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Preliminary Design Report February 2011

1.0 1.1

PROJECT DESCRIPTION Basic Project Background and Information Clark Water Corporation (CWC) is responsible for the provision of water and wastewater services under a concession agreement with Clark Freeport Zone (CFZ). To cope up with the projected demand due to the increasing number of locators/investors in the CFZ, the existing water transmission and distribution need to be expanded and additional storage facilities need to be constructed.

1.2

Project Rationale CWC took responsibility for operating the existing water supply and wastewater infrastructure systems in 2000 under a 25-year concession agreement. The systems were constructed many years earlier to serve the US Clark Air Force base which was vacated by US Forces after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 and later turned into the CFZ. The upgrading program intends to address the following major issues
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1.3

Options for Water Supply and Sewerage


Options recommended for augmentation of the water supply system envisaged for Clark Water Corporation are summarized below.

1.4

Data for Preliminary Design

1.5

Scope of Preliminary Design Report

1.6

Final Preliminary Design Report

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2.0
2.1

BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Project Location The Clark Freeport Zone (CFZ), in which CWC is responsible for the provision of water and wastewater services under a concession agreement, is located in the provinces of Pampanga and Tarlac in Central Luzon. The boundaries of the CFZ are comprised of two distinct areas, i.e. Sub-Zone: o Boundaries: ODonnell River (north), McArthur Highway (east), Abacan River (south), lower E slope of Zambales Mountain (west) o Drainage: ODonnell, Bongarit and Malago-Marimla Rivers and Sapang Cauayan Creek o Area: 23,600 ha Main Zone: o Boundaries: Sacobia and Bamban River (north), Abacan River (south) o Drainage: Sacobia, Bamban and Abacan Rivers o Area: 4,400 ha

The western portions of the CFZ are generally undulating ravines formed by watercourses. The upper soil layer, at least 30 m thick, is composed of volcanic ash deposited during the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991. This eruption blanketed the Main Zone with ash fall deposits that resulted in the topography being modified. Ground surface elevations within the CFZ range from 107 m MSL on the floor of the eastern side of the valley, rising more than 275 m MSL on the western side. The main development features in the Main Zone comprise: Airport, serving military and civilian flights (runway 3.2 km long) Area IE-5: Area abutting Angeles, including shopping centers (including SM), industries

Key industries include: (i) Luen, (ii) SMK, (iii) Nanox, (iv) Yokohama, (v) Texas Instruments, (vi) Bertaphil.

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2.2

Climate The climate of Clark, Subic and Tarlac belongs to Type I of the modified Coronas Classification of Philippine Climate. This type is characterized by two pronounced seasons, dry from November to April and wet during the rest of the year. Particularly for Subic area, the months of May and October are considered the transition period.

2.3

Topography and Drainage The regional topography is characterized by rugged steep terrain of high relief on the west and relatively flat alluvial plains on the east. Prominent peaks comprising the western mountain range the Zambales Range, include Mt. Pinatubo (1,445 masl), Mt. Dorst (829 masl), Mt. Balakibok (843 masl), and Mt. Natib (1,243 masl). A lone volcanic edifice - Mount Arayat, mars the otherwise flat terrain of the Central Plain of Luzon. Six rivers drain through the project area: Marimla, Sapang Cauayan, SacobiaBamban, Dolores, Quilanquil and Abacan Rivers. Headwaters of these rivers emanate from the slopes of Mount Pinatubo. The volcanos eruption in 1991 blanketed the lowland region with centimeters of ashfall deposits, while proximal valleys to the volcano were inundated and buried by tens of meters thick of pyroclastic flow deposits. The attendant changes in topography and watershed hydrology, and abundance of sediment resulted in frequent sediment-laden flowscollectively called lahars, along these rivers during enhanced rainfall. Ten years after, rivers remain in a quasi-equilibrium state, thus a constant source of concern of river and road management engineers. The Dolores-Mabalacat-Sapang Balen River is one of the rivers and creeks draining the Clark Freeport Zone (CFZ). It traverses the northwestern boundary of the CFZ, and at its nearest approach is about 500 m from the proposed wastewater treatment plant, Locally, the river segment above 110 masl is referred to as Dolores Creek, and as Mabalacat River along the short segment transecting Mabalacat town from 110 masl to 90 masl. Below 90 masl the river is referred to as Sapang Balen River. The Dolores-Mabalacat-Sapang Balen River is perennial stream draining a catchment area of about 6 km2 above 100 masl. Stream gradient is less than one degree along the stream segment below 160 masl. Channel morphology is typically box-shaped, with channel depths of two to five meters, and widths of 1520 m. Active flow occupies less than two meters of the channel bed under normal/low streamflow conditions. Channel bed is sandy with occasional gravel-

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dominated patches and boulders. No historical stream flow data is available for the Dolores-Mabalacat-Sapang Balen River based on DPWH and NWRB data. However, in November 2000 a low flow discharge was estimated at less than one m3/sec along a section of the river at elevation 130 masl.

2.4

Regional Geology The CFZ straddles the lower slopes of Bataan volcanic arc and the flat terrain of the Central Plain of Luzon. The subzone falls from the upper slopes of Mt. Pinatubo to the Sacobia-Bamban river valley. The Main Zone incorporates lower volcanic slopes in the west and flat alluvial Central Plains in the center and east. The site is underlain by a sequence of volcanics and volcanic-derived alluvium, as summarized below: Regional Geology Unit Recent alluvium and lahars Bamban Formation (east/downslope: Main Zone) (Quaternary) Quaternary Volcanics (west/upslope:sub-zone) Tarlac Formation (MioPliocene) Zambales Ultramafic Complex (CretaceousEocene) Lithology Detrital deposits, mostly sand and gravel Upper partly continental tuff and tuffaceous sandstone sequence, lower section sandstone, shale and conglomerate Andesite, basalt and dacite porphyries Sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone and conglomerate lenses, with andesite lavas and dykes in the upper sequences Ophiolite sequence: dike complex and gabbro

Source: EIA Upgrading of CWC Waterworks prepared by bmp Environment and Community Care, Inc. and Black and Veatch, 29 September 2003.

2.5

Site Geology Philippine Mines and Geosciences Bureau mapping indicates the Main Zone is underlain by unconsolidated Recent alluvium in the Sacobia/Bamban River valley and semi-consolidated and consolidated sedimentary and pyroclastic deposits of the Bamban Formation beneath the alluvium in the river valley and at surface over much of the reminder of the Main Zone. The Recent alluvium comprises boulder to clay sized alluvial deposits laid down in a braided river environment, as well as lahar deposits. Much of the subzone is underlain by the Moriones and Malinta Formations. The younger (mid-Miocene) Malinta Formation comprises interlayered tuffaceous, thickly bedded sandstone and siltstone with occasional

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conglomerate. The older (early Miocene) Moriones Formation comprises locally inter-layered sandstone, siltstone and conglomerate with some lapilli tuff. 2.6 Existing Land Use Clark Freeport Zone is divided into two major zones the 4,440 hectares of fully developed land in the Main Zone and approximate 29,000 hectares of developable area, known as the Sub-Zone, within the provinces of Pampanga and Tarlac. Industrial estates, tourism and recreational attractions and a huge civil aviation complex, are currently occupying the Main Zone. The Sub-Zone is principally intended for agricultural projects, corporate farming, agro-industries and food processing. The major land use of the Main Zone is the civil aviation complex that features two parallel runways, each being more than 3000 meters long. Adjoining the airport complex is an area appropriate for use by the Philippine Air Force. The Main Zone also features a number of golf courses, the most notable of which are Mimosa and Fontana. Residential areas are located at the center of the recreational areas. Areas for industries are located on east, north and south of the Main Zone.

2.7

Rainfall The rainfall stations used in this project area are: (i) Iba, Zambales; (ii) Cubi Pt., Subic Bay, Zambales, (iii) Clark International Airport, (iv) Cabanatuan City, Nueva Ecija, (v) Gabaldon, Nueva Ecija, (vi) Minalungao, Gen. Tinio, Nueva Ecija, (vii) Science Garden, Quezon City, (viii) Angat Dam, Norzagaray, Bulacan and (ix) Baler, Aurora. These stations run from West to East (coast to coast), across Central Luzon, Rainfall augmentation procedures was used to fill-up gaps in the rainfall records to complete the records from 1961 -2007. Subic and Iba, Zambales are located in the west coast of Luzon along the China Sea coast and west of the Zambales Mountain Range. Clark is East of Zambales Mountain Range. The valley to which Clark belongs is the Central Luzon Valley, which is east of the Sierra Madre Mountain Range. The central valley which includes Clark has less annual rainfall than both the West and East coast of Luzon. From January to April, the east coast to the center of the Central Luzon valley, there is a very minimal rainfall. While from May to

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September, during the Southwest monsoon, rainfall is higher at the east coast. From October to December, rainfall is higher at the East coast of Luzon which is an effect of the Northeast monsoon. For annual trend analysis, the only viable station in Central Luzon with continuous record from 1961 to 2007 is the Angat Dam Station in Norzagaray, Bulacan. The cumulative average seems to show a downward trend on annual rainfall. This could be interpreted by some as an effect of global warming. The 5-year moving average seems to show that the 5 consecutive wettest years may have occurred from 1971 to 1975, while the driest 5 consecutive years are 1981-1985. It also shows peaks and lows every 5 to 10 years. The 15-year moving average shows a downward trend from 1948 to 1991, and upward trend after. This does not support the idea that there is a general downward trend on annual rainfall. This seems to indicate that the rainfall series is a part of a cycle, and there is a need of a longer record to be able to see the complete cycle of changes in annual climate.

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3.0 DESIGN CONCEPTS AND CRITERIA FOR THE PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF THE ELEVATED RESERVOIR
In accordance with engineering standards, the Pulang Lupa reservoir shall be designed to provide stability and durability, as well as protect the quality of the stored water. The reservoir design criteria are intended not only to establish the structural integrity, but also to ensure water system adequacy, reliability, and compatibility with existing and future facilities. 3.1 Type of Reservoir Reservoirs may be classified according to their function, relative position with respect to earths surface, manner of operation and as to type of material of construction. The Pulang Lupa storage scheme is an elevated reservoir which is envisaged to supplement the existing Lily Hill Reservoir or alternatively, could be the future source of water supply to PSPC and adjoining locators. Pulang Lupa is a hilly area within the proximity of PSPC at elevation 170 masl which could be developed to provide the projected demand by operating independently or floating-on-the line in tandem with Lily Hill Reservoir.

3.2 Definition of Source as Used in Sizing the New Reservoir


Any source classified as either permanent or seasonal may be considered a source for the purpose of designing the new reservoir facility provided that the source is continuously available to the system and at a minimum meets all primary drinking water standards To be continuously available to the system means that: (1) the source is equipped with functional pumping equipment (and treatment equipment if required); (2) the equipment is exercised regularly to assure its integrity; (3) water is available from the source year round; and (4) the source is activated automatically based on pre-set parameters (reservoir level, system pressure, etc.) For the purpose of designing the new reservoir facility, the following are considered sources: 1. Each pump in the well field comprising of wells pumping into the zone served by that particular reservoir. 2. Each pump installed in a large capacity, large diameter well which could be developed in the future to complement the existing pumps which can be taken out of service without the need to interrupt operation of any other pump.
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3.3 Storage Volume


The capacity of the reservoir shall be such that it will operate properly in conjunction with the water treatment plant and appurtenant facilities. In general, the reservoirs should be capable of supplying the incremental difference between maximum day and peak hour demands. The capacity of a reservoir shall include the storage needs of one or more of the following: 1. Operational storage (OS); 2. Emergency Storage (ES); and 3 Fire suppression storage (FSS). The total capacity of all reservoirs within a service zone shall be equal to or in excess of the storage needs required for operational storage, emergency storage and fire-fighting storage.

3.4 Operational Storage (OS)


Operational storage is defined as the storage which can be drawn upon during peak hour demands and subsequently replaced during low demand periods which production facilities are being operated at nearly constant rates. The amount of operational storage required will be 25 percent of the Average Daily Demand (ADD) projected for PSPC and Australian Schools as follows: Projected Average Day Demand (ADD): PSPC = 6,000 m3/day

Australian School = 1,700 m3/day Total: 7,700 m3.day

Required Operational Storage = 25% x 7,700 = 1,925 cu. meter. Operational storage is the volume of the reservoir devoted to supplying the water system while, under normal operating conditions, the source(s) of supply are in off status. This volume will vary according to two main factors: (1) the sensitivity of the water level sensors controlling the source pumps, and (2) the configuration of the tank designed to provide the volume required to prevent excessive cycling (starting and stopping) of the pump motor(s). The definition specifies that operational storage is an additive quantity to the other components of storage.

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3.5 Emergency Storage (ES)


The amount of storage should be determined on the basis of an evaluation of the water system and the duration of a service outage which could be expected. However, facilities equipped with stand-by power generators will negate the need for emergency storage in the planning of ground reservoirs.

3.6 Fire Storage


The quantity of fire-fighting storage will depend on the population of the service area and shall be determined on the basis of the following schedule: Area Population Below 100,000 100,000 to 500,000 Above 500,00 Fire Storage 320 cu.m. 640 cu.m. 950 cu.m.

3.7 System Pressure Considerations


The water level elevations of the reservoirs hydraulic shall be established through system pressure consideration of the service areas following the detailed hydraulic analysis which will be undertaken in consonance with the design criteria for new and existing water systems.

3.8 Effective Storage


Effective volume is equal to the total volume less any dead storage built into the reservoir. The amount of effective storage may also be dependent upon the location of the storage relative to the place of its use (whether or not it is in a different pressure zone and what distance the water needs to be conveyed).

3.9 Dead Storage (DS)


Dead storage is the volume of stored water not available for distribution. The dead storage is the volume below the outlet pipe which shall be 0.6 m. from the floor level. The dead storage volume is excluded from the volumes provided to meet the Operational Storage (OS) requirement for the system.

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3.10 System Pressure Considerations


The hydraulic design of the system shall be such that the average day demand (ADD) shall be available to all service connections at 20 psi.

3.11

Design Life
Storage facilities are normally designed to serve the needs of the community for a planned number of years, or to accommodate full system build-out (if they serve a particular subdivision or planned development, or fulfill a condition of plat approval, etc.) The design life for properly maintained concrete and steel storage tanks is typically assumed to be about fifty years. Any other type of storage tank that does not have the historical longevity of these tanks needs to be evaluated on a life cycle cost basis before being considered for use.

3.12 Ground Level and Underground Reservoirs


The following criteria shall apply to ground level, partially buried and underground reservoirs: 1. Ground level, partially buried and underground reservoirs should be placed outside the 100-year flood plain. 2. The area surrounding a ground level or below grade reservoir should be graded in such a manner that will prevent surface water from standing within 15 meters of the structure, at a minimum. 3. When the reservoir bottom is below normal ground surface, it should be placed above the groundwater table, if possible. If this is not possible, special design considerations should include providing perimeter foundation drains to daylight and exterior tank sealants. These are necessary to keep ground water from entering the tank and to protect the reservoir from potential flotation forces when the tank is empty. 4. Partially buried or underground reservoirs should be located at least 15 meters from sanitary sewers, drains, standing water, and similar sources of possible contamination. Pipe typically used for water mains should also be used for gravity sewers if they are located within 15 meters of the reservoir. These pipelines should be pressure tested in place to 50 psi without leakage. 5. The top of the reservoir should not be less than 0.6 m. above normal ground surface, unless special design considerations have been made to address maintenance issues and protection from surface contamination.

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4.0 Design Standards and Considerations


4.1 Tank Materials in Contact with Potable Water
All additives, coatings, and compounds proposed for use in substantial contact with potable water, such as those listed below, must have ANSI/NSF certification for contact with potable water. These materials also need to be carefully applied in accordance to the manufacturers recommendations for that particular material.

4.2 Reservoir Appurtenant Design


All reservoir appurtenances should be designed to be water tight and shall have means to prevent entry by birds, animals, insects, excessive dust, and other potential sources of external contamination.

4.2.1 Reservoir Drains


Reservoirs shall be designed with drain facilities that drain to daylight or have an approved alternative that is adequate to protect against cross-connection contamination. The facilities should be capable of draining the full contents of the tank without entry to the distribution system, or causing erosion at the drainage outlet. In locations where the topography is such that a drain to daylight is not feasible, the reservoir should be designed with a sump to allow for emptying the reservoir through use of a sump pump. If an outlet pipe is also used as a reservoir drain, it should include a removable silt stop in the reservoir. Drain lines may discharge directly to a dedicated dry well(s) provided precautions are designed and constructed to insure protection against backflow into the reservoir or distribution mains.

4.2.2 Reservoir Overflow Valve


Reservoirs shall be designed with float controlled valve that will prevent overflow discharge which will create pressure build-up to effect automatic control of pump operation through variable frequency drive (VFD) motor.

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4.2.3 Reservoir Atmospheric Vents


Reservoirs shall have a screened roof vent which should allow air into the reservoir at a rate greater than or equal to the rate that the water is withdrawn from the reservoir to prevent implosion or structural damage to the reservoir. Upward facing vents shall not be used in any application. Screens shall be provided on the vents to prevent entry by birds or animals. Ground level or underground reservoirs should terminate in an inverted U construction with the opening 0.6 to 0.9 m. above the roof or ground, and covered with No. 24 mesh non-corrodible screen. Screens on ground-level reservoir vents should be located within the pipe at a location minimally susceptible to vandalism.

4.2.4 Roof Drainage

Pls. verify what is the minimum slope. 2% is not equal to 6mm vertical per 0.60m horizontal

The roof of the reservoir should be well drained. The slope of the reservoir roof should be a minimum of 2 % (6 mm. vertical per 0.6 m. horizontal). To avoid possible contamination, downspout pipes shall not enter or pass through the reservoir.

4.2.5 Tank Level Control


The reservoirs should be equipped with a level control system designed to maintain reservoir water levels within a pre-set operating range (operating storage). A high level and low-level alarm system with direct annunciation of notification to operation personnel should be installed. There should also be a local level indication, through ultra-sonic level measurement and transmitter.

4.3 Piping Material


Piping material used for pipelines constructed directly below the reservoir, and extending to at least 3 meters from the perimeter, should be sturdier material such as ductile iron pipe or AWWA C205 steel pipe with a corrosion resistant coating inside and out.

4.4 Operational Constraints and Considerations


All new reservoir designs are expected to meet all applicable OSHA and WISHA requirements. In addition, reservoir design and construction should consider the following issues: 1. Disposal of chlorinated water after construction and disinfection. 2. Disposal of tank drain line outflow and tank overflow stream.

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3. Impacts to system operation if the new reservoir were to be taken off-line in the future for maintenance and/or cleaning.

4.5 Piping and Valving


Reservoir design shall include a provision for equalizing and isolating pipes and valves in order to be able to perform maintenance. Inlet pipe 150 mm. dia. shall enter each tank from the main pump discharge line and shall be installed 0.3 m. below the roof level. Each tank shall be provided with individual discharge pipe 200 mm. and shall be connected to the main discharge line 300 mm. dia. Each tank shall be provided with an isolation valve, which shall permit isolating the tank from the water system. An air release/vacuum relief valve should be installed on the distribution side of the isolation valve. A sample tap should be installed on the tank side of the isolation valve to allow for the required sample collection capability.

4.6 Geotechnical Engineering Evaluation


The geotechnical engineering evaluation provided assessment of the site condition, recommendations and conclusions based on the results of the Geotechnical Investigation conducted by Robei Drilling Services. The evaluation involved an independent review of the results of the investigation and providing alternative recommendations for geotechnical design parameters for consideration in the design of the design of the reservoir. The evaluation also included assessment of results of the seismic structural analysis related to the obtained soil bearing pressure.

4.6.1 Allowable Soil Bearing Capacity


The Allowable Soil Bearing Capacity recommended for use in the design considered the critical soil formation underneath the reservoir which may still be affected by the foundation loadings. While SPT values at foundation level are high indicating either stiff or dense formation, down below at depth about 8m to 9m below the existing grade are loose or soft formation critical for settlement. Thus, an allowable soil bearing capacity reduced to consider the presence of the critical soil layers of 200KPa as compared to previously considered allowable soil bearing capacity value was recommended. This allowable soil bearing capacity is recommended for use for normal static loadings. For transient loadings like earthquake and wind loads an increased of up to 33% is considered acceptable.

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4.6.2 Foundation Pressure Overload based on results of Structural Analysis using Factored Load Condition
The calculated 350 KPa foundation pressure obtained from results of the structural analysis using factored loads which included earthquake and wind loads, which effectively reduce the Factor of Safety for this portion of the loaded area to close to 1.0, much less than the normal recommended FS of 3, may still be considered allowable, since the indicated width coverage of the 350 KPa foundation pressure is less than 2m and not expected to induce significant overstress over the critical layer at depth 4m below foundation level.

4.6.3 Lateral Soil Pressure


Considering the nature of the reservoir wall which is not designed to allow deflection to mobilize the active state of the soil, the coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest of about 0.50 is considered the more appropriate for use in the lateral soil pressure calculations.

4.6.4 Reservoir Foundation Level above the 4 meters proposed depth of Embedment
The evaluation of the foundation assumed an embedment of 4m below natural grade. It also considered in the analysis, results of the drillings below this depth. It is, thus, recommended that during the construction of the foundation, excavation be made to depth of 4m below grade. Then at overcuts, grade be restored to foundation level using properly compacted suitable granular materials.

4.6.5 Effect of Sloping Grounds in the Vicinity to Soil Bearing Capacity


Based on the cross-sections provided, analysis on the effect of the sloping ground adjacent the reservoir have also been undertaken. The recommended allowable soil bearing capacity of 200 KPa for normal operating loads, already took into consideration the slight reduction in soil bearing capacity due to the effect of the adjacent slopes. Under transient loading due to seismic and wind loads as represented by the factored loads, the overload on the sides of the reservoir near the adjacent slope particularly at Reservoir 2 may induce vertical deformation due to foundation overstress near the slope but this is expected to cover only the small area of the overstress and not to affect the overall stability of the reservoir. The magnitude of this deformation should be within the calculated maximum vertical deflection which has been allowed in the design. Defects, if any, caused by deformation created by

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the overstress, may be repaired after the occurrence of the loading of the design earthquake.

4.6.6 Effect of the Reservoir Loads to the Stability of the adjacent Slopes
Analysis has also been conducted to check if the reservoir loading will affect the natural stability of the adjacent slopes. Although Reservoir 2 is located nearer the adjacent slope, the reservoirs are located relatively distant from the slopes to impose significant load on the slope. Under normal operating condition, the reservoir loads have very minimal effect on the natural stability of the adjacent slopes. During occurrence of earthquake, the overloaded small portion of the side of Reservoir 2 at about 350KPa, could, however, induce significant load on the nearby upper slope to have some effect on its stability. But this is likely to be only localized and not expected to have significant effect on the overall natural stability of the slope nor the stability of the reservoir.

4.7 Reservoir Structural Design


This structural analysis and design report outlines the general structure design criteria and parameters, as well as the structural design philosophy under the approved codes and standards.

4.7.1 Codes and Standards


The requirements contained in the following codes and standards shall form a part of these criteria, in the manner and to the extent specified herein. The following Codes of Practice will govern under Structural Analysis and Investigation: a. NSCP National Structural Code of the Philippines Vol. 1, 5th Edition, 2001 b. ACI 318 Building Code Requirement for Structural Concrete, 1999 (as adopted in NSCP 2001) c. ACI 350 Code Requirements for Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures, 01 d. ACI 315 Manual of Standard Practices for Detailing R.C. Structures, 1999 e. ASCE 7 Minimum Design Loads for Building and Other Structures, 1995 f. AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, 16th Edition, 1996
Deleted: the latest edition of

g. AWWA American Water Works Association


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h. AISC Manual of Steel Construction, Allowable Stress Design 9th edition Specification for Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel (as adopted in NSCP 2001). The following Standards of Practice will govern under Materials and Construction: a. PNS Philippine National Standards b. ASTM American Society for Testing of Materials

Deleted: <#>PCA Portland Cement Association

Deleted: national

4.7.2 Materials
4.7.2.1 Reinforced Concrete Concrete Compression Strength: Concrete cylinder compression strength measured in accordance with ASTM C-39-86 will be: a. fc = 34.50 MPa (5,000 psi) for columns, beams/girders, suspended slabs, footings and tank walls b. fc = 20.70 MPa (3,000 psi) for others 4.7.2.2 Reinforcing Steel for Concrete Reinforcing bars Yield Strength: Reinforcement bars minimum specified yield strength measured in accordance with ASTM A615 will be: a. Columns, beams/girders, suspended slabs, footings and walls: fy = 414 MPa (60,000 psi) for deformed bars 16 and larger; fy = 276 MPa (40,000 psi) for deformed bars 12 and smaller. b. Ties, Stirrups: fy = 276 MPa (40,000 psi) for 12 deformed bars and smaller
Deleted: 5.86 Deleted: 3.80 Deleted: 5.86 Deleted: retaining walls

4.7.3 Design Loading


The following loads considered in this report are those recommended in Chapter 2, Loads and Actions of NSCP 2001 and American Concrete Institute ACI-350-01 Code Requirements for Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures.

4.7.3.1 Vertical Loads a. Dead Loads & Self Weight


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Dead load includes the weight of the structure and all permanently attached equipment. If modeled, the self weight of the structure is usually generated by the computer by assigning the appropriate material density and member sizes. Reinforced Concrete Density = 24 KN/cu.m. Plain Concrete Density Structural Steel Density = 20 KN/cu.m. = 77 KN/cu.m.

Unit weights other than the above shall conform to what is indicated in the National Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP 2001). b. Live Loads Live load includes the loads due to the intended use and occupancy of area and moveable equipment. Roof Live Load Liquid Content 4.7.3.2 Lateral Loads a. Wind Loads Wind Load, W shall be calculated in accordance with the static analytical method. The following data will serve as a guide in calculating the wind force on the structure as a closed structure. b. Earthquake Loads Seismic or Earthquake Load, E may be considered as lateral forces that shall act non-concurrently in the direction of each principal axis of the structure. These loads are actually dynamic forces that shall be used, among which, for structures 60m or more in height. However, an alternative static lateral force is recommended based on rational analysis of well established principles of mechanics. Seismic load shall be calculated in accordance with the formula as given in Section 208 of NSCP 2001 and using internationally accepted structural engineering software. = 1.92 KN/sq.m. = 9.81 KN/sq.m.

4.7.3.3 Other Design Load and Forces The proposed ground reservoir structure is considered as a special environmental engineering concrete structure intended for conveying, storing,
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or treating water. Considering the location of the structure in elevated land with high seismic risk area, the design analysis of the structure shall consider the non-sloshing (lower) and sloshing (upper) portions of its content which will induce hydrodynamic pressures on the structure; namely impulsive and convective pressures, respectively.

4.8 Mechanical Design


Water level sensors may vary from mercury-type float switches to ultrasonic sensors to pressure switches. Each type has a different sensitivity to water level changes from fractions of inches to more than a foot. The tank designer will have to account for the type of level sensor specified when determining the vertical dimension needed for proper operation of the device. Manufacturers specifications generally govern the determination of this dimension. Once the pump control device is selected, the tank designer will be able to factor in the vertical dimension when determining the other aspects of tank configuration, such as the width and height, as well as the shape. The volume of OS should be sufficient to avoid pump cycling in excess of the pump motor manufacturer's recommendation. Historically, a rule of thumb was to limit the motor to no more than six starts per hour. However, many manufacturers will warrant more frequent cycling for their pump motors, depending upon the size of the pump.

4.9 Electrical System


Systems relying on non-elevated reservoirs (i.e., reservoirs that can only supply a distribution system in whole or in part through a booster pump station) shall be equipped with onsite back-up power facilities or, at least, with the ability to readily connect to a portable generator. Back-up power facilities shall be designed to start, through an automatic transfer switch, upon interruption of the utility power supply. The primary intent for recommending back-up power is to assure that the system is pressurized at all times to minimize cross-connection contamination concerns.

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5.0 Design Drawings

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