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CSR Question 1 What is CSR?

A companys sense of responsibility towards the community and environment (both ecological and social) in which it operates. Companies express this citizenship (1) through their waste and pollution reduction processes, (2) by contributing educational and social programs, and (3) by earning adequate returns on the employed resources. How CSR has evolved? Over the past 20 years, multinational companies (MNCs) have made important changes to their corporate social responsibility (CSR) policy. There has been a marked shift from the past, when CSR activities were unrelated to the companys core business and largely reactive, attempting to stem or prevent criticism rather than promote real development. Companies have begun approaching CSR in a more strategic way, recognizing that aligning these projects with their business model and goals can effectively improve a companys competitive advantage. In doing so, MNCs have increasingly leveraged their core assets including their supply chains, sourcing, human resources, technology and innovation, access to markets, and the global reach of their companies. There has been an accompanying shift in the perception of CSR. In the past, there were many critics who argued that a companys sole responsibility was to provide value to its shareholders. They argued that CSR ran contrary to the interest of the company and by extension to the shareholders. However, there has been a growing consensus, especially among U.S. companies, that CSR is necessary and beneficialboth to the communities it benefits and to the companies. Although companies have taken on greater responsibility, there is a need for even greater commitment and engagement. As result of the global financial crisis, the rise of non-state actors in the global economy, and shifting demographics in the form of urbanization and rising inequality, the free market system is in flux. In this turbulent environment, populist and protectionist pressures are challenging the open market system. The private sector has incredible assets to counter these backward forces and promote an open, global economy. What is PPP?

A publicprivate partnership (PPP) is a government service or private business venture which is funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sectorcompanies. These schemes are sometimes referred to as PPP. PPP involves a contract between a public sector authority and a private party, in which the private party provides a public service or project and assumes substantial financial, technical and operational risk in the project. In some types of PPP, the cost of using the service is borne exclusively by the users of the service and not by the taxpayer. In other types (notably the private finance initiative), capital investment is made by the private sector on the basis of a contract with government to provide agreed services and the cost of providing the service is borne wholly or in part by the government. Government contributions to a PPP may also be in kind (notably the transfer of existing assets). In projects that are aimed at creating public goods like in theinfrastructure sector, the government may provide a capital subsidy in the form of a one-time grant, so as to make it more attractive to the private investors. In some other cases, the government may support the project by providing revenue subsidies, including tax breaks or by removing guaranteed annual revenues for a fixed time period.

Question 4. Phases of CSR in India The evolution of corporate social responsibility in India refers to changes over time in India of the cultural norms of corporations' engagement of corporate social responsibility (CSR), with CSR referring to way that businesses are managed to bring about an overall positive impact on the communities, cultures, societies and environments in which they operate. The four Phases of CSR Development in India The First Phase In the first phase charity and philanthropy were the main drivers of CSR. Culture, religion, family values and tradition and industrialization had an influential effect on CSR. In the preindustrialization period, which lasted till 1850, wealthy merchants shared a part of their wealth with the wider society by way of setting up temples for a religious cause. Moreover, these merchants helped the society in getting over phases of famine and epidemics by providing food from their godowns and money and thus securing an integral position in the society. With the arrival of colonial rule in India from 1850s onwards, the approach towards CSR changed. The industrial families of the 19th century such as Tata, Godrej, Bajaj, Modi, Birla, Singhania were strongly inclined towards economic as well as social considerations. However it has been observed that their efforts towards social as well as industrial development were not only driven by selfless and religious motives but also influenced by caste groups and political objectives.[3] The Second Phase In the second phase, during the independence movement, there was increased stress on Indian Industrialists to demonstrate their dedication towards the progress of the society. This was when Mahatma Gandhi introduced the notion of "trusteeship", according to which the industry leaders had to manage their wealth so as to benefit the common man. Gandhi's influence put pressure on various Industrialists to act towards building the nation and its socio-economic development. According to Gandhi, Indian companies were supposed to be the "temples of modern India". Under his influence businesses established trusts for schools and colleges and also helped in setting up training and scientific institutions. The operations of the trusts were largely in line with Gandhi's reforms which sought to abolish untouchability, encourage empowerment of women and rural development. The Third Phase The third phase of CSR (196080) had its relation to the element of "mixed economy", emergence of Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) and laws relating labour and environmental standards. During this period the private sector was forced to take a backseat ] The public sector was seen as the prime mover of development. Because of the stringent legal rules and regulations surrounding the activities of the private sector, the period was described as an "era of command and control". The policy of industrial licensing, high taxes and restrictions on the private sector led to corporate malpractices. This led to enactment of legislation regarding corporate governance, labour and environmental issues. PSUs were set up by the state to ensure suitable distribution of resources (wealth, food etc.) to the needy. However the public sector was effective only to a certain limited extent. This led to shift of expectation from the public to the private sector and their active involvement in the socio-economic development of

the country became absolutely necessary. In 1965 Indian academicians, politicians and businessmen set up a national workshop on CSR aimed at reconciliation. They emphasized upon transparency, social accountability and regular stakeholder dialogues. In spite of such attempts the CSR failed to catch steam. The Fourth Phase In the fourth phase (1980 until the present) Indian companies started abandoning their traditional engagement with CSR and integrated it into a sustainable business strategy. In 1990s the first initiation towards globalization and economic liberalization were undertaken. Controls and licensing system were partly done away with which gave a boost to the economy the signs of which are very evident today. Increased growth momentum of the economy helped Indian companies grow rapidly and this made them more willing and able to contribute towards social cause. Globalization has transformed India into an important destination in terms of production and manufacturing bases of TNCs are concerned. As Western markets are becoming more and more concerned about and labour and environmental standards in the developing countries, Indian companies who export and produce goods for the developed world need to pay a close attention to compliance with the international standards.

CSR corporate activities of Indian companies http://idosi.org/ajbas/ajbas4(3)12/6.pdf