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Introduction to Environmental Engineering & Sciences

Environmental Science
Science can be differentiated into the social sciences and natural sciences.
Natural sciences include
core sciences chemistry, biology, and physics
Numerous applied sciences such as geology, meteorology, forestry,
and zoology.
Environmental science is an integrative applied science that
draws upon nearly all of the natural sciences to address
environmental quality and health issues.
Environmental engineering uses environmental science
principles, along with engineering concepts and techniques, to
assess the impacts of social activities on the environment, of the
environment on people, and to protect both human and
environmental health.
Environmental engineering requires a sound foundation in the
environmental sciences.
The Interdisciplinary Nature of Environmental Science and
Groundwater contamination by leaking gasoline storage tanks material
science, hydrogeology, geochemistry, microbiology, hydraulics !N"
environmental engineering.
#rban air pollution chemical$mechanical$automotive engineering,
meteorology, chemistry, !N" environmental engineering.
ey Elements of !odern Environmental Science and Engineering
%ased on chemistry environmental quality described by chemical
composition of the system.
&uantitative magnitude of the problem and feasibility of the solution are
described numerically.
"riven by government policy, which is increasingly set on the basis of risk.
"rimary Topics
'ntroduction to environment
(ater demand
(ater quality
(ater treatment
(ater supply systems
(astewater collection systems
(astewater treatment
Solid waste engineering ) management
(ater quality modeling
Global environmental issues
National environmental issues
!ir and noise pollution control
Environmental impact assessment
Te%t #oo$&
(ater Supply ) Sewerage by E.( Steel and *cGhee +th, ,th, -th Edition.
.whichever available/
'ntroduction to Environmental Engineering 0hird Edition by "avis )
1ornwell, *cGraw 2ill.
Environmental Engineering 3aboratory, by "r. 4hurshid !hmad.
Reference #oo$s
(aste (ater Engineering, 0reatment, disposal, 5euse by *etcalf and
Eddy, 6rd Edition. .!vailable in 5eference Section of *ain 3ibrary/
'ntroduction to Environmental Engineering Second Edition by "avis )
1ornwell, *cGraw 2ill
Environmental !ssessment in 7ractice by ". 8wen 2arrop ) 9. !shley
'ntegrated Solid (aste *anagement by George 0echobanoglous, 2ilary
0heisen ) Samuel !. ;igil
Elements of public health engineering by 4.N "uggal
(ater and (aste water Engineering by <air ) Gayer
(ater and (astewater 0echnology by *ark 9, 2ammer
!aterial for the "resentation
5elevant literature$theory
5elated issues$problem statement
Solved problem$e:ample
0ables .if required/
(lo)al Environmental Issues
8zone depletion
Global warming
Solid and hazardous wastes
<resh water quantity and quality
"egradation of marine environments
3and degradation
Endangerment of biological diversity
Environmental engineering
!ir 7ollution
Noise pollution
Solid waste engineering ) management
2azardous waste management
(ater quality modeling
Environmental ecology
(ater treatment and supply systems
(astewater collection and treatment
Environmental impact assessment
*ir "ollution
'ndoor air pollution
8ut door air pollution
<orest fire
;olcanic irruption
1omposting and burning of solid waste
"ust storm
&uery blasting
Noise "ollution
0raffic .5oads, railways and planes/
1onstruction works
&uery blasting
Nuclear and weapon testing
Solid ,aste Engineering & !anagement
8pen burning
8pen dumping
#nhygienic disposal
"ispose off in open drains
'mpacts on environment
-a.ardous /aste management
! very sensitive issue
;ery comple: and dangerous to handle
No proper guideline for disposal
Sources are still not define
5esponse to environment is also comple:
!dvance techniques are involved
,ater 0uality !odeling
#nder ground water modeling
Surface water modeling
%8" ) "8 model
;ariation in %8" ) "8 concentration
"issolved 8:ygen !nalysis=0idal rivers and Estuaries
3akes modeling
Stream water standards
'mprovement of water quality
Ecology and the Environment
0he 0echnology needed to satisfy that consumption, and dispose of the
waste generation. 0hese two factors decide how much environmental damage is
done per person. *ultiply by the third factor, population, and you arrive at the
total level of damage.
0he study of living organisms and their environment or habitats
2ow pollution impacts our environment
,hat is ecosystem 2
%asic study area for ecologists
!n organism or a group of organisms and their surroundings
0ropic levels within an Ecosystem
Effects of increased population
Energy consumption
't makes possible the higher standard of living en>oyed in the
more developed countries.
Energy consumption vs. population .#S!/
?@6 million .?A6B/ @+A million .?AAB/
Energy consumption increased by a factor of ?B in the past
+B years
Estimating population Growth
<or reasonable calculations of world resource consumption and
pollution loads.
! semi=aquatic area that is either inundated or saturated by water
for varying periods during each year and that supports aquatic
vegetation specifically adapted for saturated soil conditions
0o provide fish and wildlife
0o improve water quality
0o protect surrounding lands from floods and erosion
Rain +orests
0reed areas with a closed canopy and more than @, inches of
rainfall per year
0o hold ,BC or more of all species, but only DC of the earthEs
,hat 1oes a Civil Engineer 1o2
"esign, analyze, and construct
"ams, buildings, pipelines, and bridges
Soils, foundations, slope stability
5oads and traffic
*onitor, model, and improve
(ater &uality
(astewater, drinking water, groundwater
!ir &uality
8utdoor, indoor, atmospheric
Solid, hazardous, recycling
,hat 1oes a (reen 1esign Engineer 1o2
7revent pollution, waste
!nalyze multi=faceted problems
Engineering and science
7ublic policy
"eal with uncertainty
%uild tools .computer models/ to solve problems and assist decision
(reen 1esign Research
3ife cycle analysis or assessment
Energy and electricity in the economy
Green construction
2arvesting methane from landfills
0racking metals through the environment
<easibility of cellulose ethanol .fuel from plants/ for transportation
,ater treatment and supply systems
Surface (ater 0reatment
?. 1hemical *i:ing .5apid *i:ing/
@. <locculation
6. Sedimentation
+. 5apid Sand <ilter
,. "isinfection
-. <luoridation
D. 7umped to community
Unit "rocesses
Groundwater 0reatment
?. !eration .if necessary to release any gases/
@. "isinfection
6. <luoridation
+. 7umped to community
Coagulation & +locculation
o the chemical alteration of the colloidal particles to make them stick
o 2ydrophilic particles water loving absorbs to water
o 2ydrophobic particles water hating does not absorb to water
2ydrophobic particles are negatively charged and donEt like
to aggregate and are hydrophobic
! positively charge coagulant destabilizes the negatively
charged particles and brings them together.
5apid *i:ing = @B to -B seconds
<locculation Gentle mi:ing @B=-B minutes to aggregate the
!luminum sulfate .alum/
<errous sulfate .ferric/
<erric chloride
(hen flocs have been formed they have to be separated from the water.
Gravity Settling 0anks
!ll sedimentation tanks are modeled as plug flow reactors.
5ectangular or 1ircular design.
0heir design is determined by the ;s of the particle size to be
0wo types of <iltration
Slow Sand <iltration F B.? to B.@ m$h
5apid Sand <iltration .5apid Gravity <iltration/ F ,=@B m$h
'n the ?A6BEs switch to 5S< from SS<, .higher loading, less space, lower
construction costs/
2owever, SS< resurgence due to its removal of smaller particles.
!ll of the previous treatment processes remove G ABC of bacteria and
! disinfectant is used toH
4ill microbes fast and efficiently
Not kill humans or other animals
3ast long enough to prevent re=growth in distributions systems
<actors that inhibit disinfectionH
0urbidityH particles shelter bacteria
5esistant organisms
<eI@ and *nI@H form particles that shield bacteria
Sludge Zone
8:idizable compoundsH become food for microbes in distribution system
1ommonly used disinfectantsH
1hlorine "io:ide
#; light

,hy ,orry *)out ,ater Supplies2

Supports virtually everything we doH agriculture, industry, energy, and
domestic needs.
*a>or pathway into the body for contaminants.
Easy to contaminate, difficult .costly/ to remediate.
E:pensive to transport, necessitating local supplies for most communities.
"ifferent countries would respond in different ways to this question
.#nited States, 3ithuania, )%angladesh/.
2ealth aspects in water are connected to many broader issues of

-o/ much /ater is in the /orld2

,ater Sources and Treatment

Surface water
,ater Cycle
,ater Treatment !ethods
+locculation3Sedimentation <locculation refers to water treatment
processes that combine small particles into larger particles, which settle
out of the water as sediment.
Ion E%change 'on e:change can be used to treat hard water. 't can also
be used to remove arsenic, chromium, e:cess fluoride, nitrates, radium,
and uranium.
*dsorption 8rganic contaminants, color, and taste= and odor=causing
compounds can stick to the surface of granular or powdered activated
carbon .G!1 or 7!1/. G!1 is generally more effective than 7!1 in
removing these contaminants. !dsorption is not commonly used in public
water supplies.
1isinfection 4chlorination5 o.onation6 (ater is often disinfected
before it enters the distribution system to ensure that dangerous microbes
are killed. 1hlorine, chloramines, chlorine dio:ide, ozone
!a7or ,ater 0uality Indicators
*icroorganisms, "isinfectants ) "isinfection %yproducts, 'norganic
1hemicals, 8rganic 1hemicals,
Safe "rinking (ater !ct and state laws
8verviewH 8rigin, *itigation, 0reatment, 2ealth Effects
Safe 1rin$ing ,ater *ct
8riginally passed in ?AD+ and regulates ?DB,BBB public water systems in
Standards and 0reatment 5equirements
E:panded in ?AA- in the areas of sole source water supplies, protection
and prevention, and public information.
1rin$ing /ater issue 4*rsenic in #angladesh6
@BC of the countries wells affected
ABB,BBB of the countryJs four million tube=wells were sunk with #N'1E<
Estimated that the number of people e:posed to arsenic concentrations
above B.B, mg$l is @K=6, million .more than B.B? mg$l is +-=,D million/
.%GS, @BBB/
3ong=term e:posure to arsenic via drinking=water causes cancer of the
skin, lungs, urinary bladder, and kidney, as well as other skin changes such
as pigmentation changes and thickening.
Government was slow to respond
Needed stepsH identify safe wells, techniques for reducing e:posure,
purification and other water sources
,ater Treatment and ,ater Supply Net/or$s
'mportance of (ater Supply Systems
%asic requirement
1omforts of living
;ariety of purposes
o "rinking
o %athing
o (ashing
o 3aundering
o Gardening
"ifferent other use for recreational and other purposes
1evelopment 9f "u)lic ,ater Supply
7ressure from the dwellers
*igration of peoples from rural to urban areas
*ultipurpose requirements
1ongestion of population at single spot
1ivilization advancements
0rend of high=rise buildings
Need +or "rotected ,ater Supply
<rom the public heath point of view, it is necessary that all water supplies
must be invariably free from all types of impurities whether suspended or
dissolved in water and no untoward risk should occur to the health of the public
as a result of any water contamination.
9)7ectives of /ater supply systems
0o supply safe and wholesome water to consumers
0o supply water in adequate quantity
0o make water easily available to consumers so as to encourage personal
and household cleanliness
0o provide economical water supply system
0o supply water to the consumers at a good pressure
Role of *gencies
0o provide a better and economical system
0o look after and maintenance of different components
0o maintain the quantity and quality of water
0o e:ecution of new water supply systems
0o manage the whole system properly
0uantity of ,ater
Estimating requirements is of prime importance in the design of the water
supply system, is the framing of an estimate giving the total quantity of
water that will be required by the community after the completion of the
works. 0he estimate enables the determination of sizes and capacities of all
the constituents of the water supply system. 0his is arrived at with the help
of two factorsH
0he probable population estimated at the end of the design period
5ate of water supply per capita per day
1esign "eriod
0his is the period into the future for which the estimate is to be made. 0he
period should neither be too long so that full financial burden is not thrown on
the present generation, nor should it be too short so as to avoid the design
becoming uneconomical. 'n practice, a period varying from @B to 6B years is
considered sufficient for design purpose.
"er Capita Consumption
<or the purpose of estimating total requirement of water of a community,
it is usual to calculate the consumption or an average basis and e:press it in liters
per capita per day
+actors *ffecting "er Capita Consumption
1lass of consumer
'ndustries and commerce
&uality of water
7ressure in distribution
E:tent of metering system
Sewage facilities
System of supply
Number of habitants
Effect of "opulation on Rate of Consumption
aF with ma:imum permissible variation of @BC
bF industrial plus commercial uses including air conditioning or ?KB lpcd which
ever is greater
Consumption for :arious Uses
"omestic use
'ndustrial use
1ommercial use
7ublic use
3oss and waste
"er Capita "er 1ay Estimation 9f ';< lit=
,ater Supply Re>uirements for "u)lic #uildings 9ther Than
+ire 1emand
't is the quantity of water required for fire=fighting purposes. !s compared
to the total consumption, it is seldom more than , = ?B per cent. 2eavy
demands for brief periods are usually the deciding factors in fi:ing
capacities for pumps, reservoirs and service=pipes of distribution system.
<ire demand is a function of population but with a minimum limit,
because greater the population, greater the number of buildings and
greater the risk of fire. %y the minimum limit of fire demand is meant the
amount and rate of water supply required to e:tinguish the largest
possible fire that could be started in the community.
0he estimate of fire demand can be made with the help of the following
empirical formulae
National %oard of <ire #nderwriters <ormulaH
Q F +-6D (P)
L? = B.B?.7/
<reeman <ormulaH
& F ??6-., .7$, I?B/
Q F <ire "emand in lpm.
P F 7opulation in thousands
0he above formula usually gives quite high results. 0he following empirical
formula has been found to give satisfactory resultsH
0 ? ;'@84"6
!t a demand rate to be maintained at a minimum pressure at the hydrant
of ?=?., kg/cm. 3asting for at least four hours and with automobile pumping
in service.
Indian Standards
5ecommend that the fire reserve should be provided at the rate of ?KBB
lpm for every ,B,BBB population and an additional ?KBB lpm for each B.?million
population more than B.6 millions. <or towns of population B.?million and
below, the total requirement should be doubled. 0he fire reserve should be
maintained for at least + hours.
+luctuation in Rate of Consumption
So far we have considered per capita consumption which is only an
average amount of water per day over a period of a year that the community on
the basis of one person will require. 'n practice, it will be found of little use as
consumption varies depending upon the season= or month, day and hour. 0hese
are variously termed as seasonal or monthly, daily and hourly variations or
fluctuations in the rate of consumption.
Seasonal or monthly variations are prominent in tropical countries like 'ndia.
0he rate of consumption reaches a ma:imum during the summer season owing to
greater use of water for street and lawn sprinkling etc. 't goes down during the
succeeding months and becomes minimum during winter season. 0he fluctuation
in the rate of consumption may be as much as ?,B per cent of the average annual
1aily and hourly variations depend on various factors as general habits of the
consumers, character of district being served .whether residential, industrial. or
commercial/ and climatic conditions. 0hus higher consumptions on Sundays and
other holidays may be due to washing of clothes, bathing etc. 1onsumption on
Sundays may not begin to rise until K hours .K !.*./ whereas it may be earlier
say - hours .- !.*/ on other week days. 0he peak flow hours may be at K =?B
hours .K !.*.='B !.*./ and minimum flow B+ hours .?@ !.*. = + !.*./. 1ertain
industries may be working in day and night shifts and consuming more water. 't
is, therefore, essential to study the characteristics of the district before deciding
upon the rate of consumption. 0aken on an average, the ma:imum daily
consumption may be @,B per cent of the average daily consumption and the
ma:imum hourly consumption @BB per cent or more of the average hourly
consumption of the day.

0he effect of these variations is pronounced in the design of water works system.
*onthly variations are of much use in the design of large impounding or storage
reservoirs, while daily and hourly variations find applications in the design of
pumps, service reservoirs, mains etc. !s for an instance water mains in the
distribution system are normally designed to discharge @,B=6BB per cent of the
average daily requirement of water.
"rediction of "opulation
0he present population=may be obtained from recent census with
reasonable alterations. <uture prediction is based on a knowledge of city and its
environments, trade and e:pansion, development of surrounding country, raw
materials and communications around and such e:traordinary possibilities as
discoveries of mineral deposits, oil, coal and power generations, railway stations
etc. 2elpful in predictions will be the study of population trends of similar cities
and consultations with local officials.
!nnual rate of increase method
!rithmetical progression method
Geometrical progression method
'ncremental increase method
1hanging rate of increase method
Graphical method
*nnual Rate of Increase !ethod
'n this method, the rate of increase per annum is first determined and the
population predicted there from.
F 7 .? I i/
F 7opulation at the end of n years
7 F 7opulation at any time
iF annual rate of increases of population
*rithmetical "rogression !ethod
'n this method, a constant increase in the growth of population is added
periodicallyH 0he population may be determined at the end of n years or n
F 7 I n
P F 7resent population
i F per year or per decade increase of population.
0he method is good for old cities or small towns which have stabilized.
(eometrical "rogression !ethod
'n this, a constant percentage growth is assumed for equal periods of time. 0hus,
the population at the end of n years or decades is given as
F 7 .? I i$?BB/
iF per year or per decade percentage rate of increase.
0his method should be used carefully as it may give erroneously high results
when applied to young and rapidly advancing cities having e:pansion of short
duration only.
Incremental Increase !ethod
'n this, the average of increase in population is found out as per
!rithmetical 7rogression method and to that is added the average of the net
incremental increase once for every future decade. Evidently, this method
embodies the advantages of both the preceding methods and the value of
population obtained is therefore more correct.
Changing Rate of Increase !ethod
0his is similar to the Geometrical 7rogression method e:cept that a
changing rather than a constant rate of increase is assumed. 0he changing rate
for large and grown up cities is usually considered to be a decreasing rate. 0his
method gives quite rational results.
(raphical !ethod
0hese mostly involve e:tension of the plotted data on a population=time
curve. 1onsidering towns which were in similar situations over 6B or +B years
ago and drawing graphs of their increase of population, the e:tension of plotted
data for the city under consideration can then be reasonably assumed. 0his
method being logically based gives quite accurate prediction of population and is
therefore frequently used when population figures of othr similar cities are
1rin$ing ,ater 0uality and -ealth
Engineered ,ater Systems
,ater and -ealth
KBC of sickness in the world is caused by inadequate water supply or
+BC of the world population does not have access to safe drinking water
't is estimated that water=borne diseases kill @,,BBB people per day
'n many populated areas of the world, water=borne diseases represent the
leading cause of death.
Sources of 1rin$ing ,ater
shallow wells
deep wells
Surface water
(roundB vs= Surface ,ater
Groundwater Surface water
constant composition variable composition
high mineral content low mineral content
low turbidity high turbidity
low color colored
low or no ".8 ".8. present
high hardness low hardness
high <e, *n taste and odor
Introduction to ,ater Treatment
Surface ,ater Treatment
7rimary ob>ectives are to
?. 5emove suspended material .turbidity/ and color
@. Eliminate pathogenic organisms
0reatment technologies largely based on coagulation and flocculation
(round/ater Treatment
7rimary ob>ectives are to
?. 5emove hardness and other minerals
@. Eliminate pathogenic organisms
0reatment technologies largely based on precipitation
Coagulation and +locculation
GoalH 0o alter the surface charge of the particles that contribute to
color and turbidity so that the particles adhere to one another and are
capable of settling by gravity.
!lumH !l@.S8+/6.?+2@8
<erric chlorideH <e1l6
<erric sulfateH <eS8+
Type I Settling BB Sto$esC La/
) (


= settling velocity
s F density of particle .kg$m6/
F density of fluid .kg$m6/
g F gravitational constant .m$s@/
d F particle diameter .m/
F dynamic viscosity
9verflo/ Rate
v F overflow rate .m$s/
Q F water flow .m6$s/
F surface area .m@/
Types of "article Settling
Type I settling applies to particles that settle with constant velocity ==
particles will be removed if v > vs
Type II settling if particles flocculate during settling, velocity generally
Type III !s particle concentration increases with depth, zone settling
Type I: !t bottom of tank compression settling occurs
0he final step in removing particles is filtration.
5emoval of those particles that are too small to be effectively removed
during sedimentation
*ultiple removal mechanisms depending on design
Single mediaH sand
"ual mediaH coal and sand
*ultimediaH anthracite coal, sand and garnet

+ilter 1esign
va= face velocity .m$day/ or loading rate .m6$dayNm@/
Q F flow rate .m6$day/
AsF filter surface area .m@/
Slo/ Sand +ilters
F @.A D.- m6$dayNm@
Rapid Sand +ilters
F O ?@B m6$dayNm@
5emoval mechanisms are different
5apid sand widely used in #S, slow sand more common in other countries
!s particles are removed = filter becomes clogged head loss increases,
turbidity increases
*ust backwash .takes about ?B=?, min/ done about once per day
*ust design to handle flow with one filter out of service
%ackwashing is accomplished by forcing water .and sometimes air/ up
from the clear well back through the filter.
0he particles in the filter become suspended, releasing the trapped
%ackwash water retreated or disposed of.

,ater and ,aste/ater 1isinfection
"isinfection is any process to destroy or prevent the growth of microbes
*any disinfection processes are intended to inactivate .destroy the
infectivity of/ the microbes by physical, chemical or biological processes
'nactivation is achieved by altering or destroying essential structures or
functions within the microbe
'nactivation processes include denaturizing ofH
proteins .structural proteins, enzymes, transport proteins/
nucleic acids
lipids .lipid bi=layer membranes, other lipids/
"roperties of an Ideal 1isinfectant
%road spectrumH active against all microbes
<ast actingH produces rapid inactivation
Effective in the presence of organic matter, suspended solids and other
matri: or sample constituents
Nonto:icP solubleP non=flammableP non=e:plosive
1ompatible with various materials$surfaces
Stable or persistent for the intended e:posure period
7rovides a residual .sometimes this is undesirable/
Easy to generate and apply
1isinfectants in ,ater and ,aste/ater Treatment
<ree 1hlorine
1hlorine "io:ide
*i:ed 8:idants
Electrochemically generated from Na1l
#; 3ight
3ow pressure mercury lamp .monochromatic/
*edium pressure mercury lamp .polychromatic/
7ulsed broadband radiation
Summary of 1isinfectants for !icro)es in ,ater and ,aste/ater
2istorically, the essential barrier to prevention and control of waterborne
microbial transmission and waterborne disease.
<ree chlorineH 281l .hypochlorous/ acid and 81l= .hypochlorite ion/
281l at lower p2 and 81l= at higher p2P 281l a more potent
germicide than 81l=
strong o:idantP relatively stable in water .provides a disinfectant
1hloraminesH mostly N2
1lH weak o:idantP provides a stable residual
8zone, 8
, strong o:idantP provides no residual .too volatile and reactive/.
1hlorine dio:ide, 1l8
,, strong o:idantP unstable residual .dissolved gas/
1oncerns due to health risks of chemical disinfectants and their
by=products ."%7s/, especially free chlorine and its "%7s
#; radiation
low pressure mercury lampH low intensityP monochromatic at @,+
medium pressure mercury lampH higher intensityP polychromatic
@@B=@KB nm/
reacts primarily with nucleic acidsH pyrimidine dimmers and other
Some +actors Influencing 1isinfection Efficacy and !icro)ial
*icrobial strain differences and microbial selectionH
"isinfectant e:posure may select for resistant strains
7hysical protectionH
protection within membranes and other solids
1hemical factorsH
Salts and ions
Soluble organic matter
8ther chemical .depends on the disinfectant
+actors Influencing 1isinfection Efficacy and !icro)ial Inactivation B
,ater 0uality
7articulatesH protect microbes from inactivationP
"issolved organicsH protect microbes from inactivationP consumes
or absorbs .for #; radiation/ disinfectantP 1oat microbe .deposit on
p2H influences microbe inactivation by some agents
free chlorine more effective at low p2 where 281l predominates
neutral 2813 species more easily reaches microbe surface
and penetrates/
negative charged 81l
has a harder time reaching negatively
charged microbe surface
chlorine dio:ide is more effective at high p2
'norganic compounds and ionsH influences microbe inactivation by some
disinfectantsP depends on disinfectant
Reactor 1esign5 !i%ing & -ydraulic Conditions
"isinfection kinetics are better in plug=flow .pipe/ reactors than in
batch .back=mi:ed/ reactors
#atch or #ac$Bmi%ed Reactor
1isinfection inetics& Chic$Cs La/
+irstB9rder or E%ponential inetics
all organisms are identical
death .inactivation/ results from a first=order or Qsingle=hitR or e:ponential
Chic$Ds la/&
B dN$d0 F kN
N F number .concentration/ of organisms
0 F time
ln N
F =k0
where N
F initial number of organisms
Nt F number of organisms remaining at time F 0
No F initial number of organisms .0 F B/
N$No F e
1isinfection *ctivity and the Contact Time Concept
"isinfection activity can be e:pressed as the product of disinfection
concentration .1/ and contact time .0/
!ssumes first order kinetics .1hickEs 3aw/ such that disinfectant
concentration and contact time have the same QweightR or contribution in
disinfection activity and in contribution to 10
E:ampleH 'f 10 F ?BB mg$l=minutes, then
'f 1 F ?B mg$l, 0 must F ?B min. in order to get 10 F ?BB mg$l=min.
'f 1 F ? mg$l, then 0 must F ?BB min. to get 10 F ?BB mg$l=min.
'f 1 F ,B mg$l, then 0 must F @ min. to get 10 F ?BB mg$l=min.
"lugBflo/ or "ipe Reactor
0he 10 concept fails if disinfection kinetics do not follow 1hickEs 3aw .are
not first=order or e:ponential/
+actors Influencing 1isinfection of !icro)es
*icrobe typeH disinfection resistance from least to mostH
vegetative bacteria viruses protozoan cysts, spores and eggs
0ype of disinfectantH order of efficiency against Giardia from best to worst
86 1l8@ iodine$free chlorine chloramines
%#0, order of effectiveness varies with type of microbe
*icrobial aggregationH
protects microbes from inactivation
microbes within aggregates can not be readily reached by the

+ree Chlorine B #ac$ground and -istory

1onsidered to be first used in ?AB, in 3ondon
%ut, electrochemically generated chlorine from brine .Na1l/ was
first used in water treatment the late ?KBBs
5eactions for free chlorine formationH
1l@ .g/ I 2@8 SFG 281l I 2I I 1l
281l SFG 2
I 81l
1hemical forms of free chlorineH 1l@ .gas/, Na81l .liquid/, or 1a.81l/
5ecommended ma:imum residual concentration of free chlorine S , mg$3
.by #S E7!/
1oncerns about the to:icity of free chlorine disinfection by=products .tri=
halomethanes and other chlorinated organics/
!onoBchloramines B -istory and #ac$ground
first used in 8ttawa, 1anada .?A?D/
became popular to maintain a more stable chlorine residual and to control
taste and odor problems and bacterial re=growth in distribution system in
increased interest in mono=chloramineH
alternative disinfectant to free chlorine due to low 02* potentials
more stable disinfectant residualP persists in distribution system
secondary disinfectant to ozone and chlorine dio:ide disinfection to
provide long=lasting residuals
Reaction of *mmonia /ith Chlorine& #rea$point Chlorination
7resence of ammonia in water or wastewater and the addition of free
chlorine results in an available chlorine curve with a QhumpR
!t chlorine doses between the hump and the dip, chloramines are being
o:idatively destroyed and nitrogen is lost .between p2 -.,=K.,/.
first used in ?KA6
used in +B (07s in #S in ?AAB .growing use since then/, but more than
?BBB(07s in European countries
1olorless gasP relatively unstableP reacts with itself and with 82= in waterP
less stable at higher p2
<ormed by passing dry air .or o:ygen/ through high voltage electrodes to
produce gaseous ozone that is bubbled into the water to be treated.
Chlorine 1io%ide
first used in Niagara <all, NT in ?A++ to control and algae problems
used in -BB (07 .K+ in the #S/ in ?ADBEs as primary disinfectant and for
taste and odor control
very soluble in waterP generated as a gas or a liquid on=site, usually by
reaction of 1l
gas with Na1l8
@ Na1l8
I 1l@ @ 1l8
I @ Na1l
usage became limited after discovery of itEs to:icity in ?ADBEs ) ?AKBEs
neurological disorders and anemia in e:perimental animals by
recommended ma:imum combined concentration of chlorine dio:ide and
itEs by=products S B., mg$3 .by #S E7! in ?AABEs/
2igh solubility in water
, times greater than free chlorine
Strong 8:idantP high o:idative potentialsP
@.-6 times greater than free chlorine, but only @B C available at
neutral p2
GenerationH 8n=site by acid activation of chlorite or reaction of chlorine
gas with chlorite
!bout B., mg$3 doses in drinking water
0o:icity of its by=products discourages higher doses.
1isinfection& #arrier against !icro)es in ,ater and ,aste/ater
<ree chlorine still the most commonly used disinfectant
*aintaining disinfectant residual during treated water storage and
distribution is essential.
! problem for 8
and 1l8
, which do not remain in water for very
long and for #;, which produces no disinfectant residual
! secondary disinfectant must be used to provide a stable residual
#; may have to be used with a chemical disinfectant to protect the
water with a residual through distribution and storage.
1esign of 1isinfection Systems
1hickEs 3awH
B dN$d0 F kN
N F number of organisms
k F first=order rate constant .day=?/
"esign requirements may include
reduction in number of organisms .e.g. AA.AC kill/
number of organisms allowed in finished water .e.g. S ?$?BB m3/
contact time
residual chlorine
5equirements can be both at plant and at consumer.
,ater Treatment and ,ater Supply Net/or$s
Sources of ,ater Supply
0he primary source of all water supply is Precipitatin which is the
water falling from the atmosphere to the surface of the earth in the form of rain,
snow, hail etc. 5ainfall is the most important part of precipitation. 'n falling on
the ground surface, it is carried off in four different ways as illustrated in <igureH

!"n#$$ is that portion which flows over the surface of ground as storm
water or flood flow to appear in the form of stream.
Perclatin is the portion penetrating into the interstices of the soil and
eventually becoming a part of the ground water.
%ranspiratin is the portion taken up and disposed of by the leaves of the
growing vegetation.
&vapratin is the part lost to the atmosphere $rm the land and water
surfaces due to the heat of the sun. 0his part, however, is later recovered in
the form of precipitationP evaporation and precipitation thus manifesting
an ever=lasting cycle in nature which is responsible for the creation and
maintenance of the different sources of water supply.
-ydrologic Cycle and Its Importance In ,ater Supply Sources
!ll the above mentioned phases comprise in nature what is known
as the 2ydrological 1ycle. 0his is the descriptive term applied to the general
circulation of water from seas to the atmosphere, to ground and back to the seas.
%eginning with evaporation from the sea surface into the atmosphere, the vapor
condenses by various processes, causing precipitation on the earthJs surface. !
part of this is retained on the land in the soil, the surface depressions and on
vegetation, again to be returned to the atmosphere by evaporation and
transpiration and the balance goes back into the sea by surface run=off through
channels and by percolation into the ground and then flowing through
underground channels. !n outstanding property of the hydrological cycle is that
the source is ine:haustible as it is available every year again and again in varying
Classification of Sources of ,ater Supply
Surface water
'mpounding 5eservoirs
Ground water
'nfiltration Galleries

Rainfall and Runoff

(ater from rainfall when used as a source of water supply is
required to be collected and stored in underground reservoirs. 0he collection may
be either from the surface of the ground or from the roofs of houses. (hen
collected from the surface of the ground as may be done in water scarcity areas in
plains, catchments area should specially constructed to serve the purpose. 0he
reservoir which is open, trapezoidal shaped has sides and bottom provided with
impervious lining to minimize losses or infiltration of subsoil water. 0he entire
area should be fenced to prevent the encroachment of both humans and animals
which may cause pollution of the watershed.
<or the collection of rain water, as is done in the hilly areas of 'ndia .#.7/ and
other places, rain water from clean roofs preferably made out of galvanized iron
sheets is collected into masonry or concrete storage. 't is usually found necessary
to waste the first portion of rainwater which contains lot of suspended matter,
e:creta of birds, dead leaves etc.

Rainfall !easurement
0he amount of rain falling during a given period is measured on the
basis of the depth of water which would accumulate on a level surface if it all
remained as it fell and none flowed, soaked, away or lost by evaporation.
5ainfall is measured in inches .or mm.) of depth in a standard rain gauge.
SymonsEs rain gauge is the most commonly used in 'ndia. 0he rain gauge is fi:ed
in a masonry block -? cm cube with the top of the gauge pro>ecting 6B., cm above
the ground level. 0he rainfall is admitted through a funnel into a glass bottle
contained in the body of the gauge. 0he contents of bottle are measured by means
of graduated cylinders reading up to ? mm.
<or measuring the variations in the intensity of rainfall other types
of rainfall gauges fitted with self=registering recording devices are used. 'n one
such type, called the a"tmatic recrding rain ga"ge the rain is led into a float
chamber containing a light hollow float, the vertical movement of the float, as the
level of the water rises is then transmitted by a suitable mechanism, into
movement of the pen on the chart set to a suitable scale. 0o provide a continuous
record for a useful period .say @+ hours/, either the capacity of the float chamber
is to be increased or what is more usual a, siphoning arrangement is provided for
automatically emptying the float chamber quickly whenever it become full, the
pen then returning to the bottom of the chart.
't is necessary to locate the rainfall gauge either in a flat and open lot
unobstructed by large trees or roofs of buildings enclosed by parapet walls, since
collection of rainfall in the gauge is affected by strong winds against which its
should be protected.
*utomatic Recording Rain (auge
:ariation in Rain +all
0he variations in rainfall may be geographical, monthly or annual.
0he geographical variations are due to direction of prevailing winds and location
of mountain ranges. 0hey are not of much consequence in water supply problem
as compared to the monthly and annual variations. 0he rainfall during summer
months is partly used up by vegetation. 0he remaining rainfall along with snow
melt is available for storage in reservoirs. Some rainfall during winter though in
small quantity may also be available for storage. 't is necessary to have rainfall
data spread over longer periods in order to know the amount of rainfall in a Jdry
yearJ and for a series of successive dry years in order that sufficient storage may
be provided to take care of deficiency in the supply of water from rainfall and to
replenish the ground water storage.
0he actual quantities of rainfall from month to month and from year to year are
systematically observed and the record is usually kept with the *eteorological
"epartment. Graphs are then plotted to show the monthly variations in different
years and the annual variations in different decades. <rom these graphs can be
computed ma:imum, average and minimum quantities of rainfall in different
periods. 0his information is useful in deciding upon the storage capacity of the
reservoir, the probable quantity of water available for supply and the ma:imum
or peak flood discharge available from the storage reservoir.
RunBoff !easurement
5un=off is the portion of rainfall which flows over the ground
surface to ultimately >oin drainage channels or streams. 't is measured, therefore,
as a stream flow in the following unitsH
1ubic meter per second
5un=off is measured by the following methodsH
5ainfall=runoff records,
Empirical formulae
RainfallBRunoff Record
0he rainfall record for a number of years is first used to determine
the average depth of rainfall over catchments. 0he value when multiplied with a
suitable coefficient gives the amount of runoff. 0his is mathematically e:pressed
by the relationshipH
5 F47
5 F run=off in cm
7 F precipitation in cm
4 F run=off coefficient
't is observed that relationship between rainfall and the resulting runoff is quite
comple: and is influenced by a host of factors related to the catchments and
climate. 0he rainfall=runoff relationship is therefore nonlinear and even non=
deterministic because of the paucity of available data. 0his means () strictly
speaking, cannot be regarded as a constant coefficient 2owever, the formula
could be used as an appro:imate evaluation of the runoff for a catchments
provided suitable values of ( are assumed. 'n practice ( is found to have a wide
range from as low as B.B, to as high as B.K.
Empirical +ormulae
0hese essentially involve relationship between rainfall and runoff
with the introduction of third or fourth parameters to account for climatic or
catchments characteristics, suitable for particular regions. %ased on this we have
the following important empirical formulae.
4hoslaEs <ormula
'nglis="esouza <ormula
3aceyEs <ormula
StrangeEs 1urve
StrangeCs Ta)le of Runoff Coefficient s
!ass 1iagram
0he run=off records are the most important data required for
determining the quantity of water which will flow from a given drainage basin
during different periods of time. 0he longer the duration of the records, the more
accurate will be the estimate of the quantity and variations of the run=off. 0he
run=off record of the stream for different months of the years is often made use of
in constructing the '*dr grap' showing a graphical relationship between them.
'n practice, an integrated hydro graph or mass diagram is found to be of greater
use, as it shows the accumulated flow from month to month and year to year in
units of second=meter or hectare=meter.
0he water received from precipitation i.e.) rain or melted snow is the surface
water which flows in the form of rivers, streams, lakes and ponds. 'n 'ndia, many
cities like "elhi, 1alcutta and !hmedabad derive their water supply from rivers.
0he principal advantage of river as a source of water supply is the large quantity
of water available for supply throughout the year. 2owever, since water has to
travel a long distance from the source located in mountains where it is fairly pure
to the towns in plains, its quality deteriorates as river more or less serves as a
natural drain for all discharges from the region. 0hough river water may be softer
than ground water, it contains large amount of organic matter.
%esides, it picks up lot of suspended matter, clay, silt etc and becomes muddy in
appearance. Some of the tributaries of 'ndus 5iver are known to contain harmful
dissolved salts like mica or magnesium sulfate in e:cess quantities which lead to
diarrheic disorders in human beings. %eing easily accessible, rivers are freely
used for washing, bathing, etc. 'n 'ndia, it is usual for dead bodies to be burnt on
the banks of rivers. %esides, places of pilgrimage are normally situated on the
banks of rivers and pilgrims bath at a time causing pollution of water as a source
of water supply. 7ollution may also be caused by discharges of trade effluents
from industries. 't is, therefore, necessary that river water should be thoroughly
treated and protected before it can be made as a source of water supply for towns.
Impounding Reservoir
!n impounding reservoir may be defined as an artificial lake
created by the construction of a dam across a valley containing a water course.
0he ob>ect to be achieved is to impound or store a portion of the stream=flow so
that it may be used for water supply. 0he reservoir essentially consists of three
a dam to hold back water,
a spillway through which e:cess stream=flow may discharge, and
a gate chamber containing the necessary valves for regulating the flew of
water from the reservoir.
1esign +actors
Since storage of reservoir is the essential principle on which an
impounding reservoir is based, the general factors to be considered in its design
0he run=off or the quantity of water flowing from the drainage area for
successive intervals of time. 0his, as we have seen, would be determined
from the long=term records of the rainfall and run=off for the catchments
area considered
0he total demand of water for all purposes including the consumption
requirements, loss of water due to evaporation from the surface of
reservoir, leakage, and percolation losses and the necessary withdrawals
to satisfy the demands of the riparian owners downstream for like
intervals of time.
Location of Impounding Reservoirs
1onsiderations affecting the location of impounding reservoirs are H
E:istence of suitable dam site. 0he shortest dam to impound the requisite
volume of storage is the best. 0his would be possible if the river flows
through a narrow gorge and the valley rapidly widens upstream from the
0he quantity of water available. 't should be sufficient to meet all the
demands throughout the year. 0his would depend on the rainfall, run=off
and the catchmentEs area. 0he catchmentEs area should be such as to drain
off waters from all points in the catchments.
"istance and elevation of the reservoir with reference to the point of
distribution. ! longer distance means greater cost of the conduits while
proper elevation of the reservoir ensures adequate supplies through
gravity flow.
"ensity and distribution of population over the catchmentEs area. <rom
the point of view of stream=pollution, it would be desirable to have a small
density of population per sq. kilometer on the catchmentEs area above the
E:istence of towns, highways, rail=yards and other cultivable areas. 0hese
should be e:cluded from the submerged area of the reservoir.
Geological conditions of the storage basin. 0he e:istence of bed rocks of
calcareous stone is likely to impart quality of hardness to water. !lso if the
rocks are deeply fissured, there will be considerable loss of water due to
<reedom of water shed from swampy areas. 0he e:tensive growth of
micro=organisms inside water, is difficult to be treated, hence
(round ,ater
't is the accumulation of water below the surface of ground, caused
by the portion of rainfall .about -B per cent/ which percolates through soil pores
of rock crevices, flows by gravity till it reaches an impervious stratum, when it
moves in a lateral direction to some point of escape appearing as springs, wells or
infiltration galleries. 0he surface of the ground water is called ground water level
or more generally as the water table.
!anagement of ,ells for 1rin$ing ,ater
"ossi)le ,ell Contaminants
Septic systems
!nimal feed lots
3eaking fuel storage tanks
,ell Location
3ocate wells uphill fromH
Septic systems.
!nimal feed lots.
<ertilized farm fields.
<uel storage tanks.
"ivert surface water away from the well.
Conditions around the ,ell
1ontamination of groundwater is more likely if soils areH
Shallow .a few feet above bedrock/.
2ighly porous .sandy or gravely/.
Shallow soil means contaminants do not have far to travel to reach
'f bedrock is fractured water seeps rapidly. 0his can increase
,ell *ge
'f your well is over @B years old, have it inspected for defects.
(ells over ,B years old are more likely to be contaminated due toH
7oor construction.
0hinner casings that may be cracked and leaking lubricating oils.
1ug and 1rivenB"oint ,ells
"ug wells areH
3arge diameter holes that are usually more than @ feet wide.
Shallow and generally constructed by hand.
"riven=point wells areH
'nstalled only in areas with loose soil.
1onstructed by driving lengths of pipe into the ground.
1rilled ,ells
!re common in 4entucky.
!re the least likely to become contaminated of the three types of wells.
2ave set construction standards in 4entucky.
*ust be drilled by a certified well driller.
,ell Casing and Cap
1asing should beH
?@ inches or more above the surface and ?=@ feet above flood level.
'nspected periodically for cracks.
1ap should beH
<irmly attached to casing and have a vent to allow air to enter.
0ightly attached to the vent, with the vent facing the ground and
properly screened.
,ell Inspection
2ave your well inspected by a qualified well driller every ?B to ?, years.
5egular inspections ensure a safe water supply.
"etailed records of maintenance visits and inspections can be
valuable assets for repairs.
5etain information about construction of your well.
,ater Testing
(ater testing is important becauseH
't monitors water quality and identifies possible health risks.
*ost contaminants cannot be seen.
0est well water at least once a year forH
0otal dissolved solids.
Unused ,ells
Need to be closed because theyH
7rovide a direct channel for waterborne pollutants to reach
7ose a hazard to small children.
!re potential health hazards to your familyU
1an be e:pensive to fi: if problems occur.
%y 4entucky law, a licensed, registered well driller must be hired to close
any wells.
'ntroduce the common methods used to construct wells.
"iscuss the different types of wells
"iscuss what types of wells a landowner plug.
"iscuss reasons for hiring a contractor.
0here are many different types of well construction methods.
0he method used for each well depends on geological formations.
,hat are the common !ethods Used to Construct ,ater ,ells2
2and dug
,ell Construction Techni>ues
0here are eight different types of well construction techniques.
Type I F 1ug ,ell
Type II F 1rilled ,ell
Land Surface
Open Hole
Total Depth
Sealed Rock or Brick Lining as Casing
Land Surface
Open Hole
Total Depth
Cemented Annulus
Type III F 1rilled ,ell
Type I: F 1rilled ,ell
Smaller Casing
Total Depth
Land Surface
Open Hole
Casing with Selected, erforated, Slotted, or
Screened !nter"als
Cemented Annulus
Land Surface
Total Depth
#ra"el or Sand ack
Type : F 1rilled ,ell
Type :I F 1rilled ,ell
Casing with Selected, erforated, Slotted, or
Screened !nter"als
Cemented Annulus
Land Surface
Total Depth
#ra"el or Sand ack
Open Hole
Total Depth
Cemented Annulus
Land Surface
Large Casing
Smaller Casing with Selected, erforated, Slotted, or
Screened !nter"als
Type :II F 1rilled ,ell
Type :III F 1rilled ,ell
Casing with Selected, erforated, Slotted, or Screened
Cemented Annulus
Land Surface
Total Depth
#ra"el or Sand ack
Land Surface
Total Depth
#ra"el or Sand ack
Casing with Selected, erforated, Slotted, or Screened
,hat Type ,ells Can * Lando/ner "lug2
! landowner can plug type '=; wells, assuming there is less than ?BB feet
of standing water in the well.

Even ,ith a Type IB: ,ell5 ,hy !ight It #e #etter to -ire *

! contractor may have better equipment and understanding of the geology
conditions that affect how the well should be plugged.
3andowners have the authority to plug
type '=; wells if there is less than ?BB
feet of water in the well.
8nly licensed well drillers should plug
type ;'=;''' wells.
'n some cases it may be better to hire a contractor for type '=; wells
,aste/ater Collection *nd Treatment
41esign Criteria6
*verage Se/age +lo/
Normally about KB to AB percent of the per capita consumption of
water becomes wastewater, considering @BB litre per capita water consumption
and sewage flow of KBC, the per capita flow will be ?-B litre$capita$day.
"ea$ +actor
Sewage flow does not remain uniformP it varies form time to time.
Sewerage network will be designed for the peak sewage flow.
0he peak factor will be calculated as followsH
7eak factor F ,.D,
(here 7 F 7opulation in thousands.
0he peak factor shall not be greater than - and not less than @ in any case.
+lo/ :elocity
*inimum velocity in the sewer will be such that there should be no deposition in
the sewer line. *inimum self cleansing velocity is B.- m$sec. under flowing full
condition. 7referably it is taken as B.D, m$sec for the designing of the system.
*a:imum velocity will not be greater than @.+ m$sec.
<ollowing *anningJs equation will be used to determine the
velocity in the sewer linesH
;F?$n .5
;F<low velocity in m$sec.
5F2ydraulic 5adius of pipe in meters
SFSlope of the pipe
nF*anningJs 1oefficient of 5oughness of the pipe
Se/er Capacity
0he full carrying capacity of the pipe will be calculated as followsH
& F !;
&F<low in m
!F1ross=Sectional !rea in m

;F<low velocity in m$sec.
Se/er Slopes
0he minimum slope for a section of sewer will generally be based
on the minimum velocity requirements.
1esign 1epth of +lo/
Sewers will be designed to flow at B.D, of full depth under peak flow
conditions to provide requisite air gap under which condition the sewer will flow
up to ABC capacity at peak flow. 0hus the design flow will be calculated by
multiplying peak flow with a factor of ?.?@.
1etermination of "ipe
*inimum sewer pipe size will be @BB mm e:cept for house
connections which will be ?,B mm. !ll other pipe sizes will be determined from
design flow calculations and velocity criteria.
"ipe !aterials
0he type of pipes to be used for sewerage system depends upon the
following factorsH
1orrosion resistance
1apital cost
3ocal availability
Ease of installation
Efficiency of >oints
3oad sustaining ability
#seful life
0he pipe materials mainly include unplasticised 7olyvinyl 1hloride .#7;1/,
;itrified 1lay .;1/, 5einforced 1ement 1oncrete .511/, !sbestos 1ement .!1/
and 2igh "ensity 7olyethylene .2"7E/ etc. !ll of these pipes are technically
acceptable for use in sanitary drainage system although each material has its own
particular merits for a given condition.
0he market investigations carried out so far indicate that #7;1 and 2"7E pips
are locally available. 0he cost comparison of the two pipes indicates that rates of
both pipes are competitive and either of the two can be used. 0hese two pipes are
almost equally technically suitable but considering the growing trend of using
2"7E pipes, 2"7E pipes will be used for sewer lines. <or house connections
#7;1 pipes will be used.
1epth of Cover to Se/ers
'n order to provide building connections, minimum earth cover
over the pipes will be ?.B m.
Trench ,idths
0rench widths for lying of pipes of various sizes in the network are
shown in tableH
"ipe 1iameter
Trench ,idth
?,B -,B
@,B D,B
+,B ?B,B
,BB ??BB
-BB ?@,B
Sand bedding will be used e:cept where the pipes require additional support
in the form of concrete surround as appropriate.
Location of Se/ers
Sewers will be generally located keeping in view the natural ground slopes
in order to minimize the depth of e:cavation.
Sewer will be positioned in accordance with the utility$service reservation
requirements of the local *unicipality.
Se/er *lignment
Sewer lengths between manholes will be laid at a uniform gradient and
diameter and straight in plan.
Crossings of 9ther Utilities
(here the proposed sewers cross the e:isting utilities the sewer
should be laid in such a way so as to avoid interference with these utilities.
Sewers will be laid below water pipes wherever possible. 'f the water main
underpasses any sewer line it will be protected by sleeving or concrete
encasement at the crossing to minimize the risk of contamination of water
!anholes Location
*anholes will be located according to conventional sewer network
design i.e. at starting points, >unctions between sewers .e:cept building
connections to sewers/ and changes in direction and grade. %ased on sewer size,
the spacing between manholes will be as followsH
@BB diameterS ,B metres
6BB to -BB diameters for ,B to KB metres
DBB to ?@BB diameter for KB to ?BB metres
!anhole 1imensions
<or sewer lines up to DBB mm diameter manholes will have a
circular chamber of ?.@ metre internal diameter. <or large diameter pipes
manhole chambers will be of ?., metre internal diameter.
"ipe Connections to !anholes
0o allow for limited differential settlement between manholes and
the connecting pipelines, there will be a fle:ible pipe >oint located at the e:ternal
face of the manhole and a second fle:ible >oint appro:imately D,B mm from the
face of the manhole
*d7ustment for -eight of !anholes
*anholes will be constructed with a minimum of two and
ma:imum of three courses of concrete blocks between the manhole cover slab
and manhole cover to allow for future ad>ustment of the top level to suit changes
in final road or ground level but manhole neck will not e:ceed D,B mm.
Change in Se/er 1iameter at !anholes
0o minimize the risk of blockage in sewers, the diameter of the
outgoing sewer must not be less than the diameter of the largest incoming sewer.
0he top of smaller sewers entering a manhole will normally be at the same level
as that of the outgoing sewer.
Slope of Channel /ithin !anhole
!ll manhole invert levels used in the sewer calculations will be the
centre of the manhole and all distances and gradients will be calculated between
centres of manholes. (here the incoming and outgoing pipes are of the same
gradient and diameter the pipe gradient will be continued through the channel in
1rop Connection to !anhole
0he drop connections to manholes will be provided if the difference
in pipe invert elevation is greater than -BB mm otherwise no drop connection
will be provided.
!anhole !aterial
*anholes will be of reinforcement cement concrete.
#uilding Connections
1leanouts will be used for single building connections and these will be
constructed >ust outside the boundary of each property served.
Inspection Cham)ers
'nspection chambers will be used for multiple building connections.
1hambers will be constructed >ust outside the boundary of each property served
and will be sufficiently deep to allow connection with the drain$sewer within the
boundary at satisfactory gradients and to ensure that the connection to the sewer
will have a minimum cover of ?.B m. 0he diameter of inspection chambers will be
ABB mm.
Connection "ipe Si.e and (rade
1onnection pipes will be ?,B mm diameter or greater depending on the
population of the buildings and the available grade.
Connection to Se/er
!ll connections to the main sewer made will be through T r 0 fittings.
5isers will be incorporated in the building connection where the depth of
sewer e:ceeds @., metres
;entilation of sewers is necessary to avoid the build up of no:ious gasses
and to minimize septic conditions.
'n developed areas sewers will naturally ventilate through the ventilation
stacks provided as part of each building sanitary system. 0herefore, there
is no need of additional ventilation stacks.
Se/age Lift3"ump Station
Se/age Lift Station
3ift station will be provided where necessary. 't will consist of a wet
well and a dry well to house two centrifugal pumps, one in operation and the
other standby. 0he pumps will operate automatically as a function of waste water
level in the sump .wet well/. 7rovision of ventilation and odour control system
will be made.
Se/age "ump Station
0he sewage pump station .if required/ will pump the wastewater
collected from the entire pro>ect area to the screening chamber of the treatment
plant. 0his will be a complete pump house building with a wet well and dry well.
0his will also be equipped with centrifugal pumps. 7rovision of ventilation and
odour control system will be made. 0hese will also be operating automatically
depending upon the water level. 7ositive suction head will be provided to the
pumps, standing provision of pumps will be ,BC of peak sewage flow.
"rocess of Se/age Treatment
0he proposed sewage treatment plant will be based on e:tended
aeration, activated sludge process.
Capacity of Treatment "lant
0he rated capacity of the plant will be average annual daily sewage
flow. 0he flow will be worked out on the basis of per capita sewage flow and
design population. 0he per capita domestic sewage flow will be ?-B liter$day
whereas the design population will be worked on the basis of adopted household
size and number of plots in the pro>ect area.
1omestic Se/age "roduction
!s discussed above, per capita domestic sewage production will be
adopted as ?-B liters$dayP the day will be defined as @+ hrs.
Industrial ,aste/ater "roduction
0he wastewater production hours will be considered as K hours in a
day, from K.BB am to +.BB pm.
Se/age +lo/ :ariations
0he following sewage flows will be considered for the design of
various treatment plant facilities mentioned belowH
7eak hour flow for 7umping equipment
7eak hour domestic flow will be equal to peak factor :
average daily flow.
*a:imum day flow for Sludge pumping system and Sedimentation
*inimum hour flow for 3ow range of plant flow.
Influent Characteristics
0he characteristics of domestic wastewater have been considered in
the following ranges, the design parameters will be established after the sample
testing of wastewater.
Characteristic Concentration
= %iochemical 8:ygen "emand .%8"s/
= Suspended Solids .SS/
= <ree !mmonia .as N/
= 0otal Nitrogen .as N/
= 0otal 7hosphorous
= "esign 0emperature
@BB=+BB mg$l
@@B=6,B mg$l
@,=,B mg$l
+B=K, mg$l
K=?, mg$l
@B X1
0he discharge from workshops etc. will be considered to be free from substances
which will hinder the biological process or could not be removed through the
process. Such substances will be removed at site by industry owners at their own
e:penses before discharging effluent into the proposed sewerage system. 0he
substances which hinder the biological processes are classified as followsH
<ats, oils and grease
7riority pollutants
!verage sewage temperature for the coolest month will be adopted as design
temperature which is taken as @BX1.
Effluent Characteristics
0he sewage will be so treated that it meets the wastewater
standards set by *inistry of 5egional *unicipalities and Environment according
to situation like following are the ma>or typical characteristicsH
Characteristic Concentration
%iochemical 8:ygen "emand .%8",/
Suspended Solids .SS/
NitrogenH !mmonia .as N/
Nitrate .as N86/
7hosphorus .total as 7/
<aecal 1oliform
?, mg$l
?, mg$l
, mg$l
,B mg$l
6B mg$l
@BB$?BB ml
Screen and Screen Cham)er
*echanical screen will be provided to aim at safety of the pump
and to remove solids that may retard treatment process and malfunctioning of
equipment of treatment plant. 0he design criterion for screen chamber is given
;elocity in approach channel H B.,=?.B m$sec
;elocity through screen H B.,=?.B m$sec
!verage spacing between the bars H @B mm
!ngle of inclination H -BX ABX
2ead loss H ?B ?, cm
;ertical velocity component perpendicularH B.?, m$sec to the screen
9il Separator
!n oil separator will be designed to remove the oil from wastewater
which hinders the process of treatment. 0he oil will be trapped in a chamber from
where it could be disposed off to appropriate site.
*eration Tan$ 3 Reactor
!eration tank based on e:tended aeration system .o:idation ditch/
will be provided. "esign of the tank will be based on following parametersH
2ydraulic 5etention 0ime
2ydraulic retention time of reactor will be taken as more than @B
hours and will be calculated as underH
5eactor ;olume .mV/
250 .days/ F ===============================
*a:. "aily flow .mV$day/
8rganic 3oading 5ate
0he organic loading %8" rate will be less than B.6 kg$m6. day.
8rganic loading rateF%8"
%8"F%8" in kg$day
;F;olume of reactor in mV
Sludge 3oading 5ate
<$* ratio or sludge loading rate will be adopted as less than B.?,
and will be related as
L%8"M &
<$* ratio F ========== : ===
L*3SSM ;
L%8"M F Sewage %8" concentration in kg$ mV
L*3SSM F %iomass 1oncentration in reactor, @=, kg$ mV
& F daily influent discharge in mV
;F volume of reactor in mV
*eration System
;ertical type mechanical surface aerators will be provided in a
rectangular aeration tank$reactor.
1ircular 511 tank.s/ will be provided for final settlement of suspended solids.
8verflow 5ateH @+ mV$mW. day
Solids 3oading 5ateH ?B kg$mW. hr.
"epthH + = - m.
Rapid Sand +ilter
0he effluent from final sedimentation tank will be passed through filters in order
to further reduce the %8" and suspended solids. 0he filters will be designed at
filtration rate of , mV$ mW$hr.
1isinfection of Treated Effluent
"isinfection of treated effluent will be carried out through
chlorination which will be carried out through dry feed chlorinators and gas will
be fed in treated effluent tank.
Treated Effluent Tan$
0reated effluent will be stored in a tank. 0he tank will be designed
for one day .annual average/ retention time.
1isposal of Treated Effluent
0he disinfected effluent will be utilized by the different users for
irrigation purpose. 'n case, conveyance of treated effluent is not possible through
gravity, pumps will be proposed to pump the treated effluent from storage tank.
Sludge Thic$ener3-olding Tan$
1ircular gravity thickener.s/ will be provided for gravity settling of
sludge. 0he basis of design is given as underH
Solid loading rateH 6B kg$m@. day
Sludge concentration H@ 6C .i.e. @B6B kg$m
=Sludge production rateHB.+ B.- kg$kg %8" removed
Sludge 1rying #eds
1onventional sludge drying beds will be provided to dewater the
stabilized sludge. 0he basis of design will be as underH
0hickness of wet sludge H @,B mm
Sludge retention time H ?+ days
Sludge 1isposal
0he dewatered sludge through drying beds will be transported
through vehicles and disposed off at landfill siteP the site should be of sufficient
capacity to store the sludge minimum for ?BB days.
Interconnecting "ipe !aterial
%uried pipes will be of 2"7E pipes, however e:posed pipes will be
of "'.
Code and Standards
!ll reinforced concrete structures including water retaining
structures shall be designed in accordance with the provisions of
the latest editions of %ritish Standards %.S. K??B, %.S ,66D and
other relevant Standards and 1odes of 7ractice.
!ll material used shall conform to the latest %ritish Standards.
'n addition, loadings, design procedures and material specifications
may also fulfill the requirements of !merican Standards and 1odes
i.e. !1'$!NS'$!S1E$!S0* etc.
!aterial Strengths
0he grade of concrete appropriate for use shall be selected from the
preferred grades in %S ,6@K.
5einforcing Steel
!ll reinforcing steel to be used in reinforced concrete works shall
conform to %S +++A and %S D@A, having a minimum yield strength
/ of +-B *7a .--,-,B 7si/.
Units and 1esign Loads
0he 'nternational System of #nits .S.'. #nits/ shall be used for the pro>ect.
1esign Loads
0he structures should be so designed that adequate means e:ist to transmit
the design ultimate dead, wind, and earthquake and imposed loads safely from
the highest support level to the foundations. 0he characteristics load in each case
should be the appropriate load as defined in and calculated in accordance with %S
1ead Loads
0he dead loads on the structure will be computed from the unit weights of
the materials. <ollowing unit weights will be used for computing dead loads,
unless otherwise specified.
*aterial #nit (eight .kN$mV/
5einforced 1oncrete @6.,
7lain 1oncrete @@.,
(ater A.K
%rick *asonry ?K.K
Saturated Soil @?.?
Steel D-.A
%ackfill 1ompacted ?K.?+
Live Loads
3ive load at different buildings$locations shall vary according to the
functional requirements.
*achine and equipment loads shall conform, to the requirements of the
,ind Loads
0he wind loads on the structures will be calculated using the following
F B.-?6 ;
W N$mW
F "esign wind speed in m$sec F ; S

; F %asic wind speed in m$sec F +, m$sec
S? F *ultiplying factor relating to topology
S@ F *ultiplying factor relating to height above ground and wind
S6 F *ultiplying factor related to life of structure.
Earth>ua$e Loads
!cceleration coefficient for seismic loads shall be taken as recommended
in the Geotechnical 'nvestigation 5eport of the pro>ect and 2ighway "esign
Temperature Effects
0he temperature effects will be investigated against a ma:imum
differential temperature of I @B degree centigrade and included in the design.
#nless otherwise specified, the ma:imum daily temperature shall be assumed as
,, X1. .!ccording to the location of site/
Load Cases and Load Com)inations
0he design will be based on #ltimate 3imit State using %S K??B.
Load Cases&
1ase ? Earthquake YEE
1ase @ ".3 .self I imposed/
1ase 6 3.3
1ase + Earth 7ressure YE.7E
1ase , 0emperature .0 F @B X1/
1ase - (ater pressure in tank .</
1ase D (ind Y(E .%asic wind speedF+, m$sec/
1ase K ".3I3.3I0I<I(Z.working loads
1ase A ".3I3.3I0IEI<Z.working loads
1ase ?B .?.+ "3I?.- 33/
1ase ?? .?.+"3 I ?.- 33I ?.+ E.7/
1ase ?@ .?.+ "3I ?.+ E.7 I ?.+ (/
1ase ?6 .?.@ "3 I ?.@ 33I ?.@ E.7 I ?.@ (/
1ase ?+ .?.+ "3 I ?.+ E7 I ?., E/
<or water retaining structures the provisions of %S ,66D shall be followed.
(eotechnical "arameters
0he geotechnical parameters relating to the bearing capacity, lateral
earth pressure and depth of foundations shall be used as recommended in the
Geotechnical 'nvestigation 5eport of the 7ro>ect
Sta)ility Criteria
0he following stability criteria will be usedH
<actor of safety .Sliding/ F ?.,B
<actor of safety .8verturning/ F 5esultant of forces within middle
third, in normal load cases.
:i)ration *nalysis
0he reinforced concrete foundations of heavy vibratory equipment
shall be so designed that the computed amplitude of vibration at the top of the
foundations will remain within the permissible limits specified by the equipment
supplier. ;ibrations caused by unbalanced machine forces shall also be
Computer Soft/are
1omputer program S0!!"='''$S0!!"=7ro shall be used for
analysis and design of the pro>ect structures. Sewer 1!" or E:cel for sewer
design and analysis according to the requirements.
'n order to effectively monitor and control the parameters of
sewage treatment plant, information of status and measurements must be
gathered at various points of the system and means must be provided to remote
control important devices from control room. 0he control and monitoring
parameters can be categorized as
0he scope of signals for each of the above category in the sewage
treatment plant is e:plained belowH
7umps and blower running .Status/
7umps and blower stopped .Status/
p2 value
(ater levels in screening chamber, sedimentation and
storage tanks
<low to screening chamber
Sludge level
1hlorine dosing
Start pumps and blower .8N/
Stop pumps and blower .8<</
Controlling !odes
(ith this information following technique will be possibleH
"rimary Control+ 0his type of control is a low level control
which means that the pumps and blowers will be operated manually
from the plant room when remote control from control room is
Secondary Control+ 'n this type of control the control room
software will automatically control and monitor the pumps, blowers
and other equipment and available flow and levels in the tanks and
!ll the information like level, flow, temperature and p2 value measurements will
be relayed to the control room for monitoring and control of pumps and blowers
will be carried out from control room. 2owever option will be provided for
manual control of pumps and blowers at the plant floor when remote control is
Re>uirement for Control Room
<or control and monitoring of various parameters discussed above,
a control room with proper furniture and air=conditioning is required. 0he
control room will act as controlling and monitoring hub for the entire sewage
treatment plant.
<ollowing facilities shall be provided in the control roomH
-ard/are +acilities
*ain processor
;ideo display units .;"#/
'nput devices .keyboard, mouse/
!1 #7S
Soft/are facilities
8perating system
7rocess 1ontrol Software based on Graphical #ser 'nterface
!ethods of !oving ,ater
"irect pumping
1ombination systems .most communities use combination systems/
Treatment +acilities
*ethods includeH coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, chemicals,
introducing bacteria$ organisms.
Spring and well water generally do not need further purification.
*aintenance errors, loss of power, or natural disasters concern fire
departments as they may reduce volume and pressure of water.
,ater 1istri)ution Systems
"elivers water from the pumping station throughout the area.
"ead=end hydrant receives water from only one direction
1irculating=feed hydrant receives water from two or more directions
Grid systems provide circulating feed from several mains
(rid Systems
7rimary feeders = ?- inch .+BBmm/ pipes
Secondary feeders = ?@ inch .6BBmm/ pipes
"istributor = K inch .@BBmm/ pipes
Recommended "ipe
?@ inch .6BBmm/ = main streets
K inch .@BBmm/ = business and industrial
- inch .?,Bmm/ residential
"ipe Capacities
+ inch .?BBmm/ per ?BBB ft main F @,, gpm
- inch .+BBmm/ per ?BBB ft main F D+B gpm
K inch .@BBmm/ per ?BBB ft main F ?,D, gpm
?@ inch .6BBmm/ per ?BBB ft main F +-,B gpm
,ater !ain :alves
'ndicating = identifies valve seat open, closed, or partially closed
No indicating = does not identify position
1ontrols water flow
*aintained at least once per year
+riction Loss
1efinitionH that part of the total pressure lost as water moves through the
system or hose.
7ipe construction .cast iron, ductile iron, asbestos cement, steel, plastic, or
concrete/ cause different levels of friction loss due to internal surface
material and resistance to water flow
Size of pipe
Encrustation from mineral deposits and sedimentation
<oreign materials = rocks
+ire -ydrants
Spaced between 6BB ft .?B,m/ for industrial, to +BB ft .?@Bm/ for
residential .!ccording to location/ and at strategic intersections.
2ydrant should be fully opened or closed to prevent soil erosion due to dry
barrel drain.
-ydrant Inspections
No obstructions effecting pumped connection.
8utlets face correct direction
7orts have clearance from ground
No physical damage or rust
1aps are free to operate
Stem easily opens and closes
No internal obstructions
0he term used for raising static water to supply a pumper
Ensure @+ inches of water above and below strainer to prevent clogging of
pumps. *inimum of one to two inches.
Strainers must be used and must not rest on the bottom
"ipe Net/or$s
(ater "istribution systems
0ransmission lines
7ipe networks
*easurements . "ischarge ) pressure/
*anifolds and diffusers
Storage tanks
"ipeline Systems
"ipe Net/or$s
(ater distribution systems for municipalities
*ultiple sources and multiple sinks connected with an interconnected
network of pipes.
1omputer solutions[
,ater 1istri)ution System *ssumption
Each point in the system can only have one pressure
0he pressure change from ? to @ by path a must equal the pressure change
from ? to @ by path b
h z
V p
V p
+ + + + +
2 2
1 1
2 2
a a
h z
p p
1 2
2 2
Same for path b[
7ressure change by path a

8r sum of head loss around loop is zero
7ipe diameters are constant or 4.E. is small
*odel withdrawals as occurring at nodes so ; is constant between
"ipes in "arallel
! %
<ind head loss given the total flow
assume a discharge &?E through pipe ?
solve for head loss using the assumed discharge
using the calculated head loss to find &@E
assume that the actual flow is divided in the same proportion as the
assumed flow
Net/or$s of "ipes
*ass conservation at all nodes
0he relationship between head loss and discharge must be maintained for
each pipe
"arcy=(eisbach equation
E:ponential friction formula
b b
a a
h z
h z
+ +
2 2 2 2
b a
h h

Net/or$ *nalysis
<ind the flows in the loop given the inflows and outflows.
0he pipes are all @, cm cast iron .eFB.@- mm/.
!ssign a flow to each pipe link
<low into each >unction must equal flow out of the >unction
B.6@ m
$s B.@K m
C D B.?B m
B.6@ m
B.@K m
B.?+ m
@BB m
C D B.?B m
B.6@ m
B.@K m
B.?+ m
1alculate the head loss in each pipe
0he head loss around the loop isnEt zero
Need to change the flow around the loop
the clockwise flow is too great .head loss is positive/
reduce the clockwise flow to reduce the head loss
Solution techniques
2ardy 1ross loop=balancing optimizes correction
#se a numeric solver .Solver in E:cel/ to find a change in flow that
will give zero head loss around the loop
#se Network !nalysis software .E7!NE0/
Numeric Solver
Set up a spreadsheet as shown below.
the numbers in bold were entered, the other cells are calculations
initially & is B
use QsolverR to set the sum of the head loss to B by changing &
the column &BI & contains the correct flows.
fFB.B@ for 5eG@BBBBB
2 5


h kQ Q =
) 25 . 0 )( 8 . 9 (
) 200 )( 02 . 0 ( 8
2 5


C D B.?B m
B.6@ m
B.@K m
B.?+ m
4 2
m h
m h
m h
m h
m h
53 . 31
00 . 0
39 . 3
222 . 0
7 . 34

Sign convention I1(

Q 0.000
pipe f L D k Q0 Q0+Q hf
P1 0.02 200 0.25 339 0.32 0.320 34.69
P2 0.02 100 0.25 169 0.04 0.040 0.27
P3 0.02 200 0.25 339 -0.1 -0.100 -3.39
P4 0.02 100 0.25 169 0 0.000 0.00
31.575 SumHead Loss
Solution to Loop "ro)lem
Net/or$ Elements
1heck valve .1;/
7ressure relief valve
7ressure reducing valve .75;/
7ressure sustaining valve .7S;/
<low control valve .<1;/
7umpsH need a relationship between flow and head
5eservoirsH infinite source, elevation is not affected by demand
0anksH specific geometry, mass conservation applies
Chec$ :alve
;alve only allows flow in one direction
0he valve automatically closes when flow begins to reverse
B C B.?B m
B.6@ m
B.@K m
B.?+ m
4 2
"ressure Relief :alve
(here high pressure could cause an e:plosion .boilers, water heaters,/
"ressure Regulating :alve
Sets ma:imum pressure downstream
Similar function to pressure break tank
;alve will begin to open when pressure in the pipeline
\E:ceed a set pressure .determined by force on the spring/.
relief flow
3ow pipeline pressure
2igh pipeline pressure
;alve will begin to open when the pressure downstream is less than the set=
point pressure .determined by the force of the spring/.
closed open
2igh downstream pressure
3ow downstream pressure
"ressure Sustaining :alve
Sets minimum pressure upstream, Similar to pressure relief valve
+lo/ control valve 4+C:6
3imits the flow rate through the valve to a specified value, in a specified
1ommonly used to limit the ma:imum flow to a value that will not
adversely affect the providerEs system
"ressure #rea$ Tan$s
'n the developing world small water supplies in mountainous regions can
develop too much pressure for the 7;1 pipe.
0hey do not want to use 75;s because they are too e:pensive and are
prone to failure.
7ressure break tanks have an inlet, an outlet, and an overflow.
Net/or$ *nalysis E%tended
0he previous approach works for a simple loop, but it doesnEt easily e:tend
to a whole network of loops
Need a matri: method
'nitial guess for flows
!d>ust all flows to reduce the error in pressures
;alve will begin to open when the pressure greater is upstream than the sets=
point pressure .determined by the force of the spring/.
1losed 8pen
3ow upstream pressure 2igh upstream pressure
"ressure Net/or$ *nalysis Soft/are& E"*NET
E"*NET net/or$ solution
4 2
2 n
i j ij ij ij
H H h rQ mQ +
ij i

AH = F
ii ij
A p

ij ij
A p
ij ij
nr Q m Q

5 2
h Q

5 2
8 fL

2 n
5 2


( )
( )
ij ij ij ij ij
y p r Q m Q Q +
( )
( )
ij ij ij ij ij
y p r Q m Q Q +
( )
ij ij ij ij i j
Q Q y p H H

"ipe Net/or$s
7roblem "escription
2ardy=1ross *ethod
Equivalent 5esistance, 4
"ro)lem 1escription
Network of pipes forming one or more closed loops
"emands ] network nodes .>unctions/
d, 3, pipe material, 0emp, 7 ] one node
"ischarge ) flow direction for all pipes in network
7ressure ] all nodes ) 2G3
-ardyBCross !ethod 41erivation6
+or Closed Loop&
$%& cfs
%& cfs
$ cfs
'&((), *+
$&((), ,+
.(((), .+
-&((), &+ A B
D /
( )
( ) 0

nQ Q K

a f
Q h n
Q KQ n
KQ n

( )
( )
2 2 1

+ + +
n n
nQ Q Q
n=,.-, "arcy=(eisbach
n=../0, 2azen=(illiams
E>uivalent Resistance5
E%ample "ro)lem
F ?@K psi
$ F B.B@
$%& cfs
%& cfs
$ cfs
'&((), *+
$&((), ,+
.(((), .+
-&((), &+ A B
D /
-ardyBCross !ethod 4"rocedure6
"ivide network into number of closed loops.
<or each loopH
o !ssume discharge &a and direction for each pipe. !pply 1ontinuity
at each node, 0otal inflow F 0otal 8utflow. 1lockwise positive.
o b/ 1alculate equivalent resistance 4 for each pipe given 3, d, pipe
material and water temperature .0able ??., as shown in above
o c/ 1alculate h
F4 &
for each pipe. 5etain sign from step .a/ and
compute sum for loop S h
o 1alculate h
for each pipe and sum for loop Sh
$ &
o 1alculate correction d F=S h
$&a/. N80EH <or common members
between @ loops both corrections have to be made. !s loop ? member, d F
d? = d@. !s loop @ member, d F d@ = d?.
o !pply correction to &a, &
I d.
o 5epeat steps .c/ to .f/ until d becomes very small and S h
FB in step .c/.
o Solve for pressure at each node using energy conservation.
"esign should be based not on present water demand but on future demand
estimation which is normally obtained by e:trapolation.
Storage and 1istri)ution of ,ater
Service 5eservoirsH Storage in water supply network
"urposes for Storage
0o balance supply and demand
7rotection against breakdown
0o provide a static head for gravity running
(ater treatment.
Sitting and Capacity of Reservoir
Sitting of Reservoir& 't should be sited as close as possible to point of use
within constraints of available relief. 0his is to reduce the pipe cost due to the
higher discharge from storage to points of use.
Capacity of ReservoirH 'nflows should be kept fairly even. 8utflows can be
peaked. Storage is used to balance uniform inflow and non=uniform outflows. 'f
inflow is greater than outflow, then water is getting into storage and if outflows is
greater than inflows, water is coming out of storage.
0here are three categories of pipesH
!ains& 0runk = not tapped and "istribution *ains supply water.
0hey have relatively large diameter and are used for conveyance
and distribution. *aterials used include cast iron, spun iron,
asbestos, cement, or steel.
Service "ipes& 'ndividual supply lines to farms, houses and
hospitals or standpipes. *aterials used include copper, steel,
plastics .7;1 or polyethylene/.
"lum)ing& 7ipe work within the building.
"ressure Classes of "ipes
0here are three important pressures associated with pipes.
,or$ TestH @ to 6 times the working pressure. 't is the pressure
used to test manufactured pipes.
!a%imum +ield TestH 8ne and half time the working pressure.
0he specified design pressure should be tested in the field.
!a%imum ,or$ing "ressureH *a:imum pressure derived in
the field. 0here are three classes of ma:imum working pressures
e.g. polyethylene 1lass %= - bars, 1lass 1 = A bars and 1lass " ?@
"ipeline 1esign
0he selection of pipes is an economic tradeoff between large diameter
which will give high capital cost and low friction losses and low pumping
costs .if there is pumping/ 9R small diameter, which will involve low
capital cost, more head losses and more pumping cost.
Energy cost is a function of head losses while pipe cost is a function of
*llo/a)le -ead Losses
!llow ? m .for big pipes/ to ?B m .small pipes/ head loss per ?BBB m
of mainline
#sing velocity as criteria as head loss effects is related to velocity.
Normal practice in water supply for irrigation is to keep velocity within B.- to ?.,
m$s. !bove that, there can be Ywater hammerE or high rates of corrosion. (ater
hammer is transient high pressure waves due to rapid valve closure. %elow B.-
m$s, there may be silting or sediment deposition.
7ipe diameter can be chosen using head losses and velocity using charts or
"ipe Layout& Types of 1istri)ution Systems
Individual "ipesH 1onnects two points in the distribution system say
from a reservoir to the point of use.
! reservoir .Shown in <igure/ is situated -, m vertically above some farm
buildings. 0he length of pipe required to lead water from the reservoir is D,B m
and the pressure required at the buildings is 6B m head. 5ate of flow required is
@ mV$h .@BBB liter$hr/.
'f the head available due to the height of the reservoir is -, m, and the
pressure head needed at the buildings is 6B m, the head available for overcoming
friction is -, 6B F 6, m being the difference in head between the ends of the
0he equivalent length of the pipe isH
!ctual length .D,B m/ I ?BC .D, m/
F K@, m
7lus .say/ ? tap I @ stop taps F @6, m
0otal F ?B-B m
Solution Concluded
0he hydraulic gradient is 7ressure difference$ equivalent length F
6,$?B-B F ?$6B
Since the ma:imum head is -, m, a 1lass 1 .A bar or AB m/ pipe is
required, and referring to 1hart provided, it can be seen that a 6@ mm
nominal .internal/ diameter 1lass 1 low density polythene pipe would
satisfy these requirements.
;elocity is about B.K m$s which is acceptable .within B.- and ?., m$s/.
#ranching System
0he advantages are relatively few >oints and the system is easy to build and
0he disadvantages are that sediments may accumulate at dead ends of the
pipe. Secondly, it there is pipe bursts, a total cut off for zone beyond
failure results.
0his means that in case of bursts, the system will be cut off.
!lso there are limitations in adding to the system beyond a certain point.
%ecause of these disadvantages, branch system is used in small community
elev .m/
Example 20 1or the 2ranching pipe s3stem shown 2elow0 At B and C, a
minimum pressure of & m% At A, ma4imum pressure re5uired is *. m and the
minimum is -. m% Select a suita2le diameter for AB and BC%

0.15 l/s
'$6 m A

'%6 m
7h '%* m
7h C 8'$6 m,
,'& m
B $,6 m

u2lic water main

!% @.A DBB 6@ 6.6 B.K, @6 ! @-B
% @6D
?KA +- 8.4
%1 B., K@, ?A ?.- B., ?6 % @6D
1 @@+
@?A , 9ust
E%planation of Ta)le
0he average of the ma:imum and minimum pressure required at ! is
+? m.
'f you subtract the minimum pressure needed at % ., m/ from +? m, you
get 6- m.
Since the length of the pipe is DBB m, the hydraulic head loss is 6-$DBB F
B.B,? F ,$?BB F ?$@B.
(ith the discharge of @.A m6$h and head loss of ?$@B, the ne:t higher
diameter of pipe is 6@ mm from the chart.
(ith now 6@ mm diameter pipe chosen from the 0able, and the same flow
rate, the actual head loss is now ?$6B from the chart which is 6.6 m$?BBm
as shown in table.
0he flow velocity is about B.K, m$s which is acceptable.
0he head loss is now .6.6 : DBB/$?BB F @6 m. !t !, the elevation of the
hydraulic grade line is now +?m I ground elevation .@?A m/ F @-B m.
<or %, it is @-B minus the head loss .@6 m/ which is @6D m.
0he ground elevation at % is ?KA, so the pressure head of water is @6D
?KA F +K m which is adequate.
<or 7ipe %1, the design flow is B., m6$h. 0he hydraulic grade line at % is
still @6D m and the elevation at 1 is @?A m.
0he hydraulic grade line required at 1 is @?A m plus , m head of water,
making a total of @@+ m.
E%planation of Ta)le Concluded=
0he hydraulic gradient from % to 1 is then .@6D @@+/$K@, F B.B?- which
is ?.-$?BB F ?$-B.
(ith hydraulic gradient F ?$-B and the flow rate of B., m6$s, the diameter
of pipe from the 1hart is e:actly ?A mm.
0he velocity is B., m$s which is barely acceptable.
0he head loss is B.B?- : K@, m F ?6 m.
0he hydraulic grade line at 1 is therefore @6D m ?6 m, which is @@+ m.
0his will give the pressure head of , m required at 1.
(rid "attern3Looped Net/or$
'nterconnected pipes water reaches a point from a number of directions.
0he advantages are that there will be no stagnation i.e. no dead ends and
during repairs .pipe burst/, there will be no need for complete cutoff.
8nly some parts of the system will be cut off. 0here are also more even
pressures throughout the system.
0he disadvantages are that the designs are more complicated and there are
more pipes and more fittings.
"ipe Net/or$ *nalysis Using the -ardy Cross method =
0he 2ardy 1ross system is used for water flow analysis in a more comple:
system than the dead end system.
"rocedure for *nalysis
!ssign assumed flows to each pipe segment in network such that at each
1alculate h
for each pipe using for e:ample 2azen (illiams equationH
F ?B.-D 12 =?.K, "= +.KD &?.K, 3
(here h
is head loss .m/, 12 is roughness coefficient of pipe materialP "
is diameter of pipe .m/, & is water flow rate .m6$s/ and 3 is length of pipe .m/.
"rocedure Concluded
<or any pipe that occurs twice, do the correction for the two loops.
%1 occurs twice.
5epeat involved step until desired accuracy is obtained.
! "
Example0 O2tain the flow rates in the network shown 2elow%

6( l7s

A && .(( m B

-& .(( m
'&* mm
.(( m C C
$&' mm $&
$& .(l7s
...(( .(( m
/ .(( m & D $&' mm
$&' mm
'&* mm
$&' mm
!%"E is one loop as shown above and %1" is the second loop.
Note that the clockwise water flows are positive while the anti=clockwise
ones are negative.
7ositive and negative flows give rise to positive and negative head losses
Circuit Pipe L (m) D (m) Q (m
/s) h
(m) h
/Q Q
AB .(( (%'&* : (%(&& '%9' *6%*&
! BD .(( (%$&' : (%($ $%*' $*'
D/ .(( (%$&' ; (%((& ; (%-6 9, 0.00
/A .(( (%$&' ; (%(-& ;$*%*' *$'
!otal " #0.$% $#.&'

BC .(( (%'&* : (%(*& $%,, *$%,
!! CD .(( (%$&' ; (%($& ; -%($ '((%.9 0.00&
DB .(( (%$&' ; (%($( ; $%*' $*'
!otal " 2.'' 3&.&%

Sample Calculation0 <sing the Ha=en >illiams /5uation in Step ' 0

for pipe AB ? $(%.9 4 $-&
@ $%,&
4 (%'&*
4 (%(&&
4 .(( ? '%9'

s l
s l
& 4 00359 . 0
47 . 384 85 . 1
55 . 2
& 8 0084' . 0
45 . '81 85 . 1
'7 . 10

Correct the flows as shown 2elow0

6( l7s

A .- B


.( 77s

/ - D
-( l7s

Circuit Pipe L (m) D (m) Q (m
/s) h
(m) h
/Q Q
AB .(( (%'&* : (%(.- -%& &&%&
! BD .(( (%$&' : (%($* '%.9 $6(%9$
D/ .(( (%$&' : (%((- (%$&- &$ 0.002
/A .(( (%$&' ; (%('9 ; ,%6' --(%-9
!otal " 2.$ $#.&'

BC .(( (%'&* : (%(*6 '%' **%6
!! CD .(( (%$&' ; (%($$ ; $%.6 $&-%.* 0.003
DB .(( (%$&' ; (%($* ; '%.9 $6(%9
!otal " 2.'' 3(.2'

s L
s L
& 3 003 . 0
25 . 389 85 . 1
1' . 2
& 2 002 . 0
58 . '27 85 . 1
' . 2

Correct flows again for the third trial

6( l7s



.( l7s

/ & D
-( l7s


Circuit Pipe L (m) D (m) Q (m
/s) h
(m) h
/Q Q
AB .(( (%'&* : (%(.& -%9' &9%'
! BD .(( (%$&' : (%($- '%-$ $99%9
D/ .(( (%$&' : (%((& (%-6 9, 0.00#
/A .(( (%$&' ; (%('& ; 9%9 -(,
!otal " #.2 $20.(

BC .(( (%'&* : (%(&' '%*. **%6
!! CD .(( (%$&' ; (%((, ; (%6* $&-%.* 0.003
DB .(( (%$&' ; (%($- ; '%-$ $6(%9
!otal " 0.%( 3&2.'

l s
l s
185 '20 9
0 001 1
0 79
185 342 5
0 00125 1

. .
. &
. .
. &

+inal ,ater +lo/s
)inal *ater )lo+s

6( l7s

.. l7s
&- l7s

'* l7s

.( l7s

-( l7s . l7s

,ote0 A computer programme e4ists for anal3sis using the Hard3 Cross Aethod

$- l7s
,ater Consumption & 1emands
1ommon water supply systems
1old water system
7otable$fresh water
<lushing .salt water in 24/
1leansing water
Swimming pool filtration
'rrigation .e.g. for landscape/
<ountain circulation
*ake=up water of cooling tower, etc.
2ot water system .e.g. in hotels ) hospitals/
*a>or tasks of water systems designH
!ssessment ) estimation of demands
Supply scheme ) schematic
(ater storage requirements
7iping layout
7ipe sizing
7ump capacity
"esigners require a wide range of information.
(ater usage, patterns of use, flow loads
7ractical info on water usage
;ery few e:perimental studies on this[
0heoretical framework
<it the data ) provide a design method
%ased on statistics ) probability, e.g. binomial distribution
7m F 7robability of occurrence
!nd n is the total number of fittings having the same probability and m is
number of fitting in use at any one time.
"esign flow considerations
! small increase in demand over design level will cause a slight
reduction in pressure$flow .unlikely to be noticed by users/
E:ceptional cases, such asH
1leanersE sinks
#rinal flushing cisterns .constant small flow/
0eam changing rooms at sport clubs
Special events
Loading units and design flo/ rates
m n m
m n m


) 1 (
) (

"ipe & ,ater Storage
7ipe sizing procedure
!ssume a pipe diameter
"etermine the flow rate
"etermine the effective pipe length
1alculate the permissible loss of head
"etermine the pipe diameter
#sually, flow velocities shall be S 6 m$s
0he higher the temperature of the water, the lower would be the limit of
flow velocity
7ipe reference =*ark pipe reference on the schematic drawing and enter
the pipe reference on the table
3oading units= "etermine the loading units according to the outlet fittings

<low rate .l$s/ = 1onvert loading units to flow rate
7ipe size .mm diameter/ = *ake assumption to the pipe size
3oss of head .m$m run/ = <ind friction resistance per meter.
<low velocity .m$s/= <ind the flow velocity
*easured pipe run .m/= *easure the straight pipe length
Equivalent pipe length .m/ = <ind the frictional resistance in fittings .as
equivalent length/
Effective pipe length .m/= 0otal length .F straight I equivalent length/
2ead consumed = total length : meter$ meter loss
7rogressive head .m/ = !dd head consumed to progressive head
!vailable head .m/ = 1heck available head available at point of delivery
<inal pipe size .mm/ = 1ompare progress head with available head to
confirm any correction of pipe diameter.
(ater storage allowance depends onH
0ype and use of buildings
Number of occupants
0ype and number of fittings
<requency and pattern of use
3ikelihood and frequency of breakdown of supply
8ften design for @+=hour reserve capacity
Stratification of Supplied ,ater
Need to consider these factorsH
!ny stratification of the stored water
"ump Systems & "erformance
1entrifugal pumps are commonly used
0wo types of systemsH
1losed systems
8pen systems
8pen to atmosphere
"ump "ressure Effects in an 9pen System
"ump Systems & "erformance
7ump considerations
7ractical suction lift is , m ma:imum
!lso known as net positive suction head .N7S2/
7ump location is important for both closed and open systems
8pen systemH not e:cessive to avoid cavitations
1lose systemH 'nfluence water level of open vent pipe ) the
magnitude of anti=flash margin .temp. difference between water )
its saturation temp./
YSelf=primingE to evacuate air from suction line
7ump characteristics
1haracteristics curves .e.g. from catalogue/H
0otal head
No=flow conditions .flow F zero/
1lose valve pressure
Need to prevent over=heat
"ump Characteristics Curves 4Centrifugal6
& F <low, p F 7ressure, 7 F 7ower
!ain Characteristics of Centrifugal & "ositive 1isplacement "umps
7ump characteristics
7umps connected in seriesH
"ouble the pressure
7umps connected in parallelH
"ouble the flow
"issimilar pumps may not be in parallel
Centrifugal pumps Positive Displacement pumps
(Ver fe! using in plum"ing
( $)*)+it, -).ies /it0 0e)d
( $)*)+it, *.o*o.tion)l to *u1*
( 2e)d *.o*o.tion)l to t0e s3u).e
o4 *u1* s*eed
( 5on sel4(*.i1ing
( Suit)6le 4o. lo/(-is+osit, li3uid
( $)*)+it, su6st)nti)ll,
inde*endent o4 0e)d
( $)*)+it, *.o*o.tion)l to s*eed
( Sel4(*.i1ing
( Suit)6le 4o. -).ious li3uids
(.edu+ed s*eeds usu)ll, ne+ess).,
4o. 0ig0 -is+osit,
7u1*s in
7ump characteristics
7umps with steep characteristics
1hange in pressure =G small change in flow rate
#seful where pipes tend to scale up
7umps with flat characteristics
1hange in flow =G small change in pressure
#seful where e:tensive hydraulic balancing is needed
<or closed systems, pressure at zero flow shall be greater than static
height of the system to ensure initiation of flow
7umps with constant speed cannot respond to changes in load
5equire a bypass to ensure constant flow
;ariable speed pumps
7rovides for savings in pumping costs during partial load
Types of Centrifugal "umpsH=
;ertical and horizontal
Single and multiple stages
7ump materials to suit the environment, e.g. stainless steel pumps for salt water

2orizontal centrifugal pump
7u1*s in
7ump impeller
9ther 1esign Considerations
Noise ) vibration
7ipe noise
7ipe should not be fi:ed rigidly to lightweight panels
<low noise
4eep velocities under control
7ump noise
#se rubber hose isolators, resilient inserts, acoustic filters
(ater hammer
Such as when a valve is closed rapidly
7ulsating type of noise by shock waves
7reventive measuresH
7revent sudden closing of the valve
!bsorb pressure peaks .e.g. by pneumatic vessels/
'ncrease the attenuation of pressure waves when transmitted
through the pipe=work
"esign the pipe=work to avoid long straight pipe runs
5estrict water velocities .e.g. to a ma:imum of 6 m$s/
%ack siphon=age
8ccur when water mains pressure reduce greatly
1ontamination of water may happen
1ontamination might also occur due to gravity ) backpressure
!nti=siphonage device and design precautions
(ater economy ) energy conservation
Economy of water
! key factor in the design .to conserve water/
"etect water leakage
New ) innovative flushing arrangements .e.g. low=
water and pressure flushing cisterns/
(ater plugs, self=closing taps, spray taps, aerators,
Energy conservation
'nsulation of hot water pipe, fittings ) vessels
#se of fresh water for cooling tower make=up

9ther +riction Losses

:alves and +ittings

1alculate frictional losses in a system containing valves, fittings, and
sudden e:pansions and contractions
E:press frictional losses in terms of velocity head
!ssess relative contributions of different sources to total viscous
Sudden E%pansion
<rictional losses occur as result of turbulence generated immediately
downstream of the e:pansion.
is the e:pansion loss coefficient and which is related to flow properties.
Sudden E%pansion 4!ass #alance6
Sudden E%pansion 4 !omentum #alance6
!ssume turbulentH b? F b@ F ?
5eplaced S
with S
7a is at the point of e:pansion.
e fe
K h
b b b a a a
a b
( )
g w b b b a a a b b
F F S p S p V V m +
( ) ( )
a b b a b
V V m p p S
( )
a b


( )
a b b
[ ]
b a b

!echanical Energy #alance

!ssume turbulentH a? F a@ F ?
+inal Result
5ecall *ass %alance 5esultH
;elocity head is based on smaller cross section
(hat if flow becomes laminar in large pipeU
( )
( )
a b
a a b b
p p
z g V V +

+ +

2 2

p V V
p p V V
b a
b a b a


2 2
2 2
a b


( ) [ ]
b a b
b a
h +

2 2

( )
2 2
b a
b b a a

+or Tan$ +illing

Sudden Contractions
!t sudden contractions, flow streamlines converge causing the downstream
developed flow to have an area smaller than the downstream pipe diameter. 0his
flow constriction is called the vena contracta. ;iscous dissipation occurs in the
vortices developed in this area.
"evelopment of an e:pression for sudden contraction proceeds in much the same
way as that for sudden e:pansion with the definition of a contraction coefficient.
a b
S S f!r


1 1
0 . 1

<or laminar flow e:perimentally, 4
S B.? and h
is usually neglected
0urbulent .empirical/H
NoteH 1alculations again based on
small cross section
Tan$ Emptying
:elocity -eads
" f"
K h


K 1 4 . 0
b a
S S f!r


1 1
4 . 0
4 . 0


0he above e:pression shows that friction loss in a complicated flow system can be
e:pressed as a number of velocity heads. 't is a measure of momentum loss
resulting from flow through the system. <or instance in making a ABX turn all :=
momentum is turned into y=momentum.
*lternate !ethod
0he previous equation can be manipulated to change the ($ values into
equivalent lengths of pipe .see ne:t slide/ of diameter ". (hen this method is
used the equivalent lengths are add to the length of the actual pipe sections and
the equation becomes.
NoteH 0he values in the table are 3$" and must be multiplied by " to get
equivalent lengths
( )
f z z g
p p
f e " b a
b a


+ + + +

' 1
#l!be $ee
f h

(ater is pumped at @,B gpm from tank ? to tank @ as shown. 1alculate
the required power input to the pump assuming a pump efficiency of DBC.
Tank $
-#0 ft
'. Sch. &0 Steel

? -( psi
Tank '
?6( ft
*C Sch% *( Steel
? ;$( ft
? :(%& ft
? :9& ft
? :$& ft
gate "al"e 8openF
0045 . 0
0003' . 0 12 047 . 500015 . 0 & 00015 . 0
10 5' . 1 10 7197 . '
4 . '2 0 . 4 12 047 . 5
0 . 4 1390 . 0 1 48 . 7 '0 1in 1 1in 250
5 4 3
2 3 9 5


,_ ,_ ,_
,_ ,_ ,_

f% f% D k k
s f% l b f% l b s f% f% &
s f % f% gal f % s gal V
m '(
0042 . 0
00045 . 0
12 02' . 400015 . 0 & 00015 . 0
10 9' . 1 10 7197 . '
4 . '2 3 . ' 12 02' . 4
3 . ' 0884 . 0 1 48 . 7 '0 1in 1 1in 250
5 4
2 3 9 4


,_ ,_ ,_

,_ ,_ ,_

f% D k k
s f% lb f% lb s f% f% &
s f% f% gal f% s gal V
( )
( )
p f
" "
a e
lb f%
s lb
lb f%
ansi!n fi%%ings
L f
lb f%
s lb
lb f%
n "!n%ra"%i! fi%%ings
L f
z g
423 . 4 0 . 1 17 . 0 75 . 0 2
02' . 4
) 90 ( 0042 . 0 4
2 . 32
3 . '
20' . 0 4 . 0 0
047 . 5
) 10 ( 0045 . 0 4
2 . 32
0 . 4
9 4
9 4
9 5
9 5


+ + +





+ +


+ +





+ +


Study of +lo/ in Circular "ipes
0o measure the pressures drop in the straight section of smooth,
rough, and packed pipes as a function of flow rate.
0o correlate this in terms of the friction factor and 5eynolds
0o compare results with available theories and correlations.
0o determine the influence of pipe fittings on pressure drop
0o show the relation between flow area, pressure drop and loss as a
function of flow rate for ;enturi meter and 8rifice meter.
*pparatus used for analysis in la)oratory
7ipe Network
( )
Hp s
lb f%
lb f%

lb f%

lb f%
z g P
m m
p f
9 . 13
) 70 . 0 ( 550
4 . 154 71 . 34
71 . 34
33 . 8
4 . 154
'29 . 4 15 75 5 . 0 10
4 . '2




+ + + + +


<luid flow in pipes is of considerable importance in process.
!nimals and 7lants circulation systems.
'n our homes.
1ity water.
'rrigation system.
Sewer water system
<luid could be a single phaseH liquid or gases
*i:tures of gases, liquids and solids
NonNe/tonian fluids such as polymer melts, mayonnaise
Ne/tonian fluids like in your e:periment .water/
Energy Loss in :alves
<unction of valve type and valve position
0he comple: flow path through valves can result in high head loss
.of course, one of the purposes of a valve is to create head loss when
it is not fully open/
are the loss in terms of velocity heads
+riction Loss +actors for valves
;alve 4 3
Gate valve, wide open B.?, D
Gate valve, 6$+ open B.K, +B
Gate valve, ?$@ open +.+ @BB
Gate valve, ?$+ open @B ABB
Globe valve, wide open D., 6,B
K (
v v
2 2

,ater Supply and 1istri)ution System
41esign Criteria6
0he growth rate of population will be ] +BC increase in ?B years for
urban areas.
0he growth rate of population will be 6BC increase in ?B years for semi
urban $ town committee.
0he growth rate of population will be ] 6BC increase in ?B years for rural
0he above percentages will be amended on actual census reports when
finalized by Government of 7akistan from decade to decade. 2owever from
September ?AAK the rate of increase will be @.@+C for rural and 6.6?C for urban
0ube wells and treatment works ?B years
7umping chambers .structures/ @B years
*achinery ?B years
"istribution system and rising main @B years
N80EH "istribution system to be designed on peak hour demand while tube well
and rising main on ma:imum day demand.
"omestic water consumption
7er capita consumption per day
.inclusive of unaccounted for
#pto ======= ,BBB ?B gallons
,BBB ======= ?BBBB ?, gallons
?BBBB ======= @,,BBB @B gallons
?BBBB ======= @,,BBB 6B gallons .with sewerage
@,BBB ======= ? lac +B gallons .with sewerage
!bove ? lac ,B gallons .with sewerage
Industrial /ater consumption
0he requirement of any industry be assessed separately and
included in total requirement of water.
Institutional /ater consumption
+or institutions
Such as hospitals, hostels, schools etc. an allowance ] ?B gallons per
boarder and ] , gallons per day scholar is to be made.
Short term variation in demand
*a:imum day demand ?., times the average day
7eak hour demand ?., times the average day
<or urban residential areas 6B feet .minimum/
<or urban residential areas @, feet .minimum
:EL9CITG 9+ +L9, IN "I"ES
"istribution mains ? to , feet $ second
5ising mains ?., to D feet $ second
5ecommended minimum size of distribution mains 6 inches in plain areas
and as per actual calculated for hilly areas. 2owever velocity shall be the
controlling factor.
C9:ER 9:ER "I"ES
6 feet for all sizes of pipes e:cept in hilly areas. 2owever all road cuts are
to be filled in with pit sand $ river sand.
"U#LIC ST*N1 "9STS 4"S"6
0he location of the stand=posts shall be made in such a manner that it is at
an appro:imate distance of about 6,B feet from the end consumers in the
rural areas and many be avoided in the urban $ semi urban areas as far as
possible to reduce losses.
Each stand=post shall serve about @BB persons.
7S7 to be provided only after study of 5esources 1ollection ZZ concerned
<ire hydrants to be provided in urban $ semi urban areas. 0he capacity of
the hydrants to deliver water should not be less than D gallons per second.
;alves shall be located at main control points for balancing and
regulations. Non return valve to be provided in rising main with length e:ceeding
,BBB feet.
*IR :*L:ES *N1 ,*S-9UT
!ir valves only at summits and washout at lowest points will be provided.
*asters meter shall be provided at source.
7rovide over head reservoir where it is needed due toH
Strategic location of pro>ect
Source is more than ,,BBB feet away from village
"ifference of level between source and village is more than ?BB feet.
1apacity of reservoir will be ?$-th of the average daily demand
sub>ect to minimum of ,BBB gallons.
Spare parts, tools are recommended to be provided.
3arge units are economical. 't may be kept in view that combination of
unit is possible for average and peak flows.
(orking hoursH
0ube wellsH
5ural K=?@ hours
#rban ?- hours
*achinery at treatment worksH
<or population above @,,BBB gallons ?- hours
<or population less than @,,BBB gallons K=?@ hours
B.? 77* residual at the farthest end of the distribution system
-I(- LE:EL T*N 4R*, ,*TER6
8ne hour capacity of average daily requirement.
Slo/ Sand +ilters
i. 5aw water storage ,BC of @? days average
ii. 5ate of filtration +B gallons per day per Sft. 8f
sand area
iii. "epth of filter sand 6B to 6- inches.
iv. Effective size of sand .d?B/
0op of filter
B.6 mm B.6, mm
gravel to ? feet B.6 mm B.6, mm
? to @ feet B.@, mm B.6B mm
0op layer A inches minimum B.?K mm B.@@ mm
v. #niformity 1o=efficient of
Not greater than @., .d -B$d ?B/
vi. "epth of water over the
6 + feet
vii. ;elocity of water in under
drainage system
Not more than B.D, feet $second.
viii. *inimum number of
sedimentation tanks in water
treatment plant will be two.

i:. Sedimentation tanks will be
constructed in series to achieve
stage sedimentation prior to

:. <ilter Gravel
5ange "epth
6 to ? inches - inches
? to 6$K inches @ inches
6$K to 6$?- inches @ inches
0otal "epthH ?B inches
0he gravel should to placed over the under drains but not within @ feet from the
side walls, so that only sand will rest in the @ feet zone along sides of the filters.
0he outlet systems will be provided with telescopic arrangement of pipes to
ad>ust required flow of filtered water according to varying resistance in filter
media. 0he difference in inlet and outlet will be kept @+=6B inches
(R9UN1 ,*TER ST9R*(E
Ground water storage tank at intermediate point to be provided due to
e:cessive head.
1apacity of ground water storage tanks ] ^ the average daily demand
will be provided.
Rapid Sand +ilters
i. 5ate of filtration @ + gal$sft.$min.
ii. *inimum depth of filter Should not be less than K., feet
iii. "epth of water on the sand Should not be less than 6 feet
iv. "epth of filtering sand @+ inches to 6B inches
v. Effective size of filtering sand B.6, B.,B mm
vi. #niformity co=efficient of sand ?.6 ?.D
vii. Supporting GravelH
5ange "epth
@=?$@ to ?=?$@ inches , to K inches
?=?$@ to _ inches 6 to , inches
_ to ` inches 6 to , inches
` to 6R$?- @ to 6 inches
6$?- to 6$6@ inches @ to 6 inches
0otal depthH ?, to @+ inches
Test "ressure for Land ,ater Lines
,BC above class of pipe used.
"ro7ection of "ipes
*.S. pipes should be provided with bituminous coating and polythene
,ater Standards
S#%S0!N1E 85
E<<E10 02!0
*!T %E
Substances causing
"iscoloration , units .a/ ,B units .a/
Substances causing
8dor #nob>ectionable #nob>ectionable
Substances causing
0aste #nob>ectionable #nob>ectionable
Suspended matter 0urbidity
, #nits .b/ , #nits .b/
0otal solids 0aste
,BB mg$l ?,BB mg$l
72 range 0aste corrosion D.BB to K., -., to A.@
!nionic detergents 0aste and
B.@ mg$l ?.B mg$l
*ineral oil 0aste and odor
after chlorinating
B.B? mg$l B.6B mg$l
'ron .total as <e/ 0aste
"eposits and
growth of iron
bacteria 0urbidly
B.? mg$l ?.B mg$l
*agnesium .as *g/ 2ardness 0aste
irritation in the
presence of
Not more than 6B
mg$l if there are
@,B mg$l of
sulfate, if there is
less sulfate,
magnesium up to
?,B mg$l may be
?,B mg$l
*agnesium .as *g/ 0aste
deposits in pipes
B.B, mg$l B., mg$l
Sulfate .as So+/ Gastrointestinal
irritation when
magnesium or
sodium are
@BB mg$l +BB mg$l
binc .as bn/ !shingent taste
opalescence and
,.B mg$l ?, mg$l
7henol compounds
.as phenol/
particularly in
chlorinated water
B.BB? mg$l B.BB@ mg$l
0otal hardness E:cessive scale
.?BB mg$l 1a1o6/ .,BB mg$l
1alcium .as .1a/ E:cessive scale
D, mg$l @BB mg$l
1hloride .as .1'/ 0aste 1orrosion
in hot water
@BB mg$l -BB mg$l
8n the platinum=1obalt scale.
0urbidity units
'f the hardness in much less than this, other undesirable effects may be
caused, for e:ample, heavy metals may be dissolved out of pipes.
Strom ,ater 1rainage
0he capacity of storm water drainage be calculated according to %urkliziegler
formula taking into consideration, slope of calculated area, type of development
and intensities of rainfall based on rational assessment of the last ?B years
covering KBC of rain storms.
0his discharge is calculated as followsH
& F !51 : + c S$!
& F "ischarge in cusecs
! F "rainage area in acres
S F !verage slope of the water shed in feet per thousand feet
1 F 1o=efficient of impermeability
5 F !verage intensity of rainfall in inches per hours.
;alue of Q5R depends upon the time of concentration i.e. 0, which is the time
taken for water to flow from omits of the area under consideration to a specific
point of the sewer. 0his also includes time of entry whose usual values are as
3arge mansions is very large plots @ min
Semi detached houses ? min
1losely built area ?` min
!ccording to 7un>ab Engineering 1ongress paper No. @A, .?A,@/ on analysis of
heavy rainfall in short periods at 3ahore by 5. S.*. Naqvi.
:alue of LRM E=;8BA=ANA'
0his formula is applicable only to ma:imum intensity of rainfalls and is limited to
a duration of +, minutes, (here 0 F "uration of heavy rainfall in minutes.
<or other cases the following value of Q5R may be adopted.
5 F 6B$0 I ?B
(hen 0 F , to 6B minutes .0ime of concentration/
5 F +B$0 I @B
(hen 0 F @B to ?BB minutes.
(here time of concentration cannot be calculated, the following formula be used
for finding out the dischargeH
& F -., : 5 : ! : 1
& F "ischarge in cubic ft$min
5 F !verage intensity of rainfall in inches$hours.
! F "rainage area in acres
1 F 1o=efficient of impermeability
0he percents of imperviousness of various types of surfaces very commonly
used are those of 4uichiling which are shown belowH Q;ide page 6++ of book
(ater Supply ) Sewerage by E.(. Steel, ?A+DR

0ype of Surface 1o=efficient of
(ater tight of roof surface B.DB B.A,
!sphalted pavements in good order B.6,=B.AB
Stone, brick and wood=block pavement with tightly
cemented >oints
Same with un cemented >oints B.DB=B.KB
'nferior block pavement with un cemented >oints B.DB=B.KB
!tomized roadways B.@,=B.BB
Gravels roadways ) walks B.?,=B.6B
7arks, gardens, lawns, meadows, depending and
surface slope and character of sub=soil.
0he percent of imperviousness for the whole area is then arrived at after
estimating on ascertaining the proportions of the various surfaces to the whole
<ollowing figures which are usually adopted may serve as good guideH
Surface 1o=efficient
*ost densely built up area B.DB = B.AB
!d>acent well built up sections B.,B = B.DB
5esidential areas with detached houses B.@, B.,B
Sub urban sections with few buildings B.?B B.@,
Consideration of Rainfall Intensity in "un7a)
<or Southern 7un>ab, an intensity of ?$6B in. per hour may be taken
e:cept for industrial cities whereas higher intensity .?$+ in per hour/ be assumed.
<or Northern 7un>ab, an intensity of ^ in. per hour be assumed for small towns
while ` in. per hour or a figure based on rational assessment be assumed for
larger cities
1esign of 9utfall ,or$s
8utfall pumping stations are proposed to be designed to cater for the
ma:imum peak load plus a ,BC standby .,BC of peak load/.
0he pumps would be located in dry well ad>acent to collecting sumps with at least
?B minutes retention capacity. 0here would be at least @ units. 0he sump will be
preceded by coarse screens with @ inches mesh.
<or the present only works and machinery needed for the present ma:imum
discharges would be provided.
0he pumps will be vertical centrifugal type in dry sumps designed for passing
solids of @ to 6 inches size. 0hese will be powered by !.1 electric motors. <or
safeguard against power failures at least ,BC pumping capacity will have
additional diesel engine drive in addition to the normal electric driven ,BC
standby prescribed above
7resent average flow .if it be less than, ` of ultimate average/ or `
ultimate average.
7resent and ultimate peak flows
"lanning and 1esign Criteria for Solid ,aste !anagement
0his section presents the design criteria to be used for the design of
proposed solid waste management system including estimation of generation,
onsite storage, collection, and transportation and disposal systems. Solid waste
management system services will be provided to secure ma:imum benefits at
minimum cost and to be compatible with local conditions using appropriate
1esign "eriod
0he design horizon for the 7ro>ect is up to year @B@-. 2owever estimation
will be carried out for the requirements up to year @B?-. .1onditionally/
1esign Life of Components
0he design period of different components of S(*S will be adopted as
discussed belowH
S(* *achinery ?B years
0ractors$0rolleys ?B years
0ractors$0rolleys 6 years
1ivil works @, years
*achinery and electrical
components of *otor vehicles
?B years
E:isting 7opulation
!s per "istrict 1ensus 5eport of year ?AAK, population growth rate
of the *1 under study .e.g district 1hiniot/ during the period from ?AK?=?AAK
was @.A6C which is near about the national average, which is @.KC. 7opulation of
0own for the year ?AAK is ?D@,,@@ and present population is estimated as @?D,6-B
persons using growth rate of @.A6C.
"ro7ected "opulation
0he formula used for population pro>ection based on compound method is
given below.
? "o 4'Or6
7n F 7ro>ected population for required year
7o F 7opulation of base year, year of known population
r F !nnual population growth rate
n F No. of years, counted from base year
0he baseline data used for the population pro>ection is taken from the "istrict
1ensus 5eport .?AAK/, 1hiniot. 0he pro>ected populations of 1hiniot town, for
planning horizon are given in 0able. 0he graphical representation is shown in
Tear ?AAK @BB- @B?? @B?- @B@? @B@-
7opulation ?D@,,@@ @?D,6-B @,?,?@, @AB,?6, 66,,@B, 6KD,@D,
Level of Service
3evel of service will be increased to achieve coverage of minimum of KBC
in year @BBD after implementation of proposed S(* 7ro>ect. 7ost
implementation level of service will be increased every year to achieve KKC of
coverage in year @B@-.
"er Capita ,aste (eneration
7er capita waste generation rate of B.+ kg per capita per day will be used
for the design of the solid waste management system. 0his generation rate has
been adopted by considering the present solid waste generation rate of the 0own
and the guidelines of (orld %ank for developing countries.
7er capita waste generation will be increased by ?.,C every year and compound
method will be used for future pro>ections. 0his increase has been proposed in
accordance with cityJs population growth besides its social and economic
"ensity of solid waste varies at storage, collection and disposal stages. 0he
values obtained in other cities of 7akistan at the various stages are shown in
0able below. 0he equipment for storage, collection, transportation and disposal
of the solid waste will be designed on the basis of following densities.
$66, '((' '((. '($( '($* '($, '('' '('.
1ensity of Solid ,aste at 1ifferent Stages
Stage 5ange
!dopted ;alue
(heel %arrows ?,B 6BB @,B
,m6 1ontainers +BB -BB +BB
2oist 0rucks +BB -BB +BB
0ractor=0rolleys +BB -BB +BB
"isposal ?BBB ?6BB ?@BB
Criteria for Selection of Land +ill Site
3and area and volume to provide the landfill capacity should be adequate
to meet pro>ected needs for at least twenty years, so that costly
investments in access roads, drainage, fencing and weighing stations are
0he land area should not be at locations where adequate buffer zones are
not possible or in areas immediately upwind of a residential area in the
prevailing wind direction .s/.
!rea characterized by steep gradients, where stability of slopes could
be$are problematic.
0he seasonally high table level .i.e. ?B years high/ of the ground water
should be below the proposed base of any e:cavation or site preparation to
enable landfill development. Soils above the groundwaterJs seasonable
high table level are relatively impermeable .less than ?B=- cm$s
permeability when undisturbed/.
No environmentally significant wetlands of important biodiversity or
reproductive value, sensitive ecological and$or historical areas should be
present within the potential area of the landfill development.
None of the areas within the landfill boundaries should be part of the ten=
year groundwater recharge area for e:isting or future water supply
0here should be no private or public irrigation, or livestock water supply
wells e:ists down=gradient of the landfill boundaries because they will be
at risk from contamination.
!rea should not be in close pro:imity to significant surface water bodies
e.g. (ater courses or dams.
No ma>or power transmission mains or other infrastructure .e.g. sewer,
water supply lines/ should be crossing the landfill development area,
unless the landfill operation would clearly cause no concern or rerouting is
economically feasible.
No residential development should be ad>acent to the perimeter of the
landfill site boundary. 0he waste disposal site should be away at least
outside a radius of one thousand meters from a residential or commercial
area and water sources.
3andscaping and protective berms should be considered$included into the
design to minimize visibility of operations from residential
#nstable areas are not recommended i.e. there should not be any
significant seismic risk within the region of the landfill which could cause
destruction of berms, drains or other civil works, or require unnecessarily
costly protective measures.
0here should not be fault lines or significantly fractured geological
structure that would allow unpredictable movement of gas or leachate
within ,BB meters of the perimeter of the proposed landfill development.
Groundwater quality monitoring facilities should be provided during the
site development phase. 1onsideration has to made for when there will be
the need in the future to install a gas monitoring system near to buildings
close to the site which may become at risk from gas migration once waste
landfill filling has started.
'n areas falling under the >urisdiction of the concerned municipality, it
should be the responsibility of concerned municipality to identify the
landfill sites and hand over the sites to the concerned operator for
operation and maintenance.
Selection of landfill sites shall be based on e:amination of environmental
issues. 0he concerned 7rovincial Environmental 7rotection !gency shall
coordinate with the concerned operator for obtaining the necessary
approval and clearances.
0he land fill sites shall be selected to make use of nearby wastes processing
facility. 8therwise, wastes processing facility shall be planned as an
integral part of the landfill site.
%iomedical wastes should be disposed of in accordance with the
Guidelines for 2ospital (aste *anagement @BB@, issued by the
Environmental 2ealth #nit, *inistry of 2ealth, Government of 7akistan,
as amended from time to time.
! buffer zone with no development shall be maintained around landfill site
and shall be the part of concerned municipalityEs land use plans.
3andfill site shall be away from airports. Necessary approval of airport or
airbase authorities like 1ivil !viation !uthorities of the Government of
7akistan prior to the setting up of the landfill site shall be obtained in
cases where the site is to be located within ?B km of an airport boundary.
+acilities at the Landfill Site
3andfill site shall be fenced or hedged and provided with proper gate to
monitor incoming vehicles or other modes of transportation.
0he landfill site shall be well protected to protect entry of unauthorised
persons and stray animals.
!pproach and other internal roads for free movement of vehicles and
other machinery shall e:ist at the landfill site.
0he landfill site should have wastes inspection facility to monitor waste
brought in for landfill and office facility for record keeping and shelter for
keeping equipment and machinery including pollution monitoring
#tilities such as drinking water .preferably bathing facilities for workers/
and proper lighting arrangements for easy landfill operations when carried
out in night hours shall be provided.
Safety provisions including periodic health inspections of workers at
landfill site shall be made.
,ater 0uantity and ,ater 0uality
(ater Supply and 'ts ;ariability
"emand for (ater
(ater &uality
(ater 7ollution 1ontrol
&uality, &uantity, and the (ater=Supply 7roblem
0he necessity of water as a resource for all life, humans included, is
obvious. !ll life forms require it to some degree, and they require water within
certain ranges of quality.
(ater is essential to life in part because it is an e:cellent transporter of other
substances. 't is sometimes called the universal solvent in that a wide range of
chemicals are readily dissolved in it. !s a result, water serves to deliver nutrients
to organisms, especially plants, as well as remove waste products.
0he movement of water between the atmosphere, the oceans, and the land is a
fundamental part of earthEs biogeochemical cycling systems.
(ater carries heat to the atmosphere when it evaporates from the ocean surface
and condenses in the atmosphere to form precipitation.
't also carries many other substances with it as it flows from the land to the sea or
when it falls as precipitation
2umans have dramatically altered the hydrologic cycle, both locally and globally.
0hese alterations come from our use of water for irrigation, our modification of
the earthEs vegetation cover, and our withdrawal of water from rivers, lakes, and
subsurface aquifers for domestic and industrial use.
(ater=quality and water=quantity issues are closely linked. 0he more water we
use, the more wastewater we generate.
0he combination of significant water=supply depletion and water=quality
degradation means that water resources are increasingly stressed, especially in
the more populated areas of the world.
'n this lecture we e:amine these problems by first reviewing issues associated
with water quantity and quality and then discussing the interactions between the
,ater Supply and Its :aria)ility
(ater storages on the land are of two basic typesH surface water and
Surface /ater is liquid water and floating ice above the ground surface,
in rivers, swamps, lakes, or ponds. 't is derived from direct precipitation or from
subsurface sources.
(round/ater is water below the ground surface, in a saturated zone
below the water table.
Groundwater occupies pore spaces below the surface. Surface water is found in
lakes and streams.
0he water table is simply the top of the saturated zone in which water fills pore
spaces and cracks in rocks or sediments.
Soil moisture above the water table is not considered part of ground=water.
Groundwater is derived from downward percolation of rainfall through the soil
and in some areas from seepage of surface water.
! porous body of material containing groundwater is called an *0UI+ER=
'f the water table is free to rise with additional water, the aquifer is said to be
UNC9N+INE1 if there is an impermeable layer overlying the aquifer, it is
described as C9N+INE1
Such impermeable layers are called *0UICLU1E and they are particularly
important in segregating relatively clean groundwater from brackish or
contaminated groundwater.
Surface water and groundwater flows from high to low elevations.Surface water
flows according to the shape of the land, following channels to the sea.
%ut groundwater flows according to the slope of the water table and the
permeability of the materials through which it moves.
#sually, the shape of the water table appro:imately parallels the shape of the
land, so that groundwater flows from uplands toward lowlands, but this is not
always the case.
,ater Supply and Its :aria)ility
Spatial ;ariation in Surface Supply
0emporal ;ariability
(ater Supplies and Storage
Spatial :ariation in Surface Supply
0he renewable supply of fresh water is directly determined by
precipitation and transpiration rates, with runoff being the difference between
the two.
Surface ,ater #alance
'n the mid=?AABs, +BC of the worldEs population lived in water=stressed
.S?DBB m6 per capita per year/ and water=scarce .S?BBB m6 per capita per
year/ nations.
't is estimated that slightly more than @.6 billion people live in water=
stressed regions, and this is pro>ected to increase to 6., billion in @B@,.
8ther estimates suggest a more serious picturedone=third of the worldEs
people already live in water=stressed regions, and this proportion will
increase to two=thirds by @B@,.
Temporal :aria)ility
5unoff, the renewable supply of fresh water, is e:tremely variable in time,
and usually the water is least available when it is most needed.
<lows are more variable in small rivers and less variable in large rivers.
'n the tropics, seasonal variations in river flow usually correspond to
seasonal patterns of rainfall.
'n mid=latitude climates, low=flow periods usually occur in the summer
because plants are using more water at this time.
%ecause of this temporal variability, the amount of water we can count on
withdrawing from a river is much less than the total amount that flows in
it over the year.
'n addition, precipitation variations from one year to the ne:t further
reduce the amount of water we can depend on from rivers.
Surface ,ater :ariations
0he average annual peak discharge of the *issouri 5iver shows considerable
variation, even though seasonal variation has been eliminated from this graph.
,ater Supplies and Storage
0he natural supply of water in the world is highly variable, with some
countries .like %razil/ having very large renewable supplies of water per
capita and others .like 1hina/ having to divide a modest amount of water
among a large number of people.
%ut natural supply alone does not ensure water availability.
,ater Supply Systems
! typical water=supply system includes both natural and engineered components.
'ts overall capacity is limited by the component with the lowest capacity.
'n virtually all cases, the collection system is naturalH it is the drainage
basin of a river, a groundwater aquifer, or some combination of the two.
Storage is necessary to smooth out the natural variations in water
availability and to save surplus water from high=rainfall seasons for dry
seasons or periods of high demand.
Surface=water storage is accomplished by constructing dams on rivers and
impounding water in artificial lakes behind the dams.
0ransportation and distribution systems can be of many types, depending
mostly on the distance between collection site and use area and the nature
of final use.
'n many cases, transportation distances are so short that the entire system
is essentially >ust a distribution system.
0hese facilities include canals, pipelines, and natural river channels, or any
combination of these.
0hus, although water supply is constrained by natural factors, water
development in the form of engineering works also affects water
8ne indication of the e:tent of water use can be gained by comparing
withdrawals to natural runoff.
California *>ueduct
0he 1alifornia !queduct. 0his aqueduct carries water from the northern Sierra
Nevada to agricultural lands in 1aliforniaEs 1entral ;alley
(lo)al ,ater ,ithdra/als
Terms 1escri)e ,ater Use
,ithdra/al is the removal of water from a surface or groundwater
source for a variety of purposes such as municipal, industrial, or irrigation
Consumptive use is the use of that water in such a way that it is not
returned to the stream or aquiferP instead, it is returned to the atmosphere
by evapotranspiration.
InBstream uses do not require removal of the water from a river or lakeP
these include navigation, wildlife habitat, waste disposal, and
hydroelectric power generation.
(ithdrawals can e:ceed stream flow because not all of the water
withdrawn is consumedP some is returned to the stream. Nonetheless,
these withdraws place a heavy demand on water resources.
'n densely populated areas of the country, the most important in=stream
use is maintenance of water quality. Sufficient flow must be available to
dilute and transport sewage effluents and other pollutants, as well as to
provide habitat for aquatic life.
Navigation is another important in=stream use that competes with other
in= and off=stream uses for the water in our rivers
"epletion of stream flows caused by consumptive off=stream use,
particularly irrigation, is a ma>or problem in semiarid and arid portions of
the #nited States.
Groundwater is a more important storage of water for human use.
0he total volume of water stored in relatively accessible groundwater
aquifers is estimated at about ABBB km6, or roughly one=fourth of global
annual runoff.
*uch more=perhaps as much as + million km6de:ists in deeper aquifers,
though most of this amount is not economically accessible.
*ost small=scale and domestic water=supply systems use groundwater,
whereas large industrial and commercial users depend mainly on surface
0ypically, groundwater storages are replenished relatively slowly, taking
years to centuries or more to replace the total volume of a given aquifer.
!s a result, it is possible to withdraw water much faster than it is replaced,
a practice known as ground/ater mining.
'n a few countries in the *iddle East, total withdrawals of water e:ceed
the renewable supply, indicating significant overdraft of groundwater at
the national level.
8ne impact of groundwater overdraft is declining well levels, often
requiring that wells be deepened for withdrawals to continue.
'n coastal areas, usually a boundary e:ists between fresh water and salt
water in the ground. Salt water is denser and thus is found underneath the
fresh water.
! decline in the elevation of the freshwater table causes salt/ater
intrusion, an inland movement of the salt$fresh boundary, which
contaminates wells and makes them unusable for drinking water.
The 1emand for ,ater
(ater demands fluctuate from year to year, depending on weather
patterns. 'n wet or cool years, demand is usually lower, whereas in dry
years demand is greater.
5egional #S demand is greatest in the western states, especially 'daho,
*ontana, and (yoming. 0here states have the largest per capita
withdrawals, with water used for irrigating.
0he smallest withdrawals are in the Northeast, where most of this water is
used for industrial purposes and steam electrical generation.
+resh/ater ,ithdra/als over Time
1onsumptive use continues to be a small proportion of total withdrawals in the
9ffBStream Uses
(ithdrawal and consumptive uses of water are often defined by specific
types of use.
0his includes public supply, rural supply .domestic and livestock/,
industrial supply, irrigation, and hydroelectric power generation .an in=
stream use/.
7ublic and rural supplies include both domestic and commercial uses of
water, including those familiar to us in our everyday lives at home or at
work=washing, cooking, drinking, lawn watering, sanitation, and the like.
!gricultural uses, principally irrigation, consume more fresh water than
any other use. (orldwide, agriculture uses about D?C of total freshwater
withdrawals. 0his portion tends to be higher in developing than in
industrialized countries.
'n the #S, about +@C of water withdrawals are for irrigation. 0o conserve
more of the water, irrigation system must become more efficient.
Irrigation efficiency is defined as the volume of applied water in the
root zone that is used by the crop. 't is e:pressed as a percentage of the
volume of water diverted from surface sources or pumped from
groundwater supplies.
"rip irrigation is one of the most efficient application methods, while
flood, furrow, and sprinklers average between -B=KBC efficiencies.
'ndustry takes the second=largest share of the worldEs water withdrawals,
about @BC.
'ndustrial uses include a wide range of activities, including water used for
washing products in the manufacturing process, removing waste
materials, and cooling. 0he greatest withdrawals of water in the industrial
sector are for cooling thermal electric power plants.
'ndustrial users are turning away from once=through systems toward
water=recycling systems.
"omestic uses take the least water, generally less than ?BC, e:cept in
urbanized regions with relatively less industry and irrigation, such as
South !merica and 8ceania.
!mong the important domestic uses are cooking, laundry, bathing, toilet
flushing, and, in North !merica, lawn irrigation. "omestic water use is not
heavily consumptivedonly about KC in the #S, and much of this is in
irrigating lawns.
InBStream Uses
'n addition to these off=stream uses, many important water uses take place
in rivers or lakes, without withdrawing water from them.
(hile these uses do not result in any removal of water from the
environment, they do require considerable amounts of water, and thus
they compete with off=stream uses.
(ithin a river basin, water taken in one area may not be available in
,aste 1ilution
0he most important in=stream use of water is for waste dilution.
;irtually all rivers in populated areas are used to remove wastes.
0he more water present and flowing in a river, the lower the
concentration of pollutants will be, and thus the better water quality
will be.
0he ma>or rivers of the world, especially in industrialized countries,
carry large amounts of freight.
'n #S, for e:ample, inland waterways carry about the same amount
of freight as is delivered to or from ocean ports.
-ydroelectric "o/er
2ydroelectric power is generated by storing water behind a dam
and releasing it through turbines when electricity is needed.
2ydroelectricity supplies about ??C of #S electric production, or
,C of total energy production.
%ecause electricity cannot be stored in large quantities, timing of
hydro=electric power production is relatively infle:ible.
'n addition, the large dams best suited to generating electricity
inundate large areas and alter river habitats, causing additional
economic and ecological dislocations.
,ildlife -a)itat and +isheries
!lthough many rivers are severely degraded by pollution, these
systems contain habitats necessary for the maintenance of
important ecological communities and sport and commercial
0hese habitat values depend on maintaining good water quality,
which in turn depends on water quantity. 'f the flow in a river is
depleted to the point that additions of waste cause high pollutant
concentrations, then habitat suffers.
'n many rivers, recreational usesdmostly fishing and boatingdare
0hese uses normally require good water quality for maintaining
reasonably natural conditions, good fish habitat, and safe
swimming and minimizing odors.
0hey also require adequate flow, both for maintaining water quality
and for floating boats.
*uch competition prevails among in=stream and off=stream uses in
the populated parts of the world.
(ater quality has degraded, and public concern about this
degradation has risen to the point that further increases in
pollutant concentrations are unacceptable
,ater 0uality
'mpurities in water come from many different sources, both natural and
human, and it is often difficult to separate the two.
"ollution or "ollutants, usually referring to substantial human
additions to a stream or lakeEs load of an impurity or impurities.
! polluted stream must be defined relative to its condition unaffected by
human activity rather than in absolute terms.
Similarly, acceptability of given levels of contamination depends on what
use we make of the water.
7ollutants come from diverse human=made and natural sources.
8ne way to classify pollutant discharges is by point versus nonpoint
! point source is a specific location such as a factory or municipal sewage
! nonpoint source is a source that, as far as we know, originates from a
large, poorly defined area. 5unoff, subsurface flow, and atmospheric
sources of water pollution are the primary nonpoint sources.
Some pollutants, such as iron or suspended particulates, may have very
large natural sources, so that human activities only marginally increase
8ther pollutants, such as synthetic pesticides, are produced only by
*ost common impurities, however, are contributed by both human and
natural processes.
!a7or ,ater "ollutants
"isease=causing agents .pathogens/
8:ygen=demanding wastes
7lant nutrients
Suspended particulates
"issolved solids
0o:ic substances
1iseaseBCausing 9rganisms
8f the many living things found in natural or polluted waters, only a small
fraction can be regarded as important pollutants from a human
0hese are the bacteria, viruses, and parasites that cause disease in humans
and livestock.
Sewage pollution and livestock operations are their primary sources.
0he presence of coliform 1acteria is used as an indicator of the
possibility of contamination by infectious organisms.
Coliform bacteria live in great numbers in human and animal digestive
systems. 0hey are not dangerous in themselves, but their presence
indicates the possibility that disease causing organism could also inhabit
the water.
1hlorination of public water supplies has eliminated these diseases from
common occurrence in the developed nations.
'n areas without such water treatment, as in most developing nations,
water=borne diseases are a ma>or problem.
"lant Nutrients
!lthough aquatic plants need many different substances for growth, algal
growth requires >ust a few key substances, primarily nitrogen and
Nitrogen and phosphorus are found in large quantities in sewage, and they
enter waterways by the decay of organic particulates and by being
dissolved in sewage treatment plant effluent.
5unoff from urban and rural areas is also an important source.
(hen one or both of these nutrients are the factors limiting algal growth,
their introduction stimulates rapid algal growth, also called blooms. 0he
algae then die and decay, releasing still more nutrients and adding to %8"
.)iochemical o%ygen demand/.
8ne effect of increased nutrients in surface water is accelerated
eutrophication5 which is the process whereby a water body ages over
geologic time, with the water becoming progressively shallower and
nutrient rich.
'n summer, lakes commonly develop a stratification5 or layering, which
prevents mi:ing of bottom and surface waters. 'f algal blooms occur, the
algae settle to deeper waters, where decay depletes o:ygen and deep=water
organisms suffocate.
0he absence of o:ygen can also cause anaerobic decomposition of organic
matter on the bottom, which produces unpleasant odors and may make
water unsuitable for drinking or affect the aesthetic quality of a river or
'n drinking water, phosphorus is not a problem because it is an essential
nutrient that humans require, and we generally ingest far more in food
than in drinking water.
Nitrate and nitrite, however, do present health hazards.
9%ygenB1emanding ,astes
8rganic matter is the pollutant that places the greatest burden on a stream
or lake as a pollution assimilator.
0he most widely used measure of o:ygen=demanding wastes is
biochemical o:ygen demand .%8"/. %8" is a measure of the amount of
dissolved o:ygen that is required to decompose the organic matter.
8rganic matter is derived from surface runoff, internal production by
algae, agricultural wastes, various industries, especially food processing
and paper pulp, and sewage.
%y weight, sediment is the largest pollutant in our waters.
't is measured along with organic particles as total suspended particulates
in a water sample, and it consists of particles of soil and rock that are
eroded from the land and from stream beds.
2ealth hazards associated with sediment pollution are minimal.
0he ma>or harm are economic, including damage to turbines and pumps
and reduction in reservoir capacity.
1issolved Solids
"issolved solids form a ma>or part of the load of most rivers, and they
include many different elements and compounds.
*ost of these are derived from rock weathering and soil leaching.
2ardness .1a186 and related minerals/ is a ma>or indicator of dissolved
To%ic Su)stances
0he most troublesome are organic chemicals. 0hey include herbicides,
insecticides, and a wide variety of industrial organic chemicals.
8ils and grease can be included.
0hey are to:ic, carcinogenic, or both.
0hey are found in higher concentrations in fine=grained sediments in
many waterways, with runoff sources being particularly important. 'n
groundwater, much higher concentrations have been found.
Electric power generation, petroleum refining, and many other industrial
processes depend on the production and dissipation of large amounts of
thermal energydheat.
!nother cause of thermal pollution in streams is the removal of
vegetation that shades the water, especially deforestation.
0he primary detrimental effects of thermal pollution are to fish.
Radioactivity5 or the emission of particles by decay of certain radioactive
substances, is a sub>ect of public concern today.
'onizing radiation, consisting primarily of alpha, beta, and gamma
radiation, is derived from many natural and human=made sources.
5adioactive substances in water are derived primarily from rock
weathering, particularly by groundwater.
(round/ater "ollution "ro)lems
Groundwater pollution is a serious problem in industrialized countries and
stems from municipal and industrial sources as well as from agriculture.
Groundwater replacement is very slow.
So first, once an aquifer is contaminated, it is lost for an indefinite period
of timeP
Second, the contamination being discovered in wells today may result
from pollutant discharges that occurred years in the past.
*any different sources of groundwater contamination e:ist, including
municipal and industrial landfills, industrial impoundments, household
septic systems, and waste disposal wells.
! to:ic waste lagoon near the Shenandoah 5iver, ;irginia. Sources of
groundwater contamination include septic tanks, landfills, lagoons, and waste=
disposal wells.
'ndustrial impoundments such as storage lagoons and tailings ponds are
another important cause of groundwater pollution
(aste lagoon ad>acent to a hog production facility in North 1arolina.
,ater "ollution Control
(astewater 0reatment
Non=point 7ollution 1ontrol
7ollution 7revention
,aste/ater Treatment
Sewage treatment methods include primary, secondary, and tertiary
"rimary treatment consists of removal of solids by sedimentation,
flocculation, screening, and similar methods.
"rimary treatment may remove about 6,C of %8", ?B to @BC of plant
nutrients, and none of the dissolved solids.
Secondary treatment removes organic matter and nutrients by
biological decomposition, using methods such as aeration, trickling filters,
and activated sludge. 't moves about ABC of %8", 6B to ,BC of nutrients,
and perhaps ,C of dissolved solids.
Tertiary methods have come into widespread use only in the past
decade or so. 0here are many methods, and they vary considerably in their
effectiveness, but generally they remove ,B to ABC of nutrients and
dissolved solids.
NonBpoint "ollution Control
Non=point sources of pollution are the most difficult to control.
'n rural areas, they consist primarily of suspended and dissolved solids,
nutrients, and pesticides contained in runoff. 1ontrol of overland flow can
do much to limit these sources.
'n urban areas, runoff from streets, parking lots, and similar surfaces
contains large amounts of suspended solids and %8" and to:ic
0he most cost=effective ways of reducing non=point water pollution is
through /atershed management.
't requires participation by a cross=section of people, from farmers to
industries to domestic water users and environmental interest groups.
0he process focuses on calculation of Total !a%imum 1aily Loads
4T!1Ls6, or the ma:imum amount of certain pollutants that can be
discharged to lakes and streams on a daily basis without impairing water
"ollution "revention
0he cost of pollution control becomes a ma>or problem as the amount of
control increases.
"ollution prevention the new approach focuses on activities that
reduce pollutants in the first place, rather than on removing them from
waste water before it is discharged to the environment.
't is recognized as the best and perhaps the only practical means for
achieving higher levels of water quality than could be reached with
conventional approaches.
0uality5 0uantity5 and the ,aterBSupply "ro)lem
5elations %etween &uality and &uantity
(ater &uality in "eveloping 5egions
Relations )et/een 0uality and 0uantity
!lthough many significant improvements have been made in water quality
in the past few decades, especially in wealthier countries, water quality
remains a critical problem worldwide.
(ater=supply limitations in most wealthy countries are increasing. 'n
developing nations, population increases and migration to urban areas are
severely stressing water resources as well.
2ow can we remove more water from rivers and thus reduce their capacity
to dilute and remove wastes, while at the same time demanding lower
pollutant concentrationsU
%ut advanced sewage treatment is e:pensive, and publicly owned
treatment works have been slow to respond to calls for reduced discharges.
'nstead, industrial and agricultural water users have been forced to reduce
their use of water. (astewater reclamation and reuse is also used to
supplement supplies of non=portable .non=drinkable/ water.
The sustaina)le use and management of /atersheds holds the
most promise for improving both the quality and quantity of water
resources in the future.
,ater 0uality in 1eveloping Regions
(ater=quality problems in most developing countries are a stark contrast
to those in the wealthy world. 'n ?AAK, over ?.D billion people, or nearly a
third of the worldEs population at that time, did not have access to safe
8nly about one=third of the population has access to sanitation.
New sewage systems are being built, but the number of people served by
these systems is growing slower than the population, so the number
without access to sanitation services is increasing.
Changes in *ccess to Safe ,ater
!ccess to safe water .a/ and sanitation services .b/, ?AAB to ?AAK.
0here is improvement in making safe drinking water available in
developing counties, with about D?C of people in less industrialized
countries now having access to safe drinking water.
1learly, the worldEs water problems are acute. (ater supplies scarcity and
contamination are critically in some developing counties.
!s the worldEs population increase, improving access to clean water can be
achieved only through decreases in per capita consumption and increases
in water reuse.
!icro)ial 0uality of 1rin$ing ,ater and the Ris$ of
,ater)orne 1iseases
Ris$ factors for ,ater)orne !or)idity
!ccidental interruptions in the routine chlorination of water sources.
8verwhelming contamination of the drinking water source .natural or
deliberate/ even under routine chlorination.
1ontamination of drinking water with organisms resistant to chlorination
.e%= Cryptosporidium parvum5 (iardia lam)lia5 Noroviruses/.
Schematic 1iagram of an inBline Treatment System
!icro)ial *nalysis
,-9 ,ater3-ealth +acts
Every K seconds a child dies of water=related disease
, million per year die of illnesses linked to
unsafe drinking water,
unclean domestic environments, and
'mproper e:creta disposal.
Nearly ^ of humanity remains without proper access to water and
Classification of ,ater
(round /ater. #nderground waters are protected for >ust one use, as an
actual or potential source of drinking water. !ll ground water is designated
as 1lass ?.
Surface /ater. !ll surface waters, lakes, rivers, streams and wetlands in
*innesota are either 1lass @, protected for aquatic life and recreation, or
1lass D, designated as 3imited 5esource ;alue (aters. 'n addition, all
surface waters .i.e., both 1lass @s and Ds/ are protected for industrial use
.1lass 6/, agricultural uses .1lass +! and +%/, aesthetics and navigation
.1lass ,/, and other uses .1lass -/. 0hus, all surface waters are protected
for multiple uses.
5eliance on water quality determination alone is insufficient to protect
public health. !s it is neither physically nor economically feasible to test
for all drinking=water quality parameters equally, monitoring effort and
resources should be carefully planned and directed at significant or key
Some characteristics not related to health, such as those with significant
aesthetic impacts, may also be of importance. (here water has
unacceptable aesthetic characteristics .e.g. taste and odor/, further
investigation may be required to determine whether there are problems
with significance for health.

:erification of !icro)ial 0uality
<or microbial quality, verification is likely to include some microbiological
testing. 'n most cases will involve the analysis of fecal indicator micro=
organisms, but in some countries this may include assessment of pathogen
densities also.
!pproaches to verification could include testing of source water, influents
and effluents of unit processes, treatment end=point product and
distribution systems. 1onventional fecal indicator bacteria such as &. cli
serves as the primary indicator for verification purposes, but at times and
under certain circumstances it may be desirable to include more resistant
microorganisms such as bacteriophages, bacterial spores.
Such circumstances could include the use of source water known to be
contaminated with enteric viruses and parasites or high levels of viral and
parasitic diseases in the community.
Since incremental improvement and prioritizing action in systems
presenting greatest overall risk to public health are important, there are
advantages in adopting a grading scheme for the relative safety of supplies.
*ore sophisticated grading schemes may be of particular use in
community supplies where the frequency of testing is low and reliance on
analytical results is particularly inappropriate.
:erification of Chemical ,ater 0uality
!ssessment of the adequacy of the chemical quality of drinking=water
relies on comparison of the results of water quality analysis with Guideline
<or most chemicals leading to adverse effects after long periods of
e:posures and arising from water sources, the quality of water in supply is
determined by chemical analysis and compared directly with tables of
drinking=water guidelines or national drinking=water standards.
<or additives, i.e., chemicals deriving primarily from materials and
chemicals used in the production and distribution of drinking=water,
emphasis are placed on the direct control of additives, rather than control
of water in distribution.
Some hazardous chemicals that occur in drinking=water are of concern
because of effects arising from single e:posures or sequences of e:posures
over a short period.
(here the concentration of the chemical of interest varies widely, even a
series of analytical results may fail to fully identify and describe the public
health risk, for e:ample nitrate which is associated with
methaemoglobinaemia in bottle fed infants.
'n controlling such hazards, attention must be given to both knowledge of
causal factors such as fertilizer use in agriculture and trends in detected
concentrations since these will indicate whether a significant problem may
arise in the future.
8ther hazards may arise intermittently, often associated with seasonal
activity or seasonal conditions. 8nce e:ample is the occurrence of blooms
of to:ic cyanobacteria in surface water.
Identifying "riority ,ater 0uality "arameters
0hese Guidelines cover a large number of constituents in drinking=water
in order to meet the varied needs of countries world=wide.
0here are a large number of constituents that may potentially occur in
water. Generally, only very few will be of concern under any given
circumstance. 't is essential that the national regulatory agency and local
water authorities determine the relevance of constituents in local
drinking=water systems. 0his will ensure efforts and costs can be directed
to those constituents that are of public health relevance.
Guidelines are established for potentially hazardous water constituents
and provide a basis for assessing drinking=water quality. 't is recognized
that different parameters may require different priorities for management
to ensure public health.
In general the progression of priority is such that&
Ensure an adequate supply of microbiologically safe water
*anage key inorganic contaminants known to cause adverse health effects
in humans
*aintain acceptability of drinking=water quality to prevent consumers
seeking other potentially less microbiologically safe supplies
!ddress other chemical contaminants
*ssessing !icro)ial "riorities
0he most common and widespread health risk associated with drinking=
water is microbial contamination, the consequences of which are such that
its control must always be of paramount importance. 't may be impossible
to attain the targets population=wide in the short or medium term and it is
therefore necessary to ensure that priority is given to improving and
developing water supplies to populations at greatest public health risk.
*icrobial contamination of large systems has the potential to affect a large
number of people through potentially large outbreaks of water=borne
disease. 'mprovement of quality in such systems is therefore a priority.
Nevertheless, the ma>ority .around KB C/ of the global population without
access to improved water supply is rural. Similarly small and community
supplies in most countries contribute disproportionately to overall water
quality concerns. 'dentifying local and national priories should take
factors such as these into account.
*ssessing Chemical "riorities
0he selection of chemicals for consideration in the Guidelines for
"rinking=water &uality takes into account the frequency and
concentration that the chemical is detected in drinking=water, and$or
those for which member states have specifically requested guidance
because of a range of concerns. Guideline values are developed for those
chemicals considered to be potentially hazardous to human health and
occur significantly at concentrations of concern for public health.
0he selection of chemicals for consideration in the Guidelines for
"rinking=water &uality takes into account the frequency and
concentration that the chemical is detected in drinking=water, and$or
those for which member states have specifically requested guidance
because of a range of concerns. Guideline values are developed for those
chemicals considered to be potentially hazardous to human health and
occur significantly at concentrations of concern for public health.
5isk management efforts and resources should give priority to those
chemicals in water systems that pose a risk to human health, or to those
with significant aesthetic impacts.
8nly a few chemicals have been shown to cause widespread actual health
effects in humans as a consequence of e:posure through drinking=water.
0hese should be addressed in all circumstances in priority setting and
include fluoride5 arsenic5 nitrate and lead=
'n some cases, assessment will indicate that no risk of significant e:posure
e:ists at national, regional or system level. 2owever, the scale of health
effects associated with these chemicals indicates that they should be
considered under all circumstances.
,ater5 Sanitation and -ealth& The Current Situation
0he prevailing worldwide situation regarding water supply and sanitation
services is a source of concern in different respects.
Globally, some ?.? billion people are currently without access to improved
water supply and about @.+ billion donJt benefit from any form of
improved sanitation services .figures for @BBB/. 0he ma>ority of these
people live in !sia and !frica. 'n !frica, for e:ample, two out of five people
lack improved water supply.
Significant discrepancies between rural and urban services continue to
contribute to the burdened life in rural areas. 8n the other hand, the
world=wide urbanization causes a great number of people to live in
informal, overcrowded peri=urban settlements where coverage remains
especially low.
8ther points of concern are the increasing pll"tin of both surface and
groundwater sources from pesticides, industry and untreated household
waste waters.
0he overBe%traction of water for agriculture and manufacturing, which
causes the water table to decline in many parts of the world, is another
1ad practice which is producing severe consequences to the sustainability
of these resources.
,ater Supply 1ata at (lo)al Level
0he percentage of people worldwide who have access to an improved water
supply has risen from DKC in ?AAB to K@C in @BBB. Some AB@ million
more people have been served during the decade .,6D million in urban and
6-, million in rural areas/.
"ata representing A+C of the !sian population suggest that only +KC of
the population has sanitatin cverage, by far the lowest of any region of
the world. 0he situation is even worse in rural areas, where only 6?C of the
population has improved sanitation, compared with DKC coverage in
urban areas.
0otal /ater coverage in !sia is also the second lowest, after !frica, at
K?C. %ut again, water supply coverage is lower in rural areas .D,C/
compared with that in urban areas .A6C/.
%ecause of the population sizes of 1hina and 'ndia, along with other large
nations in the region, !sia accounts for the vast ma>ority of people in the
world without access to improved services.
Eighty percent of the global population without access to improved
sanitation, and almost two=thirds without access to improved water
supply, live in !sia.
!t present, appro:imately one=third of the !sian population is urban and
two=thirds live in rural areas. %ut this balance is predicted to shift over the
coming decades. %y the year @B?,, the urban population is pro>ected to be
+,C of the regionJs total, and grow to >ust over one=half of the total !sian
population by @B@,.
0o meet the international development target of halving the proportion of
people without access to improved services by @B?,, an additional ?.,
billion people in !sia will need to access to sanitation facilities, while an
additional AKB million will need access to water supply.
,aterBrelated 1iseases
7otential water borne pathogens
2i1ri c'lerae
5rancisella t"larensis
6eginella pne"mp'ila
&sc'eric'ia cli
7ersinia enterclitica
8elic1acter p*lri
Typhoid and "aratyphoid Enteric +evers
0yphoid and paratyphoid fevers are infections caused by bacteria which
are transmitted from faeces to ingestion. 1lean water, hygiene and good
sanitation prevent the spread of typhoid and paratyphoid. 1ontaminated water is
one of the pathways of transmission of the disease
0yphoid fever is a bacterial infection of the intestinal tract and bloodstream.
Symptoms can be mild or severe and include sustained fever as high as 6AX=+BX
1, malaise, anore:ia, headache, constipation or diarrhea, rose=colored spots on
the chest area and enlarged spleen and liver. *ost people show symptoms ?=6
weeks after e:posure. 7aratyphoid fever has similar symptoms to typhoid fever
but is generally a milder disease.
The Cause
0yphoid and paratyphoid fevers are caused by the bacteria Salmonella
typhi and Salmonella paratyphi respectively. 0yphoid and paratyphoid germs are
passed in the feces and urine of infected people. 7eople become infected after
eating food or drinking beverages that have been handled by a person who is
infected or by drinking water that has been contaminated by sewage containing
the bacteria. 8nce the bacteria enter the personEs body they multiply and spread
from the intestines, into the bloodstream.
0yphoid and paratyphoid fevers are common in less=industrialized
countries, principally owing to the problem of unsafe drinking=water, inadequate
sewage disposal and flooding.
Scope of the "ro)lem
0he annual incidence of typhoid is estimated to be about ?D million cases
7ublic health interventions to prevent typhoid and paratyphoid includeH
health education about personal hygiene, especially regarding hand=
washing after toilet use and before food preparationP provision of a safe
water supplyP
proper sanitation systemsP
E:cluding disease carriers from food handling.
9ther 1iseases
1iarrhea+ about + billion cases per year cause @.@ million deaths, mostly
among children under five.
Intestinal /orms infect about ?BC of the population of the developing
world and, depending upon the severity of the infection, lead to
malnutrition, anemia or retarded growth
Trachoma+ about - million people are blind from trachoma. Studies
found that providing improved water supply could reduce the infection
rate by @,C.
Schistosomiasis+ about @BB million people are infected with
schistosomiasis. Studies found that improved water supply and sanitation
could reduce infection rate by DDC.
"urification of ,ater
,hat 1o ,e Need to Remove2
!ll impurities that could cause death, disease, or adverse health effectsU
1olloidal, dissolved, and suspended material
7athogens, carcinogens, tastes, odors, color .atrazine standard/
-o/ are ,e (oing to "urify ,ater2
0ypical unit process train for purifying surface water .e.g., lakes,
reservoirs, rivers/.
1ombination of chemical and physical treatment, although including
biology is becoming more popular.
Initial Steps for the ,ater T reatment
"urpose for Rapid !i% #asins
*i: the chemicals such as !lum .!l
/ or <e1l
for coagulationP can
also add 1l
, 4*n8
%lender thoroughly and instantaneously mi: the chemicals
*lum 1ose as a function of ,ater Source
Source "ose .mg$3
5eservoir ?-
3ake @@
5iver @A
+ullBscale vs= "ilot Scale
0he design equations we will discuss are intended for full=scale
Tou must address their applicability for pilot=scale[
%asic equationH
0 F ;$&
1esign of a Rapid !i% #asin
1hoose "etention time, t
, between ?B and 6B seconds
; S K m6P ;FtB & where & is the given flow rate
3iquid depthH B., = ?.? times basin diameter or width
G.tB/, velocity gradient of -BB = ?BBB s=?
0urbine or !:ial <low 'mpeller, 7Fm;G@
'mpeller diameter, "
B.6 = B., times the tank diameter or width
%affles e:tend ?BC of tank diameter or width
( values for Rapid !i%ing
B., .in=line blending/ 6,,BB
?B @B ?BBB
"urpose for Coagulation and +locculation
%ring small precipitates and colloidal particles into contact so that they
collide, stick and grow to a size that readily settles.
1reate big settling flocs such as L!l .82
I that enmesh colloids
as it settles.
-o/ do Coagulation and +locculation ,or$
!dd a coagulant such as !l@.82/6 alum or <e1l6 ferric chloride that
provides positively charged ions to neutralize the negative charge of
colloidal particles resulting in aggregation
"esired properties of a coagulant
0rivalent cation
'nsoluble in the neutral p2 range .i.e., coagulant must precipitate
-o/ 1oes *lum ,or$2
(hen added to water, it dissociates releasing an aluminum ion that
develops water clusters around it
0his large particle precipitate .e.g., !l=82=2@8, floc/ settles enmeshing
colloids with it
8ptimum p2 range is b$w ,., -.,
1oagulant aidsH p2 ad>usters, activated silica, clay, and polymers
Goal is to create larger, denser floc
"esign ;ariables
5esidence time
;olume .shape, dimensions/
;elocity gradient, G .large enough for mi:ing but avoid shearing
0apered <locculation 6 G zones
G decreases from beginning to end
!verage G is the design value
%affle design
'mpeller design
( and tA :alues for +locculation
0ype G .s
/ G
.unit less/
3ow turbidity, color removal, coagulation @B DB -BBBB=@BBBBB
2igh turbidity, solids removal, coagulation ,B ?,B ABBBB=?KBBBB
Softening, ?BC solids ?6B @BB @BBBBB=@,BBBB
Softening, 6AC solids ?,B 6BB 6ABBBB=+BBBBB
1esign of +locculator
1hoose ;elocity gradient, G .i.e., what kind of 2@8U/
Get t
Get ;FtB & where & is the given flowrate
3iquid depthH B., = ?.? times basin diameter or width
0urbine or !:ial <low 'mpeller, 7Fm;G@
'mpeller diameter, "i B.@ = B., times the tank diameter or width .*a:
impeller diameter F 6 m/
Rules of Thum)
*inimum v F 3ength$ t B B., ?., ft$min
) t F 6B min
PBsection of +locculator
"urpose of Sedimentation
5emoval of particulate matter, chemical floc, and precipitates from
suspension through gravity settling
Types of Settlers3Clarifiers
#p=flow 1larifier
2orizontal flow 1larifier
UpBflo/ Clarifier
-ori.ontal +lo/ Clarifier
o "esign ;ariablesH 3ength .3/, 2eight .h/ and (idth .(/
o 7erforated %affle "esign to distribute the incoming fluid
o Effluent (eir "esign to remove the effluent.
o Slope of the Sludge zoneH ? to ?BC slope
?C for mechanically cleaned
, to ?BC for manually cleaned
-ori.ontal +lo/ Clarifier
-ori.ontal +lo/ Clarifier
-ori.ontal +lo/ Clarifier
Sedimentation #asin Iones
'nlet evenly distribute the flow across :=sectional area
e @,C of tank in theory
Settling gravity settling
8utlet remove effluent
,hy do particles settle2
StokeEs 3aw for spherical particles
F g . s = / d @
?K f
g F acceleration due to gravity, m$s@
s F density of particles, kg$m6
F density of fluid, kg$m6
d F diameter of sphere
f F dynamic viscosity
Settling properties of particles are often categorized into one of three
0ype ' = particles settle discretely ] a constant settling velocity .i.e.,
no flocculation/
0ype '' = particles flocculate during sedimentation .since they
flocculate their size is constantly changing .i.e., vs is /
0ype ''' = particles settle as a mass .i.e., lime softening/
"ro)lems in using Sto$es E>uation
7articles are not spherical .#se equivalent diameter/
7article diameter changes with settling .#se the minimum diameter H
1onservative "esign/
Typical Sedimentation Tan$ :
0reatment ;
!lum or iron floc ?+., = @@.6
3ime softening floc @@.6 = K@.?
1esign of -ori.ontal +lo/ Clarifier
7ercentage 5emoval, 7 F
1esign of -ori.ontal +lo/ Clarifier
& is the given flow rate
1alculate v
1hoose v
F B.K v
8btain !s using v
F &$!s
1hoose 3$(e,P !s F l (P #se these to obtain l,(
1hoose horizontal velocity, v
B., ft$min
8btain "etention time, tB F 3$v
8btain ; using tB F ;$&
8btain h using ; F 3( h
"urpose of +iltration
5emoval of flocs that do not settle in the 1larifier due to small size.
5educe settled water turbidity of e , 0# to below B.6 0#.
$ondition 4o. Settling;
s l s
> < <

v v
*ost common design Granular=media gravity filter
+ilter 1esign
Loading Rate
0he flow rate of water applied per unit area of filter
? 0 3 *
F loading rate, gpm$ft@
& F flow rate onto filter, gal$day
F filter surface area, ft@
"esign rates are between @ ?B gpm$ft@
, gpm$ft@ is most common .slow, rapid, and high=rate filters/
1hoose va and calculate !s for a given &.
+ilter 1epth
0ypical depth e A feet
<ilter %ed %reakdown
o Granular media e @ feet
o Sand e - feet
o 1ourse gravel e ? foot
#nder drain
-ead loss
2ead loss will increase overtime as filter collects impurities
<ilter is back=washed .reverse flow/ to remove impurities
o e ?, gpm$ft@ for e ?B ?, min
0ypically, filters backwash every @+ hours or when headloss is between -
A feet
+ilter !edia
1hoose media to promote straining, flocculation, and sedimentation
Grain size desired to retain large quantities of floc, but prevent passing
of small particles
"ual=media filter
*edia specified by effective size and uniformity coefficient
Effective Si.e 4E6
"efinitionH the ?B percent diameter, which means that ?BC of the filter
grains by weight are smaller than the diameter
Suggested range
B.6, B.,, mm for sand
Uniformity Coefficient 4U6
"efinitionH ratio of the -B=percentile diameter to the ?B=percentile
0ypically S ?.D for sand and anthracite
-o/ does one determine E and U2
"etermine the size distribution of a sample via a sieve analysis
7lot the sieve size versus the percentage of material retained on each sieve
.log=probability paper/
,ater Treatment "rocess & Supply
,ater supplyB ,ater 0uality
(ater for human consumption must beH
<ree from harmful bacteria ) suspended matter
7leasant to taste
<or health reasons, moderately hard
(ater storage ) treatment process to ensure good water quality
Typical ,ater Treatment "rocess
,ater supplyB "ressure & "iping
*ains water supply
Size of the water mains
7ressure .or head/ of water in them
Such as a D, mm diameter pipe fed from both ends or a ?BB mm
diameter pipe fed from one end
*in. head of 6B m for firefighting purposes
*a:. head of DB m to limit wastage and pipe noise
! ring circuit ) a grid of pipes
0o increase reliability ) facilitate maintenance
Ring !ain 1istri)ution
1istri)ution Systems
1irect supply systemH conveys water directly from water mains to the
point of usage without any transit water storage tanks.
"irect supply system .without storage tank/
"irect supply system .with storage tank/
Indirect supply systemH conveys water from water mains to the point of
usage through a transit water storage tank
'ndirect supply system .with sump and pump/
'ndirect supply system .with pneumatic vessel/
Comparison of 1irect and Indirect ,ater Supply Systems
,ater supplyB "iping
1omponents and materials
7ipe materials ) fittings
Suit the purpose ) conditions
"ecision factorsH
Effect on water quality
1ost, service life and maintenance needs
<or metallic pipes, internal and e:ternal corrosion
1ompatibility of materials
!geing, fatigue and temperature effects, especially in plastics
*echanical properties and durability
;ibration, stress or settlement
'nternal water pressure
1ommonly used pipe materials, such asH
1ast iron .%S +-@@/
1opper .%S EN ?B,D/
G' with 7;1=1 lining .%S ?6KD/
7;1, un=plasticized 7;1, 7%, 7E, 7E=a
Stainless steel .%S +?@D/
,ater SupplyB 9ther Components
1ommonly used fittings
1irect supply Indirect supply
3ess pipe work, smaller or no water
*ore pipe work, large water storage
No storage to satisfy peak demand
(ater storage to meet peak demand
5isk of contamination and pressure
fluctuation of mains
3ess risk of adverse effects by water
Not feasible for high=rise buildings
due to main pressure
1an be used in high=rise buildings
%all valve
%utterfly valve
Gate valve
Non=return valve
7ressure reducing valve
7ressure relief valve
<loat switch
E:pansion vessel
,ater SupplyB Component
,ater supplyB Storage Cistern
,ater tan$s
*aterialsH reinforced concrete, fiber glass, etc.
5einforced concrete is the most common material used.
<iberglass storage cistern for potable water shall be of an approved
type or certified, with no to:ic materials and suitable for storage of
potable water.
9verflo/ pipe
%all valve
Gate valve
(ater tap
0o discharge overflow water to a conspicuous position easily visible
and accessible by the occupants.
at least one commercial size larger than the inlet pipe .min. @, mm in
! grating and a self=closing non=return flap at the overflow pipe outside
the storage cistern.
,arning pipe
min. @, mm in diameter
!t a level below the overflow pipe and be e:tended to outside of the
building periphery for roof cistern or outside the pump room for sump
9utlet pipe
8utlet pipes from the storage cistern be at the opposite side to the inlet
supply pipe to prevent stagnation of water.
Storage capacities
!ssessment of water consumption ) demand
Sump tank H roof tank F ?H6
5ecommend to meet one=day demand
"omestic supply follows (S" recommendations
,ater Tan$ #asic Re>uirements 4for a (ravity Supply6
Recommended Storage Capacities in ,ater Supply Systems
,ater SupplyB "umping System
(ater pumps
7rovide a duplicate set
7umping capacity GF designed out=flow of tank
*inimize vibration and noise problems
!dequate pipe work support ) anchor
Solid foundation
1ommon pump types
2orizontal end suction centrifugal
;ertical multistage centrifugal
7ump control
!utomatic control using pressure switches, level switches, high=
level ) low=level electrodes
7ump selector switch ) 8N$8<<$!#08
3ow=speed preferred .longer life ) quiet/
7ump motor
Such as squirrel cage induction type
8verload protection
1omestic /ater supply /ith
sump and pump
supply using
salt /ater
mains fresh
/ater for
Up to 'A flats Q 'A flats
?6, liters$flat
.total storage
including sump
AB liters for each
additional flat
*inimum ?$@
day consumption
+, liters per
minimum @,B
Typical "ump Room
,ater supply B (eneral "rinciples
0he followings are the general principles for installing plumbing works H=
!ll water fittings and pipe work shall comply with the relevant (aterworks
!ll plumbing works shall be carried out in accordance with the relevant
(aterworks 5equirementsP
!ll plumbing works shall be carried out by a licensed plumber.
System main pipes should preferably not be run through the individual
Internal ,ater Supply and Sanitary 1rainage Systems
!bove or below=ground systems
Sanitation, foul drainage, soil ) waste
Soil or foul F from (.1.P waste F from basin$sink
Storm=water $ rainwater $ surface=water
5emove effluent quickly ) quietly
<ree from blockage, durable and economic
E:pected to last as long as the building
Sanitary appliances
1ommon typesH
<lushing cistern, flushing trough, automatic flushing cistern,
flushing valve
(ater closets .(.1./, urinal, bidets
Shower and bath
Sink, cleanerEs sink
"rinking fountain
(ash basin or washing trough
Sanitary *ppliances
+lushing cistern and /ater closets 4,=C=6
*utomatic flushing cistern and urinal
1rin$ing fountain
<or footbath
2ot and cold water supply to the rim
!n ascending spray
5isk of contamination to the water supply FG
supply through cistern
!aterials Used
1eramics, glazed earthenware, glazed fireclay, glazed stoneware, vitreous
china, pressed metal, acrylic plastic .7erspe:/, glass=reinforced polyester, cast
iron and terrazzo.
Sanitary provisions in 24
%uildings 8rdinance .1ap ?@6/
%uilding .Standards of Sanitary <itments, 7lumbing,
"rainage (orks and 3atrines/ 5egulations.
Sanitary 1rainage
<luid flow in waste pipes
(aste, soil or drain pipes
"ischargeH random occurrence
Surges and pressure fluctuation
0wo=phase flow .air I fluid/
;ertical soil and vent stacks
8pen ) ventilated on top, entrains air downwards
2igh air flow rate .?B=?, l$s/
<riction losses, terminal velocity
Suction pressure at branch connection
1ischarge of ,ater from a Sanitary *ppliance
1esign of a #asin ,aste "ipe to *void SelfBSiphonage
*ir Static "ressure in 1ischarge Stac$
3oss of water seal
'nduced siphonage
1ompression or back pressure
1apillary action
(avering out
8ther causesH
Evaporation bends and offsets, surcharging, intercepting
traps, leakage.
1aused by a moving plug of water in the waste pipe.
!voided by placing restrictions on lengths and gradients and venting long
or steep gradients.
Induced siphonage
1ausedH discharge from one trap.
8vercameH design of the pipe diameters, >unction layouts and venting
Compression or #ac$ "ressure
(ater flowing compresses air in pipe forces out the trap water seal.
7reventionH waste pipes not connected to the lower +,B mm of vertical
stacks .measured from the bottom of the horizontal drain/.
Capillary *ction
! piece of rag or string caught on the outlet of the trap.
!dditional maintenance should be carried out in high=risk locations.
,avering 9ut
Gusts of wind blowing across the top of a stack.
Site the vent terminal away from areas with troublesome effects.
About @., mm of seal loss per week while appliances are unused.
#ends and 9ffsets
Sharp bends in a stack partial or complete filling of the pipe large
pressure fluctuations.
<oaming of detergents through highly turbulent fluid flow increases pressure
! bend of minimum radius @BB mm at the base of a soil stack
!n underground drain that is allowed to run full causes large pressure
fluctuations. .Solution& !dditional stack ventilation./
Intercepting Traps
(here a single=stack system is connected into a drain with an interceptor
trap nearby, fluid flow is restricted. !dditional stack ventilated is used.
3eakage can occur through mechanical failure of the >oints or the use of a
material not suited to the water conditions.
*aintain trap water seals by using resealing or anti=siphon traps, such asH
*c!lpine trap
Grevak trap
Econa trap
!nti=siphon trap
*c!lpine 5esealing 0rap
Grevak 5esealing 0rap
Econa 5esealing 0rap
!nti=siphon 0rap
!inimum 1epth of ,ater Seal
"ischarge unit ."#/ method
Similar to loading or demand units in water supply
"omestic useH (1F?+ "#P basinF6P bathFDP urinalFB.6P washing machineF+P
5ule of thumb for vertical stack
?BB mm diameterH up to D,B discharge units
?@, mm diameterH up to @,BB discharge units
?,B mm diameterH up to ,,BB discharge units
!aterials for Sanitary "ipe ,or$
!aterial *pplication Kointing
1ast iron ,B mm and above vent
and discharge stacks
3ead caulking with molten or
fibrous leadP cold compound
Galvanized steel (aste pipe Screwed
1opper (aste pipe and traps 1ompression, capillary, silver
solder, bronze weld or push=
fit rings seal
3ead (aste pipes and
discharge stacks
Soldered or lead welded
!%S .!crylonitrile
butadiene styrene/
#p to ,B mm waste and
vent pipes
Solvent cement and push=fit
ring seal
#p to ,B mm waste and
ventilating pipes and
7ush=fit ring seal and
compression fittings
7olypropylene #p to ,B mm waste and
ventilating pipes and
7ush=fit ring seal and
compression couplings
*odified 7;1 #p to ,B mm waste and
vent pipes
Solvent cement and push=fit
ring seal
#nplasticized 7;1 8ver ,B mm soil and vent
stacksP vent pipes under
,B mm
Solvent cement and push=fit
ring seal
7itch fiber 8ver ,B mm discharge
and vent stacks
"riven taper or polypropylene
fitting with a push=fit ring seal
0ypes of sanitary drainage systems
Single stack system
1ollar boss system
*odified single stack system
<ully ventilated one=pipe system
0wo=pipe system
Selection depends on situations, costs ) local design practices
"esign considerationsH e.g. pipe size, distance
The Single Stac$ System
5educes the cost of soil and waste systems.
%ranch vent pipes are not required
0o prevent loss of trap water seals
0he trap water seals on the waste traps must be D- mm deep.
0he slopes of the branch pipes areH sink and bath, ?K to ?A mm$mP basin
@B=?@B mm$mP (1 ?K mm$m .min./.
;ertical stack at @BB mm below the centre of the (1 branch connection.
The Collar #oss Single Stac$ System
Eliminates the restrictions imposed between the bath waste pipe and the
%ath waste connect to the stack at a higher point . no risk of the (1
discharge backing up into bath waste pipe/.
3oop vent pipes to the basin $ sink traps and connecting these to the collar
boss, the waste pipes from these appliances drop vertically before running
horizontally to stack.
3oop vent pipe on the basin trap prevent its siphonage when the bath is
!odified Single Stac$ System
1lose grouping of the sanitary appliances install the branch waste and
soil pipes without the need for individual branch ventilating pipes.
0o prevent the loss of trap water seals (1 branch pipe min. ?BB mm
bore and the angle 9 F AB.,X to A,X.
0o prevent the loss of trap water seals basin main waste pipe min. ,B
mm bore and the angle 9 F A?X to A@.,X.
<ive basins or more $ length of the main waste pipe e:ceeds +., m a @,
mm bore vent pipe connected to main waste pipe at a point between the
two basins farthest from the stack.
The +ully :entilated 9neB"ipe System
! large number of sanitary appliances in ranges.
Each trap with an anti=siphon or vent pipe connected to the discharge pipe
in direction of the flow of water at a point between D, = +,B mm from trap
;ent stack connected to the discharge stack near to the bend to remove
compressed air at this point.
T/oBpipe System
0he most e:pensive and in case with widely spaced sanitary appliances.
(ash basins or sinks in rooms far away from main soil stack to connect
these appliances to a separate waste stack.
0he waste stack connected to the horizontal drain either via a rest bends.
0he Single Stack System
0he 1ollar %oss Single Stack System
*odified Single Stack System
0he <ully ;entilated 8ne=7ipe System
0wo=pipe System
1rainage for #asement
0he manhole discharging to outside locates at Ground floor.
%y a sump pit and pumps installed at the lowest floor
Note the need of standby pump
7ump on$off control by level switch
1rainage for (rease3 9il (enerating *rea F CarBpar$ and (rease Trap
"etrol Interceptor
(ater from car=park may contain oil .petrol/
(ater from car=park could not be directly discharged to public sewer
(ater must pass a petrol interceptor before discharging out
(rease trap
4itchen from food court and restaurant contains large quantity of
grease that is not permitted to be discharged out to the public sewer
(ater must pass through a grease trap before discharging out
<ood license needed before food court and restaurant starting
business. 7rovision of grease trap is a licensing requirement
StormB/ater 1rainage
Storm=water or rainwater drainage
"esign for roofs, gutters and ground drainage
5equire integration with architect
Select a suitable rainfall intensity based onH
!ssessment of acceptable risk to life and property
Statutory requirements
!ssessment of economic viability
Q5eturn periodR F average time for an event to occur again
0ypical rainfall intensities .for roofs/
D, mm$hr ., minutes once in + years/
?,B mm$hr .6 minutes once in ,B years/
"rain water flow rate
Q F .area drained, !
, m@/ : .rainfall intensity, mm$hr/ :
impermeability factor
5ainfall intensity, mm$hr taken as D,mm$hr
(round Impermea)ility +actors
Nature 8f Surface 'mpermeability <actor
5oad or 7avement B.A
5oof B.A,
7aths B.D,
7arks or Garden B.@,
(oodland B.@B
1rain ,ater +lo/ Rate
<low capacity of a level half=round gutter
Q F @.-D : ?B=, : !g?.@, l$s
(here !g is the cross=sectional area of the gutter mm@
8ther factors
<all or slope of the roof .increases flow capacity/
<rictional resistance of gutter .reduce water flow/
(ater flow in down=pipes
E%ample of +latBroof 1rainage
Si.e of Rain ,ater 9utlet
#sing the theory of rectangular weirs, the diameter of the outlets, :B
.mm/ with large gutters as a function of roof area derived from the following
e:pressionH =
's presented by
& F flow rate .m6$s/
1d F is the discharge coefficient .FB.-+/
h? F is the head over weir .m/
h = is the width over the weir .m/
g = is the gravity acceleration .A.K m$s@/
5! F is the roof area in m@
1isposal of Storm ,ater
) ( 2
1 1
+h gh , Q

0017 . 0


0032 . 0

Diame%er Pipe
SewerH combined or a separate surface=water
'nterceptors required for car parks and kitchens
Soak awayH ground permeability
#sing perforated precast concrete, dry stone or brick pit
Storage H artificial pond or lake, or underground storage tank
E:pected flow rates at normal and flood levels
1rainage +ormulae
Che.y +ormula
Crimp and #ruges +ormula
i m , V
2 & 1 3 & 2
84 i m V
:ertical Stac$ at 0uarter +ull
Cole)roo$B,hite E>uation
1rainage )elo/ (round
%asic design ob>ectives
8perate without the input of energy
5eliable and require little maintenance
"rains are not sub>ect to undue stress
<ully accessible for occasional clearance
"esign calculationsH based on flow rates, discharge units, gradients, pipe
material ) pipe diameter
2ydraulic calculation may be done by civil engineers
7ipe materialsH cast iron, asbestos, concrete, vitrified clay, pitch fibre and
1oncrete = larger sewerP clayware$u7;1 = smaller drains
System types
1ombined system .foul water I rainwater/
Separate system
7artially separate system
1onsiderationsH costs, load on sewers
5ainwater gully .5(G/, yard gully .TG/
'nspection chamber .'1/, rodding pod .57/
Shoe and rest band .smooth connection/
Separate 1rainage System
0wo sets of drains increases the cost of building drainage
5isk of a wrong connection .a foul water branch drain to a surface water
0he foul water drain not thoroughly flushed by rainwater
<oul air passing through an unsealed rainwater gully trap
Sewage disposal plant is much smaller
0he cost of sewage purification is less
3 & 8
d K *
3ess sewage is pumped reduction in pumping cost. Surface water flow
by gravity to a nearby river
Com)ined 1rainage System
1. 8ne drain for both foul and surface water reduces cost of building
@. No risk of making a wrong connection
6. <oul water flushed through the drain by the surface water
+. 0he loss of a trap seal in a rainwater gully allows the foul gas from the
drain to pass into the open air around the building
,. 0he size of the sewage disposal plant is greater
-. Greater cost of the sewage disposal
D. 7ossibly greater pumping costs .surface water and foul water to reach
sewage disposal works/
"artially Separate System
*ost of the surface water conveyed by a surface water drain to a surface
water sewer or soak=away. Some rainwater is discharged to the foul water drain.
0he rainwater can be conveniently connected to the foul water drain, usually at
the rear of the building.
Connection of 1rainage to Se/er
*ust be made obliquely in the direction of flow
"rain to another drain
"rain to a private sewer
"rain to a public sewer
1ost and maintenance issues
7ublic sewerH by government$authority
7rivate sewer$drainH by building owner.
(aste or rainwater gully Tard gully
5ainwater shoe 5est bend
#se of Separate "rains
#se of 7rivate Sewer
't is the branch of public health engineering healing with collection,
conveyance and disposal of wastage .garbage, sullage, sewage/. 0he main purpose
of sanitary engineering is to maintain such environment as well not affect the
public health in general.
<ollowing are he various aspects of sanitary engineeringH =
0he solid and liquid works are collected in specially installed lavatory blocks
0his includes provision of drainage line for the conveyance of solid and
liquid wastes, which are collected.
0he conveyed refuse $ wastes is treated as the disposed off.
't is the waste of foul water of the community conveyed by the sewer. 0here
are three types of sewage.
1omestic or Sanitary Se/age
0he sewage from residential buildings business centers, institutions, etc.
this also contain human body waste .feaces ) urine/ and also sullage water.
Industrial Se/age
0he liquid wastes obtained from industrial process such as dying,
papermaking, etc, are called industrial sewage.
Storm Se/age
't is that part of surface run off which is flowing in sewer during the rainfall.
't is the waste water resulting from personal wasting, bathing, laundry, food
preparation and cleaning of utensils. 't does not include discharge from hospitals
and slaughter houses which have high content of organic matters. Sullage is not
very foul and can be disposed off in open drain with out treatment.
't is used for dry refuse of town containing organic, inorganic solids,
semisolids, combustible, noncombustible, putrecible and non=putrecible
substances. 't includes sweeping from houses, streets, markets, public places,
garden etc. work paper, leaves, grass, panning of vegetable, decaying fruits etc.
with small quantities of sand, cinder, clay and gravel constitute garbage. 't is
collected separately from sewage and sullage and disposes off separately.
Infiltration & E%Bfiltration
'nfiltration is the water which has leaked into the sewer from the ground
while e:=filtration is leakage of water out of the sewer to the ground.
't is the water entering the sewer from surface source through manholes,
open cleanouts, perforated manhole cross, and root drain of basement sumps
connected to the sewers inflow occurs only during runoff.
Sewer is a pipe or conduit carrying sewage, sewage are usually not flowing
full .gravity flow/. 0he full flowing sewers are called fore main as the flow is
under pressure.
Types of Se/ers
Sanitary Se/er
't is a sewer carrying sanitary and industrial sewage e:cluding storm
sewage. 't is also some time called separate sewer.
Storm Se/er
't is the one which carried storm sewage including surface runoff and street
Continued Se/er
't is the one carrying domestic, industrial and storm sewage all together.
't is the science and art of collecting, treating and disposing of sewage. 0here
are three systems of sewerage.

Separate System
1ombined System
7artially Separate System
Separate Se/erage System
'n this system the sanitary sewerage and storm water are carried separately
in two sets of sewers. 0he sewage is conveyed to wastewater treatment plant and
the storm water is discharge directly into rivers without treatment. 0he separate
system has the following advantages ) disadvantages.
0he load on treatment plant is less as only sewage is carried to the plant.
0he size of sewers are small thus economical.
(hen pumping is required the system process to be economical.
Natural water is not unnecessarily polluted by sewage.
1leaning of sewers is difficult due to their small size.
0he maintenance costs are high.
0he self cleaning velocity is not easily achieved.
0he storm sewers come in operation in rainy season only.
0hey may be chocked in during dry season by garbage.
0he separate system is suitable when separate outlets for storm water
are available and the topography is such that storm water can be
dispose off in natural drains.
Com)ined Se/erage System
'n this system the sewage and storm water are carried all together in only
one set of sewers to the wastewater treatment plant before disposal. 0his
system has the following advantages and disadvantagesH
't is easy to clean combine sewers because of large size.
0he maintenance cost is reasonable.
't reduces strength of sewage by mi:ing storm water with sewer.
0he system requires one sewer making it economical.
'n storm seasons water may overflow and the sewer may damage causing
serious health risks.
0he combine sewer gets silted and becomes foul in dry days.
0he load on treatment plant is high because storm water is also carried
0he storm water gets polluted unnecessarily.
0he system is uneconomical when pumping is need.
0he system is suitable when space available for laying two sets of sewers is
less and when pumping is not required.
"artially Separate Se/erage System
0his system is the comprise between separate and combine system taking
advantages of both systems. 'n this case the sewage and storm water of
building are carried by one set of sewers while storm water from roads,
streets, pavements, etc are carried by other system of sewers usually open
drains. 0his system has the following advantage and disadvantages
't combines the good features of both systems.
0he setting is avoided due to entry of storm water.
0he storm water from houses is easily disposed off.
0he sewers are of reasonable size.
!ethod of 1isposal of Se/age
0here are two methods collecting and disposing sewage.

1onservancy System $ *ethod or .dry system/
(ater 1arriage System $ method
Conservancy System
0his system also called dry system. "ifferent types of wastes $ refuses are
collected separately and disposed off.
Garbage is collected separately in dustbins and conveyed covered carts to suitable
place. 0he combustible and non=combustible garbage are sorted out.
0he human and animal wastes .feaces ) urine/ are collected in panes from
lavatories and are then carried by labors in carts of lorries for disposal outside the
city where it is buried for manure. 0he human and animal wastes are also called
night soil.
0he sludge ) storm water are conveyed separately by close and open channel and
discharge into natural streams
0his system is obsolete now and can be used in rural areas where there is scarcity
of water. 't is not used now a day because of the following reasons.
0he system has less initial cost but the operation cost is very high because of
working labors.
1esign of #uilding
0he lavatory has to be built separate from residential building which cause
Reasons ,hy ,e are Not Using 1ry System
In sanitary Condition=
0he sewage is carried once in @+ hours while sewage becomes unsanitary
after , - hours.
La)or pro)lems
'f the labor goes on strike the system totally fails.
Land re>uirement
't requires large area for disposal of sewage thus becoming inconvenient.
+oul *ppearance
't is highly undesirable to allow night soil carts to pass through roads of
9pen drain
Storm water and sullage flowing in open drains cause unhygienic
condition in the area.
"ollution of ,ater
0he liquid wastes from lavatories may seeps into the ground thus polluting
the ground water.
Ris$ of Epidemic
0he sewage is conveyed openly and is not properly disposed off causing risk
of epidemic
,ater Carriage System
'n this system water is used as a medium to carry wastes to the point of final
disposal. 0he quantity of water is so large .AA.AC/ that the waste becomes a
liquid which is carried by sewers. 0he garbage is collected as separately as in
conserver with sanitary sewage. 0his is absolute system and is used now a days
universally because of following reasons
0hrough the initial cost of the system is high but he operation cost is very
Compact 1esign
0he lavatories can be accommodated inside the building which causes
compact design of house and convenience.
-ygienic System
0he sewage is carried in covered drains thus the risk of and break of
epidemic is reduced.
Land Re>uirement
0he land requirement is very low which make the system economical. .for
treatment ) disposal/
7roper treatment of sewage is possible to make the sewage suitable for
0he system has only disadvantage of wastage of water, which is used for making
the sewage in liquid form .about AA.AC of sewage is water/.
Sources of ,aste ,ater
't is wastewater from residential buildings, offices, other buildings and
institutions etc.
't is liquid waste from industrial processes like dying, paper making,
fertilizers, chemicals, leather etc.
Storm /ater
't include surface run off generated by rainfalls and street wash.
Types of Se/ers
Sanitary Se/er
Sewer which carries sanitary sewage i.e. (.( originating from a
municipality including domestic and industrial wastewater.
Storm Se/er
't carries storm sewage including surface run off and street washes.
Com)ined Se/er
't carries domestic, industrial and storm sewage.
-ouse Se/er
7ipe conveying sewage from plumbing system of a building to common $
municipal sewer.
Lateral Se/er
't receives discharge from house sewers.
Su) !ain Se/er
't receive discharge from one or more laterals
!ain 3 Trun$ Se/er
5eceive discharge from two or more sub mains.
9utfall Se/er
5eceive discharge from all collecting system and convey it to the point of
final disposal .e.g. a water body etc./
0he residential area of a city has a population density of ?,BBB per $ km@
and area of ?@BBBB mW. 'f the average water consumption in +BB lpcd find the
average sewage flow and the ma:imum sewage flow that can be accepted in
0otal 7opulation F ?,BBB:?@BBBB$?BBB : ?BBB
F ?KBBB persons
7er capita sewage flow F B.K : +BB F 6@B lpcd
!vg. Sewage flow F ?KBBB : 6@B F ,D- m6$d
* F ? I ?+ $ .+ I7/
F ? I ?+ $ .+ I ?K/
F ?.D+
*a: $ 7eak Sewage <low F ,D- : ?.D+
F ?BBD.6 mV$d
1esign "eriod
Collection ,or$s
7eriod of design is Q'ndefiniteR as the system is designed to cater for the
ma:imum development of the area.
1isposal /or$s
"esign period is usually ?B years. 5ates of flow required areH average daily,
peak and ma:imum flow rated, including infiltration.
Treatment ,or$s
"esign period is ?, to @B years. <low rate required are average and peak
rates both including infiltration.
Invert Level
't is the level of the 'N;E50 of the sewer pipe.
'nvert 3evel F G.3 1over over pipe thickness of pipe diameter of pipe
Se/ers +lo/ing "artially +ull
't is necessary to determine velocity and depth of sewage in a pipe when it
is flowing only partially full. <or this, use of the G5!72 will allow quick
computation of the hydraulic elements of partially filled circular sewer.
<or using this graph, it is necessary to find first the conditions when a sewer is
flowing full. 0hen by calculating the ration of any two known hydraulic elements,
the others can be found significance of partial flow study.
1onditions during partial flow, must frequently be determine in combined
partially combined sewers due to the following reasons
0o investigate velocities during dry weather flow to eliminate possibilities of
deposits accruing in pipes
4nowledge of depth of flow is of value in designing sewer interactions. 3arge
sewers should be brought together at elevation so that water may not back up
into the other.
! A?,mm circular combined sewer is laid on a slope of B.BB6 and it is
flowing full with nFB.B?6. (hat will be the velocity and depth of flow when the
sewer is carrying K., m6$min .B.?+?- mV$sec/ dischargeU
& when flowing full F ; F ?$n 5
F ?$B.B?6 : ."$+/

F ?.,D m$sec
& F ! : ;
F 6.?+@ $ + : .B.A?,/@ : ?.,D
F ?.B6- mV$sec
F B.?+?- $ ?.B6-
F B.?+
d$" F B.6 .from discharge line/
d F B.6 : B.A?, F B.@D,
F @D, mm at B.?+?- m6$sec
<ind velocity at actual depth of flowH
F B.-
F B.- : ?.,D
F B.A+ m$sec
1esign +lo/ in Sanitary Se/er
0o find the design flow in sanitary sewers the following steps are followedH
<orecast the design population .7/ of the area.
<ind the sewage flow per day by multiplying population with flow per
capita of sewage. 0he sewage is taken as .DB KB/ C of average water
supply. 'f .q/ is average per capita per day water consumption of water
F !verage Sewage <low
F .B.D B.K/ : 7 : q
Select a peaking factor .7.</ to find the peak sewage flow according to
7.< F + .for discharge up to B.B@K6 m6$sec/
7.< F @ .for discharge less than ,.-- m6 $sec/
i.e. peak discharge F & peak F .7.</ .&
7eaking factor * which is the ration of ma:imum rate of sewage to
average flow is
* F ? I ?+ $ .+ I c7/
Some designers are using @@ instead of ?+.
1alculate the allowance for industrial and commercial sewage at a rate of
6D6+ mV $ kmW $ day
1alculate infiltration from average sewage flow as given by (!S!.
? 4A=A< to A='6 0
<ind the design sewage flow by adding peak flow, industrial allowance and
infiltration flow.
? 0
O 0
O 0
Normally *anningJs formula is used for design of sanitary sewer which is H
; F l $ n .5/
Some other formulas used for designed of sewage flow areH
1hazyEs <ormula
; F 1c 5S where 1 1hazyEs 1onstant
4utterEs <ormula for value of 1
1 F .+?.-- I ?.K??$n I B.BB@K?$S/
(here n F roughness coefficient
2azenEs (illiam formula may also be used.
1esign "rocedure
0he following steps should be followed.
1alculate the design flow as already e:plained
Select value of self cleaning velocity and compute area of pipe .sewer/ by
! F & $ v and the diameter.
<ind the slope of sewer by *anningEs formula.
; F l $ n .5/
1heck the velocityP it should be greater then minimum self cleaning
Se/age Treatment
2ealth !spect *ore than ,B diseases spread through untreated sewage
7athogens, helminths, worms etc.
"isposal !spect if sewage is disposed untreated in water bodies, it can
result in following problemsH =
= "epletion of 8@ resources of streams
= 1ause turbidity, colour in water bodies
= 1an be to:ic to aquatic life
5euse aspect Sewage is treated to be reused for
= 'rrigation purposes
= Ground water recharge
!ethods of Treatment
"rimary Treatment
7urpose 5emove suspended, settle able and floating matters.
*ethod #sed Screens, Grit 1hambers, 7rimary Sedimentation tanks
.primary 1larifier/
%8" removal F 6B +, C
S. S removal F +B DB C
7urpose 0he purpose of screens is to remove large particles of floating
or suspended matter so that the pump is not clogged or damaged.
0ypes Screens consist of parallel bars, rods, wire mesh or perforated
plates. 0he opening may be of any shape. .generally rectangular/
#ar Screens
*ostly, %!5 S15EENS of 5!14S are used which are either hand cleaned
or mechanically cleaned.
8pening between bars `R ? `R
"rimary Sedimentation Tan$ 4"rimary Clarifier6
0hey remove most of the settle able solids 85 about +B DBC of the
suspended solids from sewage.
30 = '0
0o Grit
1hamber $ 7.S
5educe %8" on secondary treatment unit since KBC of the total
%8" of municipal sewage is contributed by suspended and colloidal
solids, between 6B and +,C of the total %8" will be removal
during this process.
"esign %asis
"esigned on !;E5!GE <38( %!S'S
Surface loading rateH @B -B m
. "ay
"epthH @ + m
"etention 0imeH @ + hour
Sludge !ccumulationH @., kg of wet solids$m
of flow
(eir 3oadingH g ?@B m
$m .day .to prevent high approach velocity at
5ectangular H *a: 3H ( +H?
*a: length F 6Bm,
*a: width F - K m
1ircularH "ia F ?B 6B m
Secondary Treatment
*ero)ic "rocess
128N .organic matter/ decomposes to 1ell mass and
different gases like 18
, 2
8, S8
, N8
So more sludge is formed in aerobic process. %acteria that
work in the presence of o:ygen are !E58%'1 %!10E5'!.
0he bulk of available energy finds its way into 1E33 *!SS
yielding a stable effluent which will not undergo further
*naero)ic "rocess
0hese take place in the absence of o:ygen. 128N .organic
matter/ decomposes to 1ell mass and different gases like 18
, 2
S, 12
, N
3ess sludge is formed in anaerobic process. 0he end
products of an anaerobic process are odorous. %acteria that work in
the absence of o:ygen are called !N!E58%'1 %!10E5'!.
Suspended (ro/th "rocess
! treatment process in which bacteria are kept in suspension by constantly
aerating the wastewater e.g. activated sludge process, !erated 3agoons etc.
<loc body of micro organisms gathered in a crowd out line. ! quantity of micro
organism and nutrient material supporting the growth
F Settle able solids .measured by imhoff cone/
*3SS F *i:ed liqueur suspended solids .mg$l/
.! measurement of micro organisms in sewage/ S;' from ,B to ?,B indicate good
settling characteristics.
S;' F Sludge ;olume 'nde:
Sludge #ul$ing
E:cessive carry over of flocs in the effluent resulting in inefficient
operation to find clarifier in referred as S3#"GE %#34'NG. 't is usually due to
<'3!*EN08#S *'158 85G!N'S*S.
5easons for sludge bulking may be
'nsufficent ahration .".8 S ?., mg$l/
3ack of nutrients .i.e. N, 7/
7resence of to:ic substances
8;E5 38!"'NG i.e. high <$* ratios
+& ! Ratio
<H * ratio means <88"S to *'158 85G!N'S*S ratio. < H * ratio is
e:pressed in terms of kg %8" applied per day kg of *3SS.
'f & is the sewage flow in m6$d and it has a %8" e:pressed in mg$l.
0hen <88" F & : %8" $ ?BBB kg %8" $ day
!lso &
$& F ;s $ ?BBB ;s .5ecirculation ratio/
;s F ;olume of settled sludge
F <low of retained sludge
& F <low of sewage
No of tanksH Generally more then one tank is provided.
!eration 0ank "imensionsH "epth 6=, m , 3H (
!e.)tion >)n?
!eration 0ank
B.- ?m
*eration 1evices
!ir is passed through porous diffuses under pressure. Generally rows of
diffuses are B.- to ? m apart. 0here are placed at the bottom of aeration
'n this type mechanical surface aeration are employed they agitate the
sewage machinery so as to promote solution of air from the atmosphere.
'mpellers are generally used to agitate the sewage.
!n activated sludge process is to treat a domestic sewage flow of
-BBBm6$day with a %8" of @+B mg$l. 0he <H * ration is to be maintained at
B.+kg %8"$kg *3SS. 0he sludge recirculation B.@, and it is desired to achieve an
S;' of ?BB ml$gm calculate the *3SS concentration in aeration tank and the size
of the aeration tank.
$& F ;
$ ?BBB=;

B.@, F ;
$ ?BBB ;
F @BB ml
S;' F ;s : ?BBB $ *3SS
*3SS F ;s : ?BBB $ S;'
F @BBBmg$l
<H * F &. %8" $ ;. *3SS
; F & : %8S $ *3SS : <H *
; F -BBB : @+B $ @BBB : B.+ F ?KBB m

3et depth F +m
!rea F ?KBB $ +
F +,B m
#se two aeration tanks.
!rea of each tank F @@, m
3et 3H ( F ,H ?
@@, F ,( : (
( F -.D m
3 F 66., m
0ank size -.Dm : 66.,m : +m
!n activated sludge process is to be designed to treat sewage flow of K-+B
$day with a %8" of @BBmg$l from the primary clarifier. #sing <H * ratio of B.+
per day and *3SS concentration of 6BBB mg$l, calculate the volume of the
aeration tank of S;' is ?BB, how much sludge should be returned
& F K-+B m
<H * F & : %8" $ ; : *3SS
B.+ F K-+B : @BB $ ; : 6BB
; F ?++Bm
S;' F ;
: ?BBB $ *3SS
F ?BB : 6BBB $ ?BBB
$ & F ;
$ ?BBB ;
F 6BB $ ?BBB 6BB
F B.+@
F B.+@ : K-+B
F 6DB@ m
!n activated sludge process with aeration tank volume of ABB m6 is
treating a sewage flow +BBB m6$day with a %8" of @,B mg$l. 't is desired to
achieve an S;' of KB by adopting a recirculation ratio of B.@,. 1alculate the < H *
ration at which the aeration tank should be operated.
$ & F ;
$ ?BBB ;

B.@, F ;s $ ?BBB = ;
F @BB mg$l
S;' F ;
: ?BBB $ *3SS
*3SS F @BB : ?BBB $ KB
F @,BB mg$l
<H * F & : %8" $ v : *3SS
F +BBB : @,B $ ABB : @,BB
F B.++ per day
"omestic sewage flow of KBBB m
$d with a %8" of @-B mg$l is to be
treated by an activated sludge process. 'f a recirculation ration of B.@, and S;' of
?BB is desired, calculate the size of the aeration tank take < H * ratio as B.6.
$& F B.@,
S;' F ?BB
$& F ;s $ ?BBB ;
B.@, F ;s $ ?BBB ;
F @BB mg$l
S;' F ;s : ?BBB $ *3SS
F @BBBmg$l
<H * ration B.6 per day
<H * F & : %8" $ ; : *3SS
; F 6+--.- mg$l
3et depth F +m
!rea F 6+--$+
F K--.- m
0ake @ units of aeration tankH
Each F +66.6 m
3H ( F ,H ?
! F 3 : (
! F ,(
( F A.6 m
3F +-., m
Si.e N=;m % EH=<m % E m
Tric$ling +ilters
0rickling filter utilize a relatively porous bacteria growth medium like
5814 or <85*E" 73!S0'1 S2!7ES. %acterial growth occurs upon the surface
while o:ygen is provided by air diffusion through void spaces.
(astewater is applied to the surface and percolates through the filter, flowing
over the biological growth in a thin film.
Nutrients, o:ygen and organic matter are transferred to the fi:ed water layer and
from there to bacteria and waste products are transferred to the moving water
layer, primarily by diffusion.
!s the bacteria on filter medium metabolize the waste they will reproduce,
gradually producing an increase in the depth of S3'*E 3!TE5 with thickening of
biological layer, the inner side become anaerobic and bacteria starts dieing
breaking the contact between slime layer and contact medium and slime layer
will slough off and be carried from the filter with waste flow. 0hese solids are
then removed in a secondary clarifier.
Types of Tric$ling +ilters
3ow rate
2igh rate .mostly used these days/
!naerobic bone !erobic bone
8:idized 8rganics
%8" 8
<i:ed water layer
0o secondary
sedimentation tank
#nder drain
.-B=AB mm dia/
"istribution drain
"osing 0ank
Sedimentation 0ank
<actor 3ow 5ate 2igh 5ate
*edium Stone 7lastic balls
2ydraulic loading ?.A 6.K m6$m@.d A @D m6$m@.d
"epth @ 6 m ? @., m
5ecirculation Nil ?H? to +H ?
operation Simple Skilled
8dour $ <ly problem *ore 3ess
8rganic loading B.6 ?., kg$m6 filter ?., ?K.,
Role of Recirculation
5ecirculation of effluent either from trickling filter or final clarifier is done
in modern 0rickling filter to following advantagesH
5eturn of viable organism thus improving efficiency
5educe odour and fly problem
"ilute influent and help in handling shock loads
2igh construction cost
3arge area required
8dour and fly .7sychoda fly/ problem
National research council .N51/ empirical formula is used. 't is based upon data
collected in #S! during (orld (ar ''
E F .1
/$ 1
F ?$ .? I B.,6@ .&1
$;</ B.,/
! settled sewage flow of ??6,, m6$day containing ?,B mg$l of %8" is to be
treated by a 0ricking filter with a depth of @ m. 't is desired that effluent %8"
should be @B mg$l. 1alculate the required diameter of the filter and hydraulic
loading on the filter. 5ecirculation ration is +.
& F ??6,, m6$d
F D.KK m
&r F + : ??6,,
F +,+@B m
r F +
< F ? I + $ .? IB.+/
F @.,6
.1i=1e/$ 1 i F .?,B @B/ $ ?,B
F B.K--D
E F ?$ .? I B.,6@ .&1i$;</ B.,/
B.K--D F ? $ .? I B.,6@ .D.KK : ?,B $ ; : @.,,/B.,/
Solving this equation we can get the value of ;H
; F ,,+B m
"epth F @m
!rea of filter F @DDB m

! F $ + "

" F ,A.+ m
0otal flow of filter F & I &
F ,-DD, m
2ydraulic 3oading F ,-DD, $ @DDB
F @B.+ m
@@DBB m
$d of settled wastewater containing 6BB mg$l of %8" is to be
treated in a 0rickling filter. 't is @m in depth and hydraulic loading is ?, m6$m@.d
with a recirculation ratio of @. 1alculate filter size, Cage %8" removal and
effluent %8".
0ry to solve by yourself.
!rea F +,+B m@
F -6 mg$l
,aste ,ater Sta)ili.ation "onds 4,S"6
(astewater stabilization ponds provide a useful method of (astewater
treatment and disposal for growing communities where both <#N"S and
05!'NE" 7E5S8NNE3 are in short supply.
'n these ponds, Qbeneficial organismsR stabilize the (astewater into a liquid that
can be released to the environment adversely and that does not place an under
cost burden on a downstream user.
(S7 are best solution where&
<inancial resources are limited
0echnical e:pedite are lacking
Sufficient land area is available at cheap cost.
! stabilization pond is a relatively shallow body of water contained in a
earthen $ lined basin of controlled shape which is designed for the purpose of
treating wastewater.
5equire large area
!naerobic ponds have odour problem.
!naerobic ponds
<acultative ponds
*aturation ponds
*ostly, these are used in combination $ series. ! typical arrangement is shown
belowH =
*naero)ic "onds
% @
!n %
!n %
@ @
S $A
2 52
3(5 1
"esign an anaerobic pond to treat a sewage flow of ,BBB m6$d with a %8"
of +BB mg$l. the ponds are to be loaded at @BB g %8" $ m6.d
0otal %8" load F ,BBB : +BB
F @BBBBBB gm %8" $ l
;olume of pond F @BBBBBB $ @BB F ?BBBBm
0ake two ponds
;olume of one pond F ,BBB m
3et depth F +m
!rea .*ean "epth/ F ,BBB $ + F ?@,B m
3et 3H ( F @.,H ?
( F @@.6 m e @@
3 F ,,.A m e ,-
Surface ? 8@ % <E
#ottom ? 'H % <A
+acultative "onds
*ostly used for domestic sewage of ordinary strength
0hree zones e:ist in a facultative pondH
0he surface zone where aerobic bacteria and algae e:ist
!naerobic zone near bottom in which accumulated solids are decomposed
by anaerobic bacteria.
!n intermediate zone that is partially aerobic and partially anaerobic in
which decomposition is bought about by <!1#30!0';E bacteria.
1.5 ( 2 1
1esign Criteria
0here is design on S#5<!1E 38!"'NG 5!0ES i.e. kg %8" $ ha $ day.
0he area thus calculated is *'" "E702 S#5<!1E !5E! .*.".S.!/
Surface loading H ?BB +BB kg %8"$ha$day
No of ponds H !t least two
"etention time H D @B days
Side Slopes H ?;H 62
"epth H ?., @m
3H ( H 6 @.,H ?
"e=sludging H ?B ?, years
0he effluents have no small, greenish in colour and have a %8" of around ,B D,
+ormula for Effluent 0uality
<ollowing formula is used to find out effluent qualityH =
3 L
? '3 4' O t6
F effluent %8", mg$l
F 'nfluent %8", mg$l
4 F 5eaction rate constant, per day
.Normally B.6d=? for domestic sewage at @BB1/
t F "etention time, days
NoteH ABC of ponds in world are <!1#30!0';E 78N"S.
0emphrature affect on 4
4@ F 4? .D/ 0

!ara +ormula far #91 Loading
*ara .?AKK/ gave the following formula to find the surface loading for a
specific region. !ccording to this formula surface loading depend upon average
temperature of the coldest month
S=L ? I<T F <A
S.3 F Surface loading in kg %8" $
0 F !verage temperature of coldest month.
#acteria *lgae Sym)iosis 4!utually #eneficial6
'n aerobic zone of ponds, bacteria and algae e:ist in a *#0#!33T
%ENE<'1'!3 or ST*%'80'1 relationship algae produce 8
photosynthesis which is needed by bacteria to metabolize matter. (hereas
bacteria release 18
and other inorganic matter likes N and 7, which are needed
by algae to grow and meet its food requirement. 2ence under normal light
conditions, the metabolic action of these two microbial groups complements each
"ro)lem 4+acultative "ond6
"esign two facultative ponds to treat a flow of ,+++ m6$d with a %8" of
?,Bmg$l. take %8" loading as @BB kg %8" $ha.d and assume the depth of the
pond as @m. <ind the detection time in the pond and efficiency of the pond.
!ssume 4 F B.@6 per day.
& for each pond F ,+++$@
F @D@@ m
*id depth area F 0otal %8" load $ S. 3
F i.@D@@ : ?,B/$ ?BBBj$@BB
F @.B+ ha
F @B+?, m
3H ( F 6H?
! F 6(
( F K@m
3 F @+A m
Surface 1imension ? @< % 8<8
#ottom 1imension ? JN % 8EH
;olume F @B+?, : @
F +BK6B m
"htention 0ime F ;$&
F +BK6B $ @D@@
F ?, days
F 3
i?$ .?I4t /j
F ?,B i?$ .?I B.@6:?,/j
F 66.D mg$l
E F .3
/ $ 3
F ?,B 66D $ ?,B F DD.,C
!aturation "onds
0hese are fully aerobic and used after <!1#30!0';E 78N"S with the
purpose of
7olishing of Effluent
5emoval of 7athogens
7athogens die due to sunlight and long detention time. 2E3*'N02S also settle
at the bottom where they eventually die.
7rimarily used for reduction of 7!028GENS
5emoval of organic matter .%8"/
1esign Criteria
"epth F? ?, m
"etention 0ime F + ?+ days
No. of 7onds F !t least two
3H ( F @.,H ?
"e=sludging F @B years
"esign of maturation ponds is based on 138'<85* 5E*8;!3 and no
%8" reduction consideration is made.
0o design the maturation ponds on the basis of coliform removal,
following relationship is usedH =
$ N
F ?$ .? I 4t/
F No of coliform in influent $ ?BBml
F No of coliform in effluent $ ?BB ml
4 F %acterial die away constant
.#sually taken as @.- per day at @BB1/
t F "etention time in pond, days
Effluent from maturation pond .Generally/
%8" F 6B mg$l
<.1 S ?BBB$?BBml
1 = 1.5 1
<ully !erobic
"ro)lem 4!aturation "ond6
"esign a maturation pond to treat a flow of @D@@ m6$d of @BB1 with
coliform in the influent as + : ?B, $ ?BB ml. !ssume a detention time of ?B days.
<ind out the coliform in the effluent of the pond and the pond efficiency. !ssume
4 F @.- d=? at @BB1.
$ N
F ?$ .? I 4t/
F + : ?B, i?$ .?I @.,:?B/j
F ?+K?+ $ ?BB ml
;olume of 7ond F @D@@ : ?B
F @D@@B m
3et depth F ?., m
*id depth area F @D@@B$?.,
F ?K?+- m
F ?K@BB m
*id depth dimension F @?6.6 : K,.6
Side slope ?;H 62
Surface "imension F @?D., : KA.,
%ottom "imension F @BK,., : KB.,
7ond Efficiency F i.+ : ?B, ?+K?+/ $ + : ?B,j : ?BB
F A-.@C
,aste Sta)ili.ation "onds in "a$istan
?B TE!5S 5ESE!512 !0 '.E.E.5 .#E0 3!285E
E;!3#!0'8N 8< "ES'GN 7!5!*E0E5S
4arachi, 2yderabad, 3ahore, 8kara, <aisalabad, 7eshawar
Effluent is mostly used for irrigation.
*erated Lagoons
!erated lagoons occupy a position in between (S7 and activated sludge
!n !erated 3agoon is a basin in which wastewater is treated on a <38(
0258#G2 %!S'S. 8:ygen is supplied by means of surface or diffused aerations.
!erated 3agoon operates at low *3SS concentration i.e. @BB +BB mg$l but with
long retention time as compared to activated sludge process. 'n !erated 3agoon
N8 S3#"GE 5E1T13'NG is E*738TE". 0he effluent from an !erated 3agoon
is settled in a sedimentation tank before discharge.
!s a matter of fact !erated 3agoon was originally developed from !N!E58%'1
and <!1#30!0';E ponds.
Empirical approach is used
"etention time + A days
"epth 6 , m
7ower input @B watt $ m6 of lagoon volume
Effluent quality can be estimated by using following formula
Le 3 Li ?'3 4'O t6
%8" removals DB AB C
<.1ol ABC .7oor/
7rovide *!0#!50'8N 78N" to further upgrade the effluent for further
5equired less area as compared to (S7
3ow capital cost as compared to !S7
Easy to operate $ maintain
2ighly skilled plant operators not required as compared to !S7
! good treatment option for a wide range of induction e.g. te:tile, tannery,
dairy, fruits etc.
7oor coliform removal
Sludge handling problems
1annot be used where space is very limited.
7artially *i:ed .<acultative/H
3imited aeration done to satisfy o:ygen demand only. Settled
sludge at bottom undergoes !N!E58%'1 "E18*78S'0'8N.
<ully *i:edH
*ore aeration done to keep all suspended solids in suspension.
*ore power is required in this case.
Screens !erated
Sludge "rying %eds
7S0 SS0
Sludge 1igestion
!ll conventional wastewater treatment processes produce large quantities
of waste material in the form of "'3#0E S83'" *'a0#5ES know as S3#"GE.
0he composition and solid content are a function of raw wastewater. 7rimarily
and secondary sludges are mainly composed of water with a solid content of only
B., to ,C.
2uge volumes of sludge are generated daily in treatment plants which need to be
treated and disposed.
"urpose of Sludge 1igestion
Sludge digestion and subsequent disposal falls among important functions
carried out at a treatment plant. <ollowing statistics reveal this factH
Sludge handling
6B +BC 1apital cost
,BC 8perational cost
ABC 8perational problems in a treatment plant
8ther functions are
0o reduce the sludge volume for disposal
0o reduce the water content of sludge for easy handling
0o recover valuable G!S
0o use it as <E50'3'bE5.
*mount and Characteristics of Sludge
Sewage sludge consists of the organic and inorganic solids present in raw
sewage and removal in primary clarifier plus organic solids generated in
secondary treatment and removal in secondary clarifier.
Specific gravity of organic content of sludge is lightly greater than water and
normally lies in a range of ?.B? to ?.B-. 0he Specific gravity of inorganic fraction
is sludge can be assumed as @.,.
"R9#LE! 4Sludge 1igestion6
Estimate the solids production from 0rickling <ilter plant treating ?BBB
m6$d with a %8" of @?B mg$l and S.S of @-B mg$l. !ssume that primary
clarifications remove 6BC of %8" and -BC of influent solids.
5emoval in primary clarifier F B.- : @-B
F ?,- mg$l
7roduction in secondary F B.D.@?B/ .B.,/
F D+ mg$l
0otal solids production F ?,- I D+
F @6B mg$l
F @6B gm $ m6
F @6B$?BBB : ?BBB
Solid production F @6B kg $ day
Solids generated in primary clarifier F -BC of S.S
Solids generated in secondary clarifier
0.S B.+ to B., kg$kg of %8" applied
!.S.7 B.@ to ?.B kg$kg of %8" applied
Effect of !oisture Constant upon Sludge :olume
0he effect of moisture constant upon sludge volume is tremendous. Sludge
handling techniques are directed towards reducing the moisture content and
thereby the volume of sludge.
0hrough digestion, the water content of sludge reduces significantly as compared
to raw sludge as shown belowH
0ype 5aw Sludge
.*oisture 1ontent/
"igested Sludge
.*oisture 1ontent/
7rimary Sedimentation
Sludge tank
A+ A- C KK A+ C
!ctivated Sludge AK., AA., C A+ A- C
0rickling <ilter Sludge A- AD C AB A+ C
"R9#LE! 4Sludge 1igestion6
! wastewater plant produces ?BBB kg of dry solids per day at a moisture
content if A-C. 0he solids are DBC volatile with a specific gravity of ?.B, and 6BC
non=volatile with a specific gravity of @.,. "etermine the sludge volume.
!s produced
"igestion reduce the volatile solids content by ,BC and decreases the
moisture content to ABC
*s produced
*ass of Sludge F ?BBB$B.B,
F @BBBB 4g
A, C F ?ABBB litre
?BBB kg is solidH
DB C volatile F DBB kg
Specific gravity F ?.B,
;olume F DBB$?.B, F --D litre
6BC non=volatile F 6BB kg
Specific gravity F @.,
;olume F 6BB$@., F ?@B litre
;olume of Solids F weight $ specific gravity
0otal volume of sludgeF ?ABBB I --D I ?@B
F ?ADKD litre .!s produced/
*fter 1igestion
!fter digestion ;olatile Solids are reduced to 6,B kg. 0he total
solid content is therefore 6,B I 6BB F -,B kg
*ass of sludge F -,B$B.?
F -,BB kg
-,B kg is solidH
(ater F,K,B litre
;olume of ;.S F 6,B $ ?.B,F 666 litre
;olume of Non ;.S F 6BB$@., F?@B litre
0otal volume of sludge F -6B6 litre
C reduction in volume F .?ADKD -6B6/$ ?ADKD
;olume of Solids for organic$inorganic
;olume of solids F (eight of solids $ Specific Gravity
(eight of sludge
*ass .weight/ of sludge F .(eight of solids in 4g/$ 4g
.<raction of solids/
Types of 1igestion
Sludge digestion may be !N!E58%'1 of !E58%'1. %oth have their
merits and de=merits. 0raditionally anaerobic digesters are used.
7arameter !erobic !naerobic
;olatile Solid reduction Similar Similar
%8" if supernatant 38( 2'G2
1apital 1ost 38( 2'G2
8perating 1ost 2'G2 38(
#seful by 7roduct Nil Tes
"ewatering of digested sludge "ifficult "ifficult
System upsets 3ess *ore susceptible
"esign approach Empirica Empirical
Theory of *naero)ic 1igestion
#nder anaerobic conditions, sludge digestion occurs through the action of
two groups of bacteria.
*cid +orming #acteria
0hese bacteria convert comple: organic substances like fats,
carbohydrates, proteins etc. present in the sludge into simple organic
compounds and fatty acids.
1arbohydrates <atty acids .low p2/
7roteins !mino !cids N26 I <atty !cids
!ethane +orming #acteria
0hese bacteria form 12
and 18
by using acid and N2
and other
products of the first group. 0hey get best in the p2 range of -., to K and more
prhcising within p2 rage of D.@D.+.
N26 I <atty acids 12+ I 18@
*ethane forming bacteria require an in organic source of nitrogen for their
nutrition. 0hey are inhibited by lowering p2. !cid forming bacteria are a bit
resistant to low p2. !cid forming bacteria may be adversely affected. !s a
result the process may fail.
*aintenance of proper p2 can be obtained with lime. 2owever, the lime
should be thoroughly mi:ed up to avoid local concentration build up. #sually
@ to , kg of lime per ?BBB persons is added daily to the digester.
!odern 1igesters
Sludge digestion is accomplished in air tight steel tanks. *odern digesters
are both heated and mi:ed.
0he first digester is heated and mi:ed. 0he second digester is quiescent and
serves primarily as a thicken for the digested sludge.
"igester tanks are usually -m to ?,m deep. 2opper bottom slope is kept as ?
;erticalH 6 2orizontal. "iameter of the digester may vary from -m to +Bm
depending upon the capacity.
1over of the digester may be <38!0'NG of <'aE". <i:ed cover are low cost
but nor preferable. <loating covers are costly but they minimize the danger of
mi:ing o:ygen with the gas to form e:plosive mi:ture. !lso with floating
covers, the removal and addition of sludge remains independent of each
0he methane produced in anaerobic digestion is nearly universally used to
heat the digester and in some instances to provide mechanical power for other
plant processes.
0he digested solids from anaerobic processes may be dewatered without
further treatment upon open drying beds.
1esign Criteria
"etention time ?B @B days
;olume of m6$person .of first digester/ B.? m
$person biological
process, B.B,m6$person for 7.S.0 Sludge
Sludge 1rying #eds
0he purpose of sludge drying beds is to dewatered digested sludge and to
further reduce its volume. !fter drying, the volume of sludge gets reduced to
around -BC."ry sludge cakes can be used as fertilizer
Estimate the quantity of solids produced in an !ctivated Sludge 7rocess
with flow of ,,BB m6$day with %8" and S.S of @,B mg$l each assuming that
7S0 remove 6BC of %8" and ,BC of SS and sludge production in the
secondary unit is DBC of %8" applied.
1alculate volume of sludge if its solid content is ,C. DBC ;olatile Solids
with specific Gravity ?.B, and 6BC non=volatile with specific gravity @.,.
Solids removed in 7.S.0 F B., : @,B
F ?@, mg$l
%8" applied to secondary unit F B.D : @,B
F ?D, mg$l
Solid production in secondary unit F B.D : ?D,
F ?@@., mg$l
0otal Solids producedF 7rimary I Secondary
F ?@, I ?@@.,
F @+D., mg$l
F @+D., : ,,BB$?BBB
(eight of sludge F Solids $ Solid fraction
F ?6-? $ B.B,
F @D@@B kg
(ater F @D@@B ?6-?
F @,K,A kg
F @,K,A litre
;olatile Substances .;.S/ F B.D : ?6-? F A,@ . D kg
;olume of ;.S F A,@.D $ ?.B, F ABD
;olume of Non ;.S F B.6 : ?6-? $ @., F ?-6.6 litre
;olume of sludge F @,K,A I ABD I ?-6.6
F @-A@A.6 litre
F ?6-? kg$day
0he most common method of preparing digested sludge for final disposal
is air drying on sand beds. ! sand drying bed is shown on ne:t page.
't consist of ?,B @BB mm depth of coarse sand underlain by layer of graded
gravel ranging from 6 to -mm dia at top to @B=+Bmm dia at the bottom. 0he total
gravel thickness is 6BBmm.
0he bottom of the bed slope towards under drains. 0he under drain consist of
drain tiles places upon trenches with open bed sections are concrete. ! free board
of 6BB mm is given
%eds are - to ?B m wide and up to +Bm long. !t least two beds must be provided
in even the smallest plants.
"ewatering occur as a result of drainage and evaporation and is heavily
dependent upon 13'*!0E. 1overing drying beds with glass of plastic sheets is
helpful in wet climates.
9peration of Sludge 1rying #ed
0he beds are operated by filling with digested sludge to a depth of @BB to
6BB mm. a small amount of sand may be lost with each drying cycle. 0he time
required for dewatering may range from several months to a few weeks
depending upon the climate conditions.
!rea requirement B.@ m@ $ person
1ommon dimensions ?Bm : +Bm
*inimum no. of units @
5eduction in sludge vol. -BC
6BB mm
?,B 6BB mm
@BB 6BB mm
Sludge 3ayer
1oarse Sand
Graded Gravel
#nder drain
6BB mm
"ro)lem 4Sludge 1rying #eds6
Estimate the size of sludge drying beds for a sewage flow of ?ABBB m6$d
with a %8" of @BB mg$l.
%8" contributed$capita$day F KB g %8"$7erson$day
7opulation equipment F ?ABBB : @BB $ KB
F +D,BB person
7er person area required F B.@ m
0otal area required F +D,BB : B.@
3et area of one bed F ?B : +B F +BBm
No of beds required F A,BB $ +BB
F @6.D,
F @+ beds
1esign "arameters for Septic Tan$
"etention 0ime @+ +K hr
3H ( 6H ?
"epth ? ?., m
Sludge 1apacity B.B+ m
"e sludging 7eriod ? @ years
Effluent disposal 0hrough soakage pit
Soa$age "it
'n the absence of any sewage collection system, the effluent from septic
tank can be disposed in a S8!4!GE 7'0. 't is a circular pit in which water is
absorbed in the surrounding soils.
1esign "arametersH
o %ottom above water table F at least ?BE
o !way from wells F at least ,BE
o "iameter F - Y ?@E
o "epth F ?BE @BE
o "istance between two pits F 6 times diameter of larger pit.

Soil !pplication retention m
1oarse to medium sand B.B+A
<ine sand, loamy sand B.B6@
Sandy loam and loam B.B@+
Silt loam B.B?K
Silty clay B.BB?
Vent 7i*es
$o1* (2&3 Eengt0) 2
$o1* (1&3 lengt0)
"etention time F +K hrs
Sludge F B.B+ m6$person$year
Sludge Capacity.
! F 7nfs .litre/
7 F No. of person
n F No. of years between desludging .Normally 6 years/
f F <actor related to ambient temp.
.<or 7akistan f F ?.B for 6 years desludging period/
s F 5ate of sludge and scum accumulation
0ake B.B+ m6$person$years .+B litters/
Capacity for Li>uid Retention
% F 7rq .litters/
7 F 7ersons
q F !verage flow litre$day of sewage
r F *inimum retention time .in days/ for sewage in tank >ust before
desludging is carried out .!t least ?=day/
Total Capacity ? * O #
Shape and 1imension
3H ( F 6H ?
"epth F ?.@@ ?.K6 m
Inlet and 9utlet
"iameter should not less than +R
Slope should not be less than ?.,C
(as 1eflecting 1evices
:entilation *rrangement
2eight above ground F ?BE
*ccess and Inspection
*anholes at both inlet and outlet
Construction !aterial
5.1.1 is used inlet and outlet should be properly sealed
*ost important is maintenance of proper grades. 1heck for water
"eriodic !aintenance
"esludging is done after some period. Never clean completely. 3eave some
sludge inside after cleaning.
Environmental Impact *ssessment 4EI*6
Environmental *ssessment 4E*6
E! has become established worldwide as an environmental management
tool used by government agencies, companies and other organisations to identify
predict and evaluate the potential physical, biological and social effects $ impacts
of the pro>ects and other development actions.
E! or E'! Environmental assessment or environmental impact assessment are
the terms used to describe the overall process.
*any countries like 7akistan use the term E'!
(orld %ank has the procedures for E!
#4 use the term E!, particularly, to avoid the impression the process is
restrict to the analysis of negative impacts.

ES or E'S Environmental statement or Environmental 'mpact Statement
describe the written report arising from the studies.
Q(henever there is a planned activity, it will cause some impacts $ effects
on the environment, the assessment of these impacts is called E'!R.
'*7!10 Effect of one thing on another.
EN;'58N*EN0!3 '*7!10 0he change in environment parameter, over a
specified period and within a defined area, resulting from a particular activity
compound with the situation which would have occurred had the activity not
been initiated.
73!NNE" !10';'0T
2igh way
!ir 7ort
Screening procedure include both pro>ect and environment criteria $
0he criteria is based on the scale and size of the pro>ect proposal, the
nature of the activities and sensitivity of the environmental setting
7rocedures for screening are currently in practice in *alaysia, 0hailand,
and other countries i.e. #4 etc.

e.g. 0hermal power plant of more then 6BB *( .*!N"!085T 5equired
#4 regulationsP states that new road schemes may required E'! if their length
e:ceeds ?4* and their route passes through a National 7ark of through or within
?BB m of a conservation area.
7ro>ect "isposal
's E'! requiredU
(hat are key issuesU
%aseline data collection
7otential Env 'mpacts
!nalysis Env !lternates
*itigation *easures
7repare E'S
Env *onitoring
'dentifications ) !nalysis
of 'nformation
7resent <indings
7ost 7ro>ect analysis
T/oBStage Screening "rocedure
#aseline conditions
%aseline conditions define the characteristics of the e:isting and shape pro>ected
future conditions, assuming no pro>ect is undertaken.
#ase line data Collection
"ata about the physical, biological and cultural environment is collected.
72TS'1!3 EN;'58N*EN0
'ncludes all such ma>or areas as topography, soil ) geology, hydrology, air
quality ) Noise levels
"hysical Environment
'ncludes all such ma>or areas as topography, soil ) geology, hydrology, air
quality ) Noise levels
#iological Environment
5efers to flora and fauna of the area, including a specified of trees, gasses,
fish, birds. Specific reference should be made to endangered plants and animals.
Cultural Environment
'ncludes human population, trends and population distribution, historic
site, public facilities, i.e. schools, hospitals, mosques, per capita income,
commercial activities etc.
!ll 7ro>ects
requirement of
5eq of E'! is
*andatory req
of E'!
'EE is
E'! should be
carried out
*nalysis of potential Environmental Impacts
Environmental impact analysis consists of comparing the e:pected
changes in the physical, biological and cultural environment with and without the
o *agnitude of 'mpacts
o "irection of 'mpacts
Solid ,aste Engineering & !anagement
Types of Solid ,astes /ith "hysical5 Chemical & #iological "roperties
Types of Solid ,astes
7aper 1ategory
7lastic 1ategory
Glass 1ategory
*etal 1ategory
Tard (aste 1ategory
8rganic 1ategory
8ther (aste 1ategory
Special (aste 1ategory
"aper Category
*i:ed 7aper
2igh Grade 3edger 7aper
Non 5ecyclable 7aper
"lastic Category
7olyethylene tri=phthalate containers .7E0 no. ?/
2igh density polyethylene containers .2"7E no. @/
7olyvinyl chloride containers .7;1 no. 6/
3ow density polyethylene .3"7E no. +/
7oly propylene .77 no. ,/
7olystyrene .7S no. -/
8ther plastics .other no. D/
(lass Category
5ecyclable Glass
Non 5ecyclable Glass
!etal Category
!luminum 1ans
<errous *etals
Non <errous *etals
(hite Goods
Gard ,aste Category
Tard (aste
9rganic Category
8rganic 1ompactable
8rganic Non 1ompactable
0ires ) 5ubber
(ood (aste
9ther ,aste Category
'nert Slides .'nert (astes/
2ousehold 2azardous (astes
Special ,aste Category
Sewerage Sludge
8ther Special (astes
"hysical "roperties
1omposition 8f *S(
*oisture 1ontent
Generation 8f Solid (aste
"ensity 8f Solid (aste
7article Size "istribution
<ield 1apacity
7ermeability 8f 1ompacted (aste
Composition of !S,
%y composition we mean components of solid waste by C wt.
;aries with location, season, economic conditions
<ood waste, largest component in low income countries, being not
trimmed ) absence of grinder.
7ercentage of plastic waste and paper waste is increasing with the passage
of time.
!oisture Content
E:pressed in two ways
(et weight measurement .C wet weight of material/
"ry weight method .C dry weight of material/
(et weight commonly used in S(*
*oisture content of samples analyzed in lab.
m F w d : ?BB
* F moisture content
( F initial wt of sample, .kg/
" F weight of sample drying at ?B,oc .kg/
<or food ) yard waste, various ?,=+BC,
7lastic ) inorganic, 6C
(eneration of Solid ,aste
E:pressed in per capita.
B.-, kg$c$day in @BB@. .for 5awalpindi 1ity/
!ssumed to be continue for ne:t ten years.
0otal generation, D?6 tons per day.
.<or 5awalpindi 1ity/
"hysical Composition of Solid ,aste of Ra/alpindi City )y Random
Sampling Techni>ues
%lock=E %lock=E 1hungiNo.K %ny 1howk -th 5oad 1ollage
S.S 5d ;.N
!rea 7oor
,K.A -B., ,K.6 ,6.6 ,,.D ,D.K ,-.+ ,A.+ ,,., ,D
-.@ ,.- -.@ ,., K.6 ,.D ,., -.- -.- -
6.- ,.6 6.6 6.A ,.6 ,.6 6.A @.K @.D +
6.6 +.@ +.+ +.+ +.K +.D -.K 6.A +.@ +
-.B @.@ @.@ -.6 +.@ ?.- ?.- ?.- @.K 6
DK DD.K D+.+ D6.+ DK.6 D,.? D+.@ D+.6 D?.K D+
?,.@ ?+.? ?6.K ?+.D ?-.A ?6.@ ?@.D ?@.@ ?+.6 ?+
-.K K.? ??.- ??.D +.K ??.D ?6.? ?6., ?6.A ?@
0otal 'n=
@@ @@.@ @,.- @-.- @?.D @+.A @,.K @,.D @K.@ @-
1ensity of S,
Specific wt, e:pressed in material per unit volume, lb$yd6
"ata needed to assess total mass ) volume of solid waste
;ary with location, season ) length of time in storage
"article Si.e 1istri)ution
'mportant consideration in recovery .recycling ) reuse/ of material,
especially with mechanical means such as magnetic separators.
5elevant to incineration ) biological transformation methods.
3argest dimension is up for sizing facilities like conveyor belts ) grinders
Shredders ) separators are used to reduce to desirable sizes for treatment
of composting etc.
!S, (eneration Rate for Ra/alpindi City for the Gears 48AA;B8A';6
Tear 7opulation Generation 5ate
4g$1apita$"ay "aily .tons/ Tearly .tons/
@BB6 ??,6+,@?@ B.-, D6D.@+ @,@K,,++
@BB+ ??,D,,B++ B.-, D-6.DD @,6-,D-K
@BB, ?@,?D,6+- B.-, DA?,@D @,+,,@A+
@BB- ?@,-?,?DB B.-, K?A.D- @,,+,?@,
@BBD ?6,B-,,D@ B.-, K+A.@D @,-6,@D6
@BBK ?6,,6,-BA B.-, KDA.K+ @,D@,D,B
@BBA ?+,B@,66A B.-, A??.,@ @,K@,,D?
@B?B ?+,,@,K@6 B.-, A++.66 @,A@,D+@
@B?? ?,,B,,?@, B.-, ADK.66 6,B6,@K@
@B?@ ?,,,A,6BA B.-, ?B?6.,, 6,?+,@BB
@B?6 ?-,?6,KK+ B.-, ?B+A.B6 6,@,,?AD
+ield Capacity
0otal amount of moisture that can be retained in a waste sample sub>ect to
downward pull of gravity.
(ater in e:cess of field capacity will be released as leachate
<ield capacity varies with the degree of applied pressure ) state of
decomposition of the waste.
<ield capacity of un=compacted commingled wastes from residential )
commercial sources, ,B=-BC.
"ermea)ility of Compacted ,aste
2ydraulic conductivity governs the movement of liquids ) gases in a infill.
Sludge in land fills tends to resist the movement of water down through
then due to low hydraulic conductivity by virtue of very high moisture
content. 'nstead, rainfall is converted to surface runoff ) sludge material is
transported to surface streams.
7aper ) packaging has no resistance to rain in filtration
2ydraulic conductivity of soil governs the transport rate of leachate within
the solid waste fill.
Chemical Composition of !S,
1hemical composition is important in evaluating alternative processing )
recovery options.
'f solid wastes to be used as fuel, four most important properties to be known areH
7ro:imate analysis
<using point of ash
#ltimate analysis .ma>or elements/
Energy content
(here organic fraction of *S( to be composted or to be used a feedstock for the
production of other biological conversion products, not only will information on
the ma>or elements .ultimate analysis/ that compose the waste be important, but
also information will be required on the trace elements in the waste.
"ro%imate *nalysis
7ro:imate analysis for combustible components of *S( included
following testsH
*oisture content by C wt .loss of moisture when heated to ?B,Bc
for ? hr/
;olatile combustible matter .loss of wt on ignition at A,BBc in a
covered crucible/
<i:ed carbon .combustible residue left after volatile matter is
!sh .wt of residue after combustion in an open crucible/
+usion "oint *sh
0emperature at which ash resulting from the burning of waste will form a
solid .clinker/ by fusion ) agglomeration.
0ypical fusion temp ranges from @BBB=@@BB< .??BB=?@BB 1/
Ultimate *nalysis of S, Components
"etermination of percent of 1, 2, 8, N, S ) !sh
#sed to characterize the chemical composition of the organic matter in
#se to define proper mi: of waste materials to achieve suitable 1$N ratios
for biological conversion processes

Energy Contents of S, Components
1an be determined by using a full scale boiler as a calorimeter
%y using a lab bomb colorimeter.
%y calculation, if elemental compose is known
7otentially critical element in incineration can be measured or calculated using
1uLong +ormulaH
#tu3l) ? 'E<C OH'A4- B'3@ 96 O EAS O'AN
%tu per lb on a dry ash=free basis is btu$lb .dry ash=free/ F btu$lb .as
!ppro:imate btu values for indle waste material can be determined by
using modified dulong formula.
%tu$lb F ?+,cI-?B .h@=?$K o@/I+BsI?Bn
1onstituents are C by weight.
#iological Composition of !S,
E:cluding plastic, rubber ) leather components organic fraction of most
*S( can be categorized as followsH
(ater soluble constituents=as sugars, starches, amino acid )
various organic acids
2emi cellulose=a condensation product of , or -=carbon sugars.
1ellulose a condensation product of -=carbon sugar glucose
<ats, oils ) wa:es, which are esters of alcohols ) long=chain fatty
3ignina polymeric material containing aromatic rings with metho:yle
groups .=8126/, the e:act chemical nature of which is still not known
3ignocelluloses=a combination of lignin ) cellulose.
7roteins=composed of chains of amino acids.
!lmost all organic fraction of *S( can be converted biologically to gases
) relatively inert organic ) inorganic solids.
7roduction of orders ) generation of flies are related to put risible nature
of organic material found in *S(.
#io 1egrada)ility of 9rganic ,aste
%iodegradation can be aerobic or anaerobic.
;olatile slides contents, determined by ignition at ,,BB1, are often used as
a measure of degradability of organic fraction of *S(.
#se of ;S in describing the biodegradability of organic fraction is
misleading as some constituents are highly volatile but low in
!lternatively, lignin content of a waste can be used to estimate the
biodegradable fraction, asH
%< F B.K6 B.B@K 31
%< F biodegradable fraction e:pressed on a ;S basis
B.K6 B.B@K F Empirical 1onstant
31 F 3ignin content of ;S, e:pressed as a C by wt.
"roduction of 9dor
"evelop when S( stored for long periods of time on site
*ore significant in warm climates
0ypically, results from the aerobic decomposition of the organic
components found in *S(.
#reeding of +lies
'n warm climate, it is an important phenomenon.
<lies develop in less than two weeks.
*aggot .larval/ once develop, difficult to remove, ) can develop to flies.
Types of Solid ,aste Collection System
The 1etail Comparison of -aul Container System and Stationary
Container System
Collection System
!fter the generation, the solid waste is picked up according to a
collection system.
'n the last decade several systems are used for the collection of solid
! variety of equipment used for the solid waste collection
Types of Collection systems
1ollection systems may be classified w.r.t.
*ode of operation
0he equipment used
0ypes of waste
!ode of operation
!ccording to mode of operation, the collection system classified into two
categories viz P
2aul 1ontainer System .21S/
Stationary 1ontainer System .S1S/
-aul Container System 4-CS6
0hese are collection systems in which the 18N0!'NE5S used for the
storage of waste areH
2auled to the disposal site
Emptied and
5eturned to their original location or some other location.
Types of -aul Container System
0here are three main types of 2aul 1ontainer Systems&
0ilt=frame 1ontainer Systems
Stationary Container System 4SCS6
0hese are collection systems in which the 18N0!'NE5S used for the storage
of waste areH
5emain at the point of generation, e:cept for
8ccasional short trips to the collection vehicle for empty.

Types of Stationary Container System
0here are two main types of Stationary 1ontainer SystemsH
Systems in which Self loading compactors are used
Systems in which *anually loading vehicles are used
Typical 1ata on :ehicles Used for the Collection of Solid ,aste
Collection "ehicles T3pical o"erall collection "ehicle dimensions
container or
truck 2od3
container or
truck 2od3
capacit3 3d
Hauled container s3stem
Hoist truck .;$' ' $( 6* ,(;$(( $$(;$&( #ra"it3
Tilt;frame $';&( - -( 6. ,(;6( ''(;-(( #ra"it3
Trash;trailer $&;*( - *( 6. 6(;$&( ''(;*&( #ra"it3
Stationar3 container s3stem
Compacter8mechanicall3 loadedF
1ront loading '(;*& - -( 6. $*(;$&( '*(;'6( H3draulic
Side loading $(;-. - -( 6. $-';$&( ''(;'.( H3draulic
Rear loading $(;-( ' '( 6. $'&;$-& '$(;'-( H3draulic
Compacter8manuall3 loadedF
Side loading $(;-9 - -9 6. $-';$&( '*(;-(( H3draulic
Rear loading $(;-( ' '( 6. $'&;$-& '$(;--( H3draulic
La)or Re>uirement
Single collector is used
<or safety .in some cases/ driver and helper are deployed
<or hazardous waste driver and helper always be deployed
Stationary Container System 4!echanically Loaded6
Single collector is used
<or container mounted on roller, driver and helper are brought into
'n congested ,inaccessible locations driver and two helpers are used
Stationary Container System 4!anually Loaded6
Number of collectors varies from ? to 6.
Single collector for curve and alley service generally used.
*ulti person crew is used for backyard carry service.
Comparison of -CS & SCS /=r=t= !erits & 1emerits
21S S1S
Unsightly & unsanitary
conditions& 3ess with use of large
Unsightly & unsanitary
conditions& *ore with use of
numerous smaller containers.
Utility of driver& 3ess as spend more
time in driving.
Utility of driver& is greater as to
collect several containers
Time& 2andling time reduced Time& !ccumulative handling time is
more but trip to disposal site time is
Suita)ility& 'deally suitable where S(
rate of generation is higher. Suitable for
all types of wastes
Suita)ility& Suitable where S(
quantity is less and generation points
are more. Suitable for all types of
e:cept 2eavy 'ndustrial (aste ) %ulk
Container si.eH 3arge Container si.eH Small
+le%i)ility& 1ontainers of many
different sizes ) shapes are available for
all types of S(
+le%i)ility& 0he use of smaller
containers offer greater fle:ibility in
terms of shape, ease of loading )
special features available.
Utili.ation of containers& #se of
large containers often leads to low
volume utilization, unless loading aids
.platform, ramps etc./.
Utili.ation of containers& can be
increased by using small, easier to
load, containers.
1ata for Computing E>uipment and La)or Re>uirement
Time re5uired
to pickup
er H to
deposit empt3
h 7trip
re5uired to
contents of
At;site time
h7 trip
Hauled container s3stem
Hoist truck Aechanical I (%(.9 (%(&-
Tilt;frame Aechanical I (%* (%$'9
Trash;trailer Aechanical '%(;*%( (%* (%$--
Stationar3 container s3stem
Compacter Aechanical '%(;'%& (%(& (%$
Compacter Aanual '%(;'%& I (%$
SCS Source SeparationBmulticompartment ,heeled Container
SCS Source SeparationBmulticompartment ,heeled Container
SCS 4!echanically Loaded Truc$6
-CS TiltBframe Container Loading !echanism
Solid ,aste Systems in "a$istan
!asonry #in
9pen #ody Truc$
-oist Container
-oist Truc$
!etal Container
*nimal Cart
Transfer Stations
!lternative to direct haul
9ustified when cost to transport waste from generation point to disposal
site is greater than cost to transport from generation point to transfer
station plus haul to the disposal site
3arge trailers replace many collection vehicles
Get collection vehicles back to work rapidly
3ocate disposal site far from population areas
8pportunity to inspect waste
8pportunity to process waste
#se multiple disposal sites
7resence of illegal dumps and litter
5emote disposal sites
Small capacity collection vehicles
3ow density residential areas
"irect discharge waste pushed into open trailers
Storage pit tip onto floor, into hoppers to compactor that pushes waste
into vehicle.

Transfer Station Tipping +loor Compactor
Surge "it
9pen Top Transfer Trailers
Compactor System
Bcompactor System
Intermodal Container System
"etermine the break=even haul time between a direct haul system and a
transfer station operation with the following propertiesH
"irect haul system uses a ?B yd
"irect haul cost F k@B$hr
0he transfer trailer has a capacity of ?BB yd
0ractor= trailer haul cost F k+B$hr
TS +acility Costs
<unction of amortized capital cost, capacity, operating costs
1ost k6,D,B,BBB .for building, equipment, tractor$trailer/
1apacity of 6BB,BBB yd
per year
15< is B.BK .capital recovery factor is a function of interest rate and
years to pay off converts capital cost to k$yr/, yr
0S operating cost is k@@,,BBB$yr
Normalize all costs by capacity
Step 'a& Calculate Capital Cost Elements 4TS6
0S total cost$yd
F annual capital cost plus annual op cost
!mortize 1apital cost F k6,D,B,BBB : B.BK F k6BB,BBB$yr
0otal annual costs .k6BB,BBB I k@@,,BBB/ yr
F k,@,,BBB$yr
.k,@,BBB$yr/$6BB,BBB yd6$yr F k?.D,$yd
Step ')& Calculate -auling 9perating Cost
0S trailer haul operating cost F k+B$hr$?BB yd
F kB.+B$hr=yd
"irect haul operating cost F k@B$hr$?B yd
F k@.BB$ hr=yd
0S 8perating 1ost .kB.+B$ yd
"irect 2aul 8perating 1ost .k@.BB$
?.? hours
Equate "irect 2aul 1osts to 0ransfer Station 1osts to 1alculate the %reak Even
2aul 0ime .:/
: F k?.D,$yd
I kB.+B$ hr=yd
: F ?.? hours
1omposting is an anaerobic process in which the micro=organisms, in an
o:ygen environment, decompose the organic food waste as a result minerals and
humus are obtained as a final product.
4ey 'norganic Nutrients
"rocess Re>uirements
4ey 'norganic Nutrients
*oisture content
1$N ratio
%iochemical composition and te:ture
7sychrophilic ?,
to @B
*esophilic @,
to 6,
0hermophilic ,B
to -B
!oisture content
1ompost should be kept moist, but not soggy
!t the ideal moisture level, ,B=-BC
8ptimum o:ygen levels are ?, to @B per cent !t the ideal
moisture level, ,B=-BC
1omposting inhibits at o:ygen less than ?B per cent .by volume/.
0urning and ventilating compost are meant to keep the o:ygen
content at a sufficient level.
C3N Ratio&
Nitrogen is required for cell synthesis.
1arbon is used as energy source
8ptimum 1$N ratio is 6B
1omposting operates down to 1$N 5atios of @B
*aterials that are a good source of nitrogen are called lGreensR
*aterials that are high in carbon are called l%rownsl
1arbon$Nitrogen 5atio of some (aste *aterial
*aterial C nitrogen .dry/ 1$N 5atio
<ish Scrap -.,=?B =
<arm Tard *anure @.?, ?+=?
4itchen waste @.B @,=?
Seaweed ?.A@ ?A=?
(heat Straw B.6@ ?@K=?
5otted Sawdust B.@, @BB=?
5aw Sawdust B.?? ,?B=?
<ood (aste @.B=6.B ?,=?
0otal 5efuse B.,=?.+ 6B$KB=?
7sychrophiles = the low temperature bacteria
*esophiles = the medium temperature bacteria
0hermophiles = the high temperature bacteria
optimum p2 range is - to K
#iochemical composition and te%ture:
composition of waste influence the process rate
5educing the particle of the raw material will in crease the rate of
Composting systems
0raditional (ind=row.
!erated static pile
'n=;essel 1omposting
Traditional ,indBro/=
?e@ meter high.
0akes about 6 months
*erated Static "ile&
?e@ meter high, 6e + meters wide and about @B meter long laid on
floor of ventilation pipe system
1overed with stabilized compost
0akes about +e- weeks.
InB:essel composting

Environmental #enefits
1ompost enriches soils
1ompost helps cleanup contaminated soil
1ompost helps prevent pollution
#sing compost offers economic benefits
"ro)lem /ith Composting
2eavy *etals
,orm Composting
(orm composting is using worms to recycle food scraps and other organic
material into a valuable soil amendment called vermicompost, or worm compost.
(orms eat food scraps, which become compost as they pass through the wormJs
body. 1ompost e:its the worm through itEsJ tail end. 0his compost can then be
used to grow plants. 0o understand why vermicompost is good for plants,
remember that the worms are eating nutrient=rich fruit and vegetable scraps, and
turning them into nutrient=rich compost.
!aterials to )e Used or *voided in a ,orm Composting #in=
(orms have been hard at work breaking down organic materials and
returning nutrients to the soil. 0hough worms can eat any organic
material, certain foods are more palatable for composting purposes.
5aw fruits and vegetable scraps are recommended mostly for worm
composting at small scales. Stay away from meats, oils and dairy products,
which are more comple: materials than fruits and vegetables. 0hus, they
take longer to break down and can attract pests. 1ooked foods are often
oily or buttery, which can also attract pests.
Setting up a ,orm #in
Setting up a worm bin is easy. !ll you need is a bo:, moist newspaper
strips, and worms. 0o figure out how to set up a worm bin, first consider
what worms need to live. 'f the bin provides what worms need, then it will
be successful. (orms need moisture, air, food, darkness, and warm .but
not hot/ temperatures. %edding made of newspaper strips or leaves, will
hold moisture and contain air spaces essential to worms.
#se red worms or red wigglers in the worm bin. 0he scientific name for the
two commonly used red worms is Eisenia foetida and 3umbricus rubellus.
2arvesting means removing the finished compost from the bin.
'n a favorable environment worms will work tirelessly to eat the lgarbagel
and produce compost. !s time progresses, bedding will reduce and
compost will increase in the bin. !fter 6=, months, when bin is filled with
compost .and very little bedding/, it is time to harvest the bin.
0o prepare for harvesting, do not add new food to the bin for two weeks.
0hen remove compost from the bin by using appropriate methods of
Using ,orm Compost
1ompost can be used immediately after harvesting or it can be saved for
the gardening$farming season. 0he compost can be directly mi:ed with
soil or garden soil as a soil amendment, which helps make nutrients
available to plants. 8r, the compost can be used as a top dressing fro the
fields or plant pots.
Q1ompost 0eaR can also be made with compost by Simply adding ?=@Qof
compost or in suitable proportions to water. !llow compost and water to
lsteepl for a day, mi:ing occasionally. 0hen water plants$farms. 0he
resulting lteal helps make nutrients already in the soil available to plants.
* Step #y Step "hoto (uide to -ome /orm Composting&

-ome /orm )in /ith lid5 Strip up the ne/spaper for
)ottom tray and air vent )edding and spread it=

#edding in #in. *dd dry leaves and fluffs up the mi%ture

*dd a handful of sand and soil. *dd /aters the mi%

<AA red /riggler /orms are Ra/ veggies and fruit5 coffee
placed on top= grounds5 tea )ags and egg shells go in=
They cra/l to the )ottom=

9pen a hole in the )edding in The for$ mar$s the corner= +eed a d
one corner and deposit food= different corner every /ee$=

+inished compost can )e To harvest5 put compost in piles=
e%pected in ;BE month Under light= ,orms move center

Remove /orms from compost= "lace /orms in fresh )edding and
start again=
1esign of Sanitary Landfill Site
Site "reparations
0he following steps should be taken immediately for the detail design of the
proposed site and are essential to develop and start the actual treatment process.
0opographic survey of the site.
"etail leveling of the site.
1ontour plan.
1utting of the ?,Bmm top soil of the whole area and saving it for earth
cover over the solid waste.
7reparing site for proper drainage of rain water by cutting of high level
ground and giving it a down slope .?H+BB/ soil obtained from this cutting is
used in providing embankment for fencing of the area.
1onstruction of all weather roads of ,m width, to facilitate easy approach
of trucks to all points at site.
7roviding infrastructure with all accessories, a watchman hut with
attached toilet, (eight %ridge, wash trough .6 : , : ?Bm/ and a vehicular
as well as a pedestrian entrance gate.
7roper fencing on the top of the embankment towards the e:terior side.
"arameters *dopted for 1esign
!ll the calculations will be based on the population of the city and the
same can be pro>ected for the land requirements till the end of the design
't is considered that 6BC of the waste generated is land filled, -BC is
composted, while the remaining ?BC is recycled.
(aste will be compacted in four layers, one below the ground level and
three above the ground level. "epth of each later will be @m.
E:cavated soil will be used as cover material.
1over will be B.?,m for intermediate layers while final layer will be
covered by B.-m .@ft/ of cover material.
E:cavation for one year will be made in advance
! bond will be provided in each layer after one year.
(aste will be compacted to density of ?BBB to ?6BB 4g$m
Embankments will be provided at the periphery, high enough to enclose
the site with the fencing mounted on top.
8ne standard size of cell will be adopted considering the width of the
compactor and the tractor blade.
0he 0own of (aytogo, population ,-,DKA, has decided to burn its as
collected *S( which amounts to about - lb$ <ind how many barrels
of oil they save on a daily basis. Energy of as collected *S( is +-BB %tu$lb.
?bbl oil F ,.K:?B-%0#
Energy in the *S( F +-BB %tu$lb : ,-,DKA cap : - lb$
Energy in the *S( F ?.,D : ?BA %tu
8il %arrel saved F ?.,D : ?BA %tu $ ,.K:?B-%0#
8il %arrel saved F @DB barrels$day
"ro)lem 4-ome separation and cur)side collection of recycla)les 6
! community is purchasing specialized vehicles for the curbside collection of
source=separated wastes. 0hree recycling containers are to be provided to each
residence and residents will be asked to separate newspapers and cardboard,
plastics and glass, and aluminum and tin c ans. the homeowner is to place the
separate materials in the appropriate containers and then move the recycling
containers to curbside once per week for collection by special recycling vehicles.
Estimate the relative volumetric capacity required for each material in recycling
collection vehicles. !ssume KBC of the recyclable material will be separated and
that newsprint represents @BC of the total paper waste.
0he number of homes that will participate in the separation program is estimated
to be -BC. if the separated wastes are to b e collected from a subdivision of ?@BB
homes, determine the number of trips that will be required if the size of the
collection vehicle is ?, cubic yard. !ssume 6., residents per home.
0otal solid waste
Specific weight
<ood (aste K.B ?K.B
7aper 6,.K ,.-
1ardboard -.+ 6.?
7lastics -.A +.?
0e:tiles ?.K +.?
5ubber B.+ K.?
3eather B.+ ?B.B
Tard (aste ?D.6 -.6
(ood ?.K ?+.K
Glass A.? ?@.@
0in cans ,.K ,.-
!luminum B.- ?B.B
8ther metals 6.B @B.B
"irt, !sh, etc @.D 6B.B
0otal ?BB.BB
<irst of all rearrange the table to calculate the relevant volume of recycled
material. %y the given statement that KBC recycled material will be recovered but
in the case of news prints the Cage given is @B C of that KBC recovered material.
0hus we use KBC in all other cases but we will take @BC of that KBC in the case
of newsprints.
Now calculate the relative volume of the recycled materialsH
Newspaper I cardboard F ?.B@ I ?.-, F @.-D ft
7lastics I glass F ?.6+ I B.-B F ?.A+ ft
!luminum I tin cans F B.K@ I B.B, F B.KD ft
Now we will calculate the volume of required components in ?, yd
;olume of newspapers I cardboard F .@.-D$,.+K/ : ?,
F D.6 yd
;olume of 7lastics I glass F .?.A+$,.+K/ : ?,
F ,.6 yd
;olume of !luminum I tin cans F .B.KD$,.+K/ : ?,
F @.+ yd
%tal slid
3peci$ic ;eig't
<ood (aste
K.B ?K.B
6,.K ,.- F6,.K:B.K:B.@
F ,.D
-.+ 6.? ,.? ?.-,
-.A +.? ,., ?.6+
?.K +.?
B.+ K.?
B.+ ?B.B
Tard (aste
?D.6 -.6
?.K ?+.K
A.? ?@.@ D.6 B.-B
0in cans
,.K ,.- +.- B.K@
B.- ?B.B B., B.B,
8ther metals
6.B @B.B
"irt, !sh, etc
@.D 6B.B
?BB.BB ,.+K
Num)ers of trip re>uired to collect separate /aste
!ssume that waste generationF 6.K@ lbs$capita
Solid waste production per homeF 6., persons : D day$week : 6.K@ lbs$
F A6.- lbs$week
Separated >uantity of separated ne/spapers and card)oards
&uantity of newspapers in total production .home/ F .,.D$?BB/ : A6.-
F ,.6 lbs$week
&uantity of cardboard in total production .home/ F .,.?$?BB/ : A6.-
F +.K lbs$week
,ee$ly volume of separated ne/spapers and card)oard
Separated newspapers F .,.6 lbs$week/$ .,.- lb$ft6/
F B.A+- ft
Separated cardboards F .+.K lbs$week/$ .6.? lb$ft6/
F ?.,+ ft
Num)er of trips per /ee$
F Li.B.A+- I ?.,+/ ft6$week .homej : ?@BB homes : B.-M$ .@D : D.6/
F say A trips$week
!bout 6BC of the EarthEs land surfaces .e:cluding !ntarctica/ are covered
with forest and woodland.
0his portion has changed considerably over the centuries, generally
decreasing as cultivated land has e:panded.
0he original forest cover of the Earth approached ,BC of land area.
+orests as +i)er Resources
7rinciples of Sustainable <orestry
<orest *anagement
<orest 7roducts 0echnology
+orest -arvest Techni>ues
Selective 1utting
Shelter=wood 1utting
ShelterB/ood Cutting
Shelter=wood cutting is a two=phase timber=harvesting technique in which
not all trees are taken in the first phase so that some trees may provide
shelter for young seedlingsP when these are established, the remaining
older trees are cut.
Shelter=wood cutting is an efficient technique in small plots with relatively
homogenous tree species.
't is costly in terms of labor inputs for larger acreages and so is not practiced
widely on large tracts of commercial forestlands.
Selective Cutting
Selective cutting is a timber=harvesting technique in which only trees of
specified size or species are taken, leaving other trees.m
Selective cutting is used primarily in hardwood forests.
(hen used in mi:ed=species forests, selective cutting leads to a loss of
Selective cutting is costly and appropriate only when the value of the
harvested trees is high relative to those left uncut.
1lear=cutting is a forest harvest technique in which all trees in a particular
area are cut, regardless of species or size.
1lear=cutting is the most widely used method of harvesting and also the
most controversial.
!bout two=thirds of #S timber production is harvested this way.
's appropriate when the tree is relatively uniform in species and age or when
it provides the most desirable form of regeneration.
't does remove the entire forest canopy and leads to soil erosion and wildlife
habitat destruction.
't also leaves a more disrupted and scarred landscape than other harvesting
't produces much more timber per unit of acre harvested than selective
cutting or shelter=wood cutting.
#iomass harvesting
%iomass harvesting is a forest harvest technique in which whole trees are
chipped and used as fuel or to make pulp.
1hips are easier to handle in large quantities than logs and are easy for
quick transportation.
3oggers cut selectively or consume all standing timber, depending on the
requirement of the >ob.
0he method has great economic appeal for harvesting the vast ma>ority of
#S forestlands.
't also is used in the developing world.
Silviculture is intensive management of forest lands for increased
production of trees.
'ntensive silviculture on productive lands produces much larger yields of
timber than occur in natural forests.
'ntensive silviculture as a forest management strategy results from a
shortage of timber available for harvest
Use of ,ood
'n most of the world, harvested wood generally is used for fuel.
'n the industrialized world today, most wood is used for industrial purpose.
NonBfi)er Uses of +orest Resources
(ater 5esources
1arbon Storage
0he 5ole of <ire
,ater Resources
<orest vegetation has two contrasting impacts on that runoffH it protects the
quality of the water but decreases its quantity.
'n most cases, maintaining good water quality is a prime concern and thus
takes precedence.
(hen a forest is harvested, the soils is disturbed, increasing the amount of
overland flow and erosion, with negative impacts on water quality.
'n addition to regulating overland flow and erosion, forests play a critical
role in evaportranspiration.
(hen a large forest region is deforested, the decrease in evaportranspiration
actually reduces the amount of water vapor in the air and thus may reduce
Car)on Storage
*uch of the concern about tropical deforestation focused on its impacts on
the global carbon cycle.
(e should not forget that fossil fuel combustion discharges vastly more
carbon dio:ide into the atmosphere than does deforestation.
The role of +ire
'n the past, fire was believed to be harmful to forest, but today forest fires
are recognized as a natural and important part of most forest ecosystems.
<ires also have beneficial effects.
0hey allow the release of nutrients stored in dead biomass, which stimulates
growth after fire.
0hey also remove old stands of timber that are particularly susceptible to
insect or disease infestation, thus inhibiting the spread of pests.
5emoving the forest promotes rapid growth of early succession species.
*ost important, frequent fires allow accumulated fuel to burn off relatively
harmlessly, preventing the severe fires that occur in areas of high=fuel
Types of +orest +ires
0here are three basic kinds of forest fires.
(round fires are fires that burn within the organic matter and litter of the
soil. 0hey smolder slowly and have little effect on trees.
Surface fires burn on the ground surface, consuming litter as well as the
herbaceous and shrubby vegetation of the forest floor. 0hey burn faster
than ground fires and clear all the low vegetation of the forest, but they
have little effect on large trees.
Cro/n fires burn treetops as well as low vegetation, usually killing all or
almost all above=ground vegetation.
0hese fires are the most destructive to timber, wildlife, and the soil.
Concerns a)out the *ma.on 1eforestation
Loss of #iodiversityH the tropical rainforests constitute only about DC of
the worldEs area yet contain more than half of the worldEs species.
Emissions of Car)on dio%ideH first, they store large volumes of carbon
in living biomass. Second, they have very high rates of productivity and
thus have an enormous capacity to absorb carbon from the atmosphere.
1isruption of Regional -ydrologic CycleH if the forests were removed,
the amount of evapotranspiration would decrease. 0his would increase the
runoff, causing more erosionP it would decrease atmospheric humidity and
thus precipitation in the interior.
1estruction of Indigenous CulturesH the !mazon is home to numerous
groups of people, deforestation represent a significant disruption of
established life=styles and a potential loss of the cultural knowledge of
indigenous peoples.
The Si)erian +orest
0he Siberian forest is about @@C of the total forest area of the world and
about D@C of the boreal or northern coniferous biome.
#iodiversity and -a)itat
#iological diversity refers to both the genetic variability among
individuals of a species and the abundance of individuals within a species.
0he number of different species, the abundance of individuals in that
species, and the number of species present at a particular time within a
specific geographic area are also indicators of biological diversity.
0he most ecologically diverse environments are the tropical forests, where
there is a much greater abundance of plant and animal species than in any
other single biome.
3oss of %iodiversity has several consequences
Ecosystems are undermined.
0he possibility of using as yet untried species for food, fuel, fiber, or
medicine disappears.
2uman appreciation and understanding of nature also are diminished.
Ecological Interaction
0he stability of ecosystems, in terms of their ability to maintain populations
of organism, is often enhanced by the diversity of organisms they contain.
"iversity does not always lead to stability.
"otential Resources
Nature contains many things that we might use at some time in the future.
<ood and medicine are the most often=cited potential uses of wild plants and
The Inherent :alue of Species
7erhaps the most compelling reason for concerned about loss of biodiversity
is the belief that we, as humans, have an obligation to respect the rights of
other species to e:ist.
Some neo="arwinian view of e:tinctions cause by humans is no different
from mass e:tinctions of the past such as the disappearance of the
dinosaurs. 0his view maintains that species should be allowed to die
because they have been unable to compete successfully with humans and
other species.
'n the #S, we make a distinction between endangered species and
threatened species.
Endangered species are defined as those in danger of becoming e:tinct
throughout all or a significant part of their natural ranges.
Threatened species are those species likely to become endangered in the
near future.
Even though a species may not be e:tinct, zoologists worry about the
consequences of inbreeding among the relatively few members of a small
-arvesting oldBgro/th tim)er5 such as this in the -oh forest of
,ashington5 threatens species such as the spotted o/l and the
mar)led murrelet= Intense controversy continues in )oth the US and
Canada over the ecological impacts of logging oldBgro/th forests in
the "acific North/est=
Causes of #iodiversity Loss
*a>or 1auses
2abitat *odification
Species 'ntroductions
3ocal or 5egional 1auses
"iseases and parasites
1onsumption and trade
Global warming
Conservation of #iodiversity
Species 7reservation
2abitat 1onservation
0he Endangered Species !ct
0he 1onvention on %iological "iversity
Species "rotection
0he most significant program aimed at restricting hunting and trade in
endangered species is the 1onvention on 'nternational 0rade in Endangered
Species of (ild <auna and <lora .1'0ES/.
-a)itat Conservation
0he amount of land under some form of protection has grown dramatically
in recent years and today accounts for about -C of the worldEs land area.
! key part of this protection is the %iosphere 5eserve 7rogram of the
#nited Nations Educational, Scientific, and 1ultural 8rganization
0o qualify as a biosphere reserve, and area must have outstanding,
unusual, and complete ecosystems, with accompanying harmonious
traditional human land uses.
! reserve consists of a largely undisturbed core area surrounded by one or
more buffer zones of human occupancy.
The Endangered Species *ct
0he most comprehensive piece of legislation regulating protection of all
species of flora and fauna is the Endangered Species !ct .ES!/, passed in
0he controversy started immediately after passage of the act, when a small
fish was identified to be threatened by completion of the 0ellico "am in
Environmental #ehaviors5 a/areness and Responses
Solid ,aste !anagement
State 7ublic 2ealth 1ouncil in ?A-@ enacted a three page regulation which
states that refuse disposal operations be conducted as sanitary landfills and
municipal incinerators be operated so as to meet air pollution standards.
,aste to Energy 1ou)le Lined Landfill
Recycling of Solid ,aste

!anagement of #ioBsolidsR ,aste tires & !edical ,aste
$'%& $'%.
J of the Solid >aste Stream Reco"ered
$6,6 $66( $66$ $66' $66- $66* $66& $66. $669 $66, $666
$'J $9J $6J '-J ',J -'J -6J -,J *'J *'J *9J
rogress of Rec3cling in Gew Kork State $6,6 ; $666

Insulation of Slurry ,all
Tan$ Removal
,hat is ,*S*2
'ndependent !uthority formed in ?AA-
<ormerly (ater and Sewer #tility !dministration .(!S#!/ under "ept.
of 7ublic #tilities
Services 7rovided
(ater "istribution
(astewater 1ollection and 0reatment
Storm (ater 1ollection and 1onveyance
7arts of *aryland ) ;irginia
Types of Se/er Systems are in 1=C
1ombined Sewer System Separate Sewer System
? pipe in the street @ pipes in street
2andles both runoff from
storms and wastewater
? pipe handles runoff from storms,
other handles wastewater
*ostly in older sections
Stopped building
'n newer sections
Stopped building combined
sewer early ?ABBEs
*odern practice
0ypical of older cities
.%oston, NT, 1hicago, etc./
0ypical of newer cities
.7hoeni:, 3as ;egas, etc./
,hat are Solids and +loata)le 4Trash62
0rash or debris that can be washed into receiving waters during storms
6itter (cans, candy wrappers, napkins, etc/
'tems in wastewater .sanitary products, etc other/
-o/ does Trash Reach Rivers in Separate Se/er System2
Catch #asin Cleaning
0rash on Streets
's washed into sewers
"ischarges to 5iver
0ypically, no treatment is provided for
storm water
'f catch basins donEt catch trash, it
reaches waterways
*nacostia River +loata)le 1e)ris Removal "rogram
1ontinuing 7rogram
5emoves average of DB
(orks cooperatively with #.S.
!rmy 1orps of Engineers
(!S! Skimmer %oat
Sulfur Cycle
+resh/ater 1onation
7roteins and waste products
!mino acids
Aicro2ial decomposition
!mino acids .S2/
*icrobial dissimilation
.for energyF
*icrobial ) plant assimilation
!mino acids
*icrobial decomposition
*ctivated Sludge
Sludge "roduced )y Se/age Treatment "lants
*naero)ic Sludge 1igester
Longitudinal "rofile of a Stream
I + 2
I @ 2
1882 12
I 18
%igu.e 27.23
0runk Stream
"rainage "ivide
!nd "elta
Gradient decreases downstream
<actors that increase downstreamH
1hannel size
Local Change in #ase Level *ffects River "rofiles
Suspended load B confluence (reen & Colorado Rivers in
Canyonlands5 Utah
+ormation of Natural Levees )y +looding
Erosion and 1eposition along a !eandering Stream
<lood over banks into wider area, lower velocity, sand drops. .*uddy water
over floodplain/
*eanders get more e:treme with time
"oint #ar Se>uence
1hannel moves in direction of cutbank
7ointbar advances as crossbed drapes
Gravel of bed
1ross beds of %ar
<ines of <loodplain
*ud 1racksH clay layer shrinks during drying, cracks fill with younger sediment
in ne:t flood
<loodplain *ud cracks indicates drying events.
Geologists can determine if rocks overturned.
Gello/stone (eyser erupting
Chlorination !echanics
Chemical feed pump 41iaphragm "ump6
Gas chlorination
Sodium 2ypochlorite 'n>ection System
Sodium 2ypochlorite 'n>ection System
1alcium 2ypochlorite 0ablet Erosion <eed System
0he "rinking (ater 1ycle
(astewater 7lant
2omes or %usinesses
.aquifer, lake,

Sources of 1ontamination
-istory of 1rin$ing ,ater Regulation
1rin$ing ,ater Concerns& Early Evidence
Early 'NAAs& Regulating a Local -ealth Issue
6BB %1
Early recognition of
water=disease link
5egulation as
local health
Early <ederal
involvement Early State
S"(! and
2ippocratesH boil and
strain water
1holera tied to
contamination of a
e6BB %1
1hlorination to
prevent Qchild bed
0yphoid tied to
contaminated water
State and county
programs emerged
<iltration in
Early Treatment Techni>ues
5apid sand filtration
Smaller filter beds with more rapid filtration rate, some chemical
5elies on destabilization and attachment for removal
Early !onitoring Techni>ues
(ater quality monitoring
0otal coliform monitoring
9ackson 1andle turbidity measurement
Early State Regulation E%ample& !ontana
Early +ederal Involvement /ith 1rin$ing ,ater
State !ultiple #arrier *pproach
Statute revised to
original form
Statute weakened
*ontana public
water supply
?ABD ?A?? ?A?,
5ivers and 2arbors
72S Qcommon cupR
72S standards for
interstate carriers
?KAA ?A?@ ?A?+
*ultiple barrier approach
Source selection and protection
7lans and specifications for water systems
Sanitary surveys, training and certification
E%panded Industrial *ctivity Increases -ealth Concerns
"ischarges of metals and chemicals
7esticide and fertilizer use
!dvent of atomic age
1oncerns about radionuclide
Evolving +ederal Involvement
7ublic 2ealth Service .?DAK/
Ground water protection and chemical pollution
Studies and funding
'ndian 2ealth Service .?A@?/
(ater and wastewater facilities
<ederal statutes .no enforcement authority/
(ater 7ollution 1ontrol !ct of ?A+K
<ederal (ater 7ollution 1ontrol !ct of ?A,-
(ater &uality !ct of ?A-,
E"* Esta)lished
"rinking water program moved from 7ublic 2ealth Service to E7!
<irst inventory of community water systems conducted
E7! was established in 1ecem)er 85 'NJA
-ierarchy of +ederal (overnance
1ongress and 7resident
S"(!, 1(!
E7! and 7ublic
315, S(05, 115
783'1T, G#'"!N1E and G#'"E3'NES
8p 1ert, 1apacity "evelopment, "(S5<