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Effects of Participation in Selected Physical

Activities on Health Related Physical Fitness of


Adolescent.
Dr. Sakti Ranjan Mishra, Principal, Baliapal College of Physical
Education, Baliapal, Balasore, 756 026, Odisha.
Dr. Saroj Sundar Brahma, Physical Education Teacher, D.A.V.
Public School, Bidanasi, Cuttack, Odisha.

ABSTRACT

Effect of 10 weeks participation in selected physical


activities, such as aerobic dance, badminton, weight training and
volley ball on health related physical fitness of 300 number of
adolescent students were studied. Result of the study indicated that
all the physical activities have yielded positive changes by the
subjects. The pre-test and post-test comparison in respect of body
composition was positive but not significant, while a better picture
was observed in respect of musculoskeletal fitness and flexibility.
The differences were highly significant in this case. Effect on
muscular strength and endurance were marked but not enough for
calculating a significant difference. Similarly, Cardio Vascular
stabilization was found to be effected positively but not to larger
extent.
Key Words: Body Composition, Cardio-vascular Respiratory
endurance, Flexibility, Muscular strength and endurance.

Introduction:
Physical fitness is viewed as multifaceted ability. It is
implied by types of the tests included in the test battery. Attempts
were being made to separate health related physical fitness from
performance related fitness. However, the tests used to measure
physical fitness usually tap both health related and performance
related abilities. In some cases the health related element is
predominant, while in other hand the performance related ability
prevails. The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education,
Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) has gone on record in support
of physical fitness tests and programmes that emphasise the
relationship between health and physical activity. Health related
fitness consists of four components, namely: 1. Body composition
2. Cardiovascular fitness, 3. Flexibility and 4. Muscular strength
and endurance. Today’s mechanization has fostered a society in
which labour and physical activity is no longer inherent in day to
day functioning. Through out the past century the total muscle
power required to produce goods has drastically dropped from
90% to 10% (Thaxton,11). Works previously performed by human
beings are now executed by machines. Modern society is
characterised as being mentally active, a change from the
predominantly physically active culture of the past (Prentice and
Bucher,21).
The purpose of the study was to determine whether or
not participation in selected physical education activities affect the
students health related physical fitness. The sub-purposes of this
research project included:
1. To determine whether or not significant changes exist
between the pre-test and post test scores of students involved
in 10 weeks of activities (aerobic, badminton, weight
training and volleyball) in relation to (a) Body composition
(b) Cardiovascular fitness, (c) Flexibility and (d) Muscular
strength and endurance.
2. To determine whether significant differences exist following
10 weeks of activity programme among the groups of
students enrolled in the course of aerobic, badminton,
weight training and volleyball in respect of(a) Body
composition (b) Cardiovascular fitness, (c) Flexibility and
(d) Muscular strength and endurance.

Materials and Methods:


The study was conducted on 300 numbers boys
belonging to class IX and X. The subjects were included in 5
groups homogeneously and 60 in each group. Four experimental
groups namely Gr.I: Aerobic dance, Gr.II: Badminton, Gr.III:
Weight training and Gr.IV: Volleyball and one Control group (Gr.
V.) were designed for the study. Aerobic dance group practiced
three days per week with 40 minutes duration. Practice includes a
series of movement leading to dance steps, jugging, hopping,
skipping, jumping and kicking. The Badminton group practiced
three days per week with 45 minutes duration. Instructions for ten
minutes on every practicing day cover rules, skills and strategy
followed by skill practice and practice matches. Weight training
group met three days a week with forty minutes duration. Subjects
were instructed to perform individual exercise programmes
concerning major muscle groups (Chest, back, legs) and minor
muscles (Shoulders, triceps and biceps). Subjects were encouraged
to increase the intensity when 12 repetitions could be performed
with minimal effort. The Volleyball group practiced three days per
week with 45 minutes duration. Instructions for ten minutes on
every practicing day cover rules, skills and strategy followed by
skill practice and practice matches.
All the Groups practiced for 10 weeks under strict
supervision and prescribed schedule.
Table 1: Tests and Equipments Used for assessing
Various Components of Health Related Physical Fitness.

Components Test Executed


Body Composition Skin folds from triceps, abdomen,
sub scapular sites (Lange Calipers)
Flexibility Modified Sit and Reach Test
Cardio respiratory Endurance Harvard Step Test
Muscular Strength and Endurance Bent Knee Curl Up Test

Data Analysis:
Test scores were subjected to statistical analysis.
Indices like means and standard deviations were computed for
comparison. The mean and standard deviation values were
calculated for the four performance variables: (a) body
composition, (b) cardio respiratory endurance, (c) flexibility and
(d) muscular strength and endurance for each activity group. To
find out significance of the difference or the change that occurred
between pre-and-post tests‘t’ test was applied.

Findings of the Study:


Table- 2
Mean, SD Scores and Result of the Test of Significance (‘t’) in respect of
Body Composition (Skin fold Records) for Experimental and Control Groups.

Setting Grou Abdomen Triceps Sub-scapula


p Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post
Mean SD Mean SD ‘t’ Mean SD Mean SD ‘t’ Mean SD Mean SD ‘t’
Experimental I 17.59 10.3 14.52 8.25 0 14.67 7 12.11 5 0 11.02 5 9.03 3 1.26
5 .61 .72 .83 .84 .19 .91
II 15.80 9.51 13.39 7.85 0 13.30 6 11.56 5 0 10.27 5 8.86 4 1.18
.66 .52 .62 .95 .25 .56
III 17.56 10.0 14.34 8.04 0 14.85 7 12.39 6.11 0 11.13 5 9.64 4 1.19
3 .63 .06 .87 .19 .57
IV 17.34 10.1 14.42 7.41 0 14.68 7 12.16 5 0 10.31 6 8.87 3 1.14
3 .65 .29 .33 .90 .26 .69
Combined 17.07 10.1 14.16 7.90 1 14.37 7 12.05 5 1 10.68 5 9.10 4 2.30*
(All ‘E’ Groups) 5 .23 .07 .82 .72 .37 .28
Control 17.26 10.5 17.21 10.5 14.44 7 14.35 7 0 10.88 5 10.93 5 1.12
2 0 .36 .30 .81 .20 .09
*p<0.05

Table 2 indicates that the combined Experimental


group mean of abdomen skin fold record score during pretest is
17.07 which was reduced to 14.16 during posttest showing a
significant decrease as a result of 10 weeks long physical activity
undertaken differently by the four experimental groups. The
standard deviation score of 10.15 corresponding to pretest mean is
indicative of the fact that there was a wide variation at the onset of
the physical activity among the subjects of experimental groups. In
the post test the standard deviation score has shown a decrease to
7.90 showing improved uniformity in fat reduction of the
experimental group members.
When compared to control group scores, it becomes
clear that absence of physical activity has not yielded any kind of
change in the skin fold record of the abdomen. The pretest mean of
17.26 (and corresponding SD value of 10.52) has remained
unchanged.
The triceps measure during pretest shows a combined
‘E’ group mean of 14.37 (SD= 7.07) and a posttest mean of 12.05
(SD=5.82), indicating that a reduction has taken place, more or less
uniformly among the members of the group. Similar was the result
of sub-scapula measures.
The ‘t’ values except for the combined ‘E’ group were
not significant. This indicates that even if there were obvious
differences between pretest and posttest mean scores, the
differences were not large enough to be statistically significant.
However, when all group scores were combined, the differences
became large enough to yield a ‘t’ value of 2.30 (p<0.05) which
pointed to a fact that the physical activities have played their role,
but only minimally, so far as fat reduction was concerned.
Table- 3
Mean, SD scores and Result of the Test of Significance (‘t’) in respect of
Flexibility (Sit and Reach Test) for Experimental and Control Groups

Setting Group Flexibility


Pre test Post test
Mean SD Mean SD ‘t’
Experimental I 7 0 10.1 1 6.60**
.21 .70 7 .04
II 7 0 10.4 1 6.60**
.33 .71 5 .08
III 7 0 9.39 0 7.14**
.31 .92 .80
IV 8 1 11.17 1 5.00**
.46 .25 .14
Combined (All 7 1 10.2 1 9.09**
Exp. Group) .57 .04 9 .46
Control 7 1 7.78 1 3.16*
.77 .17 .18
**p<0.01, *p<0.05

Data presented in Table 3 describes that the


performance efficiency of the experimental groups has increased
substantially whereas there has been no change for the control
group. The control group mean score for Sit and Reach test during
pretest was 7.77 which was very insignificantly changed to 7.78
during post test. In contrast, experimental group mean score Group
1 (Aerobic exercise) had changed from 7.21 during pretest to 10.17
during posttest. Similarly, for other 3 groups (Badminton, Weight
training and Volleyball) the pretest mean scores of 7.33, 7.31 and
8.46 had changed to 10.45, 9.39 and 11.17 respectively during
posttest. The combined ‘E’ group pretest mean score of 7.57 had
also shown significant improvement to a posttest mean score of
10.29.
Computed‘t’ value for Sit and Reach test scores have
indicated highly significant differences between pre and posttest
measures. The difference in respect of the control group was also
significant at .0.05 level. The highly significant‘t’ values (p<0.01)
of all experimental groups as well as the combined ‘E’ groups
reflects that all the prescribed physical activities have made their
positive impact on the bodily performance (Flexibility) of the
subjects.
Table- 4
Mean, SD scores and Result of the Test of Significance (‘t’) in respect of
Muscular Strength and Endurance (Bent-Knee Kurl up Test) for Experimental
and Control Groups

Setting Group Muscular Strength & Endu.


Pre test Post test
Mean SD Mean SD ‘t’
Experimental I 13.5 2 23.6 4 1.66
1 .77 0 .07
II 13.9 2 24.8 4 1.53
1 .95 3 .50
III 13.1 2 27.7 4 1.53
0 .90 0 .49
IV 14.3 3 22.6 4 1.40
0 .49 3 .72
Combined (All 13.7 3 23.4 4 2.93**
Exp. Group) 0 .08 4 .43
Control 13.5 3 13.4 2 2.08*
5 .01 6 .57

**p<0.01, *p<0.05
Table 4 indicates the performances of
Experimental groups on Muscular Strength and Endurance that had
improved due to their 10 week long participation in physical
activities (Aerobic exercise, Badminton, Weight training and
Volleyball). The pretest mean score of 13.51 for group 1 (Aerobic
Exercise) has increased to a posttest mean score of 23.60.
Similarly, the pretest mean scores of other three experimental
groups have also increased from 13.91, 13.10 and 14.30 to posttest
scores of 24.83, 22.70 and 22.63 respectively. Low SD values have
made it implicit that the changes have been uniform. The‘t’ values
in respect of Bent Knee- Curl-up measures the individual group
tests have yielded no significant differences, but the combined ‘t’
group differences have shown a highly significant difference
between pretest and posttest performances. The control group
difference has also appeared to be significant.

Table- 5
Mean, SD scores and Result of the Test of Significance (‘t’) in respect of
Cardio-respiratory Endurance (Harvard Step Test) for Experimental and
Control Groups

Setting Group Cardio-respiratory Rates


Pre test Post test
Mean SD Mean SD ‘t’
Experimental I 74.2 5 70.6 5 1.05
8 .63 8 .35
II 75.8 4 72.3 2 1.49
6 .65 8 .96
III 74.2 6 71.4 3 1.03
5 .94 6 .89
IV 76.8 4 72.8 5 1.20
8 .54 0 .10
Combined (All 75.3 5 71.8 5 2.12**
Exp. Group) 1 .48 3 .10
Control 76.1 5 72.6 5 1.09
5 .23 0 .37

**p<0.01

The Table 5 depicts that group differences in pre and


posttest measures in respect of Cardio-vascular rates were not
statistically significant, but the combined ‘E’ group difference was
highly significant at 0.01 level of significance.

Results:
Results of the study have made an indication of a
positive change in health related components after a 10 weeks
participation in different physical activities. But in large number of
cases such changes were not found to be statistically significant
despite the fact that those changes are positive.

References:
1. American Health and Fitness Foundation. FYT Programme
Manual. 2nd ed. Texas, 1986.
2. William E. Prentice and Charles A. Bucher, Fitness for College
and Lfe. 2nd ed. Missouri: Times Mirror/ Mosby College
Publishing, 1988.
3. Deborah Dowdy et al. “Effects of Aerobic Dance on Physical
Work Capacity, Cardio Vascular Function and Body
Composition of Middle-Aged Women.” Research Quarterly for
Exercise and Sports, (56.3) 1985.
4. H. Harison Clarke, Application of Measurement to Health and
Physical Education, 5th ed. Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersy.