>> Okay, now that you've finished the reading, we're going to talk through them a bit.

Grace will start by talking through the information about how children spend their time in the classroom. And then I'll come back and talk a little more about interactions. >> As we've been discussing, we know how critically important teachers are in the lives of children. Recent research has taught us some interesting things about the role of teachers in early childhood classrooms. First, as we look at how children in these programs spend their time we see that the average child spends much of their day engaged in routine activities that offer few opportunities for learning. Second, we see that most children spend very little time interacting with adults in the classroom. And finally, when we look at the overall quality of the time they're spending, we see children are not consistently exposed to the kinds of stimulating activities and interactions that we know are needed to support social and cognitive development. Before we explain these findings in more detail, it's important to let you know more about where this research comes from. As you read in the Early Developments articles, these studies were conducted in over 700 early childhood classrooms in 11 states. They included state pre-k and Head Start programs, programs in schools, and programs in the community. The teachers and children were diverse and fairly representative of publicly funded early childhood programs nationwide. So the findings from this study are really relevant to most teachers working in early childhood programs today. One startling finding from this research was how children spend their time in the classroom. As you saw in the article, this chart shows the type of activities children

Certainly there is some time each day that needs to be spent in routines and meals. and with peers. children spend the most time in literacy and social studies. Of course we wouldn't expect that number to be zero. But this figure tells us that we're probably spending too much time in those kinds of activities. This is concerning. Though they spend a fair amount of time in art and music. if a teacher was sitting and talking to students at lunch time. First. It's important to note that the researchers recorded lots of things as an instructional activity. So for example. you can see that among all the types of activities. As you remember from your reading the results of this study show that for 73% of the school day there was no interaction between the teachers and students. almost half their day. as well. And that when children are engaged in routines and meals. it would've been coded as oral language. Another finding from this study was that children were not engaged in interactions with adults as often as you would hope. Or if they were singing a song. they really learn the most . it would've been coded as music. So that means students were on their own and were not talking to or interacting with adults at all for almost three quarters of the day. strikingly. because although we know that children can and should learn some things on their own. this chart shows that children spend 44% of their time.are engaged in on a typical day. engaged in non-instructional activities. So the 44% of the time on non-instructional activities suggests that we have some work to do to help our students get the most out of each school day. However. we need to do a better job of thinking through how to create learning opportunities within those routines. There are a couple of interesting things about this chart.

When we take a look at this graph. many others aren't. if for the majority of the day. this study told us that at least in many publicly funded early childhood educations programs across the country. so as Grace just talked about. children are not spending much interacting with adults. the vast majority of this time was spent in what researchers called minimal interaction. meaning that the teacher and the child might have a sustained conversation or interaction. classrooms seem to be doing okay. First. although many children are in emotionally supportive and well organized classrooms. when we look at the Emotional Support and Classroom Organization. >> Okay. There are two important points as we look at this. But there is still a lot of variability. Let's now begin to think in more depth about the quality of teacher-child interactions in these classrooms. like the teacher asking the child what she wants to do during center time and the child responding that she wants to play in blocks. So. The second striking finding here is that the quality of both . we get a sense of the overall classroom quality broken down into the four areas of the intentional teaching framework. So. they're really missing out on a lot of opportunities to learn from the adults around them. Only 8% of the time were interactions with adults what we would think of as elaborate. These were very brief interactions. When we look in more detail at the 27% of the day in which children were interacting with adults. Yet we know that it's those elaborated interactions between teachers and children that are the most beneficial to children. they are either not interacting with teachers at all or only minimally. overall.when they're engaged with adults who can help them maximize learning opportunities.

Few early childhood courses really teach teachers about instructional interactions. and the Content Specific Instructional Supports. researchers looked up which parts of preschool classroom were most important for helping students develop social and early academic skills. This mattered more than things like class size. are really quite low. And not all early childhood curricula support these interactions either. how to count to ten. Although we aren't going to cover all the areas in this course. We shared this information. so. We'll take a look at just one example of how this works. and having a rich vocabulary. by now you might be feeling just a little depressed about all that's wrong with early childhood. and . and sounds. There are lots of reasons why this may be the case. which here focus explicitly on language and literacy. Many. As a part of this study. teacher's education level.Instructional Supports. many children across the country just aren't getting the types of instructional interactions that we know they need to be best prepared for kindergarten. But the other really important thing that this research has told us is that teachers who do offer their students emotionally and instructionally supportive interactions can make a remarkable difference in their students' lives. such as knowing letter names. We'll come back to these issues at points throughout the course. because we think it's important to learn from research about how we can improve. Alright. The elements of the classroom that mattered the most was the quality of teachers' interactions with their children. we encourage you to be thinking about the ways that you can help ensure that children in your classroom are receiving effective teacher-child interactions across all four areas.

Again this research really boils down to pretty simple message. In particular your effective and thoughtful interactions with children who need your support the most will really make a significant difference in their lives. part of the purpose of this course is for you to know just how critically important you are. and also what other learners' predictions were. as well as the percentage of participants from our full online course that answered the questions correctly before the reading. Here we want to take a moment to encourage you to participate in a discussion about these readings. So. Post your reactions to the discussion question. and how it applies to your own experiences. And we know they matter in particular for children who are at risk of school failure or those most likely to have difficulty in learning in later years. Alright. So here's a chart that shows the correct answer according to the research you read. Now that you've reviewed the relevant research about how children spend their time. And you the teacher are really the primary person holding the keys to improvement in your classroom for your students. take a moment to reflect on the research. You are the agent of change. We want you to take a moment to reflect on your initial predictions in comparison to what the research told us. Interactions mattered more than curricula or the materials in the classroom. so now you've had a chance to learn more about how the pre-k day is spent. Teachers matter and what you do each day in the classroom really makes a difference for the children in your care. We've talked about how critically important children's day to day interactions with adults are.adult-child ratio. and then . The types of interactions between teachers and students that we'll be studying in this course matter for all children.

you can come back and watch the next video. .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful