guide Questions that the students will answer after viewing the episode. Ask them to focus on finding the answers to the guide questions as they watch the video. Guide Questions/Answers 1. What are the three layers of the earth wherein almost all of the essential human needs are found? The three layers of the earth wherein almost all of the essential needs of man are found are the lithosphere, hydrosphere and the atmosphere.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 2. What are the three phases of matter? Differentiate one from the other by listing their properties. SOLID Rigid or definite volume Can be hard, soft or brittle Most dense compared to the liquid and gas phases of substances (except in the case of water). LIQUID Flows or can be poured Takes the shape of the container Has definite volume GAS Tends to diffuse No definite volume or shape Compressible Least dense compared to the liquid and solid phases of the substances

3. Give at least two examples of gases that have color. Two examples of gases with color are bromine and iodine gas. 4. What does LPG stand for? LPG stands for liquefied petroleum gas. 5. What is the phase of LPG inside the tank? When the regulator valve of the tank is opened, does the LPG become a liquid or gas? Inside the tank, LPG is the liquid state. This is because of the very high pressure inside the tank. Once the valve is opened, LPG escapes from the tank in its gaseous form. This is due to the great difference in pressure between the inside and the outside of the tank. 6. What is a phase diagram? A phase diagram is a graphical representation that shows the temperatures and pressures at which a substance can exist in its solid, liquid or gas phases. 7. Draw a phase diagram and label its parts. Be able to discuss how a phase diagram is interpreted. The areas above and below the curve represent the different phases of matter. The curves represent phase boundaries. At the phase boundaries, two phases may exist at the same time. The triple point is a unique region in the phase diagram where the three curves meet. At this point, the three phases coexist and are in equilibrium with each other. 8. What do the terms sublimation, evaporation, and condensation mean? Be able to give instances when they are clearly observed. Sublimation is a process of turning a solid material into its gaseous phase without passing through its liquid phase. An example of sublimation would 85

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION be dry ice turning into the gas phase. Evaporation is the process of converting the liquid phase directly into the gaseous phase. An example for evaporation is the boiling of water. Condensation is the reverse of evaporation. The formation of rain clouds is an example of condensation. Another example wherein all the three processes are found is the hydrologic cycle or the water cycle. VIEWING ACTIVITIES The segments suggested for viewing are: (1) 9:12 9:44 on Explanation of Simple Activity, (2) 10:10 11:48 on Properties of Gases, and (3) 12:19 20:15 on Phase Diagram.

POST-VIEWING ACTIVITIES Discuss the answers to the Guide Questions. TEACHING TIPS Suggested Activities A. Care for the Environment. Using different media (e.g. articles, pictures, songs of artists like Joey Ayala, etc), relate to the class how people are starting to destroy the three layers of the earth through pollution. Discuss the shortterm and long-term effects of land, water and air pollution, their probable causes and the things we can do to prevent this from continuing. The students may be encouraged to make slogans and posters to educate other students in their schools about this problem. They may also be encouraged to do their share in preserving the environment by planting trees, segregating garbage at home and in school, and initiating the CLAYGO (Clean as you go) policy in all areas of the school. B. Demonstration/Experiment. Water Purification Relate to the class that changing a substances phase may be used as a way of purifying the substance it. An example would be obtaining pure water from ice by first melting it and then using a distillation set-up. This experiment introduces one way of purifying a sample by making it pass through different phases.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Procedure: 1. Obtain about 20 mL of water and add to it some chalk or sand and some food dye. Place this in the freezer overnight. 2. The following day, make a simple distillation set-up. Put the ice in the flask and add some boiling chips. Start distillation and observe the properties of water that comes out of the condenser. Compare this with the original sample of water. 3. Ask the students what phase changes occurred during the entire process. C. Evaporation at Low Temperature. This activity is designed for students to determine whether liquids evaporate at any temperature or if they evaporate at the same rate. Materials: some filter paper or folded tissue paper, 1 mL of water, 1 mL of acetone, 10 mL of alcohol, three medicine droppers, and three colorless vials (same size) Procedure: 1. Place the water, acetone, and alcohol in separate vials. Get a piece of filter paper or folded tissue paper. Using a different dropper for each liquid, place 2 drops each of water, alcohol, and acetone on the paper at the same time. Observe for a few minutes. 2. Ask the students: a. Did the three liquids evaporate even at room temperature (which is below their boiling temperature)? b. Which liquid evaporated the fastest? c. Which liquid evaporated the slowest? 3. Let the students place a drop of acetone or alcohol on their hands. Ask them: What happens to the acetone and alcohol? What do you feel? ASSESSMENT 1. What phase change is happening in each of the following? A. turning dry ice into fog B. formation of lava out of volcanic rocks in volcanoes C. drying laundry under the sun D. formation of rain clouds E. formation of snow 2. Make an energy diagram for the different phase changes that matter undergoes. Label the processes completely.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION ANSWER KEY 1. Phase change. A. sublimation B. melting C. vaporization D. condensation E. deposition (sometimes also classified as extreme condensation). 2. Energy diagram

REFERENCES Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E., Jr. & Bursten, B. E. (1994). Chemistry: the central science. NJ: Prentice Hall. Price, J., Smith, R. G., & Smoot, R. C. (1990). Chemistry, a modern course. OH: Merill.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Chapter 2: Forms and Phases of Matter EPISODE 8: KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OVERVIEW This episode focuses on how the Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) explains the behavior of molecules in the different phases of matter. It also introduces two gas laws, Boyles Law and Charles Law, which allow us to predict the behavior of gases resulting from the manipulation of any of the three properties pressure, volume, and temperature. OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to: 1. enumerate the assumptions of the Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT); 2. appreciate the use of models in providing a mental or visual picture of phenomena based on observations, and in forming theories; 3. use the KMT to explain the phase changes that water undergoes; 4. use the KMT to describe the behavior of atoms and molecules of gases; 5. enumerate the three variables or factors that affect the conditions of a gas sample; 6. explain the gas laws in terms of KMT; 7. identify what variables are kept constant or manipulated according to the gas laws; and 8. identify important biological processes where different gas laws apply. INTEGRATION WITH OTHER LEARNING AREAS This episode gives the explanation to the concepts discussed in Episode 7 - Phases of Matter and should be used in conjunction with Episode 9 - Condensed Phases of Matter, which further explores the characteristics of solids and liquids. SCIENCE PROCESSES Observing Experimenting Measuring Interpreting Finding patterns Organizing Formulating explanations or theories Making predictions based on observations

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION VALUES Care for the environment Critical mindedness LIFE SKILLS Making inferences Making well-founded predictions Humility

IMPORTANT CONCEPTS 1. Models are used by scientists to create an approximate picture of a phenomenon based on observations. A model attempts to describe and explain ideas in terms of things we are familiar with. A model can sometimes be a mathematical equation. 2. The Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) is a model that effectively describes and explains the three phases of matter. 3. There are three variables or factors that define or describe the conditions of a gas sample: pressure, volume, and temperature. 4. Boyles Law states that at constant temperature, the volume of a given sample of gas varies inversely with the pressure. This law can also be expressed mathematically using the equation PV = k where P is the pressure, V is the volume and k is a constant. 5. Charles Law states that at constant pressure, the volume of a given sample of gas varies directly as its absolute temperature. Mathematically, the law can be represented as V = kT where T is the temperature, V is the volume and k is a constant. BACKGROUND INFORMATION/EPISODE CONTENT Of the three phases of matter, the gas phase may be the most difficult to see but is the easiest to study. Gases tend to behave similarly at a certain range of conditions and the similarities allowed scientist to develop theories to explain the behavior of gases. Models. Scientists do not just stop at observing, but also ask why things happen the way they do or why things are the way they are. Based on the answers they find to these questions, they try to predict how things will happen. To help visualize abstract ideas or objects that are either too small to see or too large to handle, scientists use models to aid in their understanding of actual phenomena. A 90

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION model gives us a visual or a mental picture of what we cannot directly observe or see. Sometimes models use or come in the form of mathematical equations. A model is only an approximation or rough picture of the real thing. However, we accept a model as long as it is able to explain all of our observations well enough. The Kinetic Molecular Theory. The model that chemists use to explain the behavior of a gas, and the condensed phases of matter, is the Kinetic Molecular Theory or KMT. To visualize a gas, KMT uses the following postulates: 1. Matter is made up of particles. The particles can be single atoms such as in a sample of helium gas, or molecules such as in a sample of carbon dioxide or acetylene gas. 2. In gases, the particles are widely spread out such that the spaces between particles are many, many times larger compared to the sizes of the particles. 3. Particles move in all directions at high speed and in straight lines. 4. As particles move, they collide with one another and with the walls of the container. 5. Collisions are perfectly elastic; no energy is lost due to collisions. 6. The average kinetic energy of particles of a gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature the gas. The KMT presents the view that matter is made up of particles that are greatly spread out and far apart, and are moving so fast that attractive forces among particles are so small and negligible or insignificant. The particles move randomly and constantly at high speeds and in straight lines. Gas molecules usually move extremely fast. The average velocity of hydrogen gas molecules at 25oC is 1.77 x 105 cm/sec or 1.77 x 103 m/sec. As the gas molecules move, they collide with each other and with the walls of the containers. For example, molecules of nitrogen at 25oC and 1 atm pressure collide with one another 8.99 x 1028 times/cm3 each second. These collisions are assumed to be perfectly elastic. This means that the gas molecules do not lose energy upon collision, and even if they transfer kinetic energies, the total energy of the particles before and after collision remains the same. Inelastic collision, on the other hand, can be exemplified by two balls, which upon hitting each other repeatedly, lose energy due to friction, slow down and may eventually stop moving. Variables that Describe a Gas. The behavior of any given sample or fixed amount of gas can be described using three variables: volume, temperature, and pressure. Volume. According to KMT, gas particles move in indeterminate directions since the particles are not influenced by attractive forces with other particles. Hence, the 91

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION particles of a gas can quickly occupy any space that is made available to them. The volume of a gas sample, therefore, is essentially the volume of its container. Gas Pressure. The pressure of a gas is the total force of the collisions of the gas particles with a unit area of the wall of the container (pressure = force/area). The more frequent the collisions, the higher the gas pressure. In an oxygen tank, for example, pressure will not change as long as the gas is in a sealed container and the temperature is kept constant. A pressure gauge attached to a gas tank actually tells us how much gas remains in the tank. If the pressure reading is high, that means a lot of gas molecules are colliding with a unit area of the wall per second. If the pressure reading decreases while the volume and temperature remain constant, this would mean there are fewer molecules colliding with a unit area of the wall. When the pressure drops below some minimum value, it is time to refill the tank. Temperature and Kinetic Energy. The temperature of a gas is directly related to how fast particles are moving. The higher the temperature, the faster is the motion of the particles. Moving molecules have kinetic energy. The faster they move, the higher their kinetic energy. In a given system or a specific body of matter being studied, the average kinetic energy of the particles is directly proportional to the absolute temperature. All gases have the same average kinetic energy at the same temperature. The kinetic energy of a particle depends on the mass of the particle and the speed at which it moves. The relationship can be expressed in the formula for kinetic energy where m = mass and v = velocity: KE = mv2 For molecules of different masses but with the same average kinetic energy, the larger molecules move more slowly than the smaller ones. The Gas Laws. The behavior of a gas can be described through some mathematical relationships among the three variables or factors that characterize the conditions of a gas: pressure (P), volume (V), and temperature (T). Various experiments have shown that these variables are related to one another in very predictable ways. Two of the laws that govern the behavior of gases are Boyles Law and Charles Law. Boyles Law. In 1660, British scientist Robert Boyle was first to demonstrate the relationship between the pressure and volume of a given sample of gas at constant temperature. In his experiments, Boyle used a long J-tube closed at the shorter end. He poured mercury into the tube, trapping some air at the closed end in the process. When he added more mercury at the open end, he found that the volume 92

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION of trapped air to decreased, while if he removed some of the mercury, the volume of air increased. Boyle showed that all gases behave this way. He formulated the gas law known as Boyles Law, which states as follows: If the temperature remains constant, the volume of a given mass of gas varies inversely with the pressure. PV = k, at constant T The construction of an improvised Boyles Law apparatus using a plastic syringe was shown in the video episode. The tip of the syringe was sealed and the set-up was supported the on a wooden platform. Uniform weights like books were placed on top of the barrel to increase the pressure in increments and to show the decrease in the volume of air inside the syringe. Boyles Law operates even inside our body. The lungs are elastic like balloons: they can expand and contract. When we inhale, our lungs expand and the increase in volume causes a decrease in air pressure inside the lungs. Air from the outside then rushes in. When we exhale, our chest muscles push our lungs in, causing them to contract. The volume of the lungs decreases, resulting in an increase in the air pressure inside, and causing the air to rush out of the lungs. The KMT explains why pressure changes with the volume of a sample of gas. When the volume of a gas is reduced, the molecules must travel a shorter distance before they collide with a wall. Therefore, they make more collisions with the wall per unit time. This results in higher pressure. With the larger volume, the molecules travel a longer distance before they collide with the wall, resulting in fewer collisions per unit area of the wall per unit time, or in other words, lower pressure. We use Boyles Law to calculate the new pressure of a gas when its volume is changed at constant temperature and the new volume of a gas when its pressure is changed at constant temperature. A form of Boyles Law that is useful for calculations is P1V1 = P2V2 Charles Law. When a gas is heated, the immediate effect is an increase in pressure because particles are moving faster and collisions will be more forceful. However, if the container of the gas is flexible enough to allow expansion, then the pressure of the gas can return to its original value. The net change caused by 93

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION the increase in temperature is an increase in volume. This is essentially Charles Law, named after the French physicist Jacques Alexandre Cesar Charles, who first recognized the relationship between volume and temperature of a gas at constant pressure in 1787. In the video lesson, Charles Law was illustrated by heating a gas inside a flask that was covered by a deflated balloon. When the gas inside the flask was sufficiently hot, its volume increased, thereby expanding the balloon against the constant atmospheric pressure. When the source of heat was removed, the air inside the flask cooled and the balloon became smaller in size. Charles Law states that: At constant pressure, the volume of a given sample of gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature (in Kelvin) of the gas. V = kT, at constant P where T is absolute temperature and k is a constant. If the volume of the gas is plotted against the absolute temperature, a straight line is obtained. If we extrapolate to V = 0, the line intersects the x-axis at -273.15oC. This temperature is assigned to be equal to zero in the Kelvin scale, or simply absolute zero, 0 K, which is theoretically the lowest attainable temperature. It is also the temperature at which the kinetic energy of particles is equal to zero, and their motion ceases. Compressed gases are transported in heavy duty containers because gases behave according to Charles Law. Gases are best transported in small containers, but an increase in temperature will result in either an increase in volume while pressure is maintained at a constant value, (Charles Law), or an increase in pressure while volume is held constant (Gay-Lussacs Law). The choice is certainly the one preventing an increase in volume, but requires keeping the containers strong enough to withstand changes in pressure. The KMT explains Charles Law very well, as shown by an experiment using a fuel can. An open fuel can containing water vapor at 100oC has a pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure. When the container is sealed and placed under tap water, we observed the can starting to collapse. This is because as the temperature drops, gaseous water inside the can move more slowly and hit the walls of the container less forcefully. The pressure inside the can becomes lower than the pressure outside the can. The higher atmospheric pressure pushes the walls of the can into a smaller volume, until the pressure inside and outside are the same again. 94

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Other Gas Laws. There are other laws besides Boyles Law and Charles Law that describe the behavior of a gas. Gay-Lussacs Law gives the relationship between temperature and pressure at constant volume and amount of gas. Avogadros Law gives the important relationship between equal volumes and amount of gas at constant pressure and temperature. Daltons Law of Partial Pressures deals with the relationship between the total pressure of a mixture of gases in a container and the partial pressures of all gases in the container. Grahams Law is about the diffusion of gases. The most commonly used gas law is known as the ideal gas or the general gas equation. This equation incorporates all the individual gas laws into one equation, with all the constants put together into a single gas constant, R. The ideal gas equation has the form: PV = nRT where P is the pressure of the gas, V is the volume, n is the number of moles of gas in the sample, T is the absolute temperature and R is the gas constant. The equation is used to determine the value of one of the variables when all the others are given (or if some are given and some are held constant). VOCABULARY WORDS 1. Kinetic energy energy due to motion. 2. Elastic collision a type of collision where the total energy of the particles before and after collision remain the same and no energy is lost due to the collision. 3. Absolute temperature temperature in the absolute or Kelvin scale. PRE-VIEWING ACTIVITIES A. Recall. Review the class on the previous lesson about the different phases of matter. Bring to class a picture of a banana split sundae and ask the class to enumerate what examples of solids, liquids and gases are present in the picture. B. Role Play. Have the students form small groups and have them act as molecules. Ask the groups to act if they were molecules in a solid, liquid or gas. Also ask them to act out the behavior of molecules if they were placed in a container and how they would react to changes in temperature. Let the students reflect on what they have seen and have done during the activity. Ask them: If pressure were changed, how would this affect the behavior of the 95

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION molecules in a gas? How would this affect the volume of the gas? How about the temperature of the gas? C. Discuss at this point that pressure, volume and temperature are the three major variables that define the conditions of a gas, and that the behavior of molecules could be effectively described by using the assumptions of a model known as the Kinetic Molecular Theory. D. Introduce the episode that will explain and describe the behavior of molecules in the three different phases using the Kinetic Molecular Theory. E. Pose the Guide Questions that the students will answer after viewing the episode. Ask them to focus on finding the answers to the guide questions as they watch the video. Guide Questions/Answers 1. What is a model? A model is an approximate picture of a phenomenon based on observations. It attempts to describe and explain things in terms of familiar things and it sometimes uses mathematical equations. 2. What model effectively describes and explains the three phases of matter? Enumerate its assumptions. The Kinetic Molecular Theory is the model that effectively describes and explains the three phases of matter. Its assumptions are the following: a. Matter is made up of particles. b. In gases, the particles are widely spread out. c. Particles move chaotically at high speed and in straight lines. d. As particles move, they collide with one another and with the walls of the container. e. Collisions are perfectly elastic; no energy is lost due to collisions. 3. What three variables define the conditions of a gas? What happens when one variable is held constant? What gas law would describe this condition? The three variables or factors that define or describe the conditions of a gas are pressure, volume, and temperature. When one variable is held constant, a distinct relationship is formed between the two remaining variables. For example, pressure is inversely proportional to the volume of the gas sample at constant temperature. An inverse proportionality relationship between pressure and volume means that if the pressure is increased, the volume occupied by the gas decreases. Boyles Law describes this relationship. 96

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION On the other hand, volume is directly proportional to the temperature of a gas at constant pressure, according to Charles Law. A direct proportionality relationship between temperature and pressure means that if the temperature is increased, the volume occupied by the gas also increases (i.e., the gas expands). 4. Why does a fuel can with water vapor at 100oC inside collapse when it is sealed and its temperature is allowed to go down rapidly? The fuel can collapses because as the cans temperature drops, the pressure inside the can also decreases and becomes lower than the pressure outside the can. The atmosphere presses on the can and collapses it until the volume is sufficiently small such that the pressure inside becomes equal again to the pressure outside. 5. What is the difference between an inelastic and an elastic collision? Elastic collisions are collisions wherein gas molecules do not lose energy upon collision, while energy is lost in inelastic collisions. 6. Explain Boyles Law and Charless Law using the Kinetic Molecular Theory. In Boyles Law, the temperature of the gas molecules is held constant and only the pressure or volume is changed. When the volume of the sample of gas is reduced, the molecules must travel a shorter distance before they collide with a wall. Therefore, they make more collisions per unit area of the wall per unit time. This results in higher pressure. When volume is increased, the molecules travel a longer distance before they collide with a given area of the wall. The result is fewer collisions of a molecule per unit area of the wall per second, hence lower pressure. On the other hand, in Charles Law, the pressure is kept constant while varying either temperature or volume. At constant pressure, there will be a constant number of collisions of gas molecules with the walls of the container. If the temperature drops, the number of collisions also starts to drop. To maintain the same number of collisions, the gas molecules will have to move a smaller distance between collisions thereby decreasing the volume. VIEWING ACTIVITIES Let the students view the following parts of the episode: (1) 5:03 11:20 on KMT Gas Model, (2) 12:42 16:44 on Boyles Law, and (3) 18:15 19:00 on Charles Law. 97

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION POST-VIEWING ACTIVITIES Discuss the answers to the Guide Questions. TEACHING TIPS Suggested Activities A. Problem Solving. If the course objectives include quantitative work on Boyles Law and Charles Law, use the following equations for problem solving: Boyles Law: P1V1 = P2V2 where P1 is the initial pressure of the gas sample, V1 is the initial volume, P2 the final pressure, and V2 is the final volume of the gas sample. Charles Law:

V1 V2 = T1 T2
where V1 is the initial volume of the gas sample, T1 is the initial temperature, V2 is the final volume and T2 the final temperature of the gas sample.

B. Making Models. Divide the students into groups of four. Each group will construct a model simulating the human lungs out of a glass bottle, straws and balloons. Give recognition to the best model made. C. Demonstration/Experiment. 1. Models The demonstration is intended to visually introduce students to the behavior of molecules in the different phases of matter. Procedure: a. Obtain about 6 marbles and a roll of masking tape. Using an overhead projector, place 6 glass marbles in the middle of the masking tape roll and turn on the projector. When the masking tape roll is moved back and forth, the activity of gas molecules is simulated. b. By varying the speed and hand motion, this qualitative demonstration of the kinetic molecular theory also demonstrates temperature variations. During the demonstration, let the students focus on the marbles as they hit the sides of the masking tape roll. At this point, you may define what elastic collisions and pressure mean. 98

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 2. Diffusion of Particles The activity is designed to show that particles of gases are in constant random motion, which is one of the assumptions of the Kinetic Molecular Theory. You may demonstrate this to the students or the students can perform this as an experiment. Procedure: a. Obtain some cotton buds, a vial with concentrated ammonia (NH3) and another one with concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl), 2 medicine droppers, a glass tubing about 30 cm long and about 2 centimeters wide, carbon paper or black paper, a balloon, and some vanilla. b. To start off, take two cotton buds. Wet one end of one cotton bud with NH3 and one end of the other with HCl. Bring the wet cotton buds near each other but not touching each other. What do you observe? c. Afterwards, place the glass tubing against a carbon paper and mark about 1 centimeter from each end of the glass tubing. Take two dry cotton buds. Wet one end of a bud with a few drops of NH3, and one end of the other bud with about the same amount of HCl. Insert the wet ends of the buds at opposite ends of the glass tubing at the same time. Observe what happens. At what part of the tube do you think the two gases will meet? Which gas do you think will diffuse faster? Record your observations. 3. Kinetic Energy and Temperature This activity is designed to let the students realize the relationship between kinetic energy and temperature. Procedure: a. Prepare two evaporating dishes, a bottle of perfume and an alcohol lamp. In each dish, place about the same amount of perfume. Leave one evaporating dish with perfume on a table in the room. Leave the other over a lit alcohol lamp in another room. Make sure that the rooms are not ventilated by wind, fans or air-conditioning. Have student volunteers stand about 6 meters away from each set-up. Have each student record the time it took the fragrance of the perfumes to reach them. Ask: Which perfume reached you the quickest? Why do you think this is so? b. In the second experiment, vary the previous setup by varying the temperature of the perfumes and recording the time it took for it to reach a student standing 6 meters away from the setup. Have the 99

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION students plot the data they gathered and ask them to form a conclusion based on it. ASSESSMENT Quiz 1. Tell which assumption of the Kinetic Molecular Theory best explains the following: a. fragrance of newly cut grass in the air b. the wind blowing on your boats sail c. air is invisible but has mass 2. Besides LPGs, what other examples could you give that show the direct application of gas laws? 3. What is the final pressure of a gas at constant temperature if its original volume was tripled? 4. What was the initial temperature of a gas at constant pressure if its final volume decreased to half of the original on cooling? ANSWER KEY 1. KMT assumption a. Particles are in continuous random motion. b. As particles move, they collide with each other and with the walls of the container. c. All matter is made up of particles. 2. Another example of an application of gas laws would be aerosols such as insecticide and hair sprays. 3. If the volume of the gas increased by three times the original and the temperature remained the same, pressure is expected to DECREASE. Given: P1, V2 = 3V1 (since it was stated that the original volume was tripled) Find: P2 Working Equation: Boyles Law: P2V2 = P1V1 Substitute V2 = 3V1 into the equation P2 = (P1V1)/3V1 Cancel out V1. P2 = 1/3 P1 The final pressure is 1/3 of the original pressure of the gas.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 4. If the volume of the gas decreased at constant pressure, the final temperature must be lower than the initial temperature. Given: T2, V1 = 2V2 (since it was stated that the final volume was half of the original volume) Find: T1 Working Equation: Charles Law:
V1 V2 = T1 T2

or T1 = (V1T2)/V2

Substitute V1 = 2V2 into the equation: T1 = (2V2T2)/V2 Cancel V2. T1 = 2T2 The initial temperature, K, is twice the final temperature, in K, other gas. REFERENCES Brown, T. L., Le May, H. E. Jr., & Bursten, B. E. (1994). Chemistry: the central science. NJ: Prentice Hall. Fidelino, T. B., et al. (1992). Chemistry: science and technology. QC: VP Books. Price, J., Smith, R. G., & Smoot, R. C. (1990). Chemistry: a modern course. OH: Merill.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Chapter 2: Forms and Phases of Matter EPISODE 9: CONDENSED PHASES OF MATTER OVERVIEW This episode discusses in more detail the properties of solids and liquids, two phases of matter introduced in Episode 7, Phases of Matter. OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to: 1. distinguish crystalline from amorphous solids; 2. identify methods of differentiating between crystalline and amorphous solids; 3. describe the different crystalline solids; 4. use the KMT to explain surface tension, diffusion and evaporation of liquids; 5. differentiate evaporation from boiling; 6. define relative humidity; and 7. appreciate the chemistry of some simple household chemicals. INTEGRATION WITH OTHER LEARNING AREAS Episode 7 introduced the three phases of matter and their distinguishing properties. This episode is about the condensed phases, solids and liquids, which are the physical states in which we handle most materials on earth. Almost all episodes after this make use of some property of solids and liquids, such as in comparison of melting and boiling points of organic compounds, or viscosities of the different forms of colloids. SCIENCE PROCESSES Measuring VALUES Appreciation for natural resources LIFE SKILLS Critical mindedness Good citizenship Care for the environment Finding patterns

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION IMPORTANT CONCEPTS 1. Boiling takes place when the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure of the atmosphere above the liquid. 2. Evaporation takes place because molecules escape from the body of a liquid into the atmosphere. 3. The tendency of a liquid to diffuse in another liquid depends on the strength of the attraction between their molecules. 4. The vapor pressure of a liquid is influenced by the strength of intermolecular forces between molecules of a substance. 5. Surface tension is the tendency of a liquid surface to contract and assume the minimum surface area. 6. Relative humidity is the ratio of pressure of water vapor actually present in air to the vapor pressure at saturation point. The closer the actual amount of water vapor in the air to the saturation point, the more humid it is. 7. There are two basic classifications of solids: crystalline solids and amorphous solids. BACKGROUND INFORMATION/EPISODE CONTENT Liquids and solids are called condensed phases because their densities and relative incompressibility indicate that the particles are close to one another in their structures. The strength of attractive forces between particles and the restricted motion, particularly for solids, result in properties that are very different from gases. Types of Solids. Solids can be classified into two groups: crystalline solids and amorphous solids. Crystalline solids are characterized by three properties: a definite melting point, a definite heat of fusion, and a definite crystal lattice. Examples of crystalline solids are sodium chloride, sugar, iodine, quartz, diamond, iron, and silicon dioxide. Solids that do not exhibit one or more of the properties mentioned are called amorphous solids. Examples of amorphous solids include butter, glass, and plastics. One distinction of crystalline solids and amorphous solids is how these solids behave when heated or when their liquids are cooled. When a crystalline solid is heated, it follows a process described by a heating curve, such as the one shown in Figure 1.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION When a crystalline solid is heated, it remains crystalline and rigid until its melting point is reached. The crystal melts and continues to do so until the whole sample has turned into a liquid. The onset of melting until its completion occurs while the temperature remains unchanged at the melting point, even if heat is continuously applied. The temperature starts to rise again only after the solid has completely melted. In contrast, an amorphous solid behaves like a bar of chocolate when exposed to heat. The bar softens, somewhat like rubber, but is not liquid enough to flow. This happens while the temperature continues to increase, until finally, it becomes a liquid. Figure 1. A heating curve. This behavior stems from the difference in the arrangement of particles in crystalline and amorphous solids. Quartz and glass are both made from silicon dioxide or silica. Given enough time, the particles of quartz form an orderly pattern while quartz is still underneath the earth, resulting in a crystalline structure. The arrangement of atoms repeats itself throughout the whole structure, such that the amount of heat needed to melt one part of the solid is the same amount of energy needed to break up the other parts, hence crystalline solids have definite melting points. On the other hand, when molten silica is cooled rapidly, it solidifies before the atoms and molecules can form neatly arranged structures and forms glass. Most amorphous solids like glass and plastics are made up of chains of atoms that do not stack up well and form disordered networks. Some parts of the amorphous solid break or melt with less energy, while some parts would require more energy to melt. Hence, the solid softens first before finally melting. How Crystals Develop. A segment of the video lesson is about growing crystals. A saturated solution of nickel sulfate at 70oC was first prepared. The solution was then allowed to slowly cool to room temperature undisturbed. Since the solubility of nickel sulfate is less at a lower temperature than at 70oC, the cooled solution must be supersaturated. When a small crystal of nickel sulfate was added to the solution, the crystal acted like a seed or nucleus for crystallization. On and around the crystal, the excess solute in the solution started to deposit or crystallize. After a few days, a larger crystal was formed.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION The principle applied in the crystal growing activity is the same principle applied in producing artificial rain. Nimbus clouds are seeded with silver iodide crystals to form water crystals, which later become heavy enough to form rain. Types of Crystalline Solids. Crystalline solids can be classified into three groups based on the composition of the substances and the type of particles that create the crystal units. The types of crystalline solids are ionic crystals, molecular crystals, and atomic crystals which include the metals. The crystal lattices of ionic compounds like sodium chloride, potassium iodide, and copper sulfate, are composed of cations and anions that are arranged to achieve maximum attraction among them. Ionic crystals tend to be hard and exhibit high melting points. Molecular crystals, on the other hand, have molecules in their crystal lattices. The molecules are held in position in the crystal by weak intermolecular forces of attraction. Molecular crystals like solid carbon dioxide, sugar, and ice are soft and melt at low temperatures. Atomic crystals include those of metals, and solids of nonmetals where the crystals are made up of an arrangement of neutral atoms, rather than ions or molecules. Melting points and hardness for these solids vary. Metals are generally hard and have high melting points. The attractive forces between atoms in solids of noble gases are very weak and the solids melt readily. In contrast, carbon and silicon are among the hardest and highest melting solids, due to the strong covalent bonds that hold the atoms in their crystals. The bonding and structure of these solids are discussed further in Episode 28 -Putting Atoms Together. Properties of Liquids. The liquid state is intermediate between the gaseous and solid states. Like gases, liquids are fluids; the particles of matter in the liquid state have sufficient freedom of motion to enable the material to flow and diffuse, but in contrast to gases, liquids occupy a definite volume. The Kinetic Molecular Theory that was developed to explain the behavior of gases can be extended to describe the nature of liquids and solids. The theory describes a liquid according to the following postulates: 1. The particles in a liquid are relatively close to one another. 2. There are appreciable attractive forces between particles. 3. The particles are in constant random motion. 4. The average kinetic energy of the particles is directly proportional to the absolute temperature. Properties of liquids that are dependent on the strength of attractive forces between particles include viscosity, diffusion, surface tension, vapor pressure, and boiling point. Viscosity. One consequence of the presence of attractive forces among particles is the greater viscosity of liquids compared to gases. Viscosity is defined as the resistance of a fluid to flow. In simpler terms, viscosity is a measure of the thickness of the liquid. Compared to water, pancake syrup and honey are very 105

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION viscous liquids, but acetone and butane are thinner liquids and flow more readily compared to water. When a fluid flows, the particles slide past one another in the direction of the flow. However, if the intermolecular forces of attraction between particles are strong, the particles in the bulk of the sample tend to pull back the particles that are moving, causing greater resistance and making translational motion more difficult. The stronger the intermolecular forces between particles, the more viscous is the liquid. Viscosity generally decreases as the temperature of the liquid increases. The kinetic energies of particles increase with temperature. As particles move faster, some of the intermolecular forces are broken or are weakened, making translational motion easier. Diffusion of Liquids. Diffusion in liquids is one property that can be understood in the same terms as viscosity. In the video lesson, an experiment was shown to explore the movements of molecules of liquids. When a drop of dye placed in a beaker of water, the dye was observed to diffuse or spread out even without stirring. The same test was done for different vials containing methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, and glycerol. The dye diffused fastest in water and slowest in glycerol, indicating that the dye molecules are unable to squeeze between glycerol molecules as fast as they can between water molecules. Surface Tension. Consider the following observations: if a steel blade was placed flat on water, it would float even though the steel blade is denser than water. Water and other liquids tend to rise in a capillary or thin tube. Liquid droplets tend to form spherical shapes. The reason for these seemingly strange behaviors of liquids is a single property called surface tension. Surface tension is a measure of the force that tends to pull the surface of a liquid inward into its minimum possible area. To understand where this inward pull originates, try to visualize what is happening with molecules in a liquid. Except for those at the surface, the molecules of a liquid are completely surrounded by other molecules and experience equal attraction on all sides. However, the molecules on the surface do not experience this balance of attraction on all sides and are instead attracted more strongly by the molecules in the bulk than by the gas particles above them, which are farther apart and fewer. As a result, the surface molecules are pulled inward and begin to contract. A sphere encloses the greatest possible volume of liquid within the smallest surface area and has the lowest surface energy than any other geometric shape. Due to this inward pull, the surface molecules act as if they are in a state of tension and behave like an invisible film or a stretch net that can hold up small objects like a thin blade. The rise of liquid in a capillary also involves surface tension. Whether a liquid will rise in a capillary or not depends on the strength of the attraction of the 106

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION molecules of liquid for each other (i.e. surface tension) compared to the strength of their attraction to the walls of the capillary. When the molecules of the liquid are more attracted to the walls of the capillary, the liquid rises high up, consequently increasing its surface area, and is said to wet the walls of the capillary. The liquid stops rising only when the weight of the liquid column just balances the attraction exerted by the glass on the liquid molecules. When a drop of water is placed on a plastic sheet, the water droplet keeps its spherical shape and will not wet the plastic. However, when a drop of water is placed on glass, the drop slowly spreads out, wetting the glass. Water will wet paper readily, indicating that the attractions between water molecules and paper are stronger compared to the surface tension of water. The surface tension of liquids can be reduced and their wetting ability can be improved by the addition of surfactants. Detergents are surfactants and are commonly added to water to make cleaning more effective.The addition of a small amount of detergent to the glass of water on which a thin blade is floating will immediately cause the blade to sink. Detergents can also cause the water rise higher up capillary tubes due to the reduction in surface tension. Evaporation of Liquids. Another surface activity of liquids is evaporation. Evaporation is the transformation of liquids into the gaseous state at temperatures below their boiling points.Water left standing in an open glass will evaporate although it does not boil. Evaporation involves the surface molecules which experience less attractive forces compared to molecules inside the liquid. When any of these molecules on the surface gain enough energy from collisions with other molecules, they are able to escape from the liquid state. The rate of evaporation of liquids increases when temperature is raised and when the surface area from which molecules evaporate also increases. However, evaporation slows down as the attractive forces between particles increase in strength. Vapor Pressure. If some water is placed in a glass which is then covered tightly and the set-up is maintained at constant temperature, evaporation will happen and continue at a constant rate. However, as the number of molecules in the gas phase increases, more of these would be colliding with the surface of the liquid and some would be converted back to the liquid state. The greater the concentration of molecules in the gas phase, the greater the number of molecules will condense, until evaporation and condensation occur at equal rates and equilibrium exists. At this condition, the amount of gas over the liquid does not change even if both processes of evaporation and condensation continue to happen. The pressure exerted by the gaseous phase which is in equilibrium with the liquid is called the vapor pressure or the saturation vapor pressure of a liquid. 107

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Intermolecular Forces and Vapor Pressure. At a given temperature, different liquids will exhibit different vapor pressures. Liquids with large vapor pressures are considered volatile while those with very low vapor pressures are nonvolatile. The magnitude of vapor pressures of liquids depends on the strength of intermolecular forces that hold the molecules of a liquid. The stronger these forces of attraction between molecules are, the greater is the amount of energy needed for molecules to move away from each other and consequently, the lower vapor is the pressure. Ethyl alcohol has a higher vapor pressure than water at the same temperature and will evaporate faster than water. Thus, containers of preparations containing alcohol and water, including some medications, should be tightly closed when stored. Otherwise, the preparation will lose a lot of alcohol and change the characteristics of the medicine. The vapor pressures of all liquids increase as temperature increases because of the increase in average kinetic energies of the particles and the subsequent increase in the fraction of the surface molecules that have enough energy to escape the liquid state. Figure 2 shows how the vapor pressures of diethyl ether (a), acetone (b), ethyl alcohol (c), water (d), and ethylene glycol (e) vary with each other as temperature increases.

Figure 2. Vapor pressures of different liquids at different temperatures.

Boiling. When water in an open container is heated continuously, the liquid eventually boils. Boiling, like evaporation, is a process wherein a liquid is transformed into the gaseous state. But unlike evaporation, this happens at some specific temperature called the boiling point. The boiling point of water is often listed at 100oC, but this value comes with a condition and this is when the external pressure is 1 atm or 760 mm Hg (or torr). If we refer back to Figure 2, we find that the vapor pressure of water at 100oC is also 760 mm Hg. This tells us that the temperature when the vapor pressure of water is equal to the pressure of the 108

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION atmosphere, water boils! In fact, all points making up the vapor pressure curve for water and for all liquids, for that matter, are boiling points at the given pressures. The boiling point of a liquid, therefore, is the temperature when the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure. On top of Mt. Apo where the atmospheric pressure is only about 530 mm Hg, water will boil at 92oC. However, inside a pressure cooker, the pressure can reach up to 1500 mm Hg and water boils at about 120oC. It is a common misconception to consider evaporation to be the same as boiling. Evaporation is a surface activity and occurs whenever there are molecules that are energetic enough to go into the gaseous state. When water boils, the phase change from liquid to gas happens throughout the liquid not just at the surface. Since the vapor pressure inside a bubble is equal to the pressure of the atmosphere above the liquid, the atmosphere can no longer push the bubbles of a gas back into the liquid. Hence, the bubbles of the gas are able to rise, escape to the surface, and the liquid boils. Relative Humidity. Evaporation is a process that requires energy. The molecules on the surface of the liquid have to absorb enough energy in order to evaporate. If acetone is applied on your skin, you feel a cool sensation as acetone evaporates. The acetone molecules are absorbing small amounts of energy from your skin, causing a slight but perceptible lowering of temperature. Evaporation is the mechanism by which our bodies regulate temperature and keep cool. Perspiration is able to evaporate by absorbing some of the heat from the skin. However, if the air carries a large amount of water vapor, during conditions described as humid, water vapor in the air can readily condense back on our skin and deposit small amounts of heat in the process. You must have experienced conditions of high humidity that leaves your skin hot, wet, sticky, and extremely uncomfortable. Humidity is defined as the amount of water vapor in the air. Relative humidity is a comparison of how much water vapor is actually present in the air and the maximum amount of water vapor air can hold at a given temperature.
Relative humidity = pressure of water vap or actually present saturated vapor pressure

The closer the actual amount of water vapor in the air is to the saturation point, the more humid it is. The Philippines is a particularly humid country. The relative humidity here ranges from 60% to over 80% and may even be higher during summer time.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION VOCABULARY WORDS 1. Boiling point temperature at which a liquid changes into a gas. 2. Melting point temperature at which a solid turns to a liquid. 3. Heating curve a plot of temperature vs amount of heat added to a substance, showing the portions where phase changes occur. 4. Saturated solution a solution that contains the maximum amount of solute in a unit volume of solvent at the given temperature. 5. Crystal lattice an arrangement of atoms or molecules that repeats itself in the crystal structure of a solid. 6. Intermolecular forces of attraction forces of attraction that exist between molecules. 7. Translational motion type of motion exhibited by an object that involves a displacement in position of the object. 8. Surfactant a substance that alters the surface tension of a liquid. PRE-VIEWING ACTIVITIES A. Review the class on the previous lesson about the Kinetic Molecular Theory. Divide the class into groups of three and make them think of cases that would exhibit the assumptions of the KMT and plan a presentation of this in class. Give some incentive to the group that would give the best explanation of their selected assumption. B. Review the class on the effect of temperature on the kinetic energy and motion of particles in the three different phases. Ask the class: What would happen to the structure of a liquid if the temperature was decreased? What would happen to the structure of a solid if the temperature was raised well beyond its melting temperature? C. Relate to the class that the formation of the different naturally occurring solids takes a long time and that rock formation is a balance between temperature and pressure. Show some samples of rocks and crystals and let the students compare their properties under the microscope. Let the class classify the samples into amorphous and crystalline solids. D. Introduce this episode on the classification of solids and the properties of solids and liquids. 110

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION E. Pose the Guide Questions that the students will answer after viewing the episode. Ask them to focus on finding the answers to the Guide Questions as they watch the video. Guide Questions/Answers 1. What are the two basic types of solids? Enumerate the properties of each and be able to give some examples. There are two basic classifications of solids: crystalline and amorphous solids. The atoms in crystalline solids are arranged in an orderly pattern usually in a geometrical three-dimensional pattern. Unit cells make up the solids crystal form. Examples of these include sodium chloride, sugar, iodine, quartz, diamond, iron, and silicon dioxide. Amorphous solids, on the other hand, have particles arranged in a random manner. Since their atoms are not arranged regularly, the solid usually appears powdery, though some are opaque. Most amorphous solids such as glass and plastics are made up of long chains of atom, and have molecules that do not stack up well. These substances solidify before their molecules can form neatly arranged structures. 2. What are the methods used to classify a solid sample? The first method is to look closely at the molecular structure. If the molecular structures are ordered, compact, and stacked together well, then the solid is crystalline. If the structures are arranged randomly, having no definite regularity, then the solid is amorphous. Another way of distinguishing between crystalline and amorphous solids is by their boiling points. A crystalline solid melts sharply while an amorphous solid melts gradually over several degrees. 3. How does temperature affect the saturation point of a solution? Usually, increasing the temperature of a substance increases its saturation point. 4. How is cloud seeding done? In cloud seeding, nimbus clouds are seeded with silver iodide crystals from which water crystals form. These crystals later become heavy enough to form rain. 5. What is surface tension? How does it help a steel blade float on water? Surface tension is the tendency of a liquid surface to contract and assume the minimum surface area. It forces water molecules at the surface of water to form a sort of net or film enabling objects that are denser than water to float.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 6. How do detergents increase the cleaning power of water? Detergents increase the cleaning power of water by lowering its surface tension. In this manner, the detergent solution is able to penetrate through the cloth fabric better, thus increasing its cleaning power. VIEWING ACTIVITIES Let the students view the following parts of the episode: (1) 2:22 8:24 on Types of Solids, (2) 11:16 11:39 on Evaporation of Liquid, (3) 11:47 12:27 on Boiling and Evaporation, and (4) 17:09 17:20, 17:34 18:39 and 19:43 19:50 on Surface Tension. POST-VIEWING ACTIVITIES Discuss the answers to the Guide Questions. TEACHING TIPS Suggested Activities A. Field Trip. A field trip to a quarry site or to a geologic museum can be used to introduce the students to the kinds of crystals found in nature, what they are made of, and how they are formed. By being acquainted with the last two, reinforcement on how solids differ from one another and from the other phases is established. B. Chemistry Trick. A chemistry trick can be done in class. For this trick, you need a tack, a toothpick (with one of its ends dipped in detergent solution or coated with soap), and a glass of water. Make the tack float on water (this might take some practice). Ask the class if the tack is really floating on water (their answer should be no, since the tack is denser than water, it is only held up by surface tension). Poke the water carefully midway between the tack and the wall of the glass using the end of the toothpick without soap. Make sure you do this with extreme care so as not to make the tack sink. Challenge the students if they can repeat the same feat, but this time making sure they use the end of the toothpick with soap (of course, you should not tell them this is so). You will see that no matter how careful they prick the water, the tack always sinks to the bottom. This is because the instant the end of the toothpick with the soap touches the water, the surface tension of the water surface is immediately lowered, thereby permitting the denser tack to sink in water. C. Dichotomous Key. Group the class into dyads and assign them to make a dichotomous key on the phases of matter such as the one shown below. 112

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION solid, liquid, and gas

Does it have a definite shape?

NO liquid and gas solid

YES

Does it exhibit surface tension?

Does it have a regular molecular structure? YES crystalline solid NO amorphous solid

YES liquid gas

NO

D. Demonstration Experiment. 1. Paper Chromatography The objective of this experiment is show to students that capillary motion is the main reason why liquids climb up paper as seen in paper chromatography. Procedure: a. Obtain about 6 x 2 of chromatography paper and wax paper, two types of pigment (or any food dye will do), a medicine dropper, a beaker, and some water. b. Place a small drop of your pigment on the chromatography paper. Observe what happens. c. To the beaker, add enough water to fill only about 3 millimeters of the beaker. d. Stand the chromatography paper on the side of the beaker, making sure that the spot of the pigment dye is not submerged in water. Observe what happens.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION e. Do the same procedure, but this time using the wax paper instead of the chromatography paper. Observe the results. Ask the students: Are the results the same for both papers? Why or why not? 2. Surface Tension This activity is designed to show students that surface tension is a strong enough force. Procedure: a. Obtain a big-mouthed glass jar that has a big hole on its cap, some wire window screen (the ones with the fine square holes), some wire cutters, and a glass of water. b. Cut out from the wire window screen a circle big enough to fit the mouth on the cap of the jar. c. To the jar, place about half a glass of water. Insert the screen on the hole on the cap of the jar, securing tightly in its place. d. Put this on the jar and screw on tightly. Afterwards, invert the jar in one quick smooth stroke. Ask the students: What happened to the water inside the jar? Did it spill or not? Try to explain why this is so. ASSESSMENT Quiz. 1. Enumerate five uses each of crystalline solids and of amorphous solids. 2. Four liquids (mercury, acetone, water, and mineral spirits) having different surface tensions are placed in front of you. Without putting anything on the liquids, how will you know which has the highest surface tension? 3. Classify the following solids as crystalline or amorphous: a. ruby. b. chalk. c. diamonds. d. copper strips. e. glass.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION ANSWER KEY 1. Uses of crystalline solids and amorphous solids: Crystalline Solids Amorphous Solids For jewelries (rubies) For mirrors and decoratives (glass) For laser applications For containers (plastics) As building materials (iron) For thermometers For food seasoning (table salt) For liquid crystal displays For cutting tools (diamond tip blades) For clothes (thread) 2. Put a drop of each liquid on a watch glass or any flat, nonabsorbent smooth surface. Look closely at each drop. The one that is most flat has the least surface tension (mineral spirits). The one that is most spherical or round exhibits the highest surface tension (mercury). 3. Classification of solids: a. ruby crystalline b. chalk amorphous c. diamonds crystalline d. copper strips crystalline e. glass amorphous REFERENCES Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E., Jr., & Bursten, B. E. (1994). Chemistry: the central science. NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. Fidelino, T. B. et al. (1992). Chemistry: science and technology III. QC: VP Books. Price, J., Smith, R. G. & Smoot, R. C. (1990). Chemistry: a modern course. OH: Merill.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Chapter 3. Changes Matter Undergoes EPISODE 10: INDICATORS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE OVERVIEW Change is a natural part of our lives. It happens inside our homes, in our backyards, in our environment and even inside our bodies. This episode focuses on chemical changes, their nature and characteristics. OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to: 1. define chemical change; 2. determine if there is a chemical reaction taking place based on the indicators of chemical change; 3. write chemical equations observing the Law of Conservation of Mass and the Law of Definite Composition; 4. interpret chemical equations; and 5. appreciate how knowledge and understanding of chemical reactions make people better members of society. INTEGRATION WITH OTHER LEARNING AREAS Episodes 7 Phases of Matter and 8 Kinetic Molecular Theory describes physical changes that matter undergoes at various conditions. With this episode, we should be able to distinguish physical changes from chemical changes. In addition to indicators of chemical change, this episode also introduces the chemical equation as a way of representing a chemical change. Accurately recording and interpreting observations during chemical reactions will allow the development of critical thinking and communication skills of students. Other learning areas such as Earth Science and Biology can be linked with this lesson through examples of chemical changes in our surroundings and within our body. SCIENCE PROCESSES Observing Inferring Making predictions Communicating

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION VALUES Critical mindedness Open-mindedness LIFE SKILLS Critical thinking IMPORTANT CONCEPTS 1. A chemical change, also called a chemical reaction, is a process wherein one or more substances undergo change in composition, forming a new substance. 2. Chemical reactions may be accompanied by one or more of the following occurrences: (a) production of a gas, (b) formation of a precipitate, (c) change in color, and (d) generation or absorption of heat. Some chemical changes however do not have any manifestations that can be seen by the unaided viewer. 3. All changes, whether physical or chemical, obey The Law of Conservation of Mass, which states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed. 4. A chemical equation is a symbolic representation of a chemical change. A chemical equation is most meaningful when it is balanced. 5. A chemical formula is a symbolic representation of a molecule, ion, or a compound showing the chemical composition of the substance. 6. The Law of Definite Composition states that a chemical compound always contains the same elements combined in the same proportions by mass. BACKGROUND INFORMATION/ EPISODE CONTENT A series of laboratory experiments performed by a teacher, together with her two students, can be viewed in the lesson to show the various indicators of chemical change. Chemical Change. The video lesson begins with the teacher asking her students to compare a lit and an unlit candle. The students noticed some gaseous substances forming from the lit candle. The teacher explained that candle wax is made of hydrocarbons known as alkanes or paraffin. When they burn, they react with oxygen in the air to produce carbon dioxide and water. The burning of hydrocarbons like candle wax is a chemical change or chemical reaction. C18H38 + O2 CO2 + H2O 117 Problem solving Acceptance of ones accountability in environmental issues like global warming

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION A chemical reaction is a process that results in the formation of new substances from the original material. The substances that undergo chemical change are called reactants, while the new substances formed in the reaction are the products. Chemical Equations. A chemical equation is a shorthand way of describing a chemical reaction with the use of chemical formulas and symbols. In an equation, the process and direction of the transformation from reactants into products is represented by an arrow. The reactants are placed on the tail side, usually the left side of the arrow, while the products are placed on the head part, usually the right side of the arrow. For example, when we use the gas stove for cooking, the reaction of fuel gases, mainly propane, C3H8, in the LPG tank and oxygen gas, O2 in the air produces water and carbon dioxide, plus, of course, the heat that we need. The reaction can be represented by the following equation: C3H8 + 5O2 reactants 3CO2 + 4H2O products

Two other examples of chemical reactions and their respective chemical equations are given below: 1. When magnesium metal, Mg, is placed in a solution of hydrochloric acid, HCl, hydrogen gas, H2, is liberated. An arrow pointing up () following a formula indicates that the substance formed is a gas and has evolved. You may also use (g) right after the chemical formula to indicate a gaseous substance. Equation: Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2 Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2 (g) 2. Hydrogen peroxide readily decomposes to produce water and oxygen. Equation: 2H2O2 2H2O + O2 or

When writing chemical equations, two important laws are followed: the Law of Conservation of Mass and the Law of Definite Composition. The Law of Conservation of Mass. What do the numbers in front of the formulas of substances in the equation mean? These numbers are called coefficients and are the only numbers that are adjusted to balance the equation. Balancing the equation is essentially following the Law of Conservation of Mass which states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed. Another way of stating this law is that in a chemical reaction, the total mass of reactants used up must be equal to the mass of the products formed in the reaction. 118

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION The equation for the burning of LPG gas, propane, is again given below. C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O Is it balanced? You can check this very easily. In a balanced equation, the number of atoms involved and consequently the mass of these atoms are conserved that is, the number of atoms for each element should be the same on both the reactant and the product sides of the equation. Element C H O Reactant side 3 (C3H8) 8 (C3H8) 10 (5O2 : 5 x 2 = 10) Product side 3 (3CO2) 8 (4H2O : 4 x 2 = 8) 10 (3CO2 + 4H2O) (3 x 2) + (4 x 1) = 10

The equation is balanced! You will get to see, in another way, how mass is conserved in a balanced equation in Episode 12 Patterns of Change. Remember that in balancing equations, we can adjust only THE COEFFICIENTS of reactants and products but not THE SUBSCRIPTS of elements in the formulas. Changing the subscript changes the identity of the substance. 2 H2O2 2H2O + O2 Coefficient Subscript The Law of Definite Composition. A pure substance has constant composition, regardless of its source or the manner of its preparation. This is expressed in the law of definite composition which states that a compound always contains the same elements in the same proportions by mass. For example, water is always made up of hydrogen and oxygen in the proportion of H/O = 2/16 or 1/8 by mass. Thus, any 10.0 g sample of water will always contain 1.1 g of hydrogen and 8.9 g of oxygen. We also know that a water molecule is made up of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen and this is reflected in the chemical formula of water, H2O. A chemical formula is a symbolic representation of the chemical composition of a substance. The letter symbols of the elements are used to represent the element and the subscripts indicate the number of atoms of the elements in the smallest unit of the substance. Table sugar, which has a formula of C12H22O11, contains 12 carbon atoms, 22 hydrogen atoms, and 11 oxygen atoms in a molecule. Hydrogen peroxide, which is also composed of hydrogen and oxygen like water, has the formula H2O2. Indicators of Chemical Change. Many chemical reactions exhibit observable indicators that tell us a change has occurred, while other reactions do not show any noticeable change. The video episode gave examples of some indicators of chemical change. 119

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 1. Formation of a Gas. When sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3, and acetic acid, CH3COOH, are mixed, an immediate formation of bubbles is observed. The gas produced is carbon dioxide. The reaction between sodium bicarbonate and acetic acid forms sodium acetate and carbonic acid. The carbonic acid, H2CO3, further decomposes to water and carbon dioxide. The balanced equations for these reactions are: NaHCO3 + CH3COOH NaCH3COO + H2CO3 H2CO3 CO2 + H2O The formation of gas in the reaction mixture is an evidence of chemical change. 2. Formation of a Precipitate. In the video lesson, the students mixed solutions of sodium chromate and sodium sulfate, separately, with barium nitrate. A yellow solid formed when the sodium chromate was treated with barium nitrate. Na2CrO4 + Ba(NO3)2 2NaNO3 + BaCrO4 yellow solid On the other hand, a white solid formed when the sodium sulfate was mixed with barium nitrate. Na2SO4 + Ba(NO3)2 2NaNO3 + BaSO4 white solid The solids formed from the mixing of two solutions are called precipitates. In the chemical equation, an arrow pointing downward () after the formula of a substance indicates that the substance formed is a precipitate. The formation of a precipitate is an indicator of chemical change. A precipitate is different from a residue. The precipitate is an insoluble solid that forms from the reaction of substances in solution whereas a residue is what remains after filtration or evaporation is complete. Precipitation Reactions. Many precipitation reactions are familiar to us. Take the case of the clogged water pipes in our homes. The clogging is caused by the magnesium and calcium oxides and carbonates that precipitated and deposited in the pipes. This happens when water is hard. Another example of a precipitation reaction shown in the video lesson is the mixing of two clear solutions of silver nitrate, AgNO3, and sodium chloride, NaCl, to form the insoluble white solid silver chloride, AgCl. 120

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION AgNO3 + NaCl NaNO3 + AgCl If you have heard of kidney stones, they are results of precipitation reactions. A kidney stone is nothing more than precipitated crystals of calcium urate and/or oxalate. Often, due to of an unusually large concentration of uric acid or oxalate ions in the blood, they precipitate out the calcium ions! People with kidney stones are often advised to drink lots of water because the solubility of slightly soluble substances like urates and oxalates increase with the amount of water reducing the chances of forming kidney stones. 3. Change in Color. The formation or disappearance of color in a reaction mixture indicates that a new substance has formed or a substance has been used up. The video lesson showed the students mixing the following pairs of solutions: FeCl3 and KSCN and CuSO4 and NH4OH. The first pair produced a red colored solution while the second pair produced a light blue precipitate, but the top part of the mixture was a clear dark blue liquid. The chemical equations and explanations for the color changes in the reactions are given below. FeCl3 + KSCN K+ + Cl+ [Fe(SCN)]2+ red complex

The red color of the solution is due to the red complex ion, [Fe(SCN)]2+. A complex ion is a combination of a metal ion, in this case Fe3+, and nonmetallic molecules or ions. The resulting species is still ionic and remains in solution. CuSO4 + 2NH3
+

2H2O (NH4)2SO4 + Cu(OH)2 blue precipitate

The solution of copper sulfate is blue, but the addition of a base like ammonia forms the insoluble light blue solid copper (II) hydroxide, Cu(OH)2, which precipitates out. However, if the concentration of ammonia, NH3, is large, the Cu2+ ions will preferentially combine with ammonia molecules, forming the dark blue complex ion, [Cu(NH3)4]2+. Cu(OH)2 + 4NH3 [Cu(NH3)4]2+ + blue complex 2OH-

A change in color in the reaction mixture is an indicator of chemical change. 4. Generation or Absorption of Heat. Many reactions generate heat but there are other reactions where the opposite process happens the reactants absorb heat in order for the reaction to occur. The video lesson gives examples of these two kinds of reactions. The students added some copper sulfate solution into a test tube containing a piece of steel wool. They noticed that as some red-brown solid is being formed on the steel wool strands, the test tube also felt increasingly hot to touch. The 121

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION reaction they observed was an exothermic reaction, one that generates or evolves heat. The heat produced increased the temperature of the reaction mixture as well as that of the test tube. The chemical equation for the reaction can be written to include the heat involved as shown below: CuSO4 + Fe FeSO4 + Cu + heat When the students mixed solid ammonium chloride and solid barium hydroxide in a beaker, they noticed that the beaker became cold to touch This time, the reaction is endothermic, one that needed some heat for it to take place. In this reaction, the surroundings (beaker and air) had enough heat to give to the reactants to make the reaction happen. Since the beaker lost some of the heat it contained, it became cooler to touch. The chemical equation for the reaction is shown below: 2NH4Cl + Ba(OH)2 + heat BaCl2 + 2NH3 + 2H2O The generation or absorption of heat may be an evidence of chemical reaction. Some chemical reactions require more heat than what the surroundings can give. Cooking food involves endothermic reactions that require large amounts of heat, so we use a gas stove or a hot plate to produce the heat needed. There are also endothermic reactions that require other forms of energy such as light or electricity. VOCABULARY WORDS 1. Chemical change a change in which, at least, one substance changes in composition, forming a new substance. 2. Chemical equation a shorthand way of describing chemical reaction with the use of chemical formulas and symbols. 3. Chemical formula a symbolic representation of a substance showing its chemical composition. 4. Reactant- a substance present at the start of a chemical reaction. 5. Product- a substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction. 6. Coefficient a number written to the left of each reactant and product that shows the relative amount of each substance involved in the reaction. 7. Precipitate a solid that forms and separates from a solution due to a chemical reaction.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 8. Residue the solid that remains form a liquid after completion of a physical process such as filtration or evaporation. 9. Endothermic the absorption of heat. 10. Exothermic the release or evolution of heat. PRE-VIEWING ACTIVITIES A. Predict-Observe-Explain. Introduce the lesson by demonstrating to the students an example of a chemical change. Ask the students to predict what will happen if solutions of lead nitrate, Pb(NO3)2, and potassium iodide, KI, are mixed. The students are to write their answers on a piece of paper. Next, let them mix the solutions and ask them to list down their observations. Ask the students to explain their observations in writing. Allow them now to view the episode advising them to find the right answer as they watch the video. When solutions of lead nitrate and potassium iodide are mixed, a yellow precipitate forms. The explanation for the appearance of the yellow solid is that a chemical reaction has taken place and a new substance is formed. This is the yellow solid, lead iodide, PbI2. The chemical equation for the reaction is: Pb(NO3)2 + 2KI PbI2 + 2KNO3. yellow solid B. Pose the Guide Questions that the students will answer after viewing the episode. Ask them to focus on finding the answers to these questions as they watch the video. Guide Questions/Answers 1. Based on the video, what evidences indicate the occurrence of chemical change? The four indicators of chemical change shown in the video lesson are (a) production of a gas, (b) formation of a precipitate, (c) change in color, and (d) generation or absorption of heat. 2. How are chemical equations written and what do they mean? Chemical equations are written to show what happens during a chemical reaction. It features all the substances involved and the conditions surrounding the reaction. The chemical formulas of the reactants are written at the left side of an arrow () while products are written at the right. The arrow indicates the flow or direction of the reaction process. Subscripts in parentheses right after the substances indicate their physical states. An arrow pointing up () indicates that the substance beside it is a gas that evolved. An arrow pointing downward () indicates that the substance was formed via precipitation. 123

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 3. Differentiate a precipitate from a residue. A precipitate is a solid that forms out of a reaction in solution while a residue is a solid that has been in the solution even before the reaction takes place and can be recovered by either evaporation or filtration. 4. Differentiate exothermic from endothermic reactions. Endothermic reactions absorb heat or other forms of energy before they can happen. On the other hand, exothermic reactions are those that produce heat and release this to the surroundings. VIEWING ACTIVITIES
Let the students view the segments 5:40 - 9:00 and 9:35 - 21:50 of the episode for the different indicators of chemical change.

POST-VIEWING ACTIVITIES Discuss the answers to the Guide Questions. TEACHING TIPS Suggested Activities A. Describing Reactions and Writing Chemical Equations. Divide the class into four groups and assign each group a scenario to discuss. The groups should come up with a description of the chemical reactions and their respective chemical equations. 1. A burning pain or sensation in the stomach is usually caused by excess gastric hydrochloric acid. People who experienced hyperacidity are advised to take antacids which consists carbonates like calcium carbonate (CaCO3). 2. Photosynthesis plays an important role in our world because it allows plants to produce their own food (glucose, C6H12O6) and to give off oxygen (O2) which we breathe in. This process wont be possible without carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight. 3. Hard water contains ions of calcium, magnesium, and/or iron. Hard water is said to be softened when treated with Na2CO3. The hardness ions are removed as a white solid. 4. Copper bottoms of some cooking pans turn black after being used. The copper reacts with oxygen to form copper oxide. B. Research on Global Warming. Global warming is a serious environmental problem that results from the depletion of the ozone layer which protects life on Earth by absorbing much of 124

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION the ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. Ozone is O3 molecules. Ask the students to research about global warming. Some students may want to research on the effect of using CFCs on the ozone layer. They have to summarize their findings in a brochure or pamphlet that they can show to others to make them aware of the situation. C. Chemistry and Industry. Many household products are produced using some simple chemical reactions. Ask your students to find out the basic chemical reactions involved in the production of these products. Some suggestions are: 1. Soap 2. Ethyl alcohol through fermentation 3. Iron metal from its ores 4. Plastics You may ask the students to interview people from manufacturing plants to discuss with them how a simple idea ends up on the grocery shelves. This will give them an opportunity to appreciate the indispensability of chemistry in making our lives better and more convenient. Assessment Quiz. Choose the letter corresponding to the best answer. 1. Which of the following does NOT illustrate a chemical reaction? A. A colorless solution turns red after a few minutes. B. A plastic containing a solution suddenly becomes hotter. C. Solid particles settle at the bottom of a glass of water from a river. D. A brown smoke started to appear when a powder sample was heated. 2. One of the indicators of a chemical change is the evolution of gas. Which of the following does NOT result to formation of gas due to a chemical reaction? A. Alka-Seltzer tablet in water. B. Baking soda in vinegar. C. Boiling water. D. A & B. 3. When a certain amount of ionic compound was dissolved in water, the temperature of the resulting solution increased by 20C. What do you call this kind of reaction? A. Endothermic C. Isobaric B. Esoteric D. Exothermic

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 4. Which is an example of an endothermic reaction? A. Baking bread C. Photosynthesis B. Cooking an egg D. All of these 5. Which of the following laws states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed? A. Conservation of mass C. Definite composition B. Conservation of energy D. Multiple proportions 6. Which of the following is NOT a chemical change? A. Rusting of iron C. Ripening of mango B. Melting of candle wax D. Caramelization of sugar 7. What new substance forms when charcoal, C, burns according to the equation: C + O2 CO2? A. Carbon, C C. Carbon dioxide, CO2 B. Oxygen, O2 D. None of the substances are new 8. Which of the following is TRUE in a balanced chemical equation? A. Atoms are conserved. C. Number of molecules are equal. B. Coefficients are equal. D. Subscripts can be changed. 9. Which chemical equation describes the reaction between ammonia and oxygen gas to produce nitrogen monoxide and water? A. NH3 + O2 NO + H2O C. NH3 + O NO + H2O B. NO + H2O NH3 + O2 D. NO + H2O NO2 + H2 10. Which of the following statements is TRUE about the given equation? Pb(NO3)2 + 2KI PbI2 + 2KNO3 A. B. C. D. The number 3 in Pb(NO3)2 is a coefficient. The arrow pointing downward () indicates the evolution of gas. There is one atom of lead in a unit of lead iodide, PbI2. In 2KNO3, the number 2 is a subscript.

ANSWER KEY Quiz. 1. 6. C B 2. 7. C C 3. D 8. A 4. D 9. A 5. 10. A C

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION REFERENCES American Chemical Society. (2000). Chemistry in context. (3rd ed.). NY: McGrawHill, Inc. Chang, R. (2003). Chemistry. (7th ed.). NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc. DiSpezio, M., Lisowski, M., et al. (1997). Science insights: exploring matter and energy. USA: Addison Wesley. Snyder, C. (1992). The extraordinary chemistry of ordinary things. (2nd ed.). NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Thompson, M., Mc Laughlin, C. & R. Smith. (1995). Physical science. NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc. Useful Websites http://www.iun.edu/~cpanhd/c101webnotes/chemical%20reactions/precipitation.htm l http://www.slcc.edu/schools/hum_sci/chemistry/labs/chem1240/cations/exp1112cationanalysis.htm

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Chapter 3: Changes Matter Undergoes EPISODE 11: THE MOLE OVERVIEW Episode 10 showed us that some chemical changes can be detected by certain observable indicators. In addition, we learned that such changes are governed by laws of chemical combinations, one of which is the Law of Definite Composition. This episode provides a better understanding of this law and the quantitative information that can be obtained from the chemical formula of substances through the concept of the mole. OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to: 1. define the mole; 2. convert number of moles to mass, and vice versa; 3. convert number of moles to the number of particles (i.e., atoms, ions, molecules), and vice versa; 4. derive the empirical formula of a compound given the mass ratio and the atomic masses of the elements present; 5. determine the percentage composition of a compound; and 6. recognize the importance of understanding how chemical substances are formed and formulated in the hope of improving the quality of life. INTEGRATION WITH OTHER LEARNING AREAS This episode illustrates various ways of using the Law of Definite Composition, a law introduced in Episode 10 Indicators of Chemical Change, and the chemical formula of substances. Mathematical concepts and operations will be intensively used to compute for mole conversions, atomic and molar masses, and percentage composition. Many of these calculations are important in understanding the quantitative relationships among reactants and products in a chemical reaction that are discussed in Episode 12 Patterns of Change. SCIENCE PROCESSES Evaluating data Analyzing VALUES Critical mindedness Open mindedness 128 Interpreting

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION LIFE SKILLS Critical thinking IMPORTANT CONCEPTS 1. Atomic mass is a relative mass of an atom based on the accepted standard value of exactly 12 for the carbon-12 isotope. It is expressed in atomic mass units (amu). 2. A mole is the metric unit for the amount of substance and contains an Avogadros number (6.022 x 1023) of particles (atoms, molecules or ions) of that substance. 3. The molar mass of an element or a compound is the mass of one mole of the substance in grams and is numerically equal to its atomic mass or formula mass. 4. The percent composition by mass of a compound is the percent by mass of each element present in that compound. 5. The empirical formula of a compound shows the elements present in the compound in the simplest whole number ratio of atoms. BACKGROUND INFORMATION/EPISODE CONTENT One substance that is very important to us is table salt or sodium chloride, NaCl. Table salt is obtained from seawater. However, it can also be prepared from the reaction of sodium metal and chlorine gas in an explosive reaction. But how can we know how much of each element is needed to produce a certain amount of salt? In Episode 10, we learned about the Law of Definite Composition, which states that a compound always contains the same elements in the same proportions by mass, no matter how, where, and when it was formed. Water, H2O, always has 1 gram of hydrogen for every 8 grams of oxygen according to this law. This only means that mass ratios of the elements are fixed. In sodium chloride, there is always 1 gram of sodium for every 1.54 grams of chlorine. We get this information from a better understanding of the chemical formula. Chemical Formula. A chemical formula is a symbolic way of expressing the composition of a substance. It indicates the elements that make up a compound and the ratio at which they are present. The formula H2O indicates that water is made of hydrogen and oxygen and that each molecule has 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom. Glucose, C6H12O6, is a compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and has 6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms, and 6 oxygen atoms in every molecule. Problem solving

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Compounds that exist as molecules such as water and glucose have formulas that indicate the actual number of atoms of each element in the unit particle, the molecule. Ionic compounds like sodium chloride, on the other hand, do not exist as molecules. Their formulas reflect the ratio of elements present in any sample of the compound. Thus, in NaCl, there is a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chlorine atoms. To form a crystal of table salt, equal numbers of sodium atoms and chlorine atoms need to combine. Atomic Mass. Atomic mass is a relative mass. Atoms are too tiny to be seen, so how can we count an equal number of atoms of sodium and chlorine? In the laboratory, it is easier to measure mass than to count atoms. That is why chemists count atoms by weighing! To do this, a relationship between the number of atoms and mass must first be established. This is done through the use of relative masses. Relative mass is simply a numerical comparison of the masses of objects, one of which is used as a standard or reference mass. For example, if a child asks how heavy a full-grown elephant is and we give as an answer, as heavy as 1000 men taken together. Then we have made a comparison of weights using the average weight of a man as reference mass. If we assign the average weight of a man as 1 unit of weight, then the elephant will have a relative mass of 1000 units. In the scientific world, the most abundant isotope of carbon, carbon-12, serves as the reference particle for the elements, has been assigned exactly 12 atomic mass units (amu). The relative masses of the other elements were determined based on this standard. The mass of a magnesium atom is about twice that of an atom of carbon. Hence, the relative mass of magnesium is 24 (remember, carbon-12 has been assigned 12 mass units!) This relative mass of an atom is called the atomic mass of the element. The atomic mass of an element found below its symbol in the periodic table is the average of the atomic masses of all naturally occurring isotopes of the element. Carbon, which has four naturally occurring isotopes, one of which is carbon-12, has an average atomic mass of 12.011 amu. The important consequence of using relative masses like the atomic masses is that if we have samples of each of the elements whose weights in grams are numerically equal to their atomic masses, these samples all contain the same number of atoms. For example, the atomic masses of argon and lead are 40.0 and 207.2 amu, respectively. A sample of argon gas weighing 40.0 g and a piece of lead weighing 207.2 g contain the same number of atoms! The samples of argon gas and lead metal both contain the same number of atoms as 12 grams of the carbon-12 isotope. They all contain 6.022 x 1023 atoms of their respective element. This number is known as Avogadros number. Historical Background of Avogadros Number. The number 6.02214179 x 1023 was named in honor of Amedeo Avogadro because its determination was based on a hypothesis that Avogadro proposed in 130

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 1811. He suggested that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules, regardless of the nature of the gas. In 1860, Stanislao Cannizzaro used Avogadros hypothesis to develop a set of atomic weights by comparing masses of equal volumes of gases using oxygen as standard. Following the same line of work, Johann Josef Loschmidt, in 1865, estimated the size of a molecule and proposed for the first time a count of the molecules present in a given volume of gas, the first Avogadros number. Since then, progressively more accurate estimates for Avogadros number have been reported. Reasonable values were available in the late 1800s from sedimentation equilibria of colloidal particles. Millikans oil drop experiment in the early 1900s gave improved accuracy and was cited in most chemistry reference books 50 years ago. Textbooks in 1958 cited Avogadros number as 6.02 times 10 to the 23rd. In 1926, Jean Baptiste Perrin won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work which included various ways of determining this number. But it was also Perrin who earlier proposed in 1909 that this number be named in honor of Avogadro. The updated value of Avogadros number is 6.02214179 x 1023 (CODATA, 2008). Avogadros number is quite large. We may use analogies to illustrate this. If we lay this number of carbon atoms side by side in a layer, we can cover six times the total land area of the Philippines. The Pacific Ocean has about 6.022 x 1023 milliliters of water. Mole Day is celebrated every 23rd of October starting at 6:02 in the morning in honor of Amedeo Avogadro. The Mole. A mole is an amount of substance which contains 6.022 x 1023 or an Avogadros number of particles. Particles may mean atoms, molecules, ions even electrons, hence it is always important to identify the particles being referred to. The examples mentioned in the previous section, 40.0 g of argon, 207.2 g of lead, as well as 12 g of carbon-12, are all in amounts of one mole since each contains an Avogadros number of atoms of their respective elements. On the other hand, one mole of water would contain 6.022 x 1023 molecules. Since a molecule of water is made up of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen, then one mole of water contains 2 moles of hydrogen atoms and 1 mole of oxygen atoms! H2O In one molecule of H2O, there are 2 atoms H 1 atom O 131 In one mole of H2O molecules, there are 2 moles H atoms 1 mole O atoms

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION The chemical formula for ethyl alcohol is CH3CH2OH. How many moles of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms are present in one mole of ethyl alcohol? Atomic Mass, Formula Mass, and Molar Mass. If 12 g of carbon contains 6.02 x 1023 atoms of carbon, we have found the relationship between the mass and the number of atoms! A sample of an element whose mass in grams is numerically equal to its atomic mass is equivalent to one (1) mole of the element and contains 6.022 x 1023 or an Avogadros number of atoms. The mass of one mole of a substance is called its molar mass. Quantities that are less than one mole will contain proportionately lower number of particles and quantities greater than one mole will contain more than one Avogadros number of particles. To illustrate this relationship, let us use helium as an example. The atomic mass of helium, He, is 4.0 amu. (You can find this in the periodic table!) Therefore, the molar mass of He is 4.0 g/mol. Mass of sample of He, g 4.0 g 1.0 g 12.0 g Number of moles of He in sample 1 mol
1.0 g = mol 4.0 g / mol 12.0 g = 3 mol 4.0 g / mol

Number of atoms present in sample 6.02 x 1023 atoms (6.02 x 1023) = 1.51 x 1023 atoms 3 (6.02 x 1023) = 1.81 x 1024 atoms

The mathematical relationships among these three quantities are: molar mass Mass in grams x molar mass MOLE x 6.02 x 1023 6.02 x 1023 No. of particles

For molecular substances and/or compounds, the molar mass is the mass in grams that is numerically equal to the formula mass. The formula mass is the sum of the atomic masses of all atoms in the formula. For an instance, carbon dioxide (CO2) has a formula mass of 44 amu and consequently its molar mass is 44.0 g. Atomic Mass of elements present C = 12.0 O = 16.0 Number of atoms in formula 1 2 Calculation of Formula Mass 12.0 x 1 atom C = 12.0 amu 16.0 x 2 atoms O = 32.0 amu Formula mass = 44.0 amu CO2 132 Calculation of Molar Mass 12.0 g C 32.0 g O Molar mass = 44.0 g CO2

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION The calculation above illustrates an important characteristic of formulas. The formula CO2 tells us that one molecule of carbon dioxide is made up of one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen. But we can also read the formula as follows: in one mole of carbon dioxide, there is one mole of carbon (or 12.0 g C) and 2 moles of oxygen (or 32.0 g O). The subscripts in the formula represent not only the atom ratio but also the mole ratio of the elements present in the compound. Percentage Composition. It is often useful to know the composition of substances in terms of what and how much of each element are present. Composition may be expressed as percentage composition by mass, which is the percent by mass of each element in that compound. If we know the formula of a compound, we can determine its composition by mass from the relationship between number of atoms and mass. As an example, let us calculate the percentage composition of carbon dioxide, CO2. Mass of elements present % composition by mass Elements present in 1 mole of CO2 C O 12.0 g 32.0 g (12.0 g/44.0 g) x 100 = 27.3 % carbon (32.0 g/ 44.0 g) x 100 = 72.7 % oxygen

Molar mass of CO2: 44.0 g/mol Since there are only two elements present in CO2, then the sum of % carbon and % oxygen should be equal to 100%. Try working out the percent composition by mass of acetylsalicylic acid, C9H8O4, the principal ingredient of aspirin. You should get 60.0% C, 4.48% H, and 35.5% O. Methane, CH4, is 75% carbon and 25% hydrogen by mass. This means that in 100 g of methane, 75 g of it is carbon and 25 g is hydrogen. How much of each element is present in 20.0 g of methane? Empirical Formula. If the percentage composition by mass of a compound is known, its chemical formula can be determined by doing the reverse of the process we followed to get the percent composition from the formula. Consider the example given below: Example: A certain compound has a percentage composition of 40% calcium, 12% carbon, and 48% oxygen. A. Convert the percentages into masses. You can simply assume that you have 100 g of the compound and the percentages easily convert to mass. 133

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION B. Calculate the number of moles of each element present. Divide each of the amounts in grams by the molar mass of the respective element. Element Ca C O % by mass in compound 40% 12% 48% Mass in 100-g sample, g 40 g 12 g 48 g No. of moles in 100-g sample
40 g = 1 mol 40.0 g / mol 12 g = 1 mol 12.0 g / mol 48 g = 3 mol 16.0 g / mol

No. of moles (in whole nos.) 1 1 3

C. Convert the number of moles obtained to whole numbers if they are not yet whole numbers and write the formula. The molar ratio and the ratio of the atoms in the formula are 1:1:3. The formula for this compound is therefore CaCO3. The formula obtained from percent composition is an empirical formula, which gives the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in the compound. The formula that gives the actual number of atoms of each element present in a molecular substance is called the molecular formula, which can be equal to or a multiple of the empirical formula. The molecular formula of hydrogen peroxide is H2O2, which is twice its empirical formula, HO. On the other hand, the molecular formula for water is the same as its empirical formula, H2O. VOCABULARY WORDS 1. SI base units an internationally agreed system of standard units used for scientific measurements (SI is short for the French words Systeme Internationale dUnits). 2. Mole the SI base unit for an amount of substance. It is the amount of substance that contains the same number of particles (atoms, ions, molecules) as the number of atoms present in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12. 3. Avogadros number, 6.022 x 1023 the number of atoms present in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12. 4. Atomic mass relative mass of atoms based on a standard, currently the isotope carbon-12, a single atom of which is assigned exactly 12 atomic mass units (amu). 134

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 5. Formula mass sum of the atomic masses of each atom in the formula of a molecule or compound. For molecular substances, the formula mass is also called molecular mass. 6. Molar mass mass in grams of one mole of a substance. 7. Percentage composition the percent by mass of each element in a compound. 8. Empirical formula chemical formula that gives the simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound. 9. Molecular formula chemical formula that gives the actual number of atoms that make up a molecule of the substance. PRE-VIEWING ACTIVITIES A. Collective Nouns. Show the students pictures of the following: 1. Dozen of eggs 5. 2. Pair of shoes 6. 3. Ream of copy paper 7. 4. Batch of cookies 8.

Pride of lions Flock of birds School of fishes Colony of ants

Encourage the students to give more examples of words that are equivalent to a certain value or specific number of components. Ask students to identify which terms denote a specific number and which do not. Finally, ask them about the advantages of working with terms that represent a large number of individual items. B. Pose the Guide Questions that the students will answer after viewing the episode. Ask them to focus on finding the answers to the Guide Questions as they watch the video. Guide Questions/Answers 1. What is a mole? Why is it useful? A mole is a quantity of substance that contains an Avogadros number (6.022 x 1023) of particles. It is very useful since molar quantities are measurable and are more practical to work with than, say, counting the number of particles present.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 2. What is the relationship between the mass of an element in atomic mass units (amu) and mass of one mole of the same element in grams? The mass in grams of one mole of an element is numerically equal to its atomic mass. 3. How large is Avogadros number? Give an analogy to illustrate the magnitude of this number. Avogadros number is very large: 602 213 670 000 000 000 000 000. One analogy that can be used is that it is roughly the amount of water, in milliliters, in the Pacific Ocean. 4. How is the formula mass of a compound calculated? The formula mass of a compound is obtained by getting the sum of the atomic masses of all atoms in the formula of the compound. 5. How is an empirical formula different from a molecular formula? The empirical formula shows the simplest mole ratio between or among the elements in a compound. On the other hand, the molecular formula gives the actual number of atoms of each element present in the compound. The molecular formula may be the same or a multiple of the empirical formula. VIEWING ACTIVITIES Let the students view segments 10:20 - 20:50 on a discussion of the mole, a quantity used to describe an amount of a substance.

POST-VIEWING ACTIVITIES Discuss the answers to the Guide Questions. TEACHING TIPS Suggested Activities A. Analogies for Avogadros Number. The concept of mole is easier understood when analogies are made. You may instruct the students to make their own analogies for this huge number. For example, they can determine how long it would take for them to consume Avogadros number of burgers. In this way, they can have their own personal connection with the concept and the number. Another example is that, if we will take the population of the Earth to be six billion (6.0 x 109) and compare this to Avogadros number like this: 6.022 x 1023 divided by 6.0 x 109 = ~1.0 x 1014, it 136

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION would take about 100 trillion Earth populations to sum up to Avogadros number. B. Information on Composition. To stress the importance of percentage composition in our daily lives, the teacher may use any of these three scenarios. 1. Nutritional information on the labels of processed food products is mandated by law to describe the ingredients used in the preparation of the said product. Ask students to bring samples of these food labels and discuss these to the class. 2. Teachers often compute for a class grade using several components. Each component should be given importance in order to have a high final grade. A sample of this grading system can be shown to the students: class participation 15%, investigatory project 20%, quizzes 20%, long tests 30%, and assignments 15 %. Ask students to reflect on what specific actions they need to do to get a high grade. Encourage them to come up with a specific percentage for their targets or goals. Finally, ask the students the possible outcome if they fail in a given component, say, exams. 3. Ask the students to prepare a recipe for a local dish. In this recipe, they should indicate the specific amount of ingredients needed (e.g. 1 liter of water). Stress on why it would be necessary to use the specific amount of ingredients. C. Celebrate Mole Day! Divide the class into five groups. Have a Mole Day festival in the class by assigning each group an activity to do. The following are some activities the class may perform: 1. Make a Mole Day campaign sign, poster or slogan. 2. Write a Mole Day poem or story. 3. Compose a Mole Day chant, song or jingle. 4. Stage a short play about the history of Avogadros number during the Mole Day. 5. Host a panel discussion where students act as resource speakers and interviewers. The topic should be about the importance of Avogadros number. ASSESSMENT Quiz. Choose the letter corresponding to the best answer. 1. Which law dictates that there is 14g of nitrogen for every 32g of oxygen in the compound nitrogen dioxide? A. Definite Composition C. Partial Masses B. Multiple Proportion D. Conservation of Energy 137

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 2. How many particles are in two moles of an element? A. 6.022 x 1023 C. 6.022 x 1046 24 B. 1.2044 x 10 D. 1.2044x 1022 3. What is the mass in grams of 1.63 x 1021 silicon atoms? A. 7.60 x 10-2 C. 4.58 x 1022 -23 B. 2.71 x 10 D. 1.04 x 104 4. What is the molar mass in g/mol if 0.274 mole of a substance weighs 62.5g? A. 228 C. 0.00438 B. 17.1 D. 217 5. Which of the following is NOT one mole? A. 6.02 x 1023 atoms of carbon C. 12.01g C B. 26.0g of Fe D. 65.39g Zn 6. How many phosphorus atoms are in 1.0g of phosphorus? A. 1 C. 4.0 x 1022 B. 0.032 D. 1.94 x 1022 7. What is the formula mass of potassium permanganate, KMnO4 in amu? A. 52 C. 158 B. 70 D. 110 8. What is the percentage by mass of Na in Na2CO3 ? A. 45.3% C. 25.0% B. 11.3% D. 43.4% 9. A compound with a composition of 87.5% N and 12.5% H was recently discovered. What is the empirical formula of this compound? A. N2H4 C. NH3 B. NH2 D. NH 10. A compound has an empirical formula of ClCH2 and a molar mass of 98.96 g/mol. What is its molecular formula? A. Cl2C2H4 C. ClCH B. Cl3C2H6 D. Cl4C4H8 ANSWER KEY Quiz. 1. 6. A D 2. 7. B C 3. A 8. D 138 4. A 9. B 5. 10. B A

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION REFERENCES Chemistry in context. (3rd ed.). (2000). USA: American Chemical Society. Chang, R. (2003). Chemistry. (7th ed.). NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc. LeMay, H., Beall, H., et al. (2002). Chemistry: connections to our changing world. NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. Mohr, P. J. et al. (2008). CODATA Recommended Values of Fundamental Physical Constants. Rev. Mod. Phys. 80:633-730. NIST. Scott, W. A. H. (1988). Basic facts: chemistry. London: Wm. Collins Sons. Snyder, C. (1992). The extraordinary chemistry of ordinary things. (2nd ed.). NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Useful Websites http://www.moleday.org/htdocs/projects.html http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/Mole?Avogadro-Number-Analogies.html http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/Mole/Origin-of-Mole.html http://www/greeceny.com/ol/sci_mole.htm

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Chapter 3: Changes Matter Undergoes EPISODE 12: PATTERNS OF CHANGE OVERVIEW The qualitative and quantitative interpretations of chemical formulas were introduced in Episodes 10 and 11. This episode presents one way of classifying chemical changes. In addition, balanced chemical equations are quantitatively interpreted based on the relationships between formulas and amounts of substances, in accordance with the Law of Conservation of Mass. OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to: 1. classify chemical reactions; 2. give examples of the four types of chemical reactions; 3. state why chemical reactions obey the Law of Conservation of Mass; 4. interpret a balanced chemical equation at the molecular and the molar level; 5. describe a gaseous reaction in terms of reacting volumes using Avogadros Law; 6. solve stoichiometric problems; 7. identify the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction, and 8. demonstrate some applications of stoichiometry in community and in industry. INTEGRATION WITH OTHER LEARNING AREAS Stoichiometric computations or the quantitative relationships between reactants and products of a chemical reaction require several mathematical concepts and operations. A good understanding of stoichiometric relationships is important in subsequent episodes dealing with energy and chemical reactions. SCIENCE PROCESSES Observing Using mathematical operations Communicating VALUES Critical mindedness Open mindedness Inferring Predicting

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION LIFE SKILLS Critical thinking IMPORTANT CONCEPTS 1. Many chemical reactions can be classified into the following four general groups based on how atoms rearrange themselves during the reaction: combination/synthesis, decomposition, replacement/substitution and double displacement. 2. Avogadros Law describes the amount-volume relationships of gases. It states that at constant temperature and pressure, equal volumes of gases contain equal number of molecules of gas. 3. Stoichiometry is the study of the quantitative relationships of substances involved in a reaction. 4. The amount of product that would be obtained from a chemical reaction is determined by the limiting reagent or limiting reactant, which is the reactant that is present in the smallest stoichiometric amount. 5. The maximum amount of product that may be obtained given a certain amount of reactants is called the theoretical yield. BACKGROUND INFORMATION/EPISODE CONTENT Types of Reactions. There are several ways of classifying chemical reactions. One way is to group reactions based on how atoms rearrange themselves during the reaction and there are four types of these: combination/synthesis, decomposition, replacement/substitution and double displacement reactions. Problem solving

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION FOUR TYPES OF REACTIONS Type of Reaction Examples Metal + Oxygen Metal oxide 2 Mg(s) + O2(g) 2 MgO(s) Non-metal + Oxygen Nonmetallic oxide Combination/Synthesis: two or C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g) more elements or compounds may combine to form a more complex Metal oxide + Water Metallic hydroxide MgO(s) + H2O(l) Mg(OH)2(s) compound A + X AX Nonmetallic oxide + Water Acid CO2(g) + H2O(l) H2CO3(aq) Metal + Nonmetal Salt 2 Na(s) + Cl2(g) 2 NaCl(s) Metallic carbonates when metallic oxides and CO2(g) CaCO3(s) Decomposition: a single compound breaks down into two or more simpler compounds or elements. The change is caused by the addition of sufficient amount of heat or other forms of energy. AX A + X CaO(s) + CO2(g)

heated

form

Most metallic hydroxides when heated decompose into metallic oxides and water Ca(OH)2(s) CaO(s) + H2O(l) Metallic chlorates when heated decompose into metallic chlorides and oxygen

2 KClO3(s) 2 KCl(s) + 3 O2(g) The delta sign, , above the arrow in the equation means application Some acids when heated decompose into of heat. nonmetallic oxides and water H2SO4(aq) SO3(g) + H2O(l) Some oxides when heated decompose 2 HgO(s) 2 Hg(l) + O2(g

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Replacement of a metal in a compound by a more active metal Replacement/Substitution: a Fe(s) + CuSO4(aq) FeSO4(aq) + Cu(s) more active element takes the place of another element in a compound and sets the less active one free. Replacement of hydrogen in water by an active metal 2 Na(s) + 2 H2O(l) 2 NaOH(aq) + H2(g) A + BX AX + B or AX + Y AY + X Replacement of hydrogen in acids by an The activity series for metals and active metal nonmetals given after this section Zn(s) + 2 HCl(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g) can help predict products of replacement reactions. Replacement of nonmetals by more active nonmetals Cl2(g) + 2 NaBr(aq) 2 NaCl(aq) + Br2(l) Double Displacement: occurs between ions in aqueous solution. A reaction will occur when a pair of ions comes together to produce at least one of the following: Precipitate Gas Water Some other non-ionized substance. AX + BY AY + BX Formation of a precipitate NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) NaNO3(aq) + AgCl(s) Formation of a gas 2 HCl(aq) + FeS(s) FeCl2(aq) + H2S(g) Formation of water (If a reaction is between an acid and a base, it is called a neutralization reaction.) HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

The solubility rules may be used to decide whether a product of a double displacement reaction is Formation of a product which decomposes insoluble in water and would form CaCO3(s) + 2 HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) a precipitate.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Activity Series for Metals and Nonmetals (decreasing order) Li Na K Rb Ba Sr Ca Mg Al Mn Zn Cr Fe Cd Co Ni Sn Pb H2 Sb Bi Cu Hg Ag Pt Au F2 Cl2 Br2 I2

How to Use the Activity Series The list is in a decreasing sequence of activity. This means that the substance that appears first in the list is more active than any other substance in a lower position. Li is the most active element in the list. It will displace the ion of any substance appearing in lower positions of the series. For example, when Li metal is combined with MgCl2, Li will displace Mg2+ and combine with Cl. Mg2+ will leave the compound and become elemental Mg. 2Li + MgCl2 Mg + 2LiCl Suppose Ni is made to react with ZnSO4. What will happen? In the series, we find Zn metal to be in a higher position than Ni metal. Zn metal will displace Ni2+, but Ni is not active enough to displace Zn2+. Therefore, Ni + ZnSO4 no reaction! But the reverse will happen. NiSO4 + Zn Ni + ZnSO4

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION SOLUBILITY RULES Soluble All nitrates, acetates, ammonium, and Group I salts. All chlorides, bromides, and iodides EXCEPT silver, lead, and mercury (I). All fluorides EXCEPT Group II, lead (II,) and iron (III). All sulfates EXCEPT calcium, strontium, barium, mercury, lead (II), and silver. Insoluble All carbonates and phosphates EXCEPT Group I and ammonium (NH4+). All hydroxides EXCEPT Group I, strontium, and barium. All sulfides EXCEPT Groups I and II and ammonium. All oxides EXCEPT Group I.

Writing Chemical Equations. Writing correct chemical equations requires that you know how to predict products of reactions. Even with limited experience, one can use a few guidelines to accomplish this. Some of these guidelines and rules are provided below: 1. Write down the formula(s) of the substance(s) entering into the reaction. Place a plus (+) sign between the formulas as needed and put an arrow after the last one. 2. Examine the formulas carefully and decide what type of reaction it is. On the basis of your decision, write down the correct formulas for all the products formed, placing them to the right of the arrow. 3. The diatomic elements are always written as H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2 when they stand alone. 4. The arrow () shows the direction of the reaction. 5. A delta sign () above the arrow (in some cases, this is placed below the arrow) shows that heat has been added. 6. A double arrow () shows that the reaction is reversible and can go in both directions. 7. Before beginning to balance an equation, check each formula to see that it is correct. NEVER change a formula when balancing a chemical equation. Balancing is done by placing coefficients in front of the formulas to ensure that we have the same number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation. 8. Always consult the Activity Series of Metals and Nonmetals before attempting to write equations for replacement reactions. 9. The physical states of all the reactants and products should be indicated after each formula or symbol: (s) for solids, (l) for liquids, (g) for gases and (aq) for solutions. Chemical Reactions and the Law of Conservation of Mass. In Episode 10, we learned that chemical reactions are governed by the Law of Conservation of Mass. The law states that the total mass of substances before a chemical reaction is the same as the total mass of the substances after the chemical change has occurred. One other way of stating the law is that matter cannot simply appear from nothing or 145

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION disappear into nothing! This is demonstrated in the video lesson by making a reaction happen while the reaction vessel is on a weighing balance and showing that the total mass does not change when the reaction happens. Examples of reactions that can be used are the reaction between Pb(NO3)2 and KI, which produces a yellow precipitate as a product and the reaction between CH3COOH and Na2CO3 which produces a gaseous product. If you wish to do a demonstration similar to these, remember to keep the reaction vessel tightly closed when gaseous substances are involved in the reaction. Balanced Chemical Equations. A balanced chemical equation shows that a reaction obeys the Law of Conservation of Mass. It is easy to see if an equation is balanced or not - find out if the same elements appear on both sides of the arrow, and that the number of atoms of each element on the reactant side is the same as those on the product side. The best way to do this is to count atoms of each element on both sides of the arrow! In the equation for the decomposition of potassium nitrate given below, we find two K atoms, two N atoms, and six O atoms at the reactant side. The same numbers of atoms of each element can be found at the product side of the equation. The equation therefore, as shown below, is balanced. 2 KNO3 2 KNO2 + O2 Another example is the reaction of lead nitrate, Pb(NO3)2, and sodium sulfide, Na2S, to form lead sulfide, PbS, and sodium nitrate, NaNO3. On inspection, we find that the equation given below is balanced: the number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation is conserved. Pb(NO3)2 + Na2S PbS + 2 NaNO3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions. A balanced chemical equation can be interpreted in several ways. Consider the balanced equation for the simple reaction between hydrogen and oxygen to form water. Interpretations: 2 H2 + O2 2 H2O

A. Atomic/Molecular Level 2 molecules of hydrogen react with 1 molecule of oxygen to form 2 molecules of water 2 (6.02 x 1023) react with molecules of H2 B. Mole Level 2 moles of H2 react with 1 (6.02 x 1023) molecules of O2 to form 2 (6.02 x 1023) molecules of H2O 2 moles of H2O

1 mole of O2

to form

We can determine the molar mass of a substance from its formula, hence the balanced equation also expresses mass relationships between reactants and products. 146

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION C. Gram Level 2 (2 g/mol) H2 react with 4 g H2 react with

1 (32 g/mol) O2 to form or 32 g O2 to form

2 (18 g/mol) H2O 36 g H2O.

Notice that the sum of the masses of the reactants is equal to the sum of the mass of the product. That is the Law of Conservation of Mass! Now find out if the balanced equations that served as examples in the earlier sections also obey the law of conservation of mass at the gram level. Reactions Involving Gases and Avogadros Law. Many reactions involve reactants and/or products that are gaseous. For reactions involving gases, the quantities of the gaseous components may be expressed as volumes instead of grams, as long as the reaction occurs while temperature and pressure remain constant. This relationship makes use of the Avogadros Law, which states that at the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of different gases contain equal numbers of molecules. The equation for the reaction between hydrogen gas, H2, and chlorine gas, Cl2, to form hydrogen chloride gas, HCl, is shown below. H2(g) + Cl2(g) 2 HCl(g) The equation can be read as: 1 mole of H2 reacts with 1 mole of Cl2 to produce 2 moles of HCl. Following Avogadros Law, the equation can also be read as: 1 volume unit of H2 reacts with 1 volume unit of Cl2 to produce 2 volume units of HCl! Hence, if one (1) liter of H2 is made to react with 1 liter of Cl2, 2 liters of HCl would be produced. How many liters each of H2 and Cl2 would be needed to produce 5 liters of HCl? Percentage Yield. Most chemical reactions do not go to completion and produce less than the expected amounts of products. The amount of product(s) that we calculate using the molar or mass relationships from a balanced equation is called the theoretical yield. On the other hand, the amount of product obtained when the reaction is made to occur is the experimental or the actual yield. In real situations, it is very rare that a reaction will have an actual yield equal to the theoretical yield, or in other words, a 100% yield. Most often, the percentage yield is less than 100%. The percentage yield of a reaction is calculated as follows:
Percent yield, % = actual yield x 100 theoretica l yield

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Limiting Reactant. In many reactions, especially those used in industry to form a product of commercial importance, the amounts of reactants used are often not stoichiometric, that is, not exactly in the ratios indicated in the balanced equation. This is especially true when there are reactants that are relatively cheaper compared to the others. More of the cheaper reactant is used to make sure that the other reactant, the more expensive reactant, is completely or mostly used up. An excess of the cheaper reactant would be wasted, but that may be better than wasting some of the expensive reactant instead. Consider these three reaction mixtures of Mg and HCl: (a) 1 mole Mg + 1 mole HCl (b) 1 mole Mg + 2 moles HCl (c) 1 mole Mg + 5 moles HCl The balanced equation for this reaction is: Mg + 2 HCl MgCl2 + H2 The equation tells us that Mg and HCl react in a 1:2 molar ratio. In all the three cases given above, there is only 1 mole of Mg available. Based on the balanced equation, 1 mole of Mg will need 2 moles of HCl to react completely. In reaction mixture (a), only 1 mole of HCl is available. An excess of 0.5 mole Mg will be left unreacted. In mixture (a), HCl is the reactant that is used up and there were still some amount of the other reactant, Mg, that has not reacted. In this case, HCl is the limiting reactant. The limiting reactant determines the amount of product(s) that would be formed in the reaction. If all of the 1 mole Mg reacted, there should be 1 mole each of MgCl2 and H2 produced. But not all of the Mg reacted since only 1 mole HCl is available. How much of the products can be formed from the reaction of 1 mole of HCl? According to the balanced equation, when 2 moles of HCl react, 1 mole each of MgCl2 and H2 are formed. Since only 1 mole of HCl reacted, then we get only 0.5 mole each of MgCl2 and H2. In mixture (b), the amounts of Mg and HCl present are exactly in the ratio specified by the balanced equation: 1:2. This means there is just enough of each reactant, none is in excess and both will be used up! Instead of saying that both reactants are limiting in this case, we say they are in stoichiometric amounts. In mixture (c), Mg is the limiting reactant and HCl is the excess reactant because 1 mole of Mg will require only 2 moles of HCl to completely react with it and there are 5 moles of HCl available. There will be another 3 moles of unreacted HCl at the end of the reaction and 1 mole each of MgCl2 and H2 as products.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION VOCABULARY WORDS 1. Combination or synthesis two or more reactants combine to form a single product. 2. Decomposition a single compound is broken down into two or more smaller compounds or elements. 3. Replacement or substitution an uncombined element replaces an element that is part of a compound. 4. Double displacement an exchange of ions between two compounds. 5. Limiting reactant- a reactant that is used up in the reaction and determines the amount of product that will be formed. 6. Stoichiometry quantitative relationship of reactants and products in a chemical reaction. 7. Theoretical yield the expected amount of product according to the balanced equation given certain amounts of reactants. PRE-VIEWING ACTIVITIES A. Start the session by using analogies that would depict chemical reactions and involve the concept of limiting reagent. Try using various examples that may be analogous to the four types of reactions (e.g., preparation of hamburger = combinations reaction: 1 bun + 1 beef patty + 1/2 teaspoon of mayonnaise + teaspoon of catsup + 2 scoops of coleslaw). B. Introduce the episode that deals with the four types of chemical reactions and how to express these using chemical equations. C. Pose the Guide Questions that the students will answer after viewing the episode. Ask them to focus on finding the answers to the Guide Questions as they watch the video. Guide Questions/Answers 1. State and explain the Law of Conservation of Mass. The Law of Conservation of Mass states that in a chemical reaction, the amount of matter present at the start is the same as the amount present when the reaction is over. This means that the number of atoms of each element at the beginning of a reaction should be the same at the end of that reaction.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 2. List the four general types of chemical reactions and give an example for each. Combination/ Synthesis: N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3 Decomposition: 2 NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O Replacement/ Substitution: Zn + CuSO4 ZnSO4 + Cu Double Displacement: Ba(OH)2 + H2SO4 BaSO4 + 2 H2O 3. How are chemical equations balanced? Chemical equations are balanced by adjusting the coefficients of the substances involved in the reaction so that the number of atoms of each element on the reactant side is equal to those on the product side. 4. Explain how Avogadros Law can be applied to the stoichiometry of gaseous reactions. Avogadros Law states that at constant temperature and pressure, the volume ratios of gases are equal to their mole ratios in the balanced equation. 5. What is stoichiometry? Stoichiometry is the study of the relationships of the amounts of substances involved in a reaction. Problems dealing with the determination of amount of product(s) from a given initial amount of reactants are stoichiometric problems. 6. Define and explain the concept of limiting reagent. A limiting reactant is the reactant that is used up in the reaction. The amount of product that may be produced can be no more than what the limiting reactant can produce, even if there is a large excess of the other reactant(s). 7. Define theoretical yield. Theoretical yield is the maximum amount of product that may be obtained given a certain amount of reactants according to the balanced equation. VIEWING ACTIVITIES Let the students view the following segments: (1) 2:28 - 8:15 on The DifferentExperiments, (2) 11:25 - 12:00 on Balancing Chemical Equations, and (3) 12:55 - 16:33 on Types of Chemical Changes.

POST- VIEWING ACTIVITIES Discuss the answers to the Guide Questions. 150

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION TEACHING TIPS Suggested Activities A. Chemistry Magic. Tell your students that you can simulate a volcanic eruption. Make the volcano dough with the use of flour, salt, and cooking oil. You may add food coloring to make it look like a volcano. Press the dough around a bottle that contains hot water, detergent, and baking soda (NaHCO3). When you are ready for a volcanic eruption, pour some vinegar (HC2H3O2) into the bottle. Mixing these reactants will cause fizzing and bubbling of the mixture as CO2 is produced. Ask the students to write chemical equations for the said reaction and state the types of reactions that took place. Answer: NaHCO3 + HC2H3O2 NaC2H3O2 + H2CO3 (double displacement) H2CO3 H2O + CO2 (decomposition) B. Share a Story. There are many everyday experiences in which numbers of items are not present in the desired proportions. For example, you would like to prepare spaghetti good for six people but the spaghetti sauce is not enough for the half-kilo pasta that you bought making the spaghetti good for only four people. In your journal, write a story about a limiting situation that you have experienced. C. Writing Chemical Equations. You can give this to the students in the form of individual worksheets, group exercises or games. Make certain that students are equipped with the proper guidelines and rules for writing chemical equations. Have them prepare individual copies of these guidelines as well as the solubility rules and activity series. Make sure that they know how to use these correctly. Practice their skills in classifying reactions and predicting the products of a reaction with the use of their own guides. ASSESSMENT Quiz. Choose the letter corresponding to the best answer. 1. What type of reaction does the equation below illustrates? H2SO4 + Cd(OH)2 2 H2O + CdSO4 A. Combination/synthesis C. Replacement/substitution B. Decomposition D. Double displacement 2. What substances will be formed from the decomposition of calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2? A. Calcium and water C. Calcium, oxygen, and hydrogen B. Calcium oxide and water D. Calcium oxide and hydrogen

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 3. Using the activity series of metals and halogens, which of the following substitution reactions is NOT possible? A. Fe + CuSO4 FeSO4 + Cu C. Zn + 2 HCl ZnCl2 + H2 B. 2 Na + 2 H2O 2 NaOH + H2 D. Fe + 3 NaCl FeCl3 + 3 Na 4. Which of the following best describes the equation below? A. B. C. D. N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3 The reaction of N2 with H2 is an example of combination reaction. Two moles of NH3 can be formed from 1 mole of nitrogen and 3 moles of hydrogen. The product of the reaction of 1 liter of N2 and 3 liters of H2 is 2 liters of NH3. All of the above.

5. Which is the chemical formula of the salt produced by a double displacement reaction between HNO3 and Ba(OH)2 ? A. Ba(NO3)2 C. Ba2(NO3)3 B. BaNO3 D. Ba3(NO3)2 6. How can chemical equations be balanced? A. Change the subscripts C. Add elements B. Add coefficients D. Combine some elements 7. What is the coefficient of H2O when the following equation is balanced with the smallest set of whole numbers? Na + H2O NaOH + H2 A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4

For numbers 8 and 9, refer to this equation: 2H2 + O2 2 H2O 8. When 3.0 moles of H2 are reacted with enough O2 , how many moles of H2O can be produced? A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 9. When 3.0 moles of H2 and 3.0 moles of O2 are made to react to form H2O, which is the limiting reagent? A. H2. C. H2O B. O2 D. A & B are correct 10. What is the percent yield of the reaction if 83.4 g BrF3 is formed from the reaction of 0.270 mole Se with excess BrF5 ? Se + 3 BrF5 SeF2 + 3 BrF3 A. 56.4 % C. 75.2% B. 68.2 % D. 96.4%

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION ANSWER KEY Quiz. 1. D 6. B REFERENCES American Chemical Society. (2000). Chemistry in context. (3rd ed.). NY: McGrawHill. Chang, R. (2003). Chemistry. (7th ed.). NY: Mc Graw-Hill. LeMay, H., et. al. (2002). Chemistry: connections to our changing world. NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. Padolina, M. C. D., et al. (2004). Conceptual and functional chemistry, modular approach. Philippines: Vibal Publishing House, Inc. Snyder, C. (1992). The extraordinary chemistry of ordinary things. (2nd ed.). NY: John Wiley & Sons. 2. 7. B B 3. D 8. C 4. D 9. A 5. 10. A C

Useful Websites http://www.chem.vt.edu/RVGS/ACT/notes/Types_of_Equations.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactivity_series http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemicalvolcanoes/ss/volcano.htm

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Chapter 4: Solutions and Colloids: Properties and Uses EPISODE 13: AND THE SOLUTION IS . . . OVERVIEW We find many solutions around us. We drink, eat and even breathe them. Many biological processes take place in solutions. Solutions serve as a medium for the many complex chemical reactions happening in the environment. This episode introduces the nature, properties, and different types of solutions. It also explains the concept of solubility and the factors that may affect it. The different ways of expressing concentrations of solutions and the proper techniques for their preparation are shown. OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to: 1. identify the components of a solution; 2. distinguish the different types of solutions and give examples of each; 3. differentiate saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated solutions; 4. define solubility and discuss the factors affecting solubility; 5. solve problems relating to concentration units; 6. describe the preparation of solutions given the desired concentration; and 7. describe the colligative properties of solutions. INTEGRATION WITH OTHER LEARNING AREAS Solutions make up a class of mixtures and the study of solutions should be part of the lessons on mixtures. The importance of mixtures was introduced in Episode 5 Mixtures in Our Daily Lives. The formation of solutions involves interactions of atoms and molecules that are taken up in greater detail in Episode 29 - Binding Among Molecules. SCIENCE PROCESSES Observing Experimenting Using of mathematical relationships VALUES Care for the environment Consumer awareness 154 Interpreting data Classifying

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION LIFE SKILLS Critical thinking IMPORTANT CONCEPTS 1. Solutions are homogeneous mixtures. 2. A solution is composed of a solute (or solutes) and a solvent. 3. Solutions can be solid, liquid or gaseous. There are different types of solutes based on the physical states of the solute and the solvent. 4. In the formation of solutions, the rule of the thumb is like dissolves like. 5. The solubility of a solute in a given solvent is influenced by the nature of the solute and the solvent, temperature, and pressure. 6. The amount of solute present in a solution is given by the concentration of the solution. There are several ways of expressing the concentration of a solution. 7. Solutions exhibit colligative properties which are dependent only on the concentration of the solute and not on the identity of the solute. BACKGROUND INFORMATION/EPISODE CONTENT Nature of Solutions. Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances. The components of a solution are the solute, which is the dissolved substance usually present in smaller quantity, and the solvent, which is the dissolving substance, usually in greater quantity. Most solutions that we know are aqueous, that is, the solvent is water, but other substances can serve as solvents. There are solutions wherein the solute cannot be distinguished from the solvent, such as in a solution composed of 50% by volume of ethyl alcohol and water, or when equal number of moles of nitrogen gas and helium gas are mixed. There are several types of solutions based on the physical states of the solute and the solvent. Examples of these are given in Table 1. Decision making

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Table 1. Types of solutions and their examples. Solvent Solid Solid Solid Liquid Liquid Liquid Gas Gas Gas Solute Solid Liquid Gas Solid Liquid Gas Solid Liquid Gas Appearance of Solution Solid Solid Solid Liquid Liquid Liquid Gas Gas Gas Example Brass, steel Amalgam Hydrogen in platinum Sugar solution Rubbing alcohol Carbonated drinks Camphor in nitrogen Humid oxygen Air

Solubility. Water and ethyl alcohol are two substances that dissolve in each other in all proportions. Gases mix readily to form solutions. Substances that dissolve completely in a solvent are said to be soluble in that solvent and substances that do not dissolve are insoluble. When only a small amount of a substance dissolves in a given volume of solvent, the substance is only slightly soluble. When liquid substances are mixed to form solutions, the words miscible, slightly miscible, and immiscible are used instead. The maximum amount of substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature is called its solubility. Solubility may be expressed as gram solubility (mass in grams of solute in 100 g or 1 liter of solution), or as molar solubility (moles solute in 1 liter of solution). At 30oC, the gram solubility of NaCl in water is 36 g NaCl in 100 g of water (0.62 mol/L of solution in molar solubility). Solutions can be described according to the amount of solute present. They can be unsaturated, saturated or supersaturated. A saturated solution contains the maximum amount of the solute that can be dissolved in a given volume of solvent at a particular temperature. The solution contains the amount equal to the solubility of the solute. If more solute is added to a saturated solution, the added solute will remain undissolved. An unsaturated solution contains less amount of solute than can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent and so the solution can still dissolve additional solute. A supersaturated solution holds more solute particles than what the solvent can normally take in. This solution is unstable and a slight disturbance can cause the solute that is in excess of its solubility to crystallize out of the solution, leaving the solution just saturated.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Factors Affecting Solubility. Several factors that may affect the solubility of a solute in a given solvent are: 1. Nature of Solute and Solvent. The rule for solubility is like dissolves like. When two substances are chemically alike, they readily dissolve in each other. This is because the attractions between solute and solvent particles are of similar nature as the attractions between solute and solute particles and between solvent and solvent particles. Hence, polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents and non-polar solutes are soluble in non-polar solvents. The nature of some substances and their solubilities are given in Table 2. Pentane and hexane are both non-polar and form solutions because there is no significant change in the environment during the solution process. The intermolecular forces between pentane molecules and between hexane molecules do not differ much in nature and strength as the forces of attraction that can form between pentane and hexane molecules. Ethyl alcohol and water are both polar and are likewise miscible in all proportions. However, water is immiscible in hexane, pentane, or CCl4. Table 2. Effect of nature of solute and solvent on solution formation. Substance Pentane Hexane Ethyl alcohol Water Carbon tetrachloride Structure CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2OH H2O CCl4 Nature Nonpolar Nonpolar Polar Polar Nonpolar Observation Pentane and hexane are miscible with each other in all proportions. Water and ethyl alcohol are miscible with each other in all proportions. CCl4 is immiscible in water but is miscible in pentane and hexane.

2. Temperature. Solid solutes generally show an increase in solubility in liquid solvents when temperature is increased. There are only very few substances, such as Li2SO4 that decrease in solubility in water with increase in temperature. Some substances like table salt, NaCl, do not show appreciable change in solubility with temperature changes. The solubility of a gaseous solute in a liquid or solid solvent is very much temperature- dependent. Gases are more soluble at low temperatures. Gas solubility decreases significantly at higher temperatures. The increase in kinetic energy of the gas particles as temperature is raised allows the particles to overcome the attractive forces of the surrounding solvent molecules. Have you noticed the difference in 157

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION taste between water fresh from the tap and boiled water? The taste of our drinking water is due largely to the dissolved gases particularly oxygen. 3. Pressure. Pressure also affects solubility but its effect is more pronounced on the solubility of gases. The solubility of a gaseous solute in a liquid solvent decreases as the pressure of the gas on the surface of the solution decreases. An unopened bottle of cola has a large amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in it, but there is no continuous stream of bubbles rising to indicate the gas escaping from the solution. However, if you lift the cap to open the bottle, the fizz or pop that you hear tells you pressure has been released and you see bubbles rising from and moving out of the liquid. A quantitative relationship between pressure and solubility of a gaseous solute is given by Henrys Law. The law states that at a given temperature, the solubility of a gas is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas, as shown in the equation below: Cg = kPg where Cg is the molar concentration of the gas in solution, Pg is the partial pressure, in atm, of the gas above the solution, and k is Henrys Law constant that depends only on temperature. Deep sea divers experience the effect of pressure on gas solubility. Under the sea where the pressure is high, the solubility of gases in blood increases. If the diver surfaces quickly, the pressure will decrease rapidly and the dissolved gases particularly nitrogen, boils out of the blood as it escapes rapidly. The bubbles formed in the blood could be fatal since they could clog and rupture blood capillaries and stop blood circulation. When this happens, the joints of the body lock in a bent position, hence the condition is named bends. To avoid this problem, divers must resurface slowly. Likewise, divers tanks are often filled with mixtures of helium and oxygen rather than nitrogen and oxygen since helium is less soluble in the blood than nitrogen. Ways of Expressing Concentration. The amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solution is called the concentration of the solution. Quantitatively, the concentration of a solution may be expressed in a variety of ways. The concentration units commonly used are listed in Table 3.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Table 3. Some common concentration units.


Concentration Unit Percent by mass Percent by volume Percent mass by volume Molarity Molality Mole fraction Parts per million Parts per billion Symbol % m/m % v/v % m/v M m c ppm ppb Formula (mass of solute/mass of solution) x 100 (volume of solute/volume of solution) x 100 (mass of solute in grams/volume of solution in mL) x 100 number of moles of solute/volume in L of solution number of moles of solute/mass in kg of solvent number of moles of solute / sum of the number of moles of all solutes and moles of solvent mass in grams of solute/mass in grams of solution) x 106 mass in grams of solute/mass in grams of solution) x 109

Many of the solutions found in our homes have concentrations expressed as % . Vinegar is usually 4.5% m/v of acetic acid (4.5 g acetic acid in 100 mL of vinegar). Pollutants are often expressed as ppm or ppb. The maximum allowed level of CO in the atmosphere is 35 ppm. Molarity and other units that make use of number of moles of substances are particularly useful when we are in a chemistry laboratory. A 1 M (read as one molar) NaCl solution contains 1 mole or 58.5 g of NaCl in 1 liter of solution. Qualitatively, solutions may be dilute or concentrated. Dilute solutions contain a small proportion of solute to solvent, while a solution with a large proportion of solute to solvent is considered concentrated. Dilute or less concentrated solutions can be prepared from more concentrated solutions by dilution, i.e. the addition of more solvent. The general formula for dilution is: C1V1 = C2V2 where C1 is the concentration of the more concentrated solution V1 is the volume of the more concentrated solution needed to prepare the new solution C2 the desired concentration for the new solution and V2 is the final volume of the new solution. Colligative Properties. Solutions exhibit some properties that are combinations of the properties of the pure solute or solvent. For example, the sweetness of an aqueous solution of sugar depends on the relative amounts of sugar and water present. In general, however, the properties of a solution are different from the properties of the pure solute or pure solvent. Properties of solutions whose values depend only on the number of solute particles present (i.e. the concentration of solute) rather than on the identity of the solute are called colligative properties. The 159

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION simplest treatment of colligative properties is for liquid solutions with nonvolatile and nonelectrolytic solutes as are given below. 1. Vapor Pressure Lowering, DP. A solution containing a nonvolatile solute exhibits a vapor pressure that is lower than the vapor pressure of the pure liquid solvent. The decrease in vapor pressure is given by Raoults Law, which states that the vapor pressure of a solution is directly proportional to the concentration in mole fraction of the solute. The mathematical equation for vapor pressure lowering, DP, is: DP = X2P1o where DP = P1 o = P1 = X2 = vapor pressure lowering, P1o P1 vapor pressure of the pure solvent vapor pressure of the solvent above the solution mole fraction of the solute.

2. Freezing Point Depression, DTf. A decrease in the freezing point is observed when a solute is added to a solvent. Mathematically, the freezing point depression may be expressed as: DTf = kfm where DTf = FPsolvent - FPsolution kf = molal freezing point depression constant, oC/m m = concentration in molality. 3. Boiling Point Elevation, DTb. A nonvolatile solute will increase the boiling point of the resulting solution due to a lowering in the vapor pressure of the solvent. The mathematical equation for the calculation of Boiling Point Elevation is similar to that for Freezing Point Depression. DTb = kbm where DTb = kb = m = BPsolution - BPsolvent molal boiling point elevation constant, oC/m concentration in molality.

4. Osmotic Pressure, p. Osmosis is defined as the net movement of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a dilute solution to a more concentrated solution. 160

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Osmotic pressure, p, is the pressure required to prevent osmosis. The equation for the calculation of osmotic pressure is: p = mRT where p m R T = = = = osmotic pressure in atm concentration of solution in molality gas constant, 0.0851 L-atm/mol-K temperature in Kelvin

VOCABULARY WORDS 1. Concentration of a solution the amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solvent or solution. 2. Dilution process of reducing the concentration of a solution by the addition of more solvent. 3. Concentrated solution a solution that contains a fairly large proportion of solute. 4. Dilute solution a solution that contains a relatively small amount of solute. 5. Molarity a unit of concentration, M, defined as the number of moles, n, of solute in 1 liter of solution; M = n solute/L of solution. 6. Molality a unit of concentration, m, defined as the number of moles, n, of solute in 1 kg of solvent; m = n of solute/kg solvent. 7. Nonpolar substances substances whose structures do not have any permanent dipole. 8. Polar substances substances whose structures have permanent dipoles, resulting in a partial separation of charges, where one end is partially positive and another is partially negative. 9. Electrolyte a substance that forms ions when dissolved in water. 10. Intermolecular forces of attraction - forces of attraction that form between molecules and are weaker than covalent bonds. 11. Colligative properties properties of solutions that are dependent only on the number of solute particles present or on the molal concentration of the solution. 161

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 12. Vapor pressure the pressure exerted by the gaseous part of a substance that is in equilibrium with the liquid or solid phase. 13. Partial pressure the pressure exerted by a component of a gaseous mixture that contributes to the total pressure of the mixture. 14. Henrys law gives the relationship between the solubility of a gas in liquid and the partial pressure of the gas over the liquid. It states that the concentration of dissolved gas is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas over the solution. 15. Osmosis the net movement of solvent across a semi-permeable membrane separating solutions of different osmotic pressures. 16. Osmotic pressure the force exerted by solvent molecules across a membrane from the side of lower solute concentration to that where solute concentration is higher. This is equal to the pressure that needs to be applied over a solution of higher solute concentration to prevent the movement of solvent molecules across a membrane from a solution of lower solute concentration. PRE-VIEWING ACTIVITIES A. Introduce the concept of solutions and solubility by asking students what happens when they: 1. add sugar to water when preparing coffee in the morning. 2. prepare caramel for leche flan. 3. open a bottle or can of carbonated drink. 4. add oil and salt in cooking pasta noodles. Ask students to give possible explanations for their observations and they can reflect back on their answers after viewing the segment on factors affecting solubility. The teacher should provide structures of compounds used in the video clip. B. Pose the Guide Questions which the students will answer after viewing the episode. Ask them to focus on finding the answers to the Guide Questions as they watch the video. Guide Questions/Answers 1. What happened when pentane and hexane were mixed? Why were pentane and hexane miscible in all proportions? Pentane and hexane dissolved in each other. Both substances are nonpolar. 162

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 2. Is the observation the same for water and ethanol? Explain. Yes, water and ethanol readily dissolve in each other since both are polar substances and the attractions between water and ethanol molecules are of similar nature and strength as the forces between water molecules and between ethanol molecules. 3. Carbon tetrachloride was also mixed with water. What did you observe? Why was a layer formed when CCl4 was mixed with water? Carbon tetrachloride and water do not dissolve in each other. The two layers indicate that the two liquids are immiscible. 4. What generalization can be drawn from the three illustrations? Substances of similar nature dissolve in each other. In other words, like dissolves like. 5. When 1-butanol is mixed with water, it initially forms a homogeneous mixture. However, adding more 1-butanol to the solution renders 1-butanol immiscible in water. Explain why. 1-butanol is slightly soluble in water, meaning a small amount of 1-butanol will dissolve in water. However, adding more 1-butanol will not cause more to dissolve, so the added 1-butanol will just form a separate layer from water. 6. Predict what will happen to the following substances when mixed. Solute NaCl NaCl NaCl Oil Oil Oil Solvent Water Carbon tetrachloride Benzene Water Carbon tetrachloride Benzene Observation NaCl dissolves; a solution forms NaCl will not dissolve NaCl will not dissolve Two layers form Oil dissolves; a solution forms Oil dissolves; a solution forms

VIEWING ACTIVITY Let the students view the segments 8:42 11:30 on Factors Affecting Solubility. 163

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION POST VIEWING ACTIVITIES Discuss the answers to the Guide Questions. TEACHING TIPS Suggested Activities A. Experiment. Factors Affecting Solubility Objective: To determine the factors affecting solubility. Materials: 6 vials, hot and cold water, kerosene, 2 beakers, salt, margarine, mothball powder, 1 unopened bottle of cold soft drink, sugar Procedure A: 1. Pour 1 mL of water in three separate vials. Label these as vials 1, 2, and 3. 2. In the other three vials, pour 1 mL of kerosene. Label these as a, b, c. 3. Add a pinch of sugar to vials 1 and a. Stir or shake the vial after each addition. Observe what happens. 4. Add a pinch of mothball powder to vials 2 and b. 5. For vials 3 and c, add a small amount of margarine. 6. Record all your observation. Chemical System Water Sugar Mothball powder Margarine Procedure B: 1. Add 1 g of salt into separate beakers containing hot and cold water. 2. Observe what happens. Procedure C: 1. Open a bottle of cold soft drink and observe the surface of the liquid. Taste the soft drink. 2. Pour the remaining drink into a clean glass. Let it cool for some time. Taste the drink again. Discussion: 1. For procedure A, based on the table, make a general statement relating solubility to the nature of substances dissolved in the solvent. 2. In procedure B, in which system does salt dissolve faster? 164 Observation Kerosene

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 3. In procedure C, compare the taste of the soft drink before and after cooling. What causes the difference in the taste? 4. Make a general statement on the effect of pressure on the solubility of gases in a liquid. 5. Summarize by enumerating the factors that affect solubility as illustrated in this activity. How do these factors affect solubility? B. Brainstorming Activities. 1. Divide the class into 5 groups. Ask each group to design an experiment that would enable them to measure the degree of solubility of a certain solute in water. Let them report their output to the class. 2. Working in groups, ask them to cite examples of solutions and their significance to daily life and the environment. ASSESSMENT A. Multiple Choice. Choose the letter corresponding to the correct answer. 1. Which of the following is NOT a solution? A. Coffee C. Paint B. Seawater D. Wine 2. A solution that is 2 M muriatic acid in concentration means that there are A. 2 liters of muriatic acid. B. 2 moles of muriatic acid in every 1 liter of the solution. C. 2 moles of muriatic acid in every 1 kg of the solution. D. 2 grams of muriatic acid in every 1 liter of the solution. 3. The label 40% isopropyl alcohol by volume means 40 mL of A. isopropyl alcohol for every 100 mL of the solution. B. isopropyl alcohol in every bottle of rubbing alcohol. C. isopropyl alcohol dissolved in 100 mL of water. D. alcoholic solution. 4. What kind of solution is a carbonated drink? A. Gas in solid C. Solid in solid B. Gas in liquid D. Liquid in gas 5. Which of the following will increase the solubility of solid solutes in liquid solvents? A. Higher temperature C. Increased volume B. Particle size D. Higher pressure

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 6. What is the concentration in % by mass of the solution if 30.0 g of salt is dissolved in enough water to make 75.0 g solution? A. 20.0 % C. 40.0 % B. 100 % D. 105 % 7. What is the molarity of 3.0 g of HCl in 500 mL solution? (Atomic masses: H = 1.008, Cl = 35.45 ) A. 0.165 M C. 6.00 M B. 0.00600 M D. 1.65 M 8. A solution is a _______________________. A. one-phase system of definite composition. B. one-phase system of variable composition. C. two-phase system of variable composition. D. two-phase system of definite composition. 9. How would you prepare a 25.0% by mass sugar solution? A. Dissolve 25.0 g of sugar in 75.0 g of water. B. Dissolve 75.0 g of sugar in 25.0 g water. C. Dissolve 50.0 g of sugar in 100.0 g of water. D. Dissolve 25.0 g of sugar in 100.0 g of water. 10. Which of the following statements is FALSE? A. A solution is made up of solute and solvent mixed in variable composition. B. Solutions may be saturated, unsaturated or supersaturated. C. All solutions are homogeneous. D. All homogeneous systems are solutions. B. Fill in the Blanks. Write the word or expression in the blank provided that would best complete each of the following statement. 1. A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances of variable proportion is called a ____________________. 2. The solubility of a gas in a liquid is _____________ proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid. 3. A solution in which the dissolved and undissolved solutes are in ______________ is said to be saturated. 4. The solubility of a gas ___________________ as the temperature of the solvent is increased. 5. In solution, the _________________ is the component usually present in lesser amount. 166

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION C. Statement Validity. For each item, there are two statements. Write: A B C D if the first statement is true while the second is false. if the first statement is false while the second is true. if the two statements are true. if the two statements are false.

1. An example of a solution is mayonnaise. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances of variable proportion. 2. A solute is the dissolved substance. A polar solute can be dissolved in a non-polar solvent. 3. A solute dissolves faster with stirring. If more surface area of the solute is exposed to the solvent, then the rate of its dissolution will be greater. 4. A dilute solution has less solvent than a concentrated solution. The maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a specified temperature is called solubility. 5. The solubility of a gas in a liquid is inversely proportional to the pressure exerted by the gas on the surface of the liquid. The solubility of a gas in liquid increases with increasing temperature. 6. The concentration of a solution can be increased by the addition of a solvent. Boyles law explains why sea divers experience bends. 7. The solubility of a solid in a liquid is affected by pressure. The temperature increases the rate of dissolving of a solid solute. 8. In a saturated solution, the concentration of the solute is equal to its solubility. The amount of solute in a saturated solution is less than in a supersaturated solution. 9. The unit for molality is moles solute/kg of solvent. The freezing point of the solution is lower than the freezing point of the pure solvent. 10. The osmotic pressure is the pressure needed to speed up osmosis. The vapor pressure lowering is dependent on the mole fraction of the solvent. 167

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION D. Problem Solving. Show you complete solution and enclose your final answer in a box. 1. A 5.00 g sucrose, C12H22O11, was dissolved in 145.0 g of water. Calculate the % by mass of the sugar solution. 2. A 0.568 g NaNO3 is dissolved in water to make a 0.500 L solution. Calculate the molarity of NaNO3 solution. (Na = 23.00; N = 14.01; O = 16.00) 3. What would be the freezing point of a 0.250 m camphor in benzene? Kf = 5.12 oC/m; freezing point of benzene = 5.5oC 4. Determine the osmotic pressure of a 0.0457 m aqueous sugar solution at 25.0oC. ANSWER KEY (Under Teaching Tips, Suggested Activities) A. Experiment. Factors Affecting Solubility Chemical System Sugar Mothball powder Margarine Discussion: 1. Like dissolves like. Since sugar dissolved in water then it must be polar like water. Moth ball powder and margarine do not dissolve in water, therefore their chemical nature is different from water and are both nonpolar. The mothball powder and margarine dissolved in kerosene. Kerosene, like mothball powder and margarine, is non-polar. 2. Salt dissolves faster in hot water. This, however, does not mean that the solubility of salt is greater at higher temperatures. While most solid solutes would increase in solubility in water as temperature increases, table salt or NaCl does not appreciably do so. 3. Newly-opened soft drinks taste better than the one that has been left to cool down for some time. The difference in the taste lies in the dissolved CO2 that 168 Water Soluble Insoluble Insoluble Observation Kerosene Insoluble Soluble Soluble

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION was released when the soft drink was opened. These dissolved CO2 causes the characteristic biting taste in carbonated drinks. [Additional information: When carbonated drinks are opened, CO2 escapes based on the following reaction: H2CO3 H2O + CO2. The decrease in carbonic acid causes the soda pop to taste flat. Manufacturers of carbonated drinks use very cold temperatures to super-saturate the liquid with CO2. In addition to carbonic acid, carbonated drinks also contain phosphoric acid and in some instances, citric acid. The concentrations of these two acids remain the same even if the carbonated drink has been left open to the atmosphere. Adding salt crystals to carbonated drinks increases bubble formation and release of CO2 from the beverages. The salt crystals can accelerate the release of CO2 because they provide sites for the formation of bubbles. The effect of adding Menthos candy to carbonated drinks is the same. (http://www.madsci.org/post/archives/200101/979316431.Ch.r.html)] 4. As pressure decreases, solubility of gases in liquid also decreases. 5. The factors affecting solubility that are illustrated in this activity are (A) nature of the solute and solvent, (B) temperature, and (C) pressure. (Under Assessment) A. Multiple Choice. 1. 6. C C 2. 7. B A 3. A 8. B 4. B 9. A 5. 10. A D

B. Fill in the Blanks. 1. solution 2. directly C. Statement Validity. 1. B 2. A 6. D 7. B

3. equilibrium 4. decreases

5.

solute

3. C 8. C 169

4. B 9. C

5. 10.

D B

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION D. Problem Solving. 1. 3.33 % by mass 2. 0.0134 M NaNO3 3. 4.22 oC 4. 1.12 atm REFERENCES Bettelheim, Frederick, et al. (2004). Introduction to general, organic, and biochemistry. (7th ed.). FL: Brookes/Cole. Caret, R. (1997). Principles and application of inorganic, organic, and biological chemistry. Boston: McGraw-Hill, Inc. Chang, R. (1994). Chemistry. (5th ed.). NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc. Chem. Educ. Res. Fract. (2003) (4)1, 19-24. Morrison, E. S. et al (1989). Science plus: technology and society. (Vol. 8). Canada: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Robinson, H. (1998). College chemistry with qualitative analysis. (8th ed.). MA: DC Heath. Seager, S. et al. (2000). Chemistry for today: general, organic, and biochemistry (.4th ed.). FL: Brooks/Cole. Useful Website http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/2001-01/979316431.Ch.r.html

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Chapter 4: Solutions and Colloids: Properties and Uses EPISODE 14: COLLOID, THE SPECIAL MIXTURE PART I OVERVIEW The three different types of mixtures: colloids, solutions, and the suspensions, were introduced in Episode 5 - Mixtures in our Daily Lives. Then, solutions, their nature and properties, were the main topics of Episode 13 - And the Solution is. While this episode focuses solely on another type of mixtures the colloids. The properties, the components, and the behavior of colloids are described here. OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to: 1. define colloid; 2. distinguish colloids from solutions and suspensions based from physical features and appearance; 3. identify the components of colloids based on physical states; 4. describe the properties of colloids; 5. classify given examples of colloids; and 6. evaluate the importance of colloids to daily life. INTEGRATION WITH OTHER LEARNING AREAS This episode is first of two parts about colloids, the second part being Episode 15 Colloid, Special Mixture Part II. Many materials used in daily life, and encountered in our surroundings are colloids. SCIENCE AND HEALTH IDEAS Carbohydrates, proteins and other biological macromolecules and even living cells may be considered to be biocolloids. Likewise, many foods are also colloidal in nature. Moreover, colloids are important features of our natural environment. SCIENCE PROCESSES Observing Measuring Interpreting data Classifying Inferring Simulating Evaluating

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION VALUES Care for the environment and natural Cooperation resources Honesty LIFE SKILLS Self awareness and realization Critical and creative thinking IMPORTANT CONCEPTS 1. A colloid is a mixture of substances made up of the dispersed phase and the dispersing medium. 2. Colloids have particles ranging from 1 nanometer (1 nm or 1 10 9 m) to 1000 nanometers (1000 nm or 1 10 6 m). The particles of solutions are smaller than 1 10 9 m, while particles larger than 1 10 6 m made up the suspensions. 3. Colloids exhibit the light-scattering phenomenon, Tyndall effect. This phenomenon is observed when a beam of light passes through a colloidal system. 4. Because of their particle size, colloids have greater surface area and therefore have great adsorbing power. 5. The dispersed particles in a colloid exhibit Brownian movement. This is the rapid, random, and zigzag motion of the particles through the dispersion medium. It is due to the constant bombardment by the dispersion medium on the dispersed particles. 6. Colloids may be classified according to the physical states of the dispersed particles and the dispersion medium. 7. Colloids may also be classified according to the affinity between the dispersed phase and the dispersion medium. 8. Emulsifying agents are used to stabilize lyophobic colloids. Soap is a common emulsifying agent. Its nonpolar end attracts oil/grease while its polar end attracts water. Soap thus forms a intermediate layer between the two, emulsifying two otherwise immiscible liquids. Effective communication

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION BACKGROUND INFORMATION/EPISODE CONTENT Colloids have been studied by scientists since the early 1800's. The term "colloid" was derived from the Greek, "kolla" for glue, as some of the original organic colloidal solutions were glues. This term was first coined in 1862 to distinguish colloids from crystalloids such as sugar and salt. Colloids are also called colloidal systems or colloidal dispersions. They usually have an opaque or milky appearance and if light is shone through it, the beam of light would be seen because the particles are large enough to reflect the light. Many of us may not be aware that air without the presence of dust, soot, and other such particles should be a true solution. It is the light from the sun being scattered by these particles that causes the sky to appear blue. If there were no colloidal particles in the air, the sky would be black. What Are Colloids? A colloid is a mixture of substances that appear homogeneous to the naked eye but is actually made up of two phases: the dispersed phase and the dispersion medium. The dispersed phase consists of particles which can be large molecules or clusters of small molecules. These molecules are distributed evenly in a continuous phase called the dispersion medium. The dispersion medium may be solid, liquid or gas. Properties of Colloids. Colloids exhibit properties distinct for this class of mixtures. Most of these properties are consequences of the sizes of particles of the dispersed phase. Particle Size. The main property that sets colloids apart from solutions and suspensions is the size of their particles. In colloids, the particles of the dispersed phase are still too small to form obviously separate phases like a heterogeneous system, but they are not small enough to be considered as solution. The dispersed particles remain suspended and evenly distributed and do not settle out when left to stand. The particles of colloids range from 1 to 1000 nanometers (or 1 x 10 9 m to 1 x 10 m). The particles of a solution are smaller than one nanometer while particles larger than 1000 nanometers make up a suspension.
6

Tyndall Effect. Along with particle size, Tyndall effect is another property of colloids that distinguishes them from solutions and suspensions. Tyndall effect is a light-scattering phenomenon studied by Irish physicist named John Tyndall. If you have seen dust particles dancing in a beam of light that has entered through an opening in a window, or in light being projected to the screen as you watch a film in a dark movie house, you have observed Tyndall effect. When a beam of light is passed through a colloid, the path of the light becomes visible because of the 173

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION scattering caused by the particles of the dispersed phase. In a solution, the path of the light beam is not visible since the particles are too small to scatter light. The video lesson shows footages that highlight the importance of the Tyndall effect in nature: the reason for the color of our eyes, the colors in gems, and stained glass windows. Similarly, Tyndall effect explains why the color of the sky is blue. Large Surface Area to Volume Ratio. The particles of a colloid can remain dispersed under appropriate conditions. In dispersed state, each particle has its own surface and because of the small sizes of the particles, colloids have great surface area to volume ratio. One application of this property that is being explored is in cleaning up oil spills. The oily layer floating on water can be broken up or dispersed into colloidal particles. When the large surface areas are now exposed to the sun, evaporation of the dispersed particles takes place more rapidly. Adsorption. A consequence of the large surface area of colloids is their great adsorbing power. Adsorption is the adhesion of an extremely thin layer of molecules, atoms or ions to the surfaces of solid bodies or liquids with which they are in contact. Adsorption is not the same as absorption, as when water is absorbed by a sponge, which involves the penetration or taking up of other substances into a medium. Activated charcoal, a commonly used adsorbing agent, is made up of carbon particles of colloidal sizes and is effective in the removal of undesirable colors and odors from certain materials. It is used in commercial gas masks to remove toxic gases from the air before it is inhaled and in some cigarette filters, presumably to remove some of the hazardous compounds from tobacco smoke. The adsorbing capability of colloids is vital in the industrial manufacture of margarine. The process involves hydrogenation of oils and fats, a reaction that is very slow unless catalysts like nickel and palladium are present to make hydrogen available and ready for the reaction. A large amount of hydrogen can be adsorbed on the surface of colloidal nickel-palladium catalyst, causing the oil and hydrogen to combine at a faster rate. Brownian Movement. If a colloid is viewed under a powerful microscope, the dispersed particles are large enough to be seen moving in a rapid and random motion through the dispersion medium. This random, zigzag motion is called the Brownian movement, discovered by Robert Brown in 1927. The individual motion of theparticles changes continuously as a result of random collisions with other particles in the dispersion medium. This motion in colloids is one of the reasons why the particles remain suspended indefinitely and why most colloids are stable. The table gives a comparison of the properties of colloids, solutions, and suspensions. 174

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Table 1. Comparison of colloids, solutions, and suspensions. Mixture Solutions Colloids Suspensions Particle size Less than1 nm 1 1000 nm at least 1000 nm Properties particles do not settle out do not exhibit Tyndall effect Brownian movement not visible particles do not settle out exhibit both Tyndall effect and Brownian movement particles settle out on standing do not exhibit Tyndall effect particles separate

Classification of Colloids. Colloids may be classified according to the physical states of the dispersed particles and the dispersion medium. The different types of colloids, their common names as well as examples are given in the table below. Table 2. Types of colloids. Name foam solid foam Dispersed Phase gas gas Dispersing Medium liquid solid Examples beaten egg white, mousse, whipped cream marshmallows, meringue, pumice, rubber foam, plastic foam aerosol sprays, fog, mist, clouds milk, mayonnaise butter, cheese, jelly colored glass, pearl, steel, gemstones gelatin, paint, ink, milk of magnesia smoke, dust, air pollutants

liquid aerosol emulsion solid emulsion solid sol sol solid aerosol

liquid liquid liquid solid solid solid

gas liquid solid solid liquid gas

Affinity of the Two Phases. Another way to classify colloids is according to the affinity between the dispersed phase and the dispersion medium. Colloids may be either lyophilic, if the affinity between the dispersed phase and the dispersing medium is strong, or lyophobic, if the affinity between the two phases are weak. Lyophillic colloids are more stable than lyophobic colloids. 175

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION The presence of an emulsifying agent or a protective colloid in a system, such as the lecithin in egg yolk, could stabilize a lyophobic colloid. During the process of preparing mayonnaise, lecithin, which is protein by nature, forms a coating around the oil droplet which keeps them separated and suspended. The cleaning action of soaps and detergents comes from their activity as emulsifying agents. Both soaps and detergents contain long molecules having a polar end and non-polar end. When placed in water, soaps and detergent molecules form spherical particles called micelles, wherein the non-polar ends are clumped together while the polar ends of the soap molecules are on the surface of the micelles interacting with water. Non-polar oils and greases cannot dissolve in water, a polar solvent, but they are attracted to the non-polar center of the micelles. Dirt trapped inside the micelles go with the water when the soap or detergent is washed away during rinsing. VOCABULARY WORDS 1. Emulsifying agent a substance, like soap and detergent, used to stabilize lyophobic colloids. 2. Micelle - a spherical particle wherein the non-polar ends of soap or detergent molecules are clumped together while their polar ends are exposed on the surface interacting with polar water. 3. Lyophilic colloid one where the affinity between the dispersed phase and the dispersing medium of a colloidal dispersion is strong. 4. Lyophobic colloid forms if the affinity between the two phases of a colloidal dispersion is weak.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION PRE-VIEWING ACTIVITIES A. Find the Amazing Word. Using the descriptions given below for each of the eight words, find the amazing word that will be formed in the box upon completion of the puzzle:

1. 2. 3. 4. __ 5. 6. 7. 8. __

__ __ __

__ __ __ __ __ __

__ __ __ __

__ __ __ __ __ __

__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __

__ __ __ __ __ __ __

__ __ __ __ __ __ __

__ __ __ __ __ __ __

__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __

__

Amazing word: Description. 1. They are also called collective properties of solution; they depend on the quantities (i.e. moles or grams) of the substance/s present in it. Examples of which are vapor and osmotic pressures lowering, boiling point elevation, and freezing point depression. 2. They are quantitative expressions of the amount of substance/s dissolved in a given solution; can be reported in terms of several measures including molarity, molality, percent concentration by mass or by volume and parts per million. 3. It is the substance that dissolves in the dissolving medium, generally present in lesser amount. 4. The amount of substance that dissolves in a given quantity of dissolving medium specified at a given temperature to form a saturated solution. 5. The dissolving medium. Normally, it is present in greater quantity to produce a solution. 6. Homogeneous mixtures of atoms, ions or molecules; form when one substance disperses uniformly or evenly throughout another. 7. The process of preparing 250-mL of 0.125 M sucrose solution from 0.500 M sucrose solution by adding more solvent. 8. A class of solution in which water is the dissolving medium

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION B. Concept Mapping. Using a concept map, review the students on the classes of matter according to their physical states and composition. This will lead them to list the types of mixtures: solutions, suspensions and colloids. Let the students enumerate as well as compare the properties of these mixtures. C. Introduce the video clip that focuses on the unique properties of colloids as compared to solutions and suspensions. Further, video clips that discuss the various classes of colloids as well the usefulness of colloids properties in several industries and practices may be viewed by the students to achieve the objectives stated previously. D. Pose the Guide Questions that the students will answer after viewing the video clips in the episode. Remind them from time to time to focus on finding the answers to the Guide Questions as they watch the video clips. Guide Questions/Answers 1. What is a colloid? A colloid is a heterogeneous mixture of two or more substances. It is a dispersion of particles of one substance throughout a dispersing medium made of another substance. 2. What are the two components of a colloid? The two components of a colloid are the dispersed phase and the dispersing medium. 3. What causes the Tyndall effect? The Tyndall effect is the light scattering phenomenon caused by the relatively large particles of a colloidal dispersion. 4. What causes the Brownian movement? Brownian movement is caused by continuous, random movement of molecules. 5. Are adsorption and absorption the same? No. Adsorption refers to the adherence to a surface, and absorption refers to the passage of a substance to the interior of the medium. 6. Give two examples of an aerosol, an emulsion, a foam, and a sol? Smoke and fog are examples of aerosols. Mayonnaise and milk are emulsions. Whipped cream and mouse are foams. Gelatin and paint are sols. 7. Which is more stable a lyophilic colloid or a lyophobic colloid? A lyophilic colloid is more stable than the lyophobic colloid since the affinity between the dispersed phase and dispersing medium is strong in the former. 8. What is an emulsifying agent? 178

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION An emulsifying agent is any substance which, when added to an unstable colloid, will stabilize it by preventing the components from separating. 9. Give examples of emulsifying agents. Soap in an oil-in-water mixture and the egg yolk in the preparation of mayonnaise are examples of emulsifying agents. 10. Describe the cleaning action of soaps and detergents. The cleaning action of soaps/detergents comes from their activity as emulsifying agents. Both are long molecules with two ends: one is polar and the other non-polar. When placed in water, they form spherical particles called micelles. The non-polar ends are clumped together inside the micelles while the polar ends are on the surface interacting with water. Non-polar oils/greases cannot dissolve in water, a polar solvent so they are instead attracted to the non-polar center of the micelles. Dirt trapped inside the micelles go with the water when the soap/ detergent is washed away during rinsing. VIEWING ACTIVITIES Let the students watch the clips on Definition and Properties of Colloids and Types of Colloids from segments 2:15 - 15:25. POST-VIEWING ACTIVITIES Discuss the answers to previously posed Guide Questions. TEACHING TIP Suggested Activity

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Solving the Irregular Puzzle. Fill the grid with the appropriate word or words as described by the following clues: Across 3. a heterogeneous mixture 6. the rapid, random motion of colloidal particles (two words) 7. the ability to hold another substance on its surface 8. a gas dispersed in a solid or liquid 9. cleansing and emulsifying agent made from fats and oils 10. an example of a liquid aerosol Down 1. a colloid in which the affinity between the two phases are strong 2. adsorbent used in gas masks (two words) 4. the distributed component of a colloid (two words) 5. a light-scattering phenomenon (two words)

1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6.

7. 8.

9. 10.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION ASSESSMENT Quiz. Select the letter corresponding to the best answer. 1. Which of the following statements correctly describes colloids? A. The colloidal particles are bigger than the particles in solution. B. The colloidal particles move in uniform motion through the medium. C. The colloids are heterogeneous systems when seen by the naked eye. D. The colloids do not allow light to pass through. 2. Some everyday examples of colloids include paint, ketchup, and salad dressing. Which of the following is similar to these colloids? A. Cooked starch C. Freshly squeezed/strained orange juice B. Halo-halo D. Salt solution 3. Colloids have two important components. Which is that component whose particles are distributed or scattered? A. Dispersed phase C. Solute B. Dispersing medium D. Solvent 4. Colloid exhibits important properties. Which of the following properties of colloids explains why some peoples eyes are green? A. Absorption C. Brownian movement B. Adsorption D. Tyndall effect 5. Activated charcoal consists of colloidal carbon particles. What property of the particles makes activated charcoal useful as decolorizing and deodorizing agent? A. Particles carry a uniform charge. C. They have large surface areas. B. Particles do not settle. D. They scatter light. 6. Which of the following is true for any colloidal particles? A. They are negatively charged. C. They have different charges. B. They are positively charged. D. They have identical charges. 7. If the dispersed particle is a solid and the medium is a liquid, what type of colloid is formed? A. Aerosol C. Foam B. Emulsion D. Sol 8. Pumice is a volcanic rock composed of light frothy pyroclastic material that is full of holes. What type of colloid is pumice? A. Solid aerosol C. Solid foam B. Solid emulsion D. Solid sol 9. To make mayonnaise, egg yolk is added to vinegar. What is the function of egg yolk? 181

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION A. It acts as peptizing agent. B. It acts as a protective colloid.

C. It allows the droplets to merge. D. It serves as a dispersing medium.

10. Tyndall effect is the scattering phenomenon exhibited only by colloidal systems. Which of the following systems will exhibit the Tyndall effect? A. Dilute sugar solution C. Cough syrup B. Dust in air D. 25-k golden ring ANSWER KEY Solving the Irregular Puzzle. (under Teaching Tip/Suggested Activity)
1.

L Y
3. 4.

2.

A C T I V A M O V E M E N T E D C H A R C
9.

C O P H O B I C

L O I

D I S P E

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T Y W N I A N D A L O N L E F F E
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6.

7.

A D S

O R
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R O S E D P T H

O A M S E

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O A P A L

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Quiz. (under Assessment) 1. A 2. A 6. D 7. D

3. B 8. C

4. D 9. B

5. 10.

C B

REFERENCES Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E. & B. E. Bursten. (2004). Chemistry: the central science. NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. Dy, E. et al. (1994). Science and technology III. QC: Rex Bookstore. Lianko, A. (1990). Chemistry Technology III. QC: FNB Educational. Masterton, W. L. & C. N. Hurley. (2005). Chemistry: principles and reactions. FL: Saunders College Publishing. Mendoza, E. and T. Religioso. (1990). You and the natural world series: chemistry. QC: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. Useful websites _____. Colloids. Accessed 13 September 2007. Library.advanced.org webpage (http://library.advanced.org/3659/atommole/mixtures.html) _____. Chemistry of Colloids. Accessed 13 September 2007. chm.bris.ac.uk webpage (http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2002/pdavies/welcome.html) _____. Lessons in Colloids. Accessed 10 September 2007. NASA explorers webpage. (http://www.nasaexplores.com/show_912_teacher

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Chapter 4: Solutions and Colloids: Properties and Uses EPISODE 15: COLLOID, THE SPECIAL MIXTURE PART II OVERVIEW Episode 14 presented the colloids, which are mixtures that appear homogeneous but can be distinguished true solutions by their ability to exhibit the Tyndall effect, and Brownian movement. These properties are a result of the sizes of colloidal particles which lie intermediate between molecular sizes and sand grains. This episode is the second part of the lesson on colloids and is about the methods of preparation and purification of colloids. More examples on the uses of colloids in the fields of medicine, nutrition, and health care, in industry, and in the arts are given. OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to: 1. compare and describe the dispersion and condensation methods in the preparation of colloids; 2. describe dialysis as a process used in purification of colloids; 3. describe the process of electrophoresis; 4. describe syneresis and thixotropy; 5. prepare some common forms of colloidal systems; and 6. appreciate the importance of colloids to daily life. INTEGRATION WITH OTHER LEARNING AREAS This episode is second half of the lesson on colloids which began in Episode 14 Colloid, Special Mixture Part I. The properties of colloids and the motion of particles are understood better with knowledge presented in Episode 8 - Kinetic Molecular Theory, and colloids find application in Organic Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Environmental Chemistry. Many important colloids are food. This episode, which includes the preparation of various types of colloids that can be found in the kitchen edible colloids such as gelatin, mayonnaise, thick and clear soups and sauces, would be interesting to students.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION SCIENCE AND HEALTH IDEAS Dialysis, a medical treatment used in cleaning up the blood when a persons kidneys fail, is also one of the methods of purifying biocolloidal systems. SCIENCE PROCESSES Observing Measuring Collecting data Organizing and analyzing data VALUES Honesty Personal discipline Work ethics and attitudes. Cooperation Creativity LIFE SKILLS Information gathering Active listening Giving and receiving feedbacks Expressing feelings IMPORTANT CONCEPTS 1. The two ways of preparing colloids are the dispersion method and the condensation method. 2. A colloid may be separated from a true solution by a process called dialysis. 3. Colloids may be neutralized by electrophoresis. 4. Two phenomena unique for colloids are syneresis and thixotropy. BACKGROUND INFORMATION/EPISODE CONTENT Colloids have unusual properties. Gelatin, for instance, is prepared by dispersing the dry material in hot water to form a clear mixture that sets or gels as it cools into some wobbly, semi-rigid material. When heated, it melts to a viscous liquid, but gels back when cooled. Colloids that behave this way are called elastic or reversible colloids. 185 Cooperation and teamwork Problem solving Goal setting Self realization Critical thinking Holistic health Environmental care Protection of the environment Appreciation of diversity Inferring Predicting Hypothesizing Communicating

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION When gelatin is aged, the water moves out gradually through the pores. This phenomenon is called syneresis, the release of liquid from a gel through its pores upon standing as a result of the closer agglomeration of the colloid. The reduced active area requires less water, but does not necessarily indicate that the gel has deteriorated. An example of syneresis is the release of fluid from blood clots. When a gel is agitated, it liquefies to a sol, but reverts to the gel when left alone. This phenomenon is called thixotropy, which is a sol-gel transformation brought about by shaking, stirring or other mechanical means of agitation. Fresh gelatin is very thixotropic and if you have prepared gelatin desserts, you have taken advantage of this property when you added ingredients to the jelly. This phenomenon is also commonly observed in suspensions of clay or oil paints and emulsions. Quicksand is thixotropic. Other colloidal systems, such as an emulsion of oil in water, foams, aerosols, smoke and fogs, exhibit interesting properties that have made them useful in many aspects of our lives. Preparation of Colloids. There are two ways of preparing colloids: the dispersion method and the condensation method. In the dispersion method, large particles are subdivided into smaller ones by agitation, grinding or beating to form a colloidal dispersion. An example of colloid prepared in this way is galapong, a colloidal dispersion of ground sticky rice, which involves mechanically or manually grinding wet rice into a relatively smooth paste. The preparation of emulsions makes use of the dispersion process when oil droplets are vigorously shaken in water so that the drops become finely divided and dispersed in water. In the condensation method, ions or molecules aggregate to colloidal size. An example of this process is the preparation of colloidal ferric hydroxide. When a solution of ferric chloride is poured in boiling water, the solution becomes dark red due to the formation of colloidal ferric hydroxide. Condensation methods employ supersaturated solutions or supercooled vapors from which molecules or ions deposit on nuclei and aggregate to colloidal sizes. Stability of Colloids. What keeps colloidal particles dispersed? One reason that keeps particles suspended was explored in Episode 14 and this is Brownian motion. But Browninan motion cannot explain why particles do not aggregate or coagulate into larger particles. In most lyophobic colloids, the particles are electrically-charged by adsorbing ions and the adsorbed ions are of the same charge. In colloidal ferric hydroxide, the ferric hydroxide particles adsorb sufficient OH - ions such that the particles all carry net negative charges and repel each other preventing coagulation.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION A colloid is broken when the particles coagulate or flocculate to larger sizes. For some colloids, heating may be enough to break the energy barrier between repelling particles and cause them to merge. The dispersed particles of a colloid can also be made to aggregate and deposit as large particles by neutralizing the charges that make the particles repel each other. The introduction of an electrolyte into the colloid can do this. Another way is through electrophoresis. Electrophoresis is the movement of the charged dispersed particles through a solution under an electric field and toward the electrode of opposite charge. When the colloidal particles reach the electrode, they are neutralized, causing them to coagulate and precipitate below the electrode. One application of electrophoresis is in the production of rubber gloves. Colloidal rubber can be electrodeposited on anodes that are in the shape of hands. Purification of Colloids. Osmosis is the movement of water or solvent across a membrane from one of low solute concentration (more solvent) to one of higher solute concentration (less solvent). The semi-permeable membrane usually allows ions and small molecules to pass through as well. Compared to ions and molecules, colloid particles are quite large and they cannot pass through the pores of a semi-permeable membrane. When a sol is enclosed within such membrane and immersed in pure water, the small impurities gradually move across the membrane and are removed from the sol. This separation of ions and other small impurities from colloids is called dialysis and is carried out with a semipermeable membrane just as in osmosis. Dialysis is the process used for the purification of colloidal sols. In dialysis, ions are separated from colloids by diffusion through the pores of a semi-permeable membrane. Natural animal membrane, parchment paper, cellophane, and some synthetic plastics are examples of suitable membrane materials. With several changes of the pure liquid that serves as the dispersion medium, usually water, then the colloid becomes less and less contaminated with small molecule impurities. The most dramatic application of dialysis is in the treatment of patients suffering from kidney failure. The kidney plays an important role in cleaning the blood of the waste products of metabolism which are eliminated in the urine. If the kidney fails, the waste products and toxins accumulate in the body causing uremia and eventually death. In a dialysis, impure blood is pumped into the dialyzing tube which passes through a water bath where the impurities collect after passing out of the blood. Blood protein and other large molecules remain in the blood. In order to maintain proper concentration of sodium ions, chloride ions, calcium ions, and all other desirable ions and molecules, the dialyzing solution is isotonic or of the same osmotic pressure as normal blood. 187

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION The industrial applications of dialysis include separation of alkali from colloidal fiber material in artificial fiber industry and in the purification of colloidal medicines. Importance of Colloids in Daily Life. Colloids are part of our daily lives. Much of our knowledge in the field of medicine is related to colloid science. Many kidney patients who are suffering from kidney failure undergo dialysis to purify blood which is definitely a colloid. Some household problems are solved using colloids. If you want to remove undesirable odors from your refrigerator, you may place charcoal inside it. Charcoal is an example of a colloidal dispersion and has excellent adsorbing properties. Many of the substances we use in cooking and preparing food are colloids such as mayonnaise and milk. Air freshener, hair sprays, insecticidal sprays are aerosols. Colloids are also of outstanding importance in the fields of photography, agriculture, clothing, and in metallurgy. VOCABULARY WORDS 1. Dispersion method preparation of colloids in which large particles are subdivided into smaller ones by agitation, grinding or beating to form a colloidal dispersion. 2. Condensation method - preparing colloids whereby aggregate to colloidal size. ions or molecules

3. Sol - a dispersion of very tiny solid particles in a liquid that has a liquid consistency and resembles a true solution. 4. Gel a special kind of sol; a dispersion of very thin solid particles in a liquid that has a gelatinous consistency. 5. Emulsion - a dispersion of an insoluble liquid in another liquid. 6. Dialysis - the separation of ions and other small impurities from colloids through a semi-permeable membrane as in osmosis. 7. Electrophoresis - the movement of the charged dispersed particles through a solution under an electric field and toward the electrode of opposite charge. 8. Syneresis - the release of liquid from a gel through its pores upon standing as a result of the closer agglomeration of the colloid. 188

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 9. Thixotropy - a sol-gel transformation brought about by shaking, stirring or other mechanical means of agitation. PRE-VIEWING ACTIVITIES A. Who Knows Many Colloids? List colloids that you have in your home or which you are familiar with: milk, mayonnaise, resin, paint, ink, expanded polystyrene, cell cytoplasm, blood serum, etc. B. Introduce the video clip that deals with the different ways of making common forms of colloids. C. Pose the Guide Questions that the students will answer after viewing the video clips in the episode. Remind them from time to time to focus on finding the answers to the Guide Questions as they watch the video clips. Guide Questions/Answers 1. Describe the two ways of preparing colloids. The two ways of preparing colloids are the dispersion and condensation methods. In the dispersion method, large particles are subdivided into smaller ones by mechanical means. In the condensation method, smaller particles are made to aggregate to form particles of colloidal size. 2. What is dialysis? Dialysis is the process of separation of the ions from colloids by diffusion through the pores of a semi-permeable membrane. 3. What is the importance of dialysis in medicine? Dialysis cleans the blood of people suffering from kidney malfunction by removing waste products from the blood. 4. How does electropheresis neutralize colloids? Electrophoresis neutralizes colloids by the attraction of the charges of the dispersed particles and the oppositely-charged electrode. As a result, the particles are neutralized and no longer repel each other causing them to coagulate or precipitate. 5. What is syneresis? Syneresis is the separation of liquid from a gel on standing. The liquid escapes from the gel through the pores of the latter. Gelatin left out of the refrigerator exhibits syneresis.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION VIEWING ACTIVITIES Let the students view the clips on: (1) Preparation at 4:15 - 8:00, (2) Purification at 8:25 - 11:15, 13:25 - 14:50, (3) Application of Colloids and Making Colloids, Neutralizing Colloids at 11:35 - 14:50, and (4) Gels at 5:30 - 19:05.

POST-VIEWING ACTIVITIES Discuss the answers to the Guide Questions. TEACHING TIPS Suggested Activities A. Preparation of Colloids. This activity integrates chemistry and home economics subjects. 1. Divide the class into five (5) groups. Let each group choose what colloid it would prepare. Some choices are: mayonnaise, maja blanca, ice cream, gelatin or refrigerated cake. 2. Let the students research on the procedure for the preparation of the colloid of their choice. They will have to bring the materials needed for this activity. 3. After the preparation, the product will be evaluated by the different according to certain criteria. The class should come up with a scoring system for the evaluation. B. Preparing Common Forms of Colloids. 1. Sol. A sol is a dispersion of very tiny solid particles in a liquid, has a liquid consistency and resembles a true solution. An aqueous sol appears clear like pure water. However, the phenomenon called Tyndall effect can differentiate sols from water and true solutions. Procedure: a. In a 100-mL Erlenmeyer flask (or any transparent jar like small mayonnaise jar), put some clayey soil of the volume and enough water to fill of the glassware. b. Stopper the flask (or cover the jar) and shake until the soil is mixed evenly. c. Leave the set-up to rest for a day to allow the clay particles to settle. The liquid above the sediment should have become clear. 190

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION d. Test for the Tyndall effect by shining an intense bundle of light through the flask. Write your observations. e. Do the same thing with a glass of pure water and a solution of salt and water. Compare the results. 2. Gel A Special Sol. A gel is a dispersion of very thin solid particles in a liquid and it has a gelatinous consistency. This activity will enable the students to test the reversibility of gelatin. Procedure I: Making Gelatin. a. Bring some dry gelatin. (Not agar! But the students may want to compare gelatin with agar.) b. Dissolve it in warm water, and with subsequent dilutions, determine the minimum concentration of dry gelatin necessary to obtain a normal gelatin at room temperature. (NOTE: Do not keep gelatin for a long time because they easily become cultures of bacteria. Store them in a refrigerator, and after a day, throw them away.) c. By means of heating or increasing the temperature, make some gelatin pass from the gel to sol states and vice versa. Procedure II: Vegetable Resin. Resins are gels and they possess adhesive properties. Some fruit-bearing plants produce these gelatinous spheroids. a. Collect resin from trees (papaya, jackfruit, etc) available in your community. b. Observe under the microscope the particles which are suspended in it. c. Dissolve the resin of a fruit-bearing tree in warm water and try to obtain glue. d. Dissolve the resin of a conifer in turpentine and assess its adhesive properties. 3. Emulsion. An emulsion is a dispersion of an insoluble liquid in another liquid. For instance, oil is not soluble in water but can form an emulsion when vigorously shaken in the presence of an emulsifying agent such as detergent. Procedure I: Stability of Emulsions. a. Fill two plastic bottles (small bottles of mineral water will do) halfway with water. b. Put 5 mL (about a teaspoonful) of vegetable oil in each. c. In one of these bottles, put 0.5 mL (about 20 drops) of liquid detergent for dishes. d. Close the bottles and shake them for a couple of minutes to emulsify the oil, then place them on a table and observe them. 191

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION Procedure II: Vinegar + Vegetable Oil = Mayonnaise a. Using a kitchen whisk, emulsify a teaspoon of vinegar with 125 mL of olive oil. Describe the resulting product. b. Add an egg yolk and emulsify again. Record your observation. c. Add some salt and if you want, some pepper and you will have obtained a good mayonnaise. Why is the emulsion stable with the egg yolk? 4. Foam. Foam is a dispersion of a gas in a liquid (liquid foams) or in a solid (solid foams). Soaps and detergents, and various foods such as wine, beer and many others form liquid foams. Among the solid foams are pumice stone, earthenware, sponges, expanded plastics like expanded polystyrene and expanded polyurethane. Procedure: Preparation of a Solid Foam. a. Beat egg whites and some sugar. b. Then heat to solidify the mixture. (You will have obtained a meringue, an edible solid foam). c. Record your observation. C. Fun With Colloids: Dilatant Fluid A Half-Solid Fluid. Dilatant liquids are liquids which change in viscosity depending on the speed of the mixing. Wet sand behaves as dilatant fluid. Procedure I: 1. Put in a cup four spoons of corn starch. 2. Add some water until a creamy substance is obtained. 3. While mixing, notice its odd property. (If slowly mixed, it behaves like a liquid. If it is mixed fast, the mixture appears as solid.) 4. Remove this cream from the cup by quickly lifting it on a side. It is difficult to keep it in your hands because even if it moves slowly, it can escape from all sides like a liquid. Procedure II: 1. Dissolve cup of white glue with cup of water. 2. Add 3 tablespoons of borax while stirring well. A substance which is apparently solid is obtained but loses its shape within some minutes becoming like a liquid puddle. ASSESSMENT Quiz. Select the letter corresponding to the best answer.

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CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 1. Colloid has been classified as one of the types of mixtures. Which of the following statements correctly describes the colloids? A. the colloidal particles are bigger than the particles in solution B. the colloidal particles move in uniform motion through the medium C. the colloids are heterogeneous systems when seen by the naked eye D. the colloids do not allow light to pass through 2. Some everyday examples of colloids include paint, ketchup, and salad dressing. Which of the following is similar in nature to paint, ketchup and salad dressing? A. Cooked starch C. Freshly squeezed and strained orange juice B. Halo-halo D. Salt solution 3. Like any mixtures, colloids have two important components. What is the component of the colloids where the particles are distributed or scattered? A. Dispersed phase C. Solute B. Dispersing medium D. Solvent 4. Colloid as a sample of matter exhibits important properties. Which of the following properties of colloids explains why some peoples eyes are green? A. Absorption C. Brownian movement B. Adsorption D. Tyndall effect 5. Activated charcoal consists of colloidal carbon particles. What property of the particles makes activated charcoal useful as decolorizing and deodorizing agent? A. Particles carry a uniform charge. C. They have large surface areas. B. Particles do not settle. D. They scatter light. 6. Which of the following is true for any colloidal particles? A. They are negatively charged C. They have different charge.s B. They are positively charged. D. They have identical charges. 7. If the dispersed particle is a solid and the medium is a liquid, what type of colloid is formed? A. Aerosol C. Foam B. Emulsion D. Sol 8. Pumice is a volcanic rock composed of highly microvesicular glass pyroclastic with very thin, translucent bubble walls extrusive igneous rock. What type of colloid is pumice? A. Solid aerosol C. Solid foam B. Solid emulsion D. Solid sol 193

CHEMISTRY IN ACTION 9. To make mayonnaise, egg yolk is added to vinegar. What is the function of egg yolk? A. It acts as peptizing agent. C. It allows the droplets to merge. B. It acts as a protective colloid. D. It serves as a dispersing medium. 10. Tyndall effect is the scattering phenomenon exhibited only by colloidal system. Which of the following systems exhibit the Tyndall effect? A. Diluted sucrose solution C. Suspension of aqueous antibiotic serum B. Dust in air D. 25-k golden ring ANSWER KEY Quiz. 1. 6. A D 2. 7. A D 3. B 8. C 4. D 9. B 5. 10. C B

REFERENCES Dy, E., et al. (1994). Science and technology III. QC: Rex Bookstore. Lianko, A. (1990). Chemistry Technology III. QC: FNB Educational. Masterton, W. L. & C. N. Hurley. (2005). Chemistry: principles and reactions. (4th ed.). FL: Saunders College Publishing. Mendoza, E. and Religioso, T. (1990). You and the natural world series: chemistry. QC: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. Useful Websites ___. Applications of colloids. Accessed 14 September 2007. Fun Science Gallery Web Page (http://www.funsci.com/fun3_en/exper2/exper2.htm#colloids) ___. Chemistry of colloids. Accessed 13 September 2007. chm.bris.ac.uk webpage (http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2002/pdavies/welcome.html) . Colloids. Accessed 13 September 2007. Library.advanced.org webpage (http://library.advanced.org/3659/atommole/mixtures.html) ____. Dialysis. Accessed 14 September 2007. Sacred Heart Health System Web Page. (http://www.kidshealth.org/PageManager). 194