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Oameni despre care se spune ca au facut pact cu diavolul

Dragostea, cunoasterea, tineretea vesnica sau talentul sunt unele dintre lucrurile pentru care, in anumite mituri si povesti, unele persoane isi vand sufletul diavolului. O intelegere care nu iese niciodata bine pentru cei in cauza, condamnarea lor fiind mult mai grava decat bucuria lucrurilor pe care le-ar obtine, sustin autorii acestor povestiri. Totusi, dincolo de fictiune, exista anumite personaje istorice care sunt acuzate de incheierea unui pact cu diavolul, iar aceste idei persista si in ziua de azi. Sunt adevarate aceste povesti? Exista intradevar suflete condamnate pentru un pact blestemat? uo incearca sa raspunda la aceste intrebari, prezentand faptele din jurul unor personaje controversate. Robert Johnson

!unoscut drept muzicianul care a facut un pact cu diavolul, evolutia carierei sale a fost una surprinzatoare. S-a nascut in "#"", in urma unei relatii pasagere. $esi era atras de muzica, nu avea reputatia unui cantaret prea bun. Se spune ca succesul lui %obert &ohnson a survenit in urna unei nopti in 'ississippi, la incrucisarea

autostrazilor (" si )#. *ici, la miezul noptii, l-a asteptat pe diavol pentru a-si vinde sufletul in schimbul dobandirii talentului, dorinta sa fiind sa cante blues mai bine ca oricine. +ncepand din "#,-, a intrat in randul celor mai mari cantareti de blues din epoca respectiva, stilul sau fiind unul inovator. $esi inainte era un muzician cu foarte putine calitati, a devenit in scurt timp unul cu o tehnica perfecta. .egenda intalnirii acestuia cu diavolul a aparut in perioada respectiva, iar &ohnson a stiut sa se foloseasca de ea/ a creat Crossroad Blues, in care vorbeste despre intalnirea cu diavolul la o intretaiere de drumuri, si Me and the Devil Blues. Obisnuia sa cante in penumbra, disparea in mijlocul spectacolelor si niciodata nu ramanea in acelasi loc. !and avea insa 01 de ani, a sedus femeia nepotrivita si a fost otravit cu stricnina. Si mai multe povesti despre el au aparut dupa moarte, existand trei locuri in care se presupune ca ar fi ingropat. .egenda sau realitate, %obert &ohnson a fost unul dintre cei mai mari chitaristi ai lumii. Charles Manson

!rimele comise de 2amilia 'anson sunt inca invaluite intr-o aura de mister si legenda, !harles 'anson fiind unul dintre asasinii in serie cei mai faimosi ai secolului 33. *doratia satanica este considerata ca fiind una dintre explicatiile crimelor violente din "#(#, tinand cont de picturile cu sange de pe pereti si de discursurile lui 'anson, bazate pe concepte ale budismului si pe religiile orientale, impregnate insa cu un misticism obscur. .a aceasta teorie a contribuit si uciderea actritei Sharon Tate, sotia lui %oman 4olans5i, care tocmai terminase filmul Rosemary's Baby, in care se explora satanismul si venirea fiului lui Satana pe lume, pentru care primise amenintari publice din partea mai multor grupuri ezoterice. *sasinatele lui 'anson au avut o componenta religioasa importanta, bazate pe modul in care 'ason interpreta *pocalipsa. Expertii au spus ca aceste crime au aparut si in urma consumului de alcool si

droguri. Giuseppe Tartini

+n cazul muzicianului italian 6iuseppe Tartini nu se poate vorbi chiar de un pact, ci mai degraba de o colaborare cu diavolul, care i-a adus acestuia faima. Tartini a povestit ca atunci cand avea 0" de ani, diavolul i-a aparut in vis, iar el l-a facut pe acesta sa cante la vioara. Tartini a spus ca muzica pe care Satana a cantat-o era incredibil de frumoasa. $upa ce s-a trezit, a incercat sa recompuna aceasta simfonie, insa i s-a parut ca era cu mult inferioara celei din vis. Si-a publicat insa opera sub numele de Trilul diavolului si a devenit cunoscut, reusind sa isi deschida propria sa scoala. 7u a reusit insa sa mai compuna ceva la fel de frumos ca Trilul diavolului.

Charles Baudelaire

4oetul francez !harles 8audelaire a fost acuzat de satanism si de adorarea diavolului, cu care se spune care ar fi incheiat un pact pentru a avea succes in domeniul literar, datorita unora dintre versurile sale, in special Litaniile catre Satana. +n aceste versuri, poetul isi exprima admiratia pentru personajul intunecat. 'odul in care s-a incheiat viata sa, cu hemiplegie, paralizie si afazie, a contribuit la aceasta teorie potrivit careia corpul sau era condamnat treptat, dupa ce si-a vandut sufletul. Teoria pactului cu diavolul nu se sustine insa in cazul lui 8audelaire. *teu declarat, poetul folosea arta sa pentru a distruge canoanele impuse de altii, codul moral din acel moment si a refirma individualitatea oamenilor. +n acest context, versurile de adoratie pentru Satana nu trebuie luate ca atare, ci ca un simbol, $emonul este un simbol al revolutiei morale a autorului.

iccolo !aganini

7iccolo 4aganini era numit 9violonistul diavolului9. Talentul cu care canta la vioara, alaturi de un aspect palid si cadaveric si niste miscari imposibile pe care le facea cu mainile in timp ce canta, precum indoirea articulatiilor degetelor lateral sau incrucisarea coatelor, au dus la castigarea acestui renume. Totusi, astazi, majoritatea biografilor spun ca 4aganini suferea de sindromul 'arfan, o boala genetica ce produce hiperactivitate articulara si degete foarte alungite.

"rbain Grandier

$e numele preotului francez :rbain 6randier, care a trait in secolul al 3;++-lea, este legat primul pact scris cu diavolul din istorie. $ocumentul, scris in latina, despre care se presupune ca ar fi putut fi falsificat, a fost gasit in camera acestuia, reprezentand o dovada puternica pentru a-l condamna la moarte. $uminica, -< Septembrie 0-",, ora -</)0 Sursa/ =iare.com *utor/ $aniela 6radinaru

Robert Johnson
2rom >i5ipedia, the free enc?clopedia &ump to/ navigation, search 2or other people named %obert &ohnson, see %obert &ohnson @disambiguationA. Robert #ero$ Johnson

%obert &ohnsonBs studio portrait, circa "#,CDone of onl? three verified 5noEn published photographs Bac%ground information Birth name %obert .ero? &ohnson 'a? <, "#"" Born Fazlehurst, 'ississippi *ugust "(, "#,< @aged 01A Died 6reenEood, 'ississippi Genres $elta blues, !ountr? blues Occupations 'usician, songEriter &nstruments 6uitar, vocals, harmonica 'ears active "#0#G,< otable instruments 6ibson .-" Robert #ero$ Johnson @'a? <, "#"" G *ugust "(, "#,<A Eas an *merican blues singer and musician. Fis landmar5 recordings from "#,(G,1 displa? a combination of singing, guitar s5ills, and songEriting talent that has influenced later generations of musicians. &ohnsonBs shadoE?, poorl? documented life and death at age 01 have given rise to much legend, including the 2austian m?th that he sold his soul at a crossroads to achieve success. *s an itinerant performer Eho pla?ed mostl? on street corners, in ju5e joints, and at Saturda? night dances, &ohnson had little commercial success or public recognition in his lifetime.

&ohnsonBs records sold poorl? during his lifetime. +t Eas onl? after the reissue of his recordings in "#(" on the .4 King of the Delta Blues Singers that his Eor5 reached a Eider audience. &ohnson is noE recognized as a master of the blues, particularl? of the 'ississippi $elta blues st?le. Fe is credited b? man? roc5 musicians as an important influenceH Eric !lapton has called &ohnson 9the most important blues singer that ever lived.9I"JI0J &ohnson Eas inducted into the %oc5 and %oll Fall of 2ame as an 9Earl? +nfluence9 in their first induction ceremon? in "#<(.I,J +n 0--,, $avid 2ric5e ran5ed &ohnson fifth in %olling Stone's list of the "-- 6reatest 6uitarists of *ll Time.I)J

Contents
" .ife and career "." Earl? life ".0 +tinerant musician "., %ecording sessions ".,." 4la?bac5 issues in extant recordings ".) $eath ".C 6ravesite 0 $evil legend 0." ;arious accounts 0.0 +nterpretations , 'usical st?le ,." ;oice ,.0 +nstrument ,., .?rics ) +nfluences C .egac? C." %oc5 and roll C.0 %oc5 music and related genres C., 6uitar techniKue C.) .ifetime achievement ( 4roblems of biograph? 1 $iscograph? < *Eards and recognitions <." 6ramm? *Eards <.0 6ramm? Fall of 2ame <., 7ational %ecording %egistr? <.) %oc5 and %oll Fall of 2ame <.C The 8lues 2oundation *Eards <.( Fonors and inductions <.1 Tribute albums # 2ilms and other media "- See also "" 7otes "0 %eferences ", 8ibliograph? ") External lin5s

#ife and career


(arl$ life
%obert &ohnson Eas born in Fazlehurst, 'ississippi possibl? on 'a? <, "#"",ICJ to &ulia 'ajor $odds @born October "<1)A and 7oah &ohnson @born $ecember "<<)A. &ulia Eas married to !harles $odds @born 2ebruar? "<(CA, a relativel? prosperous landoEner and furniture ma5er Eith Ehom she had ten children. !harles $odds had been forced b? a mob to leave Fazlehurst folloEing a dispute Eith Ehite landoEners. &ulia left Fazlehurst Eith bab? %obert but after some tEo ?ears sent him to live in 'emphis Eith her husband, Eho had changed his name to !harles Spencer.I(J !irca "#"#, %obert rejoined his mother in the 'ississippi $elta area around Tunica and %obinsonville. &uliaBs neE husband Eas 5noEn as $ust? >illisH he Eas 0) ?ears her junior. %obert Eas remembered b? some residents as 9.ittle %obert $ust?,9I1J but he Eas registered at TunicaBs +ndian !ree5 School as %obert Spencer. +n the "#0- census he is listed as %obert Spencer, living in .ucas, *r5ansas Eith >ill and &ulia >illis. %obert Eas at school in "#0) and "#01I<J and the Kualit? of his signature on his marriage certificateI#J suggests that he Eas relativel? Eell educated for a bo? of his bac5ground. One school friend, >illie !offee, has been discovered and filmed, recalling that %obert Eas alread? noted for pla?ing the harmonica and jaE harp.I"-J Fe also remembers that %obert Eas absent for long periods, Ehich suggests that he ma? have been living and stud?ing in 'emphis.I""J *fter school, %obert adopted the surname of his natural father, signing himself as %obert &ohnson on the certificate of his marriage to sixteen-?ear-old ;irginia Travis in 2ebruar? "#0#. She died in childbirth shortl? after.I"0J Surviving relatives of ;irginia told the blues researcher %obert 9'ac59 'c!ormic5 that this Eas a divine punishment for %obertBs decision to sing secular songs, 5noEn as Bselling ?our soul to the $evilB. 'c!ormic5 believes that &ohnson himself accepted the phrase as a description of his resolve to abandon the settled life of a husband and farmer to become a full-time blues musician.I",J *round this time, the noted blues musician Son Fouse moved to %obinsonville Ehere his musical partner, >illie 8roEn, lived. .ate in life, Fouse remembered &ohnson as a Blittle bo?B Eho Eas a competent harmonica pla?er but an embarrassingl? bad guitarist. Soon after, &ohnson left %obinsonville for the area around 'artinsville, close to his birthplace Fazlehurst, possibl? searching for his natural father. Fere he perfected the guitar st?le of Son Fouse and learned other st?les from +saiah 9+5e9 =innerman.I")J +5e =innerman Eas rumored to have learned supernaturall? to pla? guitar b? visiting grave?ards at midnight.I"CJ >hen &ohnson next appeared in %obinsonville, he had seemed to have acKuired a miraculous guitar techniKue.I"(J Fouse Eas intervieEed at a time Ehen the legend of &ohnsonBs pact Eith the $evil Eas Eell 5noEn among blues researchers. Fe Eas as5ed Ehether he attributed &ohnsonBs techniKue to this pact, and his eKuivocal ansEers have been ta5en as confirmation.ICJ >hile living in 'artinsville, &ohnson fathered a child Eith ;ergie 'ae Smith. Fe also married !aletta !raft in 'a? "#,". +n "#,0, the couple moved to !lar5sdale in the $elta. Fere !aletta fell ill and &ohnson abandoned her for a career as a BEal5ingB @itinerantA musician.I"1J

&tinerant musician

$avid 9Fone?bo?9 EdEards Eas one of several blues guitarists Ehose testimon? has been used to piece together &ohnsonBs histor?. 2rom "#,0 until his death in "#,<, &ohnson moved freKuentl? betEeen large cities li5e 'emphis, Tennessee and Felena, *r5ansas and the smaller toEns of the 'ississippi $elta and neighboring regions of 'ississippi and *r5ansas.I"<JI"#J On occasion, he traveled much farther. 2elloE blues musician &ohnn? Shines accompanied him to !hicago, Texas, 7eE Lor5, !anada, Mentuc5?, and +ndiana.I0-J Fenr? ToEnsend shared a musical engagement Eith him in St .ouis.I0"J +n man? places he sta?ed Eith members of his large extended famil?, or Eith Eomen friends.I00J Fe did not marr? again but formed some long term relationships Eith Eomen to Ehom he Eould return periodicall?. One Eas Estella !oleman, the mother of the blues musician %obert .oc5Eood, &r. +n other places he sta?ed Eith a Eoman seduced at his first performance.I0,JI0)J +n each location, &ohnsonBs hosts Eere largel? ignorant of his life elseEhere. Fe used different names in different places, emplo?ing at least eight distinct surnames.I0CJ 8iographers have loo5ed for consistenc? from musicians Eho 5neE &ohnson in different contexts/ Shines, Eho traveled extensivel? Eith himH .oc5Eood Eho 5neE him as his motherBs partnerH $avid 9Fone?bo?9 EdEards Ehose cousin >illie 'ae 4oEell had a relationship Eith &ohnson.I0(J 2rom a mass of partial, conflicting, and inconsistent e?e-Eitness accounts,I01J biographers have attempted to summarize &ohnsonBs character. 9Fe Eas Eell mannered, he Eas soft spo5en, he Eas indecipherable9.I0<J 9*s for his character, ever?one seems to agree that, Ehile he Eas pleasant and outgoing in public, in private he Eas reserved and li5ed to go his oEn Ea?9.I0#J 9'usicians Eho 5neE &ohnson testified that he Eas a nice gu? and fairl? averageDexcept, of course, for his musical talent, his Eea5ness for Ehis5e? and Eomen, and his commitment to the road.9I,-J >hen &ohnson arrived in a neE toEn, he Eould pla? for tips on street corners or in front of the local barbershop or a restaurant. 'usical associates have said that in live performances &ohnson often did not focus on his dar5 and complex original compositions, but instead pleased audiences b? performing more Eell-5noEn pop standards of the da?I,"J G and not necessaril? blues. >ith an abilit? to pic5 up tunes at first hearing, &ohnson had no trouble giving his audiences Ehat the? Eanted, and certain of his contemporaries later remar5ed on &ohnsonBs interest in jazz and countr? music. &ohnson also had an uncann? abilit? to establish a rapport Eith his audienceH in ever? toEn in Ehich he stopped, &ohnson Eould establish ties to the local communit? that Eould serve him Eell Ehen he passed through again a month or a ?ear later. 2elloE musician Shines Eas "1 Ehen he met &ohnson in "#,,. Fe estimated &ohnson Eas ma?be a ?ear older than himself. +n Samuel !hartersB Robert Johnson, the author Kuotes Shines as sa?ing/ 9%obert Eas a ver? friendl? person, even though he Eas sul5? at times, ?ou 5noE. *nd +

hung around %obert for Kuite a Ehile. One evening he disappeared. Fe Eas 5ind of a peculiar felloE. %obertBd be standing up pla?ing some place, pla?ing li5e nobod?Bs business. *t about that time it Eas a hustle Eith him as Eell as a pleasure. *nd mone?Bd be coming from all directions. 8ut %obertBd just pic5 up and Eal5 off and leave ?ou standing there pla?ing. *nd ?ou EouldnBt see %obert no more ma?be in tEo or three Eee5s ... So %obert and +, Ee began journe?ing off. + Eas just, matter of fact, tagging along ! $uring this time &ohnson established Ehat Eould be a relativel? long-term relationship Eith Estella !oleman, a Eoman about fifteen ?ears his senior and the mother of musician %obert .oc5Eood, &r. &ohnson reportedl? cultivated a Eoman to loo5 after him in each toEn he pla?ed in. &ohnson supposedl? as5ed homel? ?oung Eomen living in the countr? Eith their families Ehether he could go home Eith them, and in most cases the ansEer Eas B?esB...until a bo?friend arrived or &ohnson Eas read? to move on. +n "#)", *lan .omax learned from 'udd? >aters that &ohnson had performed in the !lar5sdale, 'ississippi area.I,0J 8? "#C#, historian Samuel !harters could onl? add that >ill Shade of the 'emphis &ug 8and remembered &ohnson had once briefl? pla?ed Eith him in >est 'emphis, *r5ansas.I,,J +n the last ?ear of his life, &ohnson is believed to have traveled to St. .ouis and possibl? +llinois, and then to some states in the East. +n "#,<, !olumbia %ecords producer &ohn F. Fammond, Eho oEned some of &ohnsonBs records, had record producer $on .aE see5 out &ohnson to boo5 him for the first 92rom Spirituals to SEing9 concert at !arnegie Fall in 7eE Lor5. On learning of &ohnsonBs death, Fammond replaced him Eith 8ig 8ill 8roonz?, but still pla?ed tEo of &ohnsonBs records from the stage.I,)J

Recording sessions
Robert Johnson records

&ohnsonBs recordings Eere released on several labels/ 9'il5coEBs !alf 8lues9 on 4erfect %ecords @topA, 9.ove in ;ain 8lues9 on ;ocalion %ecords @middleA, and 9+ 8elieve +Bll $ust '? 8room9 b? !onKueror %ecords @bottomA +n &ac5son, 'ississippi, around "#,(, &ohnson sought out F. !. Speir, Eho ran a general store and doubled as a talent scout. Speir put &ohnson in touch Eith Ernie Oertle, Eho offered to record the ?oung musician in San *ntonio, Texas. The recording session Eas held on 7ovember 0,, "#,( in room )") of the 6unter Fotel in San *ntonio,I,CJI,(JI,1J Ehich 8runsEic5 %ecords had set up to be a temporar? recording studio. +n the ensuing three-da? session, &ohnson pla?ed sixteen selections, and recorded alternate ta5es for most of these. &ohnson reportedl? performed facing the Eall, Ehich has been cited as evidence he Eas a sh? man and reserved performer. This conclusion Eas pla?ed up in the inaccurate liner notes of the "#(" album King of the Delta Blues Singers. %? !ooder speculates that &ohnson pla?ed facing a corner to enhance the sound of the guitar, a techniKue he calls 9corner loading9.I,<J *mong the songs &ohnson recorded in San *ntonio Eere 9!ome On +n '? Mitchen9, 9Mind Fearted >oman 8lues9, 9+ 8elieve +Bll $ust '? 8room9 and 9!ross %oad 8lues9. The first songs to appear Eere 9Terraplane 8lues9 and 9.ast 2air $eal 6one $oEn9, probabl? the onl? recordings of his that he Eould live to hear. 9Terraplane 8lues9 became a moderate regional hit, selling C,--- copies. Fis first recorded song, 9Mind Fearted >oman 8lues9, Eas part of a c?cle of spin-offs and response songs that began Eith .ero? !arrBs 9'ean 'istreater 'ama9 @"#,)A. *ccording to >ald, it Eas 9the most musicall? complex in the c?cle9I,#J and stood apart from most rural blues as a throughcomposed l?ric, rather than an arbitrar? collection of more-or-less unrelated verses.I)-J +n contrast to most $elta pla?ers, &ohnson had absorbed the idea of fitting a composed song into the three minutes of a 1< rpm side.I)"J 'ost of &ohnsonBs 9somber and introspective9 songs and performances come from his second recording session.I)0J +n "#,1, &ohnson traveled to $allas, Texas, for another recording session in a ma5eshift studio at the ;itagraph @>arner 8rothersA 8uilding, C-< 4ar5 *venue,I"JI0J Ehere 8runsEic5 %ecord !orporation Eas located on the third floor.I),J Eleven records from this session Eould be released Eithin the folloEing ?ear. &ohnson did tEo ta5es of most of these songs and recordings of those ta5es survived. 8ecause of this, there is more opportunit? to compare different performances of a single song b? &ohnson than for an? other blues performer of his time and place.I))J &ohnson recorded almost half of the 0# songs that ma5e up his entire discograph? at the C-< 4ar5 *ve 8uilding in $allas, Texas. 8? the time he died, at least six of his records had been released in the South as race records. !la$bac% issues in e)tant recordings The accurac? of the pitch and speed of the extant recordings has been Kuestioned. +n The 6uardian's music blog from 'a? 0-"-, &on >ilde speculated that recordings ma? have been 9accidentall? speeded up Ehen first committed to 1< Irpm recordsJ, or else Eere deliberatel? speeded up to ma5e them sound more exciting.9I)CJ Fe does not give a source for this statement. Son?N.egac? music executive 8er?l !ohen 4orter, Eho Eon a 6ramm? for the labelBs "##" reissue of &ohnsonBs Eor5s, 9ac5noEledges thereBs a possibilit? &ohnsonBs "#,(G,1 recordings Eere sped up, since the

OMehN;ocalion famil? of labels, Ehich originall? issued the material, Eas BnotoriousB for altering the speed of its releases. BSometimes it Eas 1< rpms, sometimes it Eas <" rpms,B he sa?s. +tBs impossible to chec5 the original sources, since the metal stampers used to duplicate the original 1< discs disappeared ?ears ago.9I)(J

Death
&ohnson died on *ugust "(, "#,<, at the age of 01, near 6reenEood, 'ississippi. *lthough the cause of death is still un5noEn, there have been a number of theories offered, based on several differing accounts about the events preceding his death. &ohnson had been pla?ing for a feE Eee5s at a countr? dance in a toEn about "C miles @0) 5mA from 6reenEood. *ccording to one theor?, &ohnson Eas murdered b? the jealous husband of a Eoman Eith Ehom he had flirted. +n an account b? felloE blues legend Sonn? 8o? >illiamson, &ohnson had been flirting Eith a married Eoman at a dance, Ehere she gave him a bottle of Ehis5e? poisoned b? her husband. >hen &ohnson too5 the bottle, >illiamson 5noc5ed it out of his hand and advised him to never drin5 from a bottle that he had not personall? seen opened. &ohnson replied, 9$onBt ever 5noc5 a bottle out of m? hand.9 Soon after, he Eas offered another @poisonedA bottle and accepted it. &ohnson is reported to have begun feeling ill the evening after and had to be helped bac5 to his room in the earl? morning hours. Over the next three da?s his condition steadil? Eorsened and Eitnesses reported that he died in a convulsive state of severe pain. 'usicologist %obert 9'ac59 'c!ormic5 claims to have trac5ed doEn the man Eho murdered &ohnson, and to have obtained a confession from him in a personal intervieE, but has declined to reveal the manBs name.I)1J >hile str?chnine has been suggested as the poison that 5illed &ohnson,Icitation neededJ at least one scholar has disputed the notion. Tom 6raves, in his boo5 Crossroads" The Life and #fterlife of Blues Legend Robert Johnson, relies on expert testimon? from toxicologists to argue that str?chnine has such a distinctive odor and taste that it cannot be disguised, even in strong liKuor. 6raves also claims that a significant amount of str?chnine Eould have to be consumed in one sitting to be fatal, and that death from the poison Eould occur Eithin hours, not da?s.I)<J !ontemporar? $avid 9Fone?bo?9 EdEards similarl? noted that the poison couldnBt have been str?chnine, since &ohnson Eould have died much more rapidl?, instead of suffering for three da?s.I)#J

Gravesite

*lleged gravesite shoEing one of %obert &ohnsonBs three tombstones The exact location of his grave is officiall? un5noEnH three different mar5ers have been erected at possible church cemeter? burial sites outside of 6reenEood.IC-J %esearch in the "#<-s and "##-s strongl? suggests &ohnson Eas buried in the grave?ard of the 'ount =ion 'issionar? 8aptist !hurch near 'organ !it?, not far from 6reenEood, in an unmar5ed grave. * one-ton cenotaph in the shape of an obelis5, listing all of &ohnsonBs song titles, Eith a central inscription b? 4eter 6uralnic5, Eas placed at this location in "##-, paid for b? !olumbia %ecords and numerous smaller contributions made through the 't.

=ion 'emorial 2und. +n "##- a small mar5er Eith the epitaph 9%esting in the 8lues9 Eas placed in the cemeter? of 4a?ne !hapel near uito b? an *tlanta roc5 group named the Tombstones, after the? saE a photograph in Living Blues magazine of an unmar5ed spot alleged b? one of &ohnsonBs exgirlfriends to be &ohnsonBs burial site.IC"J 'ore recent research b? Stephen .a;ere @including statements from %osie Es5ridge, the Eife of the supposed gravediggerA indicates that the actual grave site is under a big pecan tree in the cemeter? of the .ittle =ion !hurch, north of 6reenEood along 'one? %oad. Son? 'usic has placed a mar5er at this site. *n intervieEee in the documentar? The Search for Robert Johnson @"##"A suggests that oEing to povert? and lac5 of transportation &ohnson is most li5el? to have been buried in a pauperBs grave @or 9potterBs field9A ver? near Ehere he died.

Devil legend
*ccording to legend, as a ?oung man living on a plantation in rural 'ississippi, %obert &ohnson Eas branded Eith a burning desire to become a great blues musician. Fe Eas 9instructed9 to ta5e his guitar to a crossroad near $oc5er? 4lantation at midnight. There he Eas met b? a large blac5 man @the $evilA Eho too5 the guitar and tuned it. The 9$evil9 pla?ed a feE songs and then returned the guitar to &ohnson, giving him master? of the instrument. This Eas in effect, a deal Eith the $evil mirroring the legend of 2aust. +n exchange for his soul, %obert &ohnson Eas able to create the blues for Ehich he became famous.IC0J

*arious accounts
This legend Eas developed over time, and has been chronicled b? 6a?le $ean >ardloE,IC,J EdEard MomaraIC)J and Elijah >ald, Eho sees the legend as largel? dating from &ohnsonBs rediscover? b? Ehite fans more than tEo decades after his death.ICCJ Son Fouse once told the stor? to 4ete >elding as an explanation of &ohnsonBs astonishingl? rapid master? of the guitar. >elding reported it as a serious belief in a Eidel? read article in Do$n Beat in "#((.IC(J Other intervieEers failed to elicit an? confirmation from Fouse and there Eere full? tEo ?ears betEeen FouseBs observation of &ohnson as first a novice and then a master. 2urther details Eere absorbed from the imaginative retellings b? 6reil 'arcusIC1J and %obert 4almer.IC<J 'ost significantl?, the detail Eas added that &ohnson received his gift from a large blac5 man at a crossroads. There is dispute as to hoE and Ehen the crossroads detail Eas attached to the %obert &ohnson stor?. *ll the published evidence, including a full chapter on the subject in the biograph? Crossroads b? Tom 6raves, suggests an origin in the stor? of 8lues musician Tomm? &ohnson. This stor? Eas collected from his musical associate +shman 8race? and his elder brother .edell in the "#(-s.IC#J One version of .edell &ohnsonBs account Eas published in $avid EvansBs "#1" biograph? of Tomm?,I(-J and Eas repeated in print in "#<0 alongside Son FouseBs stor? in the Eidel? read Searching for Robert Johnson I("J +n another version, .edell placed the meeting not at a crossroads but in a grave?ard. This resembles the stor? told to Steve .a;ere that +5e =innerman of Fazlehurst, 'ississippi learned to pla? the guitar at midnight Ehile sitting on tombstones. =innerman is believed to have influenced the pla?ing of the ?oung %obert &ohnson.I(0J

The legendar? 9!rossroads9 at !lar5sdale, 'ississippi. %ecent research b? blues scholar 8ruce !onforth, in Living Blues magazine, ma5es the stor? clearer. &ohnson and +5e =immerman did practice in a grave?ard at night, because it Eas Kuiet and no one Eould disturb them, but it Eas not the Fazlehurst cemeter? as had been believed. =immerman @his actual name as it Eas reportedl? spelled on census records for the famil? going bac5 into the earl? "<--s, his social securit? card, social securit? death notice, funeral program, and b? his daughtersA Eas not from Fazlehurst but nearb? 8eauregard. *nd he didnBt practice in one grave?ard, but in several in the area.I(,J &ohnson spent about a ?ear living Eith and learning from =immerman, Eho ultimatel? accompanied &ohnson bac5 to the $elta to loo5 after him. +n summar?/ Ehile $oc5er?, Fazlehurst and 8eauregard ma? all be possible locations Ehere &ohnson sold his soul to the $evil, there are noE tourist attractions claiming to be 9The !rossroads9 in both !lar5sdale and 'emphis.I()J .ocals in %osedale, 'ississippi claim &ohnson sold his soul to the $evil at the intersection of highEa?s " and < in their toEn, Ehile the "#<( movie Crossroads Eas filmed in 8eulah, 'ississippi. 8lues historian Steve !heseborough Erites that it ma? be impossible to tell Ehich crossroads &ohnson Eas tal5ing about, because 9%obert &ohnson Eas a rambling gu?9.I(CJ

&nterpretations

2ol5lorist *lan .omax Eas instrumental in preserving &ohnsonBs recordings and spreading the m?tholog? around his s5ill. The $evil in these songs ma? not solel? refer to the !hristian stor? of Satan, but to the *frican tric5ster god .egba, himself associated Eith crossroadsDthough author Tom 6raves deems the

connection to *frican deities tenuous.I((J *s fol5lorist Farr? '. F?att discovered during his research in the South from "#,CG"#,#, Ehen *frican-*mericans born in the "#th or earl?-0-th centur? said the? or an?one else had 9sold their soul to the devil at the crossroads,9 the? had a different meaning in mind. *mple evidence indicates *frican religious retentions surrounding .egba and the ma5ing of a 9deal9 @not selling the soul in the same sense as in the 2austian tradition cited b? 6ravesA Eith this so-called 9devil9 at the crossroads.I(1J 9The 8lues and the 8lues singer has reall? special poEers over Eomen, especiall?. +t is said that the 8lues singer could possess Eomen and have an? Eoman the? Eanted. *nd so Ehen %obert &ohnson came bac5, having left his communit? as an apparentl? mediocre musician, Eith a clear genius in his guitar st?le and l?rics, people said he must have sold his soul to the devil. *nd that fits in Eith this old *frican association Eith the crossroads Ehere ?ou find Eisdom/ ?ou go doEn to the crossroads to learn, and in his case to learn in a 2austian pact, Eith the devil. Lou sell ?our soul to become the greatest musician in histor?.9 D8ill 2erris, #merican %ublic Media" The Story $ith Dic& 'ordon()*+ 2ol5 tales of bargains Eith the $evil have long existed in *frican-*merican and European traditions and Eere adapted into literature. TEo Eell-5noEn examples are >ashington +rvingBs 9The $evil and Tom >al5er9 in "<0) and Stephen ;incent 8enetBs 9The $evil and $aniel >ebster9 in "#,(. +n the "#,-s F?att recorded man? tales of banjo pla?ers, fiddlers, card shar5s, dice pla?ers, guitarists, and one accordionist selling their souls at crossroads. 2ol5orist *lan .omax considered that ever? *frican *merican secular musician Eas 9in the opinion of both himself and his peers, a child of the $evil, a conseKuence of the blac5 vieE of the European dance embrace as sinful in the extreme9.I(#J

Musical st$le
%obert &ohnson is toda? considered a master of the blues, particularl? of the $elta blues st?leH Meith %ichards of the %olling Stones said in "##-, 9Lou Eant to 5noE hoE good the blues can get? >ell, this is it.9I1-J 8ut according to Elijah >ald, in his boo5 ,sca-ing the Delta, &ohnson in his oEn time Eas most respected for his abilit? to pla? in such a Eide variet? of st?lesDfrom raE countr? slide guitar to jazz and pop lic5sDand to pic5 up guitar parts almost instantl? upon hearing a song. I1"J Fis first recorded song, 9Mind Fearted >oman 8lues,9 in contrast to the prevailing $elta st?le of the time, more resembled the st?le of !hicago or St. .ouis, Eith 9a full-fledged, abundantl? varied musical arrangement.9I10J :nusual for a $elta pla?er of the time, a recording exhibits Ehat &ohnson could do entirel? outside of a blues st?le. 9The?Bre %ed Fot,9 from his first recording session, shoEs that he Eas also comfortable Eith an 9uptoEn9 sEing or ragtime sound similar to the Farlem Famfats but, as >ald remar5s, 9no record compan? Eas heading to 'ississippi in search of a doEn-home +n5 Spots ... IFJe could undoubtedl? have come up Eith a lot more songs in this st?le if the producers had Eanted them.9I1,J 9To the uninitiated, &ohnsonBs recordings ma? sound li5e just another dust? $elta blues musician Eailing aEa?. 8ut a careful listen reveals that &ohnson Eas a revisionist in his time . . &ohnsonBs tortured soul vocals and anxiet?-ridden guitar pla?ing arenBt found in the cotton-field blues of his contemporaries.9 D'arc '?ers, .all Street Journal(/0+

*oice
*n important aspect of &ohnsonBs singing Eas his use of microtonalit?. These subtle inflections of pitch help explain Eh? his singing conve?s such poEerful emotion. Eric !lapton described &ohnsonBs music as 9the most poEerful cr? that + thin5 ?ou can find in the human voice.9 +n tEo

ta5es of 9'e and the $evil 8lues9 he shoEs a high degree of precision in the complex vocal deliver? of the last verse/ 9The range of tone he can pac5 into a feE lines is astonishing.9I1CJ The songBs 9hip humor and sophistication9 is often overloo5ed. 9I6Jenerations of blues Eriters in search of Eild $elta primitivism,9 Erites >ald, have been inclined to overloo5 or undervalue aspects that shoE &ohnson as a polished professional performer.I1(J &ohnson is also 5noEn for using the guitar as Bthe other vocalist in the songB, a techniKue later perfected b? 8. 8. Ming and his personified guitar 5noEn as B.ucilleB/I11J 9. . in *frica and in *fro-*merican tradition, there is the tradition of the tal5ing instrument, beginning Eith the drums . . the one-strand and then the six-strings Eith bottlenec5-st?le performanceH it becomes a competing voice . . or a complementar? voice . . in the performance . . 9 D8ill 2erris, #merican %ublic Media" The Story $ith Dic& 'ordon()*+

&nstrument
&ohnson mastered the guitar, being considered toda? one of the all-time greats on the instrument. Fis approach Eas highl? complex and extremel? advanced musicall?. >hen Meith %ichards Eas first introduced to &ohnsonBs music b? his bandmate 8rian &ones, he replied, 9>ho is the other gu? pla?ing Eith him?9, not realizing it Eas &ohnson pla?ing on one guitar. 9+ Eas hearing tEo guitars, and it too5 a long time to actuall? realise he Eas doing it all b? himself,9I1<J said %ichards, Eho Eould later add 9%obert &ohnson Eas li5e an orchestra all b? himself.9I1)J 9*s for his guitar techniKue, itBs politel? reed? but ambitiousl? eclecticDmoving effortlessl? from hen-pic5ing and bottlenec5 slides to a full dec5 of chuc5a-chuc5a rh?thm figures.9 D'arc '?ers, .all Street Journal(/0+

#$rics
+n The Story $ith Dic& 'ordon,I1#J 8ill 2erris of *merican 4ublic 'edia said/ 9%obert &ohnson + thin5 of in the same Ea? + thin5 of the 8ritish %omantic poets, Meats and Shelle?, Eho burned out earl?, Eho Eere geniuses at Eordsmithing poetr?.9 and/ 9The 8lues, if an?thing, are deepl? sexual. Lou 5noE, Bm? car doesnBt run, +Bm gonna chec5 m? oilB ... Bif ?ou donBt li5e m? apples, donBt sha5e m? treeB. Ever? verse has sexualit? associated Eith it.9

&nfluences
&ohnson fused approaches specific to $elta blues to those from the broader music Eorld. The slide guitar Eor5 on 9%ambling on '? 'ind9 is pure $elta and &ohnsonBs vocal there has 9a touch of ... Son Fouse raEness,9 but the train imitation on the bridge is not at all t?pical of $elta blues, and is more li5e something out of minstrel shoE music or vaudeville.I<-J &ohnson did record versions of 94reaching the 8lues9 and 9>al5ing 8lues9 in the older bluesmanBs vocal and guitar st?le @FouseBs chronolog? is Kuestioned b? 6uralnic5A. *s Eith the first ta5e of 9!ome On +n '? Mitchen,9 the influence of S5ip &ames is evident in &amesBs 9$evil 6ot '? >oman9, but the l?rics rise to the level of first-rate poetr?, and &ohnson sings Eith a strained voice found noEhere else in his recorded output.I<"J

The sad, romantic 9.ove in ;ain9 successfull? blends several of &ohnsonBs disparate influences. The form, including the Eordless last verse, folloEs .ero? !arrBs last hit 9>hen the Sun 6oes $oEn9H the Eords of the last sung verse come directl? from a song 8lind .emon &efferson recorded in "#0(. I<0J &ohnsonBs last-ever recording, 9'il5coEBs !alf 8lues9 is his most direct tribute to Mo5omo *rnold, Eho Erote 9'il5coE 8lues9 and Eho influenced &ohnsonBs vocal st?le.I<,J 92rom 2our :ntil .ate9 shoEs &ohnsonBs master? of a blues st?le not usuall? associated Eith the $elta. Fe croons the l?rics in a manner reminiscent of .onnie &ohnson, and his guitar st?le is more that of a ragtime-influenced pla?er li5e 8lind 8la5e.I<)J .onnie &ohnsonBs influence on %obert &ohnson is even clearer in tEo other departures from the usual $elta st?le/ 9'alted 'il59 and 9$run5en Fearted 'an9. 8oth cop? the arrangement of .onnie &ohnsonBs 9.ife Saver 8lues9.I<CJ The tEo ta5es of 9'e and the $evil 8lues9 shoE the influence of 4eetie >heatstraE, calling into Kuestion the interpretation of this piece as 9the spontaneous heart-cr? of a demon-driven fol5 artist.9I1(J

#egac$
%obert &ohnson has had enormous impact on music and musicians, but outside his oEn time, place, and even genre for Ehich he Eas famous. Fis influence on his contemporaries Eas much smaller, due in part to the fact that he Eas an itinerant performerDpla?ing mostl? on street corners, in ju5e joints, and at Saturda? night dancesDEho Eor5ed in a then undervalued st?le of music, and Eho died ?oung after recording onl? a handful of songs. &ohnson, though Eell-traveled and admired in his performances, Eas little noted in his oEn time and placeH his records even less so. 9Terraplane 8lues9, sometimes described as &ohnsonBs onl? hit record, outsold his others but Eas still onl? a minor success. +f one had as5ed blac5 blues fans about %obert &ohnson in the first tEent? ?ears after his death, Erites Elijah >ald, 9the response in the vast majorit? of cases Eould have been a puzzled B%obert Eho?B9 This lac5 of recognition extended to blac5 musicians/ 9*s far as the evolution of blac5 music goes, %obert &ohnson Eas an extremel? minor figure, and ver? little that happened in the decades folloEing his death Eould have been affected if he had never pla?ed a note.9I<(J >ith the album King of the Delta Blues Singers, a compilation of &ohnsonBs recordings released in "#(", !olumbia %ecords introduced his Eor5 to a much Eider audienceDfame and recognition he onl? received long after his death.

Roc% and roll


&ohnsonBs major influence has been on genres of music that EerenOt recognized as such until long after his death/ roc5 and roll and roc5. The %oc5 and %oll Fall of 2ame included four of his songs in a set of C--I<1J the? deemed to have shaped the genre/ PSEeet Fome !hicagoQ @"#,(A P!ross %oad 8luesQ @"#,(A PFellhound on '? TrailQ @"#,1A P.ove in ;ainQ @"#,1A

&ohnson recorded these songs a decade and a half before the recognized advent of roc5 and roll,I<<J d?ing a ?ear or tEo later. The 'useum inducted him as an PEarl? +nfluenceQ in their first induction ceremon? in "#<(, almost a half centur? after his death. 'arc 'e?ers of the .all Street Journal Erote that, 9Fis BStop 8rea5inB $oEn 8luesB from "#,1 is so far ahead of its time that the song could easil? have been a roc5 demo cut in "#C).9I1)J

Roc% music and related genres


'an? of the artists Eho claim to have been influenced b? &ohnson the most, injecting his revolutionar? st?lings into their Eor5 and recording tribute songs and collections are prominent roc5 musicians. Fis impact and influence on these future star musicians from EnglandDEho Eould then come to develop and define both the roc5 and roll and roc5 music erasDresulted not from personal appearances or direct fraternization. +nstead, the artistic poEer of his exceptional talents and original compositions Eould be rela?ed across the *tlantic man? ?ears after his death through the compilation of his Eor5s released in "#(" b? !olumbia %ecords @King of the Delta Blues SingersA. Examples of the influence he had on English blues and blues-roc5 musicians and musical groups include/ 8rian &ones of the %olling Stones introduced bandmate Meith %ichards to his first %obert &ohnson album. The blues masterBs recordings Eould have as much impact on him as on 'ic5 &agger. The group Eould perform his 9>al5inB 8lues9 at the %oc5 and %oll !ircus in "#(<. The? arranged their oEn version of 9.ove in ;ain9 for their album Let 1t BleedH recording 9Stop 8rea5inB $oEn 8lues9 for ,2ile on Main Street. To Eric !lapton, founder and member of man? legendar? groups, &ohnson Eas 9the most important blues musician Eho ever lived.9I1<J Fe recorded enough of his songs to ma5e Me and Mr Johnson, a blues-roc5 album released in 0--) as a tribute to the legendar? bluesman @also made into the film Sessions for Robert JA. FeBd earlier recorded 9!rossroads9, an arrangement of 9!ross %oad 8lues9, Eith !ream in "#(#, leading some to consider him 9the man largel? responsible for ma5ing %obert &ohnson a household name.9I<#J %obert 4lant of .ed =eppelin referred to him on 74%Bs 3resh #ir @recorded in 0--)A as P%obert &ohnson, to Ehom Ee all oEed our existence, in some Ea?.Q Fis group recorded 9Traveling %iverside 8lues9, a song that dreE from &ohnsonBs original and Kuoted a number of &ohnsonBs songs in the l?rics. Fe Eas a strong influence on 2leetEood 'ac in the groupBs earl? ?ears as a 8ritish blues band. 6uitarist &erem? Spencer contributed tEo covers of &ohnson-derived songs to the groupBs earl? albums, and lead guitarist 4eter 6reen Eould later go on to record &ohnsonBs entire catalog over the course of tEo albums, The Robert Johnson Songboo& and 4ot 3oot %o$der. *lexis Morner, referred to as 9the 2ounding 2ather of 8ritish 8lues9, co-Erote and recorded a song entitled 9%obert &ohnson9 on his The %arty #lbum released in "#1<. Sam $unnBs documentar? Metal ,volution cites that %obert &ohnson Eas the 9great grandfather to all things heav? metal9 Eith members of %ush and Slip5not agreeing that he pla?ed a major role in the future of roc5 music.

Guitar techni+ue

&ohnson Eas photographed Eith an .-" from 6ibson 6uitar !ompan?. 6ibson eventuall? reissued

an .-" signature series model as a tribute to &ohnson. Fis revolutionar? guitar pla?ing has led contemporar? experts, assessing his talents through the handful of old recordings available, to rate him among the greatest guitar pla?ers of all time/ +n "##- Spin maga5ine rated him "st in its 67 'uitar 'ods listingDon the C0nd anniversar? of his death.I#-J +n 0--< Rolling Stone magazine ran5ed him Cth on their list of the 899 'reatest 'uitarists of #ll TimeD1- ?ears after he died.I)J +n 0-"- 6uitar.com ran5ed him #th in its list of 6ibson.comOs To- 79 'uitarists of #ll Time D10 ?ears after he died.I#"J 'usicians Eho proclaim his profound impact on them, i.e., Meith %ichards, &imi Fendrix, and Eric !lapton, all rated in the top ten Eith him on each of these lists. The boogie bass line he fashioned for 9+ 8elieve +Bll $ust '? 8room9 has noE passed into the standard guitar repertoire. *t the time it Eas completel? neE, a guitaristBs version of something people Eould onl? ever have heard on a piano.I#0J

#ifetime achievement
The Com-lete Recordings, a double-disc box set released b? Son?N!olumbia .egac? on *ugust 0<, "##-, containing almost ever?thing %obert &ohnson ever recorded, Eith all 0# recordings @and "0 alternate ta5esA Eon a 6ramm? *Eard for P8est Fistorical *lbumQ that ?ear. +n 0--( he Eas aEarded a 6ramm? .ifetime *chievement *Eard @accepted b? his son !laudA.I#,J

!roblems of biograph$
9The thing about %obert &ohnson Eas that he onl? existed on his records. Fe Eas pure legend.9 D'artin Scorsese, Love 1n :ain" # :ision of Robert Johnson ;er? little is 5noEn of &ohnsonBs earl? life Eith an? certaint?. TEo marriage licenses for &ohnson have been located in count? records offices. The ages given in these certificates point to different birth dates, as do the entries shoEing his attendance at +ndian !ree5 School, Tunica, 'ississippi. That he Eas not listed among his motherBs children in the "#"- censusI<J casts further doubt on these dates. !arrie Thompson claimed that her mother, Eho Eas also %obertBs mother, remembered his birth date as 'a? <, "#"". The "#0- census gives his age as 1, suggesting he Eas born in "#"0N",.I#)J 2ive significant dates from his career are documented/ 'onda?, Thursda? and 2rida?, 7ovember 0,, 0(, and 01, "#,(, at a recording session in San *ntonio, Texas. Seven months later, on Saturda? and Sunda?, &une "#G0-, "#,1, he Eas in $allas at another session. Fis death certificate Eas discovered in "#(<, and lists the date and location of his death.I#CJ The tEo confirmed images of &ohnson Eere located in "#1,, in the possession of the musicianBs half-sister !arrie Thompson, and Eere not Eidel? published until the late "#<-s. * third photo, purporting to shoE &ohnson posing Eith felloE blues performer &ohnn? Shines, Eas published in the 7ovember 0--< edition of :anity 3air magazineI#(J and Eas authenticated in 0-",.I#1J The same article claims that other photographs of &ohnson, so far unpublished, ma? exist. 9>e donBt 5noE much, reall? . . thereBs so little 5noEn about this musician, other than these recordings that Eere made, and the fact that he died earl?, poisoned b? the jealous husband of a Eoman he Eas hanging out Eith.9 D8ill 2erris, #merican %ublic Media" The Story $ith Dic& 'ordon()*+ &ohnsonBs records Eere greatl? admired b? record collectors from the time of their first release and efforts Eere made to discover his biograph?, Eith virtuall? no success. 7oted blues researcher 'ac5

'c!ormic5 began researching his famil? bac5ground, but Eas never read? to publish. 'c!ormic5Bs research eventuall? became as much a legend as &ohnson himself. +n "#<0, 'c!ormic5 permitted 4eter 6uralnic5 to publish a summar? in Living Blues @"#<0A, later reprinted in boo5 form as Searching for Robert Johnson.I#<J .ater research has sought to confirm this account or to add minor details. * revised summar? ac5noEledging major informants Eas Eritten b? Stephen .a;ere for the boo5let accompan?ing the compilation album Robert Johnson; The Com-lete Recordings @"##-A, and is maintained Eith updates at the $elta Faze Eebsite.I##J The documentar? film The Search for Robert Johnson contains accounts b? 'ac5 'c!ormic5 and 6a?le $ean >ardloE of Ehat informants have told them/ long intervieEs of $avid Fone?bo? EdEards and &ohnn? Shines, and short intervieEs of surviving friends and famil?. These published biographical s5etches achieve coherent narratives, partl? b? ignoring reminiscences and hearsa? accounts Ehich contradict or conflict Eith other accounts. * relativel? full account of &ohnsonBs brief musical career emerged in the "#(-s, largel? from accounts b? Son Fouse, &ohnn? Shines, $avid Fone?bo? EdEards and %obert .oc5Eood. +n "#(", the sleeve notes to the album King of the Delta Blues Singers included reminiscences of $on .aE Eho had recorded &ohnson in "#,(. .aE added to the m?stiKue surrounding &ohnson, representing him as ver? ?oung and extraordinaril? sh?.

Discograph$
'ain article/ %obert &ohnson discograph? Traveling %iverside 8lues 'enu -/-!ross %oad 8lues 'enu -/-%roblems -laying these files< See media helEleven &ohnson 1<s Eere released on the ;ocalion label during his lifetime, Eith a tEelfth issued posthumousl?.I"--J *ll songs are cop?righted to %obert &ohnson, and his estateIcitation neededJ. The Com-lete Recordings/ * double-disc box set Eas released on *ugust 0<, "##-, containing almost ever?thing %obert &ohnson ever recorded, Eith all 0# recordings, and "0 alternate ta5es. @There is one further alternate, of 9Traveling %iverside 8lues,9 Ehich Eas released on Son?Bs King of the Delta Blues Singers !$ and also as an extra in earl? printings of the paperbac5 edition of Elijah >aldBs 9Escaping the $elta.9AI"-"J To celebrate &ohnsonBs "--th birthda?, 'a? <, 0-"", Son? .egac? released a re-mastered 0-!$ set of all )0 %obert &ohnson recordings extant, entitled Robert Johnson" The Centennial Collection. I"-0J +n addition, there Eere tEo brief fragments/ one Ehere &ohnson can be heard practicing a guitar figureH the second Ehen &ohnson can be heard sa?ing, presumabl? to engineer $on .aE, 9+ Eanna go on Eith our next one m?self.9I"-0J %evieEers commented that the sound Kualit? of the 0-"" release Eas a substantial improvement on the "##- release.I"-,JI"-)J

,-ards and recognitions


Gramm$ ,-ards
'ear Categor$ Title Genre #abel Results "##- 8est Fistorical *lbum The Com-lete Recordings 8lues Son?N!olumbia .egac? >inner

Gramm$ .all of /ame


'ear Recorded Title Genre #abel 'ear &nducted "#,( !ross %oad 8lues 8lues @SingleA ;ocalion "##<

ational Recording Registr$


The Com-lete Recordings of %obert &ohnson @"#,(G"#,1A Eas included b? the 7ational %ecording 4reservation 8oard in the .ibrar? of !ongressB 7ational %ecording %egistr? in 0--,.I"-CJ The board selects songs in an annual basis that are 9culturall?, historicall?, or aestheticall? significant.9

Roc% and Roll .all of /ame


The %oc5 and %oll Fall of 2ame included four songs b? %obert &ohnson in the C-- songs that shaped roc5 and roll,I"-(J as Eell as a memorial for &ohnson Ehich reads/ 9%obert &ohnson stands at the crossroads of *merican music, much as a popular fol5 legend has it he once stood at 'ississippi crossroads and sold his soul to the devil in exchange for guitar-pla?ing proEess.9I"-1J 'ear Recorded Title "#,( SEeet Fome !hicago "#,( !ross %oad 8lues "#,1 Fellhound on '? Trail "#,1 .ove in ;ain

The Blues /oundation ,-ards


Robert Johnson0 Blues Music ,-ardsI"-<J 'ear Categor$ Title Result "##" ;intage or %eissue *lbum The Com-lete Recordings >inner

.onors and inductions


On September "1, "##), the :.S. 4ost Office issued a %obert &ohnson 0#-cent commemorative postage stamp.I"-#J 'ear Title 0--( 6ramm? .ifetime *chievement *Eard 'ississippi 'usicians Fall of 0--2ameI""-J "#<( %oc5 and %oll Fall of 2ame "#<8lues Fall of 2ame Results otes >inner accepted b? son !laud &ohnsonI#,J +nducted +nducted +nducted Earl? +nfluences

Tribute albums
There have been a number of tribute albums b? guitar virtuosi, including ,rtist %or? 8loc5 Eric !lapton 4eter 6reen Splinter 6roup 4eter 6reen Splinter 6roup 4eter 6reen Splinter 6roup &ohn Fammond Todd %undgren 8ig Fead 8lues !lub Thunder @bandA 4aul >illiams ,lbum 'ear The .ad? and 'r 0--( @0--1 *coustic 8lues *lbum of the LearA &ohnson Me and Mr 0--) Johnson The Robert "##< Johnson Songboo& 4ot 3oot %o$der Me and the Devil 0---

0--" @* ,-!$ set consisting of The %obert &ohnson Songboo5 and Fot 2oot 4oEder Eith " !$ of original %obert &ohnson recordingsA #t the Crossroads 0--, Todd Rundgren's 0-"Johnson 899 =ears of 0-"" Robert Johnson Robert Johnson's 0--( Tombstone +n 'emor? of recorded in "#1-, released in "#1, %obert &ohnson

/ilms and other media


The "#<( film Crossroads is about a ?oung Ehite blues guitaristBs search for &ohnsonBs 9missing9 ,-th song and the theme of blues artists selling their souls to the devil. Stones in My %ass$ay" The Robert Johnson Story @"##-A, a biographical film b? 'artin Spottl. The Search for Robert Johnson @"##"A, :M documentar? hosted b? 8lues musician &ohn 4. Fammond, son of &ohn F. Fammond. Can't =ou 4ear the .ind 4o$l< The Life and Music of Robert Johnson @"##1A 4ellhounds >n My Trail" The #fterlife of Robert Johnson @0---, directed b? %obert 'uggeA ,ric Cla-ton ? Sessions for Robert Johnson @0--), documentar?A Me and the Devil Blues" The @nreal Life of Robert Johnson @published in 0--<A is a &apanese manga series Eritten and illustrated b? *5ira Firamoto. +t is a phantasmagoric reimagining of &ohnsonBs life. Celebration of the music and legend of Robert Johnson" Sho$ 79A >oodSongs Old-Time %adio Four. %or? 8loc5 and Scott *inslie discuss &ohnson and pla? his music. Taped 0--<-#-0#H (- minutes audio @>'*, '4,A, << minutes video @>';A. To commemorate &ohnsonBs "--th birthda?, $ogfish Fead 8reEer? released 9Fellhound on '? *le9, a limited edition beer, in collaboration Eith Son?Bs .egac? %ecordings division. I"""J !rossroads b? %adio .ab the myth of $hat ha--ened to Robert Johnson at the crossroads in Clar&sdale; Mississi--i +n the shoE Su-ernatural, %obert &ohnson appears in a flashbac5 in the episode Crossroad Blues in Ehich he is shoEn to have sold his soul for his musical talent.

*uthor %obert %an5in has referenced &ohnson in his Eor5s The Brightonomicon and The DaBDaBDeBDaBDa Code. Sherman *lexieBs novel Reservation Blues includes &ohnson visiting the crossroads on the Spo5ane +ndian %eservation and leaving his enchanted guitar behind. 9The Estate of %obert &ohnson9 in the series 9+nheriting Trouble9 @season 0, episode (A tal5s about his life, death and the controvers? of his estate after his recordings are rereleased and turn him into an icon. I,J

1ee also
Biography portal 01 !lub %obert &ohnson @guitarsA

otes References
". 2 9The C- albums that changed music9. The >bserver @:MA. &ul? "(, 0--(. %etrieved 7ovember ", 0--< 0. 2 8oo5let accompan?ing the Com-lete Recordings box set, Stephen .a;ere, Son? 'usic Entertainment, "##-, !lapton Kuote on p. 0( ,. 2 9%obert &ohnson +nducted at/ The "#<( +nduction !eremon?9. %oc5 and %oll Fall of 2ame and 'useum +nc. ). R a b 9"-- 6reatest 6uitarists9. Rolling Stone. 7ovember 0<, 0--<. %etrieved *ugust "C, 0-"-. C. R a b >ardloE (. 2 6uralni5 pp. "-G"" 1. 2 6uralni5 p."" <. R a b 2reeland @0---A #. 2 >ardloE @"##<A p. 0-" "-.2 4ellhounds on my Trail" The #fterlife of Robert Johnson Kuoted in >ald @0--)A p."-1 "".2 4earson S 'c!ulloch p. (. "0.2 >ald @0--)A p. "-< ",.2 The Search for %obert &ohnson, "##0 film. ").2 4earson S 'c!ulloch, p. 1. "C.2 4earson S 'c!ulloch, p. #). "(.2 6uralnic5 p."C "1.2 4earson S 'c!ulloch p. 1 "<.2 4earson S 'c!ulloc5 p."0 "#.2 6ioia p. "10 0-.2 7eff S !onnor p C( 0".2 ToEnsend p. (< 00.2 ref 6uralni5 p. 0< 0,.2 6uralni5 p.0) 0).2 6ioia p. "1C 0C.2 6ioia p. "10-"1, 0(.2 EdEards p. "-01.2 Schroeder p. 00

0<.2 6uralni5 p. 0# 0#.2 >ald p. ""0 ,-.2 4earson S 'c!ulloch p. """ ,".2 Sisario, 8en @2ebruar? 0<, 0--)A. 9%evisionists Sing 7eE 8lues Fistor?9. The Ce$ =or& Times. %etrieved 'a? 00, 0-"-. ,0.2 .omax @"##,A ,,.2 !harters @"#C#A ,).2 &azz b? 'ail G ;arious *rtists @2rom Spirituals to SEingA ,C.2 San *ntonio Express-7eEs, 7ovember ,-, "#<(, 98lues EizardBs S.*. .egac?9, p. "-& ,(.2 9The Fistor? of $allas "#0(G"#C-D"#,1/ %obert &ohnson Singer left m?sterious legac? at C-< 4ar5 *ve9 b? Thor !hristensen, 1N,N0--0, The $allas 'orning 7eEs. ,1.2 8eal &r., &im @*ugust "(, 0--#A. 9'ellencamp honors the past at historic locale9. $$$ mysanantonio com. San *ntonio Express-7eEs. %etrieved 'arch 00, 0-"-. ,<.2 9%? !ooder G Tal5ing !ountr? 8lues and 6ospel9. &asobrecht.com. %etrieved 0-""-"0-,-. ,#.2 >ald @0--)A, p. ",". )-.2 >ald @0--)A, p. ",0, "1(. )".2 >ald @0--)A, p. ",0. )0.2 >ald @0--)A, p. "(1. ),.2 ,ric Cla-ton ? Sessions for Robert Johnson, 0--) documentar? and "#,1 >orle?Os $allas !it? $irector? )).2 >ald @0--)A, p. ",-. )C.2 &on >ilde @'a? 01, 0-"-A. 9%obert &ohnson revelation tells us to put the bra5es on the blues9. The 'uardian. %etrieved &une C, 0-"-. )(.2 !hristopher 'orris @'a? 0<, 0-"-A. 94honograph blues/ %obert &ohnson mastered at Erong speed?9. :ariety. %etrieved &une C, 0-"-. )1.2 The Search for Robert Johnson; "##0 film. )<.2 6raves, TomH .a;ere, Steve @0--<A. Crossroads" The Life and #fterlife of Blues Legend Robert Johnson. $emers 8oo5s ..!. pp. ,#G),. +S87 #1<---#<"(--0---<. 9The tale most often told about hoE &ohnson met his fate is that he Eas poisoned b? a jealous husband Eho put str?chnine in his Ehis5e?.9 )#.2 'uitar .orld comment.Icitation neededJ C-.2 8lac5stone, E. F. @0--<A. 9One of three supposed resting places 5noEn for 8lues legend %obert &ohnson. 7ear 6reenEood 0--<9 @&avascript photo galler?A. blac&stone carbonmade com. %etrieved *ugust "C, 0-"-. C".2 !heseborough, Steve @0--<A. Blues Traveling" The 4oly Sites of Delta Blues. :niv. 4ress of 'ississippi. pp. ")CG")(. +S87 "(-)1,,0<). C0.2 %adiolab !rossroads, The m?th of Ehat happened to %obert &ohnson at the crossroads in !lar5sdale, 'ississippi. C,.2 >ardloE pp. "#(G0-" C).2 >ardloE pp 0-,G) CC.2 >ald. pp 0(CG01( C(.2 >helan C1.2 'arcus @"#1CA C<.2 4almer @"#<"A C#.2 >ardloE @"##<A (-.2 Evans @"#1"A (".2 6uralni5 @"#<0A (0.2 >ardloE @"##<A p. "#1 (,.2 .iving 8lues/ +ssue T"#), ;ol. ,#. T", 2ebruar? 0--< pp. (<G1, ().2 >ardloE @"##<A p. 0-(C.2 !heseborough, Steve @0--#A. Blues Traveling" The 4oly Sites of Delta Blues. p. <,. ((.2 8hesham S. Sharma, 4oetic devices in the Songs of %obert &ohnson, Ming of the $elta

8lues Transcultural Music Revie$ 7o., @"##1A. (1.2 F?att, Farr?. FoodooD!onjurationD>itchcraftD%ootEor5, 8eliefs *ccepted 8? 'an? 7egroes and >hite 4ersons. >estern 4ublications "#1, (<.R a b c 92rom The $idd? 8oE To 8o $iddle?9 intervieE on BThe Stor?B Eith $ic5 6ordonH 7ovember -) 0-"". (#.2 .omax p. ,(C. 1-.2 9The salt of the earth/ "#,-sG"#)-sD4re-electric non-!hicago blues9 from liner notes to &ohnsonBs The Com-lete Recordings, released on !olumbia in "##-. 1".2 >ald @0--)A, p. "01 10.2 >ald @0--)A, p. ",,. 1,.2 >ald @0--)A, p. "C0G"C). 1).R a b c d 9Still Standing at the !rossroads9 b? 'arc '?ers, >all Street &ournal, *pril 00, 0-"". 1C.2 >ald @0--)A, p. "1<G"1#. 1(.R a b >ald @0--)A, p. "11. 11.2 92rom The $idd? 8oE To 8o $iddle?9 $ic5 6ordon intervieEing 8ill 2erris on BThe Stor?B Eith $ic5 6ordonH 7ovember -) 0-"". 1<.R a b 8uncombe, *ndreE. @0--(--1-0(A. 9The grandfather of roc5BnBroll/ The devilBs instrument9 The +ndependent. 1#.2 92rom The $idd? 8oE To 8o $iddle?9 8ill 2erris in intervieE on BThe Stor?B Eith $ic5 6ordonH 7ovember -) 0-"". <-.2 >ald @0--)A, p. ",#. <".2 >ald @0--)A, p. "1"G"10. <0.2 >ald @0--)A, p. "<,. <,.2 >ald @0--)A, p. "<). <).2 >ald @0--)A, p. "1-G"1", "1). <C.2 >ald @0--)A, p. "1C. <(.2 >ald, 0--) <1.2 9Songs that Shaped %oc5 and %oll9. %oc5 and %oll Fall of 2ame and 'useum. 0--1. <<.2 C-B The 8eginnings of %oc5 and %oll Education $epartment, Saatchi 6aller? !ontemporar? *rt in .ondon. <#.2 98o $iddle?Bs B8efore Lou *ccuse 'eB influential as the master9 .isten to the Stor?, M4.: <<.CH 'arch 0,, 0-"0. #-.2 9,C 6uitar 6ods9, *ugust "##-, S4+7 magazine. #".2 9Top C- 6uitarists of *ll Time G "- to "9. 6ibson.com. %etrieved &une ,, 0-"-. #0.2 >ald @0--)A, p. ",(. #,.R a b 90--( .ifetime *chievement 6ramm? *Eard G presented to %obert &ohnson, accepted b? son !laud &ohnson9. %obert &ohnson 8lues 2oundation. 0--(. #).2 %eEald, &ason @October #, 0--#A. 97E> %obert &ohnson !ensus %ecords9. tdblues com. %etrieved C September 0-",. #C.2 >ardloE and Momara, "##<, p. <1 #(.2 2ran5 $igiacomo, 9Searching for %obert &ohnson9, ;anit? 2air, 7ovember, 0--< #1.2 Thorpe, &essica @0-",--0--0A. 9%obert &ohnson/ %are 7eE 4hotograph of $elta 8lues Ming *uthenticated *fter Eight Lears9. The 'uardian. 6uardian 'edia 6roup. %etrieved 0-",--0--,. #<.2 6uralnic5 ##.2 9%obert &ohnson G 8io9. EEE.deltahaze.com. *rchived from the original on &ul? "), 0--<. %etrieved &ul? "C, 0--<. "--.2 Momara @0--1A pp. (,G(< "-".2 *Eards .ist for %obert &ohnson. The #$ards 1nsiderH .os *ngeles Times. %etrieved *ugust "C, 0-"-.

"-0.R a b .a;ere, Stephen !., .iner notes for Robert Johnson" The Centennial Collection, .egac? %ecordings, 0-"", pp. 0-G0". "-,.2 'arsicano, !. &. @*pril 0(, 0-""A. 9%evieE %obert &ohnson/ The !entennial !ollection9. The 6roove 'usic. %etrieved *ugust "C, 0-"". "-).2 6ordon, %ev. Meith *. @*pril 0(, 0-""A. 9%obert &ohnsonDThe !entennial !ollection @0-""A9. *bout.com. %etrieved *ugust "C, 0-"". "-C.2 The 7ational %ecording %egistr? 0--,. .ibrar? of !ongress. "-(.2 9The C-- Songs That Shape %oc5 *nd %oll 6-&9. The %oc5 and %oll Fall of 2ame and 'useum, +nc. C--. *rchived from the original on *ugust 00, 0--<. "-1.2 %oc5Fall.com "-<.2 9*Eards Search9. The 8lues 2oundation. @&avascript reKuired.A "-#.2 http/NNusstampgaller?.comNvieE.php? idU#<f<)f,-eb)-dC-(#"c#(<cb1"dcaa"00Cc"dcedSstUSssUStUSsU0)#0Ss?earUSe?earU ""-.2 9'ississippi Fall of 2ame inducts trio of famed 6ibson artists9 @4ress releaseA. 6ibson 'usical +nstruments. *pril ), 0---. *rchived from the original on *ugust "#, 0---. """.2 9Fellhound On '? *le V $ogfish Fead !raft 8reEed *les9. $ogfish.com. %etrieved 0-""-"0-,-.

Bibliograph$
Blues .orld ? Boo&let Co 8 ? Robert Johnson ? 3our ,ditions, 2irst published "#(1 8lesh, %udi @"#)(A 9&azz 8egins9 Kuoted in 'ar?beth Familton @beloEA. !harters, Samuel 8 @"#C#A. The Country Blues. %inehart. !harters, Samuel 8 @"#(1A. The Bluesman The story of the music of the men $ho made the Blues. Oa5 4ublications. !harters, Samuel 8 @"#1,A. Robert Johnson. Oa5 4ublication. +S87 --<0C(---C#-( EdEards, $avid Fone?bo? @"##1A. The .orld Don't >$e Me Cothing The Life and Times of Delta Bluesman 4oneyboy ,d$ards. !hicago %evieE 4ress. +S87 "-CC(C0-,(<-< Evans, $avid @"#1"A. Tommy Johnson. Studio ;ista. S87 0<# 1-"C2reeland, Tom @0---A. Robert Johnson" Some .itnesses to a Short Life in Living Blues no. "C- 'archN*pril 0-- p. )# 6ioia, Ted @0--<A. Delta Blues The Life and Times of the Mississi--i Masters .ho Revolutionised #merican Music. 7orton, +S87 #1<---,#,-,,1C--" 6raves, Tom @0--<A. Crossroads" The Life and #fterlife of Blues Legend Robert Johnson. $e'ers 8oo5s, +S87 #1<---#<"(--0-"-C 6reenberg, *lan @"#<,A. Love in :ain" The Life and Legend of Robert Johnson. $oubleda? 8oo5s, +S87 --,<C-"C(1#- "##) revised edition retitled Love in :ain" # :ision of Robert Johnson, Eith foreEord b? 'artin Scorsese, $a !apo 4ress, +S87 --,-(-<-CC1-3 6uralnic5, 4eter @"#<#A. Searching for Robert Johnson @"#<#A. E. 4. $utton hardcover/ +S87 --C0C-0)<-"-,, 4lume "##< paperbac5/ +S87 --)C0-01#)#-( Momara, EdEard @0--1A. The Road to Robert Johnson; The genesis and evolution of blues in the Delta from the late 8*99s through 8D6*. Fal .eonard. +S87 --(,)---#-1-# 'arcus, 6reil @"#1CA. Mystery Train. E.4. $utton. Familton, 'ar?beth @0--1A. 1n Search of the Blues Blac& :oices; .hite :isions. &onathan !ape. +S87 --00)--(-"<-3 .omax, *lan @"##,A. The Land .here the Blues Began. 'ethuen. +S87 --)",-(1<C--) 7eff, %obert S *nthon? !onnor @"#1CA. Blues. $avid % 6odine. uoted in 4earson S 'c!ulloch p. ""). 4almer, %obert @"#<0A paperbac5 edition. Dee- Blues. 'acmillan, +S87 --,,,-,)-,#-(

4earson, 8arr? .eeH 'c!ulloch, 8ill @0--,A. Robert Johnson" Lost and 3ound. :niversit? of +llinois 4ress, +S87 --0C0--0<,C-3 Schroeder, 4atricia %. @0--)A. Robert Johnson; Mythma&ing; and Contem-orary #merican Culture. :niversit? of +llinois 4ress, +S87 --0C0--0#"C-" %ussell, Ton? @0--)A. Country Music records; # Discogra-hy; 8DA8?8D0A. Oxford. +S87 -"#-C",#<#-C ToEnsend, Fenr? @"###A. # Blues Life. *s told to 8ill 6reensmith. :niversit? of +llinois 4ress. +S87 --0C0--0C0(-" >ald, Elijah @0--)A. ,sca-ing the Delta" Robert Johnson and the 1nvention of the Blues. *mistad. +S87 ---(--C0)0,-C >ardloE, 6., S Momara, E. '. @"##<A. Chasin' that devil music" searching for the blues. San 2rancisco, !alif/ 'iller 2reeman 8oo5s. +S87 --<1#,--(C0-" >elding, 4ete @"#((A. Robert Johnson 4ell hound on his trail +n Do$n Beat Music B((/ 1,G 1(, "-, >olf, %obert @0--)A 4ellhound on My Trail" The Life of Robert Johnson; Bluesman ,2traordinaire. 'an5ato, '7/ !reative Editions. +S87 "-C(<)(-")(-"

()ternal lin%s
This articleBs use of e)ternal lin%s ma$ not follo- 3i%ipedia4s policies or guidelines. 4lease improve this article b? removing excessive or inappropriate external lin5s, and converting useful lin5s Ehere appropriate into footnote references. E#-ril A98AF >i5imedia !ommons has media related to/ Robert Johnson (musician) The %obert &ohnson 8lues 2oundation %obert &ohnson 'ount =ion 'emorial 2und "#<- Fall of 2ame +nductee at The 8lues 2oundation The %obert &ohnson 7oteboo5s. !ourtne? $anforth and *driana %issetto. :niversit? of ;irginia. "##1--1--1N0--,-""--,. %obert &ohnson $eath !ertificate. State of 'ississippi. %obert &ohnson at 2ind-*-6rave %obert &ohnson recordings. Three 4erfect 'inutes G 'ilestone %ecordings in *merican 'usic. 8r?an 'angum. @serBgenerated revie$s of each of Johnson's trac&s %obert &ohnson at *ll'usic >or5s b? or about %obert &ohnson in libraries @>orld!at catalogA

*rticles 1C *niversario de %obert &ohnson 4ablo Fuguet 'onfort, 'one 'on5e?. 2ebruar? "C, 0-"0. /7 #niversario de Robert Johnson 8luesmanBs Son 6ets Fis $ue Ellen 8arr?, .os *ngeles Times. &une 0, 0--). Johnson legal battle 4ortrait of a 4hantom G Searching for %obert &ohnson. 2ran5 $i6iacomo, ;anit? 2air. 7ovember 0--<. %ur-orted ne$ -hoto of Robert Johnson $ith &ohnn? Shines Stead? %ollinO 'an G * %evolutionar? !ritiKue of %obert &ohnson. &ohn 6ibbens, Touched 4ress 8oo5s. #bout s-eed adGustments Escaping the $eltaN%obert &ohnson Elijah >ald. #bout the boo&; $Hlin&s to related material $elta 6uitar 4la?er %obert &ohnson. 6uitarz 2or Ever. 0--). E%ortion co-ied from e5inearticles comF $eal Eith the $evil/ :nderstanding %obert &ohnson, Fis 'usic and Fis +mpact. $.*.7.

Soul of %oc5 BnB %oll. 0--1--)--( 5hide6 v t e Robert Johnson King of the Delta Blues Singers King of the Delta Blues Singers; :ol 11 The Com-lete Recordings 9Mind Fearted >oman 8lues9 9$ust '? 8room9 9SEeet Fome !hicago9 9!ome On in '? Mitchen9 9Terraplane 8lues9 9,0-0- 8lues9 9The?Bre %ed Fot9 9$ead Shrimp 8lues9 9!ross %oad 8lues9 92rom 2our :ntil .ate9 9Fellhound on '? Trail9 9Travelling %iverside 8lues9 9.ove in ;ain9 9%amblinB on '? 'ind9 9.ast 2air $eal 6one $oEn9 9>al5inB 8lues9 9'e and the $evil 8lues9 9Stop 8rea5ing $oEn9 9+f + Fad 4ossession Over &udgment $a?9 9>hen Lou 6ot * 6ood 2riend9 $iscograph? The Search for Robert Johnson Me and the Devil Blues Me and Mr Johnson The Robert Johnson Songboo& %obert &ohnson @guitarsA 01 !lub

,lbums

1ongs

Related

!ategories/ "#"" births "#,< deaths 4eople from Fazlehurst, 'ississippi

*frican-*merican singer-songEriters *frican-*merican guitarists $elta blues musicians !ountr? blues musicians !ountr? blues singers *merican male singers 8lues Fall of 2ame inductees 8lues musicians from 'ississippi *merican blues guitarists *merican blues singer-songEriters *merican bus5ers %oc5 and %oll Fall of 2ame inductees Slide guitarists ;ocalion %ecords artists &u5e &oint blues musicians 'urdered musicians *merican blues musicians

http/NNEEE.robertjohnsonbluesfoundation.orgNbiograph?

Biograph$
One hundred ?ears ago, a bo?-child Eas born in 'ississippi G a dirt-poor, *frican-*merican Eho Eould groE up, learn to sing and pla? the blues, and eventuall? achieve EorldEide renoEn. +n the decades after his death, he has become 5noEn as the Ming of the $elta 8lues Singers, his music expanding in influence to the point that roc5 stars of the greatest magnitude G the %olling Stones, 8ob $?lan, Eric !lapton, the *llman 8rothers G all sing his praise and have recorded his songs. That bo?-child Eas %obert &ohnson, an itinerant blues singer and guitarist Eho lived from "#"" to "#,<. Fe recorded 0# songs betEeen "#,( and W,1 for the *merican %ecord !orporation, Ehich released eleven 1<rpm records on their ;ocalion label during &ohnsonXs lifetime, and one after his death. 'ost of these tunes have attained canonical status, and are noE considered enduring anthems of the genre/ P!ross %oad 8lues,Q P.ove +n ;ain,Q PFellhound On '? Trail,Q P+ 8elieve +Xll $ust '? 8room,Q P>al5ing 8lues,Q PSEeet Fome !hicago.Q .i5e man? bluesmen of his da?, &ohnson plied his craft on street corners and in joo5 joints, ever rambling and ever lonel? G and Eriting songs that romanticized that existence. 8ut &ohnson accomplished this Eith such an unprecedented intensit?, marr?ing his star5l? expressive vocals Eith a guitar master?, that his music has endured long after the he?da? of countr? blues and his oEn short life. 7ever had the hardships of the Eorld been transformed into such a poetic heightH never had the blues plumbed such an emotional depth. &ohnson too5 the intense loneliness, terrors and tortuous lifest?le that came Eith being an *frican-*merican in the South during the 6reat $epression, and transformed that specific and ver? personal experience into music of universal relevance and global reach. PLou Eant to 5noE hoE good the blues can get?Q Meith %ichards once as5ed, ansEering his oEn Kuestion/ P>ell, this is it.Q Eric !lapton put it more plainl?/ P+ have never found an?thing more

deepl? soulful than %obert &ohnson.Q The poEer of &ohnsonOs music has been amplified over the ?ears b? the fact that so little about him is 5noEn and Ehat little biographical information Ee noE have onl? revealed itself at an almost glacial pace. '?ths surrounding his life too5 over/ that he Eas a countr? bo? turned ladiesO manH that he onl? achieved his uncann? musical master? after selling his soul to the devil. Even the traged? of his death seemed to groE to m?thic proportion/ being poisoned b? a jealous bo?friend then ta5ing three da?s to expire, even as the legendar? talent scout &ohn Fammond Eas searching him out to perform at !arnegie Fall in 7eE Lor5 !it?. +n "##-, Son? .egac? produced and released the 0-!$ box set %obert &ohnson/ The !omplete %ecordings to Eidespread critical acclaim and, for a countr? blues reissue, unprecedented sales. The !omplete %ecordings proved the existence of a potential mar5et for music from the deepest reaches of Son?Xs catalog, especiall? if buo?ed b? a strong stor? Eith mainstream appeal. &ohnsonXs legend continues to attract an ever-Eidening audience, Eith no sign of abating. +f, in toda?Xs Eorld of hiphop and heav? metal, a person 5noEs of onl? one countr? blues artist, odds are it is %obert &ohnson.

Charles Manson
2rom >i5ipedia, the free enc?clopedia &ump to/ navigation, search 9The 'anson 2amil?9 redirects here. 2or the 0--, film, see The 'anson 2amil? @filmA. Charles Manson

!harles 'anson mug shot, "#(# 7ovember "0, "#,) @age 1<A Born !incinnati, Ohio, :.S. Charge7s8 'urder and conspirac? %osalie &ean >illis @"#CCG"#C<A 1pouse !and? Stevens @real name .eona ?A @"#C#G"#(,A !arents Mathleen 'addox @motherA !olonel Scott @fatherA

>illiam 'anson @stepfatherA !harles 'illes 'anson, &r., @mother %osalie &ean >illisA Children !harles .uther 'anson @mother .eonaA ;alentine 'ichael 94ooh 8ear9 'anson @b. "#(<, mother 'ar? 8runnerA Charles Milles Manson @born 7ovember "0, "#,)A is an *merican criminal and musician Eho led Ehat became 5noEn as the 'anson 2amil?, a Kuasi-commune that arose in !alifornia in the late "#(-s.I"JI0J/"(,G), ,",I,J Fe Eas found guilt? of conspirac? to commit the murders of Sharon Tate and .eno and %osemar? .a8ianca carried out b? members of the group at his instruction. Fe Eas convicted of the murders through the joint-responsibilit? rule, Ehich ma5es each member of a conspirac? guilt? of crimes his felloE conspirators commit in furtherance of the conspirac?Bs objective.I)JICJ 'anson believed in Ehat he called 9Felter S5elter,9 a term he too5 from the song of the same name b? The 8eatles. 'anson believed Felter S5elter to be an impending apocal?ptic race Ear, Ehich he described in his oEn version of the l?rics to the 8eatlesB song. Fe believed his murders Eould help precipitate that Ear. 2rom the beginning of his notoriet?, a pop culture arose around him in Ehich he ultimatel? became an emblem of insanit?, violence and the macabre. The term Eas later used b? 'anson prosecutor ;incent 8ugliosi as the title of a boo5 he Erote about the 'anson murders. *t the time the 2amil? began to form, 'anson Eas an unemplo?ed ex-convict, Eho had spent half of his life in correctional institutions for a variet? of offenses. 8efore the murders, he Eas a singersongEriter on the fringe of the .os *ngeles music industr?, chiefl? through a chance association Eith $ennis >ilson, founding member and drummer of The 8each 8o?s. *fter 'anson Eas charged Eith the crimes of Ehich he Eas later convicted, recordings of songs Eritten and performed b? him Eere released commerciall?. ;arious musicians, including 6uns 7B %oses, >hite =ombie and 'aril?n 'anson, have covered some of his songs. 'ansonBs death sentence Eas automaticall? commuted to life imprisonment Ehen a "#10 decision b? the Supreme !ourt of !alifornia temporaril? eliminated the stateBs death penalt?.I(J !aliforniaBs eventual reinstatement of capital punishment did not affect 'anson, Eho is currentl? incarcerated at !orcoran State 4rison.

Contents
" Earl? life "." !hildhood ".0 2irst offenses "., 2irst imprisonment ".) Second imprisonment 0 'anson 2amil? 0." +nvolvement Eith >ilson, 'elcher, et al. 0.0 Spahn %anch 0., Felter S5elter 0.) Encounter Eith Tate , 2amil? crimes ,." !roEe shooting ,.0 Finman murder ,., Tate murders ,.) .a8ianca murders ) &ustice s?stem

)." +nvestigation )."." 8rea5through ).".0 *pprehension ).0 Trial ).0." Ongoing disruptions ).0.0 $efense rests ).0., !onviction and penalt? phase C *ftermath C." %emaining in vieE C.0 .ater events C., %ecent developments C.) 4arole hearings ( 'anson and culture (." %ecordings (.0 !ultural reverberation (., $ocumentaries 1 See also < %eferences <." 7otes <.0 >or5s cited # 2urther reading "- External lin5s

(arl$ life
Childhood
8orn to an unmarried "(-?ear-old named Mathleen 'addox @"#"<G"#1,A,I1J in !incinnati 6eneral Fospital, Ohio, 'anson Eas first named 9no name 'addox.9I0J/",(G1I<JI#J >ithin Eee5s, he Eas Charles Milles 'addox.I0J/",(G1I"-JI""J 2or a period after his birth, his mother Eas married to a laborer named >illiam 'anson @"#"-G?A,I""J Ehose last name the bo? Eas given. Fis biological father appears to have been !olonel >al5er Scott @'a? "", "#"-G $ecember ,-, "#C)AI"0J against Ehom Mathleen 'addox filed a bastard? suit that resulted in an agreed judgment in "#,1.I0J/",(G1 4ossibl?, !harles 'anson never reall? 5neE his biological father.I0J/",(G1I#J Several statements in 'ansonBs "#C" case file from the seven months he Eould later spend at the 7ational Training School for 8o?s in >ashington, $.!., allude to the possibilit? that 9!olonel Scott9 Eas *frican *merican.I0J/CCC These include the first tEo sentences of his famil? bac5ground section, Ehich read/ 92ather/ un5noEn. Fe is alleged to have been a colored coo5 b? the name of Scott, Eith Ehom !harlesBs mother had been promiscuous at the time of pregnanc?.9I0J/CC( >hen as5ed about these official records b? attorne? ;incent 8ugliosi in "#1", 'anson emphaticall? denied that his biological father had *frican *merican ancestr?.I0J/C<< +n addition, the "#0- and "#,- census list !olonel Scott and his father as Ehite. +n the Kuasi-autobiograph?, Manson in 4is >$n .ords, !olonel Scott is said to have been 9a ?oung drugstore coEbo? ... a transient laborer Eor5ing on a nearb? dam project.9 +t is not clear Ehat 9nearb?9 means. The description is in a paragraph that indicates Mathleen 'addox gave birth to 'anson 9Ehile living in !incinnati,9 after she had run aEa? from her oEn home, in *shland, Mentuc5?.I",J There is much about 'ansonBs earl? life that is in dispute because of the variet? of different stories

he has offered to intervieEers, man? of Ehich Eere untrue. 'ansonBs mother Eas allegedl? a heav? drin5er.I0J/",(G1 *ccording to 'anson, she once sold her son for a pitcher of beer to a childless Eaitress, from Ehom his uncle retrieved him some da?s later.I")J >hen 'ansonBs mother and her brother Eere sentenced to five ?earsB imprisonment for robbing a !harleston, >est ;irginia, service station in "#,#, 'anson Eas placed in the home of an aunt and uncle in 'c'echen, >est ;irginia. :pon her "#)0 parole, Mathleen retrieved her son and lived Eith him in run-doEn hotel rooms. I0J/",(G1 'anson himself later characterized her ph?sical embrace of him on the da? she returned from prison as his sole happ? childhood memor?.I")J +n "#)1, Mathleen 'addox tried to have her son placed in a foster home but failed because no such home Eas available.I0J/",(G1 The court placed 'anson in 6ibault School for 8o?s in Terre Faute, +ndiana. *fter "- months, he fled from there to his mother, Eho rejected him.I0J/",(G1

/irst offenses
8? burglarizing a grocer? store, 'anson obtained cash that enabled him to rent a room.I0J/",(G1 Fe committed a string of burglaries of other stores, including one from Ehich he stole a bic?cle, but Eas eventuall? caught in the act and sent to an +ndianapolis juvenile center. Fe escaped after one da?, but Eas recaptured and placed in 8o?s ToEn. 2our da?s after his arrival there, he escaped Eith another bo?. The pair committed tEo armed robberies on their Ea? to the home of the other bo?Bs uncle.I0J/",1G")( !aught during the second of tEo subseKuent brea5-ins of grocer? stores, 'anson Eas sent, at age ",, to the +ndiana 8o?s School, Ehere, he Eould later claim, he Eas brutalized sexuall? and otherEise.I")J *fter man? failed attempts, he escaped Eith tEo other bo?s in "#C".I0J/",1G")( +n :tah, the three Eere caught driving to !alifornia in cars the? had stolen. The? had burglarized several filling stations along the Ea?. 2or the federal crime of ta5ing a stolen car across a state line, 'anson Eas sent to >ashington, $.!.Bs 7ational Training School for 8o?s. $espite four ?ears of schooling and an +. . of "-# @later tested at "0"A,I0J/",1G")( he Eas illiterate. * caseEor5er deemed him aggressivel? antisocial.I0J/",1G")(

/irst imprisonment
+n October "#C", on a ps?chiatristBs recommendation, 'anson Eas transferred to 7atural 8ridge Fonor !amp, a minimum securit? institution. .ess than a month before a scheduled 2ebruar? "#C0 parole hearing, he 9too5 a razor blade and held it against another bo?Bs throat Ehile 'anson sodomized him.9I0J/",1G")(I")J 'anson Eas transferred to the 2ederal %eformator?, 4etersburg, ;irginia, Ehere he Eas considered 9dangerous.9I0J/",1G")( +n September "#C0, a number of other serious disciplinar? offenses resulted in his transfer to the 2ederal %eformator? at !hillicothe, Ohio, a more secure institution.I0J/",1G")( *bout a month after the transfer, he became almost a model resident. 6ood Eor5 habits and a rise in his educational level from the loEer fourth to the upper seventh grade Eon him a 'a? "#C) parole.I0J/",1G")( *fter temporaril? honoring a parole condition that he live Eith his aunt and uncle in >est ;irginia, 'anson moved in Eith his mother in that same state. +n &anuar? "#CC, he married a hospital Eaitress named %osalie &ean >illis, Eith Ehom, b? his oEn account, he found genuine, if shortlived, marital happiness.I")J Fe supported their marriage via small-time jobs and auto theft. I0J/",1G")( *round October, about three months after he and his pregnant Eife arrived in .os *ngeles in a car he had stolen in Ohio, 'anson Eas again charged Eith a federal crime for ta5ing the vehicle across state lines. *fter a ps?chiatric evaluation, he Eas given five ?earsB probation. Fis subseKuent failure to appear at a .os *ngeles hearing on an identical charge filed in 2lorida resulted in his 'arch "#C( arrest in +ndianapolis. Fis probation Eas revo5edH he Eas sentenced to three ?earsB imprisonment at

Terminal +sland, San 4edro, !alifornia.I0J/",1G")( >hile 'anson Eas in prison, %osalie gave birth to their son, !harles 'anson, &r. $uring his first ?ear at Terminal +sland, 'anson received visits from %osalie and his mother, Eho Eere noE living together in .os *ngeles. +n 'arch "#C1, Ehen the visits from his Eife ceased, his mother informed him %osalie Eas living Eith another man. .ess than tEo Eee5s before a scheduled parole hearing, 'anson tried to escape b? stealing a car. Fe Eas subseKuentl? given five ?ears probation, and his parole Eas denied.I0J/",1G")(

1econd imprisonment
'anson received five ?earsB parole in September "#C<, the same ?ear in Ehich %osalie received a decree of divorce. 8? 7ovember, he Eas pimping a "(-?ear-old girl and Eas receiving additional support from a girl Eith Eealth? parents. +n September "#C#, he pleaded guilt? to a charge of attempting to cash a forged :.S. Treasur? chec5. Fe received a "--?ear suspended sentence and probation after a ?oung Eoman Eith an arrest record for prostitution made a 9tearful plea9 before the court that she and 'anson Eere 9deepl? in love ... and Eould marr? if !harlie Eere freed.9I0J/",1G")( 8efore the ?earBs end, the Eoman did marr? 'anson, possibl? so testimon? against him Eould not be reKuired of her.I0J/",1G")( The EomanBs name Eas .eonaH as a prostitute, she had used the name !and? Stevens. *fter 'anson too5 her and another Eoman from !alifornia to 7eE 'exico for purposes of prostitution, he Eas held and Kuestioned for violation of the 'ann *ct. Though he Eas released, he evidentl? suspected, rightl?, that the investigation had not ended. >hen he disappeared, in violation of his probation, a bench Earrant Eas issuedH an *pril "#(- indictment for violation of the 'ann *ct folloEed. I0J/",1G")( *rrested in .aredo, Texas, in &une, Ehen one of the Eomen Eas arrested for prostitution, 'anson Eas returned to .os *ngeles. 2or violation of his probation on the chec5cashing charge, he Eas ordered to serve his "--?ear sentence.I0J/",1G")( +n &ul? "#(", after a ?ear spent unsuccessfull? appealing the revocation of his probation, 'anson Eas transferred from the .os *ngeles !ount? &ail to the :nited States 4enitentiar? at 'c7eil +sland. There, he too5 guitar lessons from 8ar5er-Marpis gang leader *lvin 9!reep?9 Marpis, and obtained a contact name of someone at :niversal Studios in Foll?Eood from another inmate, 4hil Maufman @Eho, after release, had befriended 6ram 4arsons and after 4arsonsBs death, had hijac5ed the bod? and cremated it in the &oshua Tree desertA.I"CJ *ccording to &eff 6uinnBs 0-", 'anson biograph?, !harlieBs mother Mathleen moved from !alifornia to >ashington state to be closer to him during his 'c7eil +sland incarceration, Eor5ing nearb? as a Eaitress.I"(J *lthough the 'ann *ct charge had been dropped, the attempt to cash the Treasur? chec5 Eas still a federal offense. Fis September "#(" annual revieE noted he had a 9tremendous drive to call attention to himself9, an observation echoed in September "#().I0J/",1G")( +n "#(,, .eona Eas granted a divorce, in the pursuit of Ehich she alleged that she and 'anson had had a son, !harles .uther.I0J/",1G")( +n &une "#((, 'anson Eas sent, for the second time in his life, to Terminal +sland, in preparation for earl? release. 8? 'arch 0", "#(1, his release da?, he had spent more than half of his ,0 ?ears in prisons and other institutions.I0J/",1G")( Telling the authorities that prison had become his home, he reKuested permission to sta?,I0J/",1G")( a fact touched on in a "#<" television intervieE Eith Tom Sn?der.I"1J

Manson /amil$
On his release da?, 'anson received permission to move to San 2rancisco, Ehere, Eith the help of a prison acKuaintance, he moved into an apartment in 8er5ele?. +n prison, ban5 robber *lvin Marpis had taught him to pla? the steel guitar.I0J/",1G")(I")JI"<J 7oE, living mostl? b? panhandling, he

soon got to 5noE 'ar? 8runner, a 0,-?ear-old graduate of the :niversit? of >isconsinG'adison. 8runner Eas Eor5ing as a librar? assistant at :niversit? of !alifornia, 8er5ele?, and 'anson moved in Eith her. *ccording to a secondhand account, he overcame her resistance to his bringing other Eomen in to live Eith them. 8efore long, the? Eere sharing 8runnerBs residence Eith "< other Eomen.I0J/"(,G"1) 'anson established himself as a guru in San 2ranciscoBs Faight-*shbur?, Ehich, during "#(1Bs 9Summer of .ove9, Eas emerging as the signature hippie locale. 8ugliosi noted in his boo5 4elter S&elter that 'anson appeared to have borroEed philosophicall? from the 4rocess !hurch, Ehose members Eorshiped Satan. Expounding a philosoph? that included some of the Scientolog? he had studied in prison,I0J/"(,G"() he soon had his first group of folloEers, most of them female. I0J/",1G")( :pon a staff evaluation of 'anson Ehen he entered prison in &ul? "#(" at the :.S. penitentiar? in 'c7eil +sland, >ashington, 'anson entered 9Scientologist9 as his religion.I0J/"),G ")) 8efore the summer ended, 'anson and eight or nine of his enthusiasts piled into an old school bus the? had re-Erought in hippie st?le, Eith colored rugs and pilloEs in place of the man? seats the? had removed. The? roamed as far north as >ashington state, then southEard through .os *ngeles, 'exico, and the southEest. %eturning to the .os *ngeles area, the? lived in Topanga !an?on, 'alibu, and ;eniceDEestern parts of the cit? and count?.I0J/"(,G"1) +n "#(1, 8runner became pregnant b? 'anson and on *pril "C, "#(< gave birth to a son she named ;alentine 'ichael @nic5named 94ooh 8ear9AI"#J in a condemned house in Topanga !an?on and Eas assisted during the birth b? several of the ?oung Eomen from the 2amil?. 8runner @li5e most members of the groupA acKuired a number of aliases and nic5names, including/ 9'arioche9, 9Och9, 9'other 'ar?9, 9'ar? 'anson9, 9.inda $ee 'anson9 and 9!hristine 'arie Euchts9.I0-J +n an alternative account, 'anson acKuired 2amil? members during some months of travels that Eere underta5en, in part, in a ;ol5sEagen van. Fe Eas apparentl? accompanied b? 8runner. +t Eas 7ovember Ehen the school bus set out from San 2rancisco Eith the enlarged group.I0"J

&nvolvement -ith 3ilson, Melcher, et al.


The events that Eould culminate in the murders Eere set in motion in late spring "#(<, Ehen, b? some accounts, $ennis >ilson, of The 8each 8o?s, pic5ed up tEo hitchhi5ing 'anson Eomen, 4atricia MrenEin5el and Ella &o 8aile? I00J and brought them to his 4acific 4alisades house for a feE hours. %eturning home in the earl? hours of the folloEing morning from a night recording session, >ilson Eas greeted in the driveEa? of his oEn residence b? 'anson, Eho emerged from the house. :ncomfortable, >ilson as5ed the stranger Ehether he intended to hurt him. *ssuring him he had no such intent, 'anson began 5issing >ilsonBs feet.I0J/0C-G0C,I0,J +nside the house, >ilson discovered "0 strangers, mostl? Eomen.I0J/0C-G0C,I0,J Over the next feE months, as their number doubled, the 2amil? members Eho had made themselves part of >ilsonBs Sunset 8oulevard household cost him approximatel? Y"--,---. This included a large medical bill for treatment of their gonorrhea and Y0",--- for the accidental destruction of his uninsured car, Ehich the? borroEed.I0)J >ilson Eould sing and tal5 Eith 'anson, Ehose Eomen Eere treated as servants to them both.I0J/0C-G0C, >ilson paid for studio time to record songs Eritten and performed b? 'anson, and he introduced 'anson to acKuaintances of his Eith roles in the entertainment business. These included 6regg &a5obson, Terr? 'elcher, and %udi *ltobelli @the last of Ehom oEned a house he Eould soon rent to actress Sharon Tate and her husband, director %oman 4olans5iA.I0J/0C-G0C, &a5obson, Eho Eas impressed b? 9the Ehole !harlie 'anson pac5age9 of artistNlifest?listNphilosopher, also paid to record 'anson material.I0J/"CCG"(", "<CG"<<, 0")G0"#I0CJ The account given in Manson in 4is >$n .ords is that 'anson first met >ilson at a friendBs San

2rancisco house, Ehere 'anson had gone to obtain cannabis. The drummer supposedl? gave 'anson his Sunset 8oulevard address and invited him to stop b? Ehen he Eould be in .os *ngeles. I")J

1pahn Ranch
'anson established a base for the group at SpahnBs 'ovie %anch, not far from Topanga !an?on 8oulevard, in *ugust "#(< after >ilsonBs manager told the 2amil? to move out of >ilsonBs home. I0(JI01J The entire 2amil? then relocated to the ranch.I0J/0C-G0C, The ranch had been a television and movie set for >estern productions. FoEever, b? the late "#(-s, the buildings had deteriorated and the ranch Eas earning mone? primaril? b? selling horsebac5 rides. 2amil? members did helpful Eor5 around the grounds. *lso, 'anson ordered the 2amil?Bs Eomen, including .?nette 9SKuea5?9 2romme, to occasionall? have sex Eith the nearl? blind, <--?ear-old oEner, 6eorge Spahn. The Eomen also acted as seeing-e?e guides for Spahn. +n exchange, Spahn alloEed 'anson and his group to live at the ranch for free.I0J/##G"",I0<J SKuea5? acKuired her nic5name because she often sKuea5ed Ehen Spahn pinched her thigh.I0J/"(,G"1)I0)J !harles >atson soon joined the group at SpahnBs ranch. >atson, a small-toEn Texan Eho had Kuit college and moved to !alifornia,I0#J met 'anson at $ennis >ilsonBs house. >atson gave >ilson a ride Ehile >ilson Eas hitchhi5ing after his cars had been Erec5ed.I0(J Spahn nic5named >atson 9Tex9 because of his pronounced Texan draEl.I01J

.elter 1%elter
'ain article/ Felter S5elter @'anson scenarioA +n the first da?s of 7ovember "#(<, 'anson established the 2amil? at alternative headKuarters in $eath ;alle?Bs environs, Ehere the? occupied tEo unused or little-used ranches, '?ers and 8ar5er. I0CJI,-J The former, to Ehich the group had initiall? headed, Eas oEned b? the grandmother of a neE Eoman in the 2amil?. The latter Eas oEned b? an elderl?, local Eoman to Ehom 'anson presented himself and a male 2amil? member as musicians in need of a place congenial to their Eor5. >hen the Eoman agreed to let them sta? there if the?Bd fix up things, 'anson honored her Eith one of the 8each 8o?sB gold records,I,-J several of Ehich he had been given b? $ennis >ilson.I,"J >hile bac5 at Spahn %anch, no later than $ecember, 'anson and >atson visited a Topanga !an?on acKuaintance Eho pla?ed them the 8eatlesB .hite #lbum, then recentl? released.I0CJI,0J I,,J 'anson became obsessed Eith the group.I,)J *t 'c7eil, he had told felloE inmates, including *lvin Marpis, that he could surpass the group in fameHI0J/0--G0-0, 0(CI,CJ to the 2amil?, he spo5e of the group as 9the soul9 and 9part of Bthe hole in the infiniteB. 9I,,J 2or some time, 'anson had been sa?ing that racial tension betEeen blac5s and Ehites Eas groEing and that blac5s Eould soon rise up in rebellion in *mericaBs cities.I,(JI,1J Fe had emphasized 'artin .uther Ming, &r.Bs assassination, Ehich had ta5en place on *pril ), "#(<.I,-J On a bitterl? cold 7eE LearBs Eve at '?ers %anch, the 2amil? members, gathered outside around a large fire, listened as 'anson explained that the social turmoil he had been predicting had also been predicted b? the 8eatles.I,,J The .hite #lbum songs, he declared, told it all, although in code. +n fact, he maintained @or Eould soon maintainA, the album Eas directed at the 2amil? itself, an elect group that Eas being instructed to preserve the Eorth? from the impending disaster.I,(JI,1J +n earl? &anuar? "#(#, the 2amil? escaped the desertBs cold and positioned itself to monitor ..*.Bs supposed tension b? moving to a canar?-?elloE home in !anoga 4ar5, not far from the Spahn %anch.I0J/0))G0)1I,,JI,<J 8ecause this locale Eould alloE the group to remain 9submerged

beneath the aEareness of the outside Eorld9,I0J/0))G0)1I,#J 'anson called it the LelloE Submarine, another 8eatles reference. There, 2amil? members prepared for the impending apocal?pse,I)-JI)"J Ehich, around the campfire, 'anson had termed 9Felter S5elter9, after the song of that name. 8? 2ebruar?, 'ansonBs vision Eas complete. The 2amil? Eould create an album Ehose songs, as subtle as those of the 8eatles, Eould trigger the predicted chaos. 6hastl? murders of Ehites b? blac5s Eould be met Eith retaliation, and a split betEeen racist and non-racist Ehites Eould ?ield EhitesB self-annihilation. 8lac5sB triumph, as it Eere, Eould merel? precede their being ruled b? the 2amil?, Ehich Eould ride out the conflict in 9the bottomless pit9Da secret cit? beneath $eath ;alle?.I)0J *t the !anoga 4ar5 house, Ehile 2amil? members Eor5ed on vehicles and pored over maps to prepare for their desert escape, the? also Eor5ed on songs for their Eorld-changing album. >hen the? Eere told Terr? 'elcher Eas to come to the house to hear the material, the Eomen prepared a meal and cleaned the placeH but 'elcher never arrived.I,(JI)-J

(ncounter -ith Tate


On 'arch 0,, "#(#,I0J/00<G0,, 'anson, uninvited, entered "--C- !ielo $rive, Ehich he had 5noEn as 'elcherBs residence.I0J/"CCG"(" This Eas %udi *ltobelliBs propert?H 'elcher Eas no longer the tenant. *s of that 2ebruar?,I0J/0<G,< the tenants Eere Sharon Tate and %oman 4olans5i. 'anson Eas met b? Shahro5h Fatami, a photographer and TateBs friend. Fatami Eas there to photograph Tate in advance of her departure for %ome the next da?. Faving seen 'anson through a EindoE as 'anson approached the main house, Fatami had gone onto the front porch to as5 him Ehat he Eanted.I0J/00<G0,, >hen 'anson told Fatami he Eas loo5ing for someone Ehose name Fatami did not recognize, Fatami informed him the place Eas the 4olans5i residence. Fatami advised him to tr? 9the bac5 alle?9, b? Ehich he meant the path to the guest house, be?ond the main house.I0J/00<G0,, !oncerned about the stranger on the propert?, Fatami Eent doEn to the front Eal5, to confront 'anson. *ppearing behind Fatami, in the houseBs front door, Tate as5ed him Eho Eas calling. Fatami said a man Eas loo5ing for someone. Fatami and Tate maintained their positions Ehile 'anson, Eithout a Eord, Eent bac5 to the guest house, returned a minute or tEo later, and left. I0J/00<G0,, That evening, 'anson returned to the propert? and again Eent bac5 to the guest house. 4resuming to enter the enclosed porch, he spo5e Eith %udi *ltobelli, Eho Eas just coming out of the shoEer. *lthough 'anson as5ed for 'elcher, *ltobelli felt 'anson had come loo5ing for him.I0J/00( This is consistent Eith prosecutor ;incent 8ugliosiBs later discover? that 'anson had apparentl? been to the place on earlier occasions after 'elcherBs departure from it.I0J/00<G0,,, ,(#G,11 Spea5ing through the inner screen door, *ltobelli told 'anson that 'elcher had moved to 'alibu. Fe lied that he did not 5noE 'elcherBs neE address. +n response to a Kuestion from 'anson, *ltobelli said he himself Eas in the entertainment business, although, having met 'anson the previous ?ear, at $ennis >ilsonBs home, he Eas sure 'anson alread? 5neE that. *t >ilsonBs, *ltobelli had complimented 'anson lu5eEarml? on some of his musical recordings that >ilson had been pla?ing.I0J/00<G0,, >hen *ltobelli informed 'anson he Eas going out of the countr? the next da?, 'anson said heBd li5e to spea5 Eith him upon his returnH *ltobelli lied that he Eould be gone for more than a ?ear. +n response to a direct Kuestion from *ltobelli, 'anson explained that he had been directed to the guest house b? the persons in the main houseH *ltobelli expressed the Eish that 'anson not disturb his tenants.I0J/00<G0,, 'anson left. *s *ltobelli fleE Eith Tate to %ome the next da?, Tate as5ed him Ehether 9that creep?-loo5ing gu?9 had gone bac5 to the guest house the da? before.I0J/00<G0,,

/amil$ crimes
Cro-e shooting
On 'a? "<, "#(#, Terr? 'elcher visited Spahn %anch to hear 'anson and the Eomen sing. 'elcher arranged a subseKuent visit, not long thereafter, on Ehich he brought a friend Eho possessed a mobile recording unitH but he himself did not record the group.I0J/"C(,"<CI),J 8? &une, 'anson Eas telling the 2amil? the? might have to shoE blac5s hoE to start 9Felter S5elter9.I0J/0))G0)1I)"JI))J >hen 'anson tas5ed >atson Eith obtaining mone? supposedl? intended to help the 2amil? prepare for the conflict, >atson defrauded a blac5 drug dealer named 8ernard 9.otsapoppa9 !roEe. !roEe responded Eith a threat to Eipe out ever?one at Spahn %anch. 'anson countered on &ul? ", "#(#, b? shooting !roEe at his Foll?Eood apartment.I0J/##G "",I0J/#"G#(I)CJI)(J 'ansonBs mista5en belief that he had 5illed !roEe Eas seemingl? confirmed b? a neEs report of the discover? of the dumped bod? of a 8lac5 4anther in .os *ngeles. *lthough !roEe Eas not a member of the 8lac5 4anthers, 'anson, concluding he had been, expected retaliation from the group. Fe turned Spahn %anch into a defensive camp, Eith night patrols of armed guards.I)CJI)1J 9+f EeBd needed an? more proof that Felter S5elter Eas coming doEn ver? soon, this Eas it,9 Tex >atson Eould later Erite, 9I8Jlac5ie Eas tr?ing to get at the chosen ones.9I)CJ

.inman murder
On &ul? 0C, "#(#, 'anson sent sometime 2amil? member 8obb? 8eausoleil along Eith 'ar? 8runner and Susan *t5ins to the house of acKuaintance 6ar? Finman, to persuade him to turn over mone? 'anson thought Finman had inherited.I0J/1CG11I)CJI)<J The three held the uncooperative Finman hostage for tEo da?s, during Ehich 'anson shoEed up Eith a sEord to slash his ear. *fter that, 8eausoleil stabbed Finman to death, ostensibl? on 'ansonBs instruction. 8efore leaving the Topanga !an?on residence, 8eausoleil, or one of the Eomen, used FinmanBs blood to Erite 94olitical pigg?9 on the Eall and to draE a panther paE, a 8lac5 4anther s?mbol.I0J/,,, #"G#(, ##G "",I)#J +n magazine intervieEs of "#<" and "##<G##,IC-JIC"J 8eausoleil Eould sa? he Eent to FinmanBs to recover mone? paid to Finman for drugs that had supposedl? been badH he added that 8runner and *t5ins, unaEare of his intent, Eent along idl?, merel? to visit Finman. On the other hand, *t5ins, in her "#11 autobiograph?, Erote that 'anson directl? told 8eausoleil, 8runner, and her to go to FinmanBs and get the supposed inheritanceDY0",---. She said 'anson had told her privatel?, tEo da?s earlier, that, if she Eanted to 9do something important9, she could 5ill Finman and get his mone?.I)<J

Tate murders
8eausoleil Eas arrested on *ugust (, "#(#, after he had been caught driving FinmanBs car. 4olice found the murder Eeapon in the tire Eell.I0J/0<G,< TEo da?s later, 'anson told 2amil? members at Spahn %anch, 97oE is the time for Felter S5elter.9I0J/0C<G0(#I)CJIC0J On the night of *ugust <, 'anson directed >atson to ta5e *t5ins, .inda Masabian, and 4atricia MrenEin5el to 9that house Ehere 'elcher used to live9 and 9totall? destro? ever?one in IitJ, as gruesome as ?ou can.9I0J/)(,G)(<IC,J Fe told the Eomen to do as >atson Eould instruct them. I0J/"1(G"<), 0C<G0(# MrenEin5el Eas one of the earl? 2amil? members, one of the hitchhi5ers Eho had allegedl? been pic5ed up b? $ennis >ilson.I0J/0C-G0C, The current occupants of the house, all of Ehom Eere strangers to the 'anson folloEers, Eere movie actress Sharon Tate, Eife of famed director %oman 4olans5i and eight and a half months pregnantH her friend and former

lover &a? Sebring, a noted hairst?listH 4olans5iBs friend and aspiring screenEriter >ojciech 2r?5oEs5iH and 2r?5oEs5iBs lover *bigail 2olger, heiress to the 2olger coffee fortune.I0J/0<G,< TateBs husband, 4olans5i, Eas in .ondon Eor5ing on a film projectH Tate had been visiting Eith him and had returned to the :nited States onl? three Eee5s earlier.Icitation neededJ >hen the murder team arrived at the entrance to the !ielo $rive propert?, >atson, Eho had been to the house on at least one other occasion, climbed a telephone pole near the gate and cut the phone line.I0CJ +t Eas noE around midnight and into *ugust #, "#(#. 8ac5ing their car doEn to the bottom of the hill that led up to the place, the group par5ed there and Eal5ed bac5 up to the house. Thin5ing the gate might be electrified or rigged Eith an alarm,I0J/"1(G"<) the? climbed a brush? emban5ment at its right and dropped onto the grounds. &ust then, headlights came their Ea? from farther Eithin the angled propert?. >atson ordered the Eomen to lie in the bushes. Fe then stepped out and ordered the approaching driver, "<-?ear-old student and hi-fi enthusiast Steven 4arent, to halt. *s >atson leveled a 00-caliber revolver at 4arent, the frightened ?outh begged >atson not to hurt him, claiming that he EouldnBt sa? an?thing. >atson first slashed at 4arent Eith a 5nife, giving him a defensive slash Eound on the palm of his hand @severing tendons and tearing the bo?Bs Eatch off his EristA, then shot him four times in the chest and abdomen. >atson then ordered the Eomen to help push the car further up the driveEa?I0J/00G0CIC,J *fter traversing the front laEn and having Masabian search for an open EindoE of the main house, >atson cut the screen of a EindoE. >atson told Masabian to 5eep Eatch doEn b? the gateH she Eal5ed over to Steven 4arentBs %ambler and Eaited.I0J/0C<G0(#I0J/"1(G"<)IC,J Fe then removed the screen, entered through the EindoE, and let *t5ins and MrenEin5el in through the front door.I0J/"1(G"<) *s >atson Ehispered to *t5ins, 2r?5oEs5i aEo5e on the living-room couchH >atson 5ic5ed him in the head.IC,J >hen 2r?5oEs5i as5ed him Eho he Eas and Ehat he Eas doing there, >atson replied, 9+Bm the devil, and +Bm here to do the devilBs business.9I0J/"1(G"<)IC,J On >atsonBs direction, *t5ins found the houseBs three other occupants and, Eith MrenEin5elBs help, I0J/"1(G"<), 0#1G,-- brought them to the living room. >atson began to tie Tate and Sebring together b? their nec5s Eith rope heBd brought and slung up over a beam. SebringBs protest G his second G of rough treatment of the pregnant Tate prompted >atson to shoot him. 2olger Eas ta5en momentaril? bac5 to her bedroom for her purse, out of Ehich she gave the intruders Y1-. *fter that, >atson stabbed the groaning Sebring seven times.I0J/0<G,<IC,J 2r?5oEs5iBs hands had been bound Eith a toEel. 2reeing himself, 2r?5oEs5i began struggling Eith *t5ins, Eho stabbed at his legs Eith the 5nife Eith Ehich she had been guarding him.IC,J *s he fought his Ea? toEard and out the front door, onto the porch, >atson joined in against him. >atson struc5 him over the head Eith the gun multiple times, stabbed him repeatedl?, and shot him tEice. IC,J >atson bro5e the gunBs right grip in the process. *round this time, Masabian Eas draEn up from the driveEa? b? 9horrif?ing sounds9. She arrived outside the door. +n a vain effort to halt the massacre, she told *t5ins falsel? that someone Eas coming.I0J/0C<G0(#IC,J +nside the house, 2olger had escaped from MrenEin5el and fled out a bedroom door to the pool area.I0J/,)"G,)), ,C(G,(" 2olger Eas pursued to the front laEn b? MrenEin5el, Eho stabbed G and finall?, tac5led G her. She Eas dispatched b? >atsonH her tEo assailants had stabbed her 0< times. I0J/0<G,<IC,J *s 2r?5oEs5i struggled across the laEn, >atson murdered him Eith a final flurr? of stabbing. 2r?5oEs5i Eas stabbed a total of C" times.I0J/0<G,<, 0C<G0(#IC,J 8ac5 in the house, Tate pleaded to be alloEed to live long enough to have her bab?, and even offered herself as a hostage in an attempt to save the life of her unborn childH her 5illers Eould have none of it, as either *t5ins, >atson, or both 5illed Tate, Eho Eas stabbed "( times.I0J/0<G,< >atson later Erote that Tate cried, 9'other ... mother ...9 as she Eas being 5illed.IC,J Earlier, as the four 2amil? members had headed out from Spahn %anch, 'anson had told the Eomen to 9leave a sign ... something Eitch?9.IC,J :sing the toEel that had bound 2r?5oEs5iBs

hands, *t5ins Erote 9pig9 on the houseBs front door, in TateBs blood. En route home, the 5illers changed out of blood? clothes, Ehich Eere ditched in the hills, along Eith their Eeapons.I0J/<)G#-, "1(G"<)IC,J +n initial confessions to cellmates of hers at S?bil 8rand +nstitute, *t5ins Eould sa? she 5illed Tate. I0J/<)G#- +n later statements to her attorne?, to prosecutor ;incent 8ugliosi, and before a grand jur?, *t5ins indicated Tate had been stabbed b? Tex >atson.I0J/"(,G"1), "1(G"<) +n his "#1< autobiograph?, >atson said that he stabbed Tate and that *t5ins never touched her.IC,J Since he Eas aEare that the prosecutor, 8ugliosi, and the jur? that had tried the other Tate-.a8ianca defendants Eere convinced *t5ins had stabbed Tate, he falsel? testified that he did not stab her.IC)J

#aBianca murders
The next night, six 2amil? membersD.eslie ;an Fouten, Steve 9!lem9 6rogan, and the four from the previous nightDrode out at 'ansonBs instruction. $ispleased b? the panic of the victims at !ielo $rive, 'anson accompanied the six, 9to shoE IthemJ hoE to do it.9I0J/"1(G"<), 0C<G0(#ICCJ *fter a feE hoursB ride, in Ehich he considered a number of murders and even attempted one of them,I0J/0C<G0(#ICCJ 'anson gave Masabian directions that brought the group to ,,-" >averl? $rive. This Eas the home of supermar5et executive .eno .a8ianca and his Eife, %osemar?, a dress shop co-oEner.I0J/00G0C, )0G)< .ocated in the .os 2eliz section of .os *ngeles, it Eas next door to a house at Ehich 'anson and 2amil? members had attended a part? the previous ?ear.I0J/"1(G "<), 0-)G0".a8ianca Fouse ,,-" >averl? $rive ,)."",#")Z7 ""<.01,-1(Z> *ccording to *t5ins and Masabian, 'anson disappeared up the driveEa? and returned to sa? he had tied up the houseBs occupantsH then he sent >atson up Eith MrenEin5el and ;an Fouten.I0J/"1(G "<), 0C<G0(# +n his autobiograph?, on the other hand, >atson stated that, having gone up alone, 'anson returned to ta5e him up to the house Eith him. *fter 'anson pointed out a sleeping man through a EindoE, the tEo of them entered through the unloc5ed bac5 door.ICCJ >atson added that, at trial, he 9Eent along Eith9 the EomenBs account, Ehich he figured made him 9loo5 that much less responsible.9IC)J *s >atson tells it, 'anson roused the sleeping .eno .a8ianca from the couch at gunpoint and had >atson bind his hands Eith a leather thong. *fter %osemar? Eas brought briefl? into the living room from the bedroom, >atson folloEed 'ansonBs instructions to cover the coupleBs heads Eith pilloEcases. Fe bound these in place Eith lamp cords. 'anson left, sending MrenEin5el and .eslie ;an Fouten into the house Eith instructions that the couple be 5illed.I0J/"1(G"<), 0C<G0(#ICCJ 8efore leaving Spahn %anch, >atson had complained to 'anson of the inadeKuac? of the previous nightBs Eeapons.I0J/0C<G0(# 7oE, sending the Eomen from the 5itchen to the bedroom, to Ehich %osemar? .a8ianca had been returned, he Eent to the living room and began stabbing .eno .a8ianca Eith a chrome-plated ba?onet. The first thrust Eent into the manBs throat.ICCJ Sounds of a scuffle in the bedroom dreE >atson there to discover 'rs. .a8ianca 5eeping the Eomen at ba? b? sEinging the lamp tied to her nec5. *fter subduing her Eith several stabs of the ba?onet, he returned to the living room and resumed attac5ing .eno, Ehom he stabbed a total of "0 times Eith the ba?onet. >hen he had finished, >atson carved 9>*%9 on the manBs exposed abdomen. Fe stated this in his autobiograph?.ICCJ +n an unclear portion of her eventual grand jur? testimon?, *t5ins, Eho did not enter the .a8ianca house, possibl? said she believed MrenEin5el had carved the Eord.I0J/"1(G"<)IC(J +n a ghost-Eritten neEspaper account based on a statement she had made earlier to her attorne?,I0J/"(-,"#, she said >atson carved it.IC1J %eturning to the bedroom, >atson found MrenEin5el stabbing %osemar? .a8ianca Eith a 5nife from the .a8ianca 5itchen. Feeding 'ansonBs instruction to ma5e sure each of the Eomen pla?ed a part, >atson told ;an Fouten to stab 'rs. .a8ianca too.ICCJ She did, stabbing her approximatel?

"( times in the bac5 and the exposed buttoc5s.I0J/0-)G0"-, 0#1G,--, ,)"G,)) *t trial, ;an Fouten Eould claim, uncertainl?,I0J/),, that %osemar? .a8ianca Eas dead Ehen she stabbed her. Evidence shoEed that man? of 'rs. .a8iancaBs )" stab Eounds had, in fact, been inflicted postmortem.I0J/)), 0-(, 0#1, ,)"G)0, ,<-, )-), )-(G-1, ),, >hile >atson cleaned off the ba?onet and shoEered, MrenEin5el Erote 9%ise9 and 9$eath to pigs9 on the Ealls and 9Fealter IsicJ S5elter9 on the refrigerator door, all in .a8ianca blood. She gave .eno .a8ianca ") puncture Eounds Eith an ivor?-handled, tEo-tined carving for5, Ehich she left jutting out of his stomach. She also planted a stea5 5nife in his throat.I0J/"1(G"<), 0C<G0(#ICCJ Foping for a double crime, 'anson had gone on to direct Masabian to drive to the ;enice home of an actor acKuaintance of hers, another 9pigg?9. $epositing the second trio of 2amil? members at the manBs apartment building, he drove bac5 to Spahn %anch, leaving them and the .a8ianca 5illers to hitchhi5e home.I0J/"1(G"<), 0C<G0(# Masabian thEarted this murder b? deliberatel? 5noc5ing on the Erong apartment door and Ea5ing a stranger. *s the group abandoned the murder plan and left, Susan *t5ins defecated in the stairEell.I0J/01-G01,

Justice s$stem
&nvestigation
The Tate murders had become neEs on *ugust #, "#(#. The 4olans5iBs house5eeper, >inifred !hapman, had arrived for Eor5 that morning and discovered the murder scene.I0J/CG(, ""G"C On *ugust "-, detectives of the .os *ngeles !ount? SheriffBs $epartment, Ehich had jurisdiction in the Finman case, informed .os *ngeles 4olice $epartment @.*4$A detectives assigned to the Tate case of the blood? Eriting at the Finman house. Thin5ing the Tate murders Eere a conseKuence of a drug transaction, the Tate team ignored this and the crimesB other similarities.I0J/0<G,<IC<J The Tate autopsies Eere under Ea? and the .a8ianca bodies Eere ?et to be discovered. Steven 4arent, the shooting victim in the Tate driveEa?, Eas determined to have been an acKuaintance of >illiam 6arretson, Eho lived in the guest house. 6arretson Eas a ?oung man hired b? %udi *ltobelli to ta5e care of the propert? Ehile *ltobelli himself Eas aEa?.I0J/0<G,< *s the 5illers arrived, 4arent had been leaving !ielo $rive, after a visit to 6arretson.I0J/0<G,< Feld briefl? as a Tate suspect, 6arretson told police he had neither seen nor heard an?thing on the murder night. Fe Eas released on *ugust "", "#(#, after undergoing a pol?graph examination that indicated he had not been involved in the crimes.I0J/0<G,<, )0G)< +ntervieEed decades later, he stated he had, in fact, Eitnessed a portion of the murders, as the examination suggested. @See 9.ater events9, beloE.AIC#J The .a8ianca crime scene Eas discovered at about "-/,- pm on *ugust "-, approximatel? "# hours after the murders Eere committed. 2ifteen-?ear-old 2ran5 StruthersD%osemar?Bs son from a prior marriage and .enoBs stepsonDreturned from a camping trip and Eas disturbed b? seeing all of the EindoE shades of his home draEn, and b? the fact that his stepfatherBs speedboat Eas still attached to the famil? car, Ehich Eas par5ed in the driveEa?. Fe called his older sister and her bo?friend. The bo?friend, &oe $organ, accompanied the ?ounger Struthers into the home and discovered .enoBs bod?. %osemar?Bs bod? Eas found b? investigating police officers.I0J/,< On *ugust "0, "#(#, the .*4$ told the press it had ruled out an? connection betEeen the Tate and .a8ianca homicides.I0J/)0G)< On *ugust "(, the sheriffBs office raided Spahn %anch and arrested 'anson and 0C others, as 9suspects in a major auto theft ring9 that had been stealing ;ol5sEagens and converting them into dune buggies. >eapons Eere seized, but because the Earrant had been misdated the group Eas released a feE da?s later.I0J/C( The .a8ianca detectives Eere generall? ?ounger than the Tate team. +n a report at the end of *ugust, Ehen virtuall? all leads had gone noEhere, the? noted a possible connection betEeen the

blood? Eritings at the .a8ianca house and 9the singing group the 8eatlesB most recent album.9I0J/(C Brea%through Still Eor5ing separatel? from the Tate team, the .a8ianca team chec5ed Eith the sheriffBs office in mid-October about possible similar crimes. The? learned of the Finman case. The? also learned that the Finman detectives had spo5en Eith 8eausoleilBs girlfriend, Mitt? .utesinger. She had been arrested a feE da?s earlier Eith members of 9the 'anson 2amil?9.I0J/1CG11 The arrests had ta5en place at the desert ranches, to Ehich the 2amil? had moved and Ehence, un5noEn to authorities, its members had been searching $eath ;alle? for a hole in the groundD access to the 8ottomless 4it.I0J/00<G0,,I(-JI("J * joint force of 7ational 4ar5 rangers and officers from the !alifornia FighEa? 4atrol and the +n?o !ount? SheriffBs OfficeDfederal, state, and count? personnelDhad raided both the '?ers %anch and 8ar5er %anch after folloEing clues unEittingl? left Ehen 2amil? members burned an earthmover oEned b? $eath ;alle? 7ational 'onument. I0J/"0CG"01I(0JI(,J The raiders had found stolen dune buggies and other vehicles and had arrested tEo dozen people, including 'anson. * FighEa? 4atrol officer found 'anson hiding in a cabinet beneath 8ar5erBs bathroom sin5.I0J/1CG11, "0CG"01 * month after the?, too, had spo5en Eith .utesinger, the .a8ianca detectives made contact Eith members of a motorc?cle gang sheBd told them 'anson had tried to enlist as his bod?guards Ehile the 2amil? Eas at Spahn %anch.I0J/1CG11 >hile the gang members Eere providing information that suggested a lin5 betEeen 'anson and the murders,I0J/<)G#-, ##G"", a dormitor? mate of Susan *t5ins succeeded in informing .*4$ of the 2amil?Bs involvement in the crimes.I0J/##G"", *s one of those arrested at 8ar5er, *t5ins had been boo5ed for the Finman murder after sheBd confirmed to the sheriffBs detectives that sheBd been involved in it, as .utesinger had said.I0J/1CG11I()J Transferred to S?bil 8rand +nstitute, a detention center in .os *ngeles, she had begun tal5ing to bun5mates %onnie FoEard and ;irginia 6raham, to Ehom she gave accounts of the events in Ehich she had been involved.I0J/#"G#( ,pprehension On $ecember ", "#(#, acting on the information from these sources, .*4$ announced Earrants for the arrest of >atson, MrenEin5el, and Masabian in the Tate caseH the suspectsB involvement in the .a8ianca murders Eas noted. 'anson and *t5ins, alread? in custod?, Eere not mentionedH the connection betEeen the .a8ianca case and ;an Fouten, Eho Eas also among those arrested near $eath ;alle?, had not ?et been recognized.I0J/"0CG"01, "CCG"(", "1(G"<) >atson and MrenEin5el, too, Eere alread? under arrest, authorities in 'cMinne?, Texas, and 'obile, *labama, having pic5ed them up on notice from .*4$.I0J/"CCG"(" +nformed that there Eas a Earrant out for her arrest, Masabian voluntaril? surrendered to authorities in !oncord, 7eE Fampshire, on $ecember 0.I0J/"CCG"(" 8efore long, ph?sical evidence such as MrenEin5elBs and >atsonBs fingerprints, Ehich had been collected b? .*4$ at !ielo $rive,I0J/"C, "C(, 01,, and photographs betEeen ,)-G)" Eas augmented b? evidence recovered b? the public. On September ", "#(#, the distinctive .00-caliber Fi Standard 98untline Special9 revolver >atson used on 4arent, Sebring, and 2r?5oEs5i had been found and given to the police b? Steven >eiss, a "--?ear-old Eho lived near the Tate residence. I0J/(( +n mid-$ecember, Ehen the Los #ngeles Times published a crime account based on information Susan *t5ins had given her attorne?,I0J/"(-,"#, >eissB father made several phone calls Ehich finall? prompted .*4$ to locate the gun in its evidence file and connect it Eith the murders via ballistics tests.I0J/"#<G"## *cting on that same neEspaper account, a local *8! television creE Kuic5l? located and recovered the blood? clothing discarded b? the Tate 5illers.I0J/"#1G"#< The 5nives discarded en route from the Tate residence Eere never recovered, despite a search b? some

of the same creEmen and, months later still, b? .*4$.I0J/"#<, 01, * 5nife found behind the cushion of a chair in the Tate living room Eas apparentl? that of Susan *t5ins, Eho lost her 5nife in the course of the attac5.I0J/"1, "<-, 0(0I(CJ

Trial
The trial began &une "C, "#1-.I0J/0#1G,-- The prosecutionBs main Eitness Eas Masabian, Eho, along Eith 'anson, *t5ins, and MrenEin5el, had been charged Eith seven counts of murder and one of conspirac?.I0J/"<CG"<< Since Masabian, b? all accounts, had not participated in the 5illings, she Eas granted immunit? in exchange for testimon? that detailed the nights of the crimes.I0J/0")G 0"#, 0C-G0C,, ,,-G,,0 Originall?, a deal had been made Eith *t5ins in Ehich the prosecution agreed not to see5 the death penalt? against her in exchange for her grand jur? testimon? on Ehich the indictments Eere securedH once *t5ins repudiated that testimon?, the deal Eas EithdraEn. I0J/"(#, "1,G"<), "<<, 0#0 8ecause ;an Fouten had onl? participated in the .a8ianca 5illings, she Eas charged Eith tEo counts of murder and one of conspirac?. Originall?, &udge >illiam Meene had reluctantl? granted 'anson permission to act as his oEn attorne?. 8ecause of 'ansonBs conduct, including violations of a gag order and submission of 9outlandish9 and 9nonsensical9 pretrial motions, the permission Eas EithdraEn before the trialBs start.I0J/0--G0-0, 0(C 'anson filed an affidavit of prejudice against Meene, Eho Eas replaced b? &udge !harles F. Older.I0J/0#- On 2rida?, &ul? 0), the first da? of testimon?, 'anson appeared in court Eith an 3 carved into his forehead. Fe issued a statement that he Eas 9considered inadeKuate and incompetent to spea5 or defend IhimJself9 G and had 93Bd IhimJself from Ithe establishmentBsJ Eorld.9I0J/,"-I((J Over the folloEing Eee5end, the female defendants duplicated the mar5 on their oEn foreheads, as did most 2amil? members Eithin another da? or so.I0J/,"( @'ansonBs 3 Eas eventuall? replaced b? a sEasti5a. See 9%emaining in vieE9, beloE.A The prosecution placed the triggering of 9Felter S5elter9 as the main motive.I(1J The crime sceneBs blood? .hite #lbum referencesD-ig, rise, helter s&elterDEere correlated Eith testimon? about 'anson predictions that the murders blac5s Eould commit at the outset of Felter S5elter Eould involve the Eriting of 9pigs9 on Ealls in victimsB blood.I0J/0))G0)1, )C-G)C1 Testimon? that 'anson had said 9noE is the time for Felter S5elter9 Eas supplemented Eith MasabianBs testimon? that, on the night of the .a8ianca murders, 'anson considered discarding %osemar? .a8iancaBs Eallet on the street of a blac5 neighborhood.I0J/0C<G0(# Faving obtained the Eallet in the .a8ianca house, he 9Eanted a blac5 person to pic5 it up and use the credit cards so that the people, the establishment, Eould thin5 it Eas some sort of an organized group that 5illed these people.9I(<J On his direction, Masabian had hidden it in the EomenBs restroom of a service station near a blac5 area.I0J/"1(G"<), "#-G"#", 0C<G0(#, ,(#G,11 9+ Eant to shoE blac5ie hoE to do it,9 'anson had said as the 2amil? members had driven along after the departure from the .a8ianca house.I(<J Ongoing disruptions $uring the trial, 2amil? members loitered near the entrances and corridors of the courthouse. To 5eep them out of the courtroom itself, the prosecution subpoenaed them as prospective Eitnesses, Eho Eould not be able to enter Ehile others Eere testif?ing.I0J/,-# >hen the group established itself in vigil on the sideEal5, some members Eore a sheathed hunting 5nifeIcitation neededJ that, although in plain vieE, Eas carried legall?. Each of them Eas also identifiable b? the 3 on his or her forehead.I0J/,,# Some 2amil? members attempted to dissuade Eitnesses from testif?ing. 4rosecution Eitnesses 4aul >at5ins and &uan 2l?nn Eere both threatenedHI0J/0<-, ,,0G,,C >at5ins Eas badl? burned in a suspicious fire in his van.I0J/0<- 2ormer 2amil? member 8arbara Fo?t, Eho had overheard Susan *t5ins describing the Tate murders to 2amil? member %uth *nn 'oorehouse, agreed to accompan? the latter to FaEaii. There, 'oorehouse allegedl? gave her a hamburger spi5ed Eith several doses

of .S$. 2ound spraEled on a Fonolulu curb in a drugged semi-stupor, Fo?t Eas ta5en to the hospital, Ehere she did her best to identif? herself as a Eitness in the Tate-.a8ianca murder trial. 8efore the incident, Fo?t had been a reluctant EitnessH after the attempt to silence her, her reticence disappeared.I0J/,)<G,C-, ,(" On *ugust ), despite precautions ta5en b? the court, 'anson flashed the jur? a Los #ngeles Times front page Ehose headline Eas 9'anson 6uilt?, 7ixon $eclares9. This Eas a reference to a statement made the previous da? Ehen :.S. 4resident %ichard 7ixon had decried Ehat he saE as the mediaBs glamorization of 'anson. ;oir dired b? &udge Older, the jurors contended that the headline had not influenced them. The next da?, the female defendants stood up and said in unison that, in light of 7ixonBs remar5, there Eas no point in going on Eith the trial.I0J/,0,G0,< On October C, 'anson Eas denied the courtBs permission to Kuestion a prosecution Eitness Ehom the defense attorne?s had declined to cross-examine. .eaping over the defense table, 'anson attempted to attac5 the judge. >restled to the ground b? bailiffs, he Eas removed from the courtroom Eith the female defendants, Eho had subseKuentl? risen and begun chanting in .atin. I0J/,(#G,11 Thereafter, Older allegedl? began Eearing a revolver under his robes.I0J/,(#G,11 Defense rests On 7ovember "(, the prosecution rested its case. Three da?s later, after arguing standard dismissal motions, the defense stunned the court b? resting as Eell, Eithout calling a single Eitness. Shouting their disapproval, *t5ins, MrenEin5el, and ;an Fouten demanded their right to testif?.I0J/,<0G,<< +n chambers, the EomenBs laE?ers told the judge their clients Eanted to testif? that the? had planned and committed the crimes and that 'anson had not been involved.I0J/,<0G,<< 8? resting their case, the defense laE?ers had tried to stop thisH ;an FoutenBs attorne?, %onald Fughes, vehementl? stated that he Eould not 9push a client out the EindoE9. +n the prosecutorBs vieE, it Eas 'anson Eho Eas advising the Eomen to testif? in this Ea? as a means of saving himself.I0J/,<0G ,<< Spea5ing about the trial in a "#<1 documentar?, MrenEin5el said, 9The entire proceedings Eere scripted G b? !harlie.9I(#J The next da?, 'anson testified. .est 'ansonBs address violate the !alifornia Supreme !ourtBs decision in %eo-le v #randa b? ma5ing statements implicating his co-defendants, the jur? Eas removed from the courtroom.I0J/",) Spea5ing for more than an hour, 'anson said, among other things, that 9the music is telling the ?outh to rise up against the establishment.9 Fe said, 9>h? blame it on me? + didnBt Erite the music.9 9To be honest Eith ?ou,9 'anson also stated, 9+ donBt recall ever sa?ing B6et a 5nife and a change of clothes and go do Ehat Tex sa?s.B 9I0J/,<<G,#0 *s the bod? of the trial concluded and Eith the closing arguments impending, attorne? %onald Fughes disappeared during a Eee5end trip.I0J/,#,G,#< >hen 'axEell Meith Eas appointed to represent ;an Fouten in FughesB absence, a dela? of more than tEo Eee5s Eas reKuired to permit Meith to familiarize himself Eith the voluminous trial transcripts.I0J/,#,G,#< 7o sooner had the trial resumed, just before !hristmas, than disruptions of the prosecutionBs closing argument b? the defendants led Older to ban the four defendants from the courtroom for the remainder of the guilt phase. This ma? be because the defendants Eere acting in collusion Eith each other and Eere simpl? putting on a performance, Ehich Older said Eas becoming obvious.I0J/,##G)-1 Conviction and penalt$ phase On &anuar? 0C, "#1", guilt? verdicts Eere returned against the four defendants on each of the 01 separate counts against them.I0J/)""G)"# 7ot far into the trialBs penalt? phase, the jurors saE, at last, the defense that 'ansonDin the prosecutionBs vieEDhad planned to present.I0J/)CC *t5ins, MrenEin5el, and ;an Fouten testified the murders had been conceived as 9cop?cat9 versions of the Finman murder, for Ehich *t5ins noE too5 credit. The 5illings, the? said, Eere intended to draE suspicion aEa? from 8obb? 8eausoleil, b? resembling the crime for Ehich he had been jailed. This

plan had supposedl? been the Eor5 of, and carried out under the guidance of, not 'anson, but someone allegedl? in love Eith 8eausoleilD.inda Masabian.I0J/)0)G),, *mong the narrativeBs Eea5 points Eas the inabilit? of *t5ins to explain Eh?, as she Eas maintaining, she had Eritten 9political pigg?9 at the Finman house in the first place.I0J/)0)G),,, )C-G)C1 'idEa? through the penalt? phase, 'anson shaved his head and trimmed his beard to a for5H he told the press, 9+ am the $evil, and the $evil alEa?s has a bald head.9I0J/),# +n Ehat the prosecution regarded as belated recognition on their part that imitation of 'anson onl? proved his domination, the female defendants refrained from shaving their heads until the jurors retired to Eeigh the stateBs reKuest for the death penalt?.I0J/),#, )CC The effort to exonerate 'anson via the 9cop?cat9 scenario failed. On 'arch 0#, "#1", the jur? returned verdicts of death against all four defendants on all counts.I0J/)C-G)C1 On *pril "#, "#1", &udge Older sentenced the four to death.I0J/)C<G)C#

,ftermath
On the da? the verdicts recommending the death penalt? Eere returned, neEs came that the badl? decomposed bod? of %onald Fughes had been found Eedged betEeen tEo boulders in ;entura !ount?.I0J/)C1 +t Eas rumored, although never proven, that Fughes Eas murdered b? the 2amil?, possibl? because he had stood up to 'anson and refused to alloE ;an Fouten to ta5e the stand and absolve 'anson of the crimes.I0J/,<1, ,#), )<" Though he might have perished in flooding, I0J/,#,G,#), )<"I1-J 2amil? member Sandra 6ood stated that Fughes Eas 9the first of the retaliation murders9.I0J/)<"G)<0, (0C On 7ovember <, "#10, the bod? of 0(-?ear-old ;ietnam 'arine combat veteran &ames .. T. >illett Eas found b? a hi5er near 6uerneville, !alifornia.I1"J 'onths earlier, he had been forced to dig his oEn grave, and then Eas shot and poorl? buriedH his bod? Eas found Eith the one hand protruding from the grave and the head and other hand missing @li5el? because of scavenging animalsA. Fis station Eagon Eas found outside a house in Stoc5ton Ehere several 'anson folloEers Eere living, including 4riscilla !ooper, .?nette 9SKuea5?9 2romme, and 7anc? 4itman. 4olice forced their Ea? into the house and arrested several of the people there, along Eith 2romme Eho called the house after the? had arrived. The bod? of &ames >illettBs "#-?ear-old Eife .auren 9%eni9 !havelleI10J Olmstead >illett Eas found buried in the basement.I1"J She had been 5illed ver? recentl? b? a gunshot to the head, in Ehat the 2amil? members initiall? claimed Eas an accident. +t Eas later suggested that she Eas 5illed out of fear that she Eould reveal Eho 5illed her husband, as the discover? of his bod? had become prominent neEs. The >illettsB infant daughter Eas found alive in the house. 'ichael 'onfort pled guilt? to murdering %eni >illett, and 4riscilla !ooper, &ames !raig, and 7anc? 4itman pled guilt? as accessories after the fact. 'onfort and >illiam 6oucher later pled guilt? to the murder of &ames >illett, and &ames !raig pled guilt? as an accessor? after the fact. The group had been living in the house Eith the >illetts Ehile committing various robberies. Shortl? after 5illing >illett, 'onfort had used >illettBs identification papers to pose as >illett after being arrested in an armed robber? of a liKuor store.I10J 7eEs reports suggested that &ames >illett Eas not involved in the robberiesI1,J and Eanted to move aEa?, and Eas 5illed out of fear that he Eould tal5 to police. *fter leaving the 'arines folloEing tEo tours in ;ietnam, >illett had been an ES. teacher for immigrant children. 4rotracted proceedings to extradite >atson from his native Texas,I0J/0-)G0"-, ,C(G,("I1)J Ehere he had resettled a month before his arrest,I1CJ resulted in his being tried separatel?. The trial commenced in *ugust "#1"H b? October, he, too, had been found guilt? on seven counts of murder and one of conspirac?. :nli5e the others, >atson had presented a ps?chiatric defenseH prosecutor ;incent 8ugliosi made short Eor5 of >atsonBs insanit? claims. .i5e his co-conspirators, >atson Eas sentenced to death.I0J/)(,G)(< +n 2ebruar? "#10, the death sentences of all five parties Eere automaticall? reduced to life in prison

b? California v #nderson, )#, 4.0d <<-, ( !al. ,d (0< @!al. "#10A, in Ehich the !alifornia Supreme !ourt abolished the death penalt? in that state.I0J/)<<G)#" *fter his return to prison, 'ansonBs rhetoric and hippie speeches Eere not accepted.I$ho<J Though he eventuall? found temporar? acceptance from the *r?an 8rotherhood, his role Eas submissive to a sexuall? aggressive member of the group, at San uentin.I1(J +n a "#1" trial that too5 place after his TateN.a8ianca convictions, 'anson Eas found guilt? of the murders of 6ar? Finman and $onald 9Short?9 Shea and Eas given a life sentence. Shea Eas a Spahn %anch stuntman and horse Erangler Eho had been 5illed approximatel? "- da?s after the *ugust "(, "#(#, sheriffBs raid on the ranch. 'anson, Eho suspected that Shea helped set up the raid, had apparentl? believed Shea Eas tr?ing to get Spahn to run the 2amil? off the ranch. 'anson ma? have considered it a 9sin9 that the Ehite Shea had married a blac5 EomanH and there Eas the possibilit? that Shea 5neE about the TateN.a8ianca 5illings.I0J/##G"",I11J +n separate trials, 2amil? members 8ruce $avis and Steve 9!lem9 6rogan Eere also found guilt? of SheaBs murder. I0J/##G"",, )(,G)(<I1<J 8efore the conclusion of 'ansonBs TateN.a8ianca trial, a reporter for the Los #ngeles Times trac5ed doEn 'ansonBs mother, remarried and living in the 4acific 7orthEest. The former Mathleen 'addox claimed that, in childhood, her son had suffered no neglectH he had even been 9pampered b? all the Eomen Eho surrounded him.9I#J

Remaining in vie-

The 2olsom State 4rison, one of the facilities Ehere 'anson has been held On September C, "#1C, the 2amil? roc5eted bac5 to national attention Ehen SKuea5? 2romme attempted to assassinate :S 4resident 6erald 2ord.I0J/C-0GC"" The attempt too5 place in Sacramento, to Ehich she and 'anson folloEer Sandra 6ood had moved to be near 'anson Ehile he Eas incarcerated at 2olsom State 4rison. * subseKuent search of the apartment shared b? 2romme, 6ood, and a 2amil? recruit turned up evidence that, coupled Eith later actions on the part of 6ood, resulted in 6oodBs conviction for conspiring to send threatening communications through the :nited States mail and transmitting death threats b? Ea? of interstate commerce. @The threats that Eere involved Eere against corporate executives and :S government officials and had to do Eith supposed environmental dereliction on their part.AI0J/C-0GC"" 2romme Eas sentenced to "C ?ears to life, becoming the first person sentenced under :nited States !ode Title "<, chapter <) @"#(CA,I1#J Ehich made it a 2ederal crime to attempt to assassinate the 4resident of the :nited States. +n "#11, authorities learned the precise location of the remains of Short? Shea and that, contrar? to 2amil? claims, Shea had not been dismembered and buried in several places. !ontacting the prosecutor in his case, Steve 6rogan told him SheaBs corpse had been buried in one pieceH he dreE a map that pinpointed the location of the bod?, Ehich Eas recovered. Of those convicted of 'ansonordered murders, 6rogan Eould become, in "#<C, the firstDand, as of 0-",, the onl?Dto be paroled.I0J/C-# +n the "#<-s, 'anson gave four notable intervieEs. The first, recorded at !alifornia 'edical

2acilit? and aired &une ",, "#<", Eas b? Tom Sn?der for 78!Bs The Tomorro$ Sho$. The second, recorded at San uentin 4rison and aired 'arch 1, "#<(, Eas b? !harlie %ose for CBS Ce$s Cight$atchH it Eon the national neEs Emm? *Eard for 98est +ntervieE9 in "#<1.I<-J The last, Eith 6eraldo %ivera in "#<<, Eas part of that journalistBs prime-time special on Satanism.I<"J *t least as earl? as the Sn?der intervieE, 'ansonBs forehead bore a sEasti5a, in the spot Ehere the 3 carved during his trial had been.I<0J +n "#<#, 7i5olas Schrec5 conducted an intervieE of 'anson cutting the intervieE up for material in his documentar? Charles Manson Su-erstar. This Eas the first, and is considered one of the most authoritative and comprehensive, documentaries on the subject. Schrec5 concluded that the stor? behind the murders Eas probabl? false, and that an admitted plan, b? several of the Eomen at the ranch intervieEed after the trial Eas concluded, involved 5illing the people at the Tate home in order to free 8obb? 8eausoleil as per an attempt to cop?cat the murder of 6ar? Finman. *ccording to this, the use of Eritings of blood on the Ealls at the Tate and .abianca residences Eas merel? a plo? to ma5e it seem that the murderer of Finman Eas still free, and that 8eausoleil Eas not guilt?. Me? in his refutation of the h?pothesis Eas the fact that, Ehile the prosecution attempted to shoE 'anson ordered the 5illings because he Eas upset over Terr? 'elcher @and believed 'elcher to still be at that addressA, this could certainl? not have been the case, as 'anson attempted on several occasions to contact 'elcher at his neE address, shoEing he 5neE ver? Eell 'elcher no longer lived at the Tate home. Schrec5 also concluded that 'anson Eas not insane, but merel? acting that Ea? out of frustration.I<,JI<)J On September 0C, "#<), Ehile imprisoned at the !alifornia 'edical 2acilit? at ;acaville, 'anson Eas severel? burned b? a felloE inmate Eho poured paint thinner on him and set him alight. The other prisoner, &an Folmstrom, explained that 'anson had objected to his Fare Mrishna chants and had verball? threatened him. $espite suffering second- and third-degree burns over 0- percent of his bod?, 'anson recovered from his injuries.I0J/)#1 +n $ecember "#<1, 2romme, serving a life sentence for the assassination attempt, escaped briefl? from *lderson 2ederal 4rison !amp in >est ;irginia. She Eas tr?ing to reach 'anson, Eho she had heard had testicular cancerH she Eas apprehended Eithin da?s.I0J/C-0GC"" She Eas released on parole from 2ederal 'edical !enter, !arsEell on *ugust "), 0--#.I<CJ

#ater events
+n a "##) conversation Eith 'anson prosecutor ;incent 8ugliosi, !atherine Share, a one-time 'anson-folloEer, stated that her testimon? in the penalt? phase of 'ansonBs trial had been a fabrication intended to save 'anson from the gas chamber and had been given on 'ansonBs explicit direction.I0J/C-0GC"" ShareBs testimon? had introduced the cop?cat-motive stor?, Ehich the testimon? of the three female defendants echoed and according to Ehich the Tate-.a8ianca murders had been .inda MasabianBs idea.I0J/)0)G),, +n a "##1 segment of the tabloid television program 4ard Co-y, Share implied that her testimon? had been given under a 'anson threat of ph?sical harm.I<(J +n *ugust "#1", after 'ansonBs trial and sentencing, Share had participated in a violent !alifornia retail store robber?, the object of Ehich Eas the acKuisition of Eeapons to help free 'anson.I0J/)(,G)(< +n &anuar? "##(, a 'anson Eebsite Eas established b? latter-da? 'anson folloEer 6eorge Stimson, Eho Eas helped b? Sandra 6ood. 6ood had been released from prison in "#<C, after serving "?ears of her "C-?ear sentence for the death threats.I0J/C-0GC""I<1J The 'anson Eebsite, *T>*.com, Eas discontinued in 0--", but as of 0-"", it Eas running again, but currentl? the domain is up for sale and the Eebsite is discontinued.I<<J +n &une "##1, 'anson Eas found to have been traffic5ing in drugs b? a prison disciplinar? committee.I<#J That *ugust, he Eas moved from !orcoran State 4rison to 4elican 8a? State 4rison. I<#J

+n a "##<G## intervieE in Seconds magazine, 8obb? 8eausoleil rejected the vieE that 'anson ordered him to 5ill 6ar? Finman.IC"J Fe stated 'anson did come to FinmanBs house and slash Finman Eith a sEord. +n a "#<" intervieE Eith >ui magazine, he denied this. 8eausoleil stated that Ehen he read about the Tate murders in the neEspaper, 9+ EasnBt even sure at that point G reall?, + had no idea Eho had done it until 'ansonBs group Eere actuall? arrested for it. +t had onl? crossed m? mind and + had a premonition, perhaps. There Eas some little tic5le in m? mind that the 5illings might be connected Eith them ...9 +n the >ui magazine intervieE, he had stated, 9>hen Ithe Tate.a8ianca murdersJ happened, + 5neE Eho had done it. + Eas fairl? certain.9IC-J >illiam 6arretson, once the ?oung careta5er at !ielo $rive, indicated in a program broadcast in &ul? "### on ,I, that he had, in fact, seen and heard a portion of the Tate murders from his location in the propert?Bs guest house. This comported Eith the unofficial results of the pol?graph examination that had been given to 6arretson on *ugust "-, "#(#, and that had effectivel? eliminated him as a suspect.I#-J The .*4$ officer Eho conducted the examination had concluded 6arretson Eas 9clean9 on participation in the crimes but 9mudd?9 as to his having heard an?thing. I0J/0<G,< 6arretson did not explain Eh? he had Eithheld his 5noEledge of the events.IC#J +t Eas announced in earl? 0--< that Susan *t5ins Eas suffering from brain cancer.I#"J *n application for compassionate release, based on her health status, Eas denied in &ul? 0--<,I#"J and she Eas denied parole for the "<th and final time on September 0, 0--#.I#0J *t5ins died of natural causes 00 da?s later, on September 0), 0--#, at the !entral !alifornia >omenBs facilit? in !hoEchilla.I#,JI#)J

Recent developments

'anson at age 1) @'arch 0--#A On September C, 0--1, 'S78! aired The Mind of Manson, a complete version of a "#<1 intervieE at !aliforniaBs San uentin State 4rison. The footage of the 9unshac5led, unapologetic, and unrul?9 'anson had been considered 9so unbelievable9 that onl? seven minutes of it had originall? been broadcast on The Today Sho$, for Ehich it had been recorded.I#CJ +n a &anuar? 0--< segment of the $iscover? !hannelBs Most ,vil, 8arbara Fo?t said that the impression that she had accompanied %uth *nn 'oorehouse to FaEaii just to avoid testif?ing at 'ansonBs trial Eas erroneous. Fo?t said she had cooperated Eith the 2amil? because she Eas 9tr?ing to 5eep them from 5illing m? famil?.9 She stated that, at the time of the trial, she Eas 9constantl? being threatened/ BLour famil?Bs gonna die. IThe murdersJ could be repeated at ?our house.B9I#(J On 'arch "C, 0--<, the *ssociated 4ress reported that forensic investigators had conducted a search for human remains at 8ar5er %anch the previous month. 2olloEing up on longstanding rumors that the 2amil? had 5illed hitchhi5ers and runaEa?s Eho had come into its orbit during its time at 8ar5er, the investigators identified 9tEo li5el? clandestine grave sites ... and one additional site that merits further investigation.9I#1J Though the? recommended digging, !77 reported on 'arch 0< that the +n?o !ount? sheriff, Eho Kuestioned the methods the? emplo?ed Eith search

dogs, had ordered additional tests before an? excavation.I#<J On 'a? #, after a dela? caused b? damage to test eKuipment,I##J the sheriff announced that test results had been inconclusive and that 9explorator? excavation9 Eould begin on 'a? 0-.I"--J +n the meantime, Tex >atson had commented publicl? that 9no one Eas 5illed9 at the desert camp during the month-and-a-half he Eas there, after the Tate-.a8ianca murders.I"-"JI"-0J On 'a? 0", after tEo da?s of Eor5, the sheriff brought the search to an endH four potential gravesites had been dug up and had been found to hold no human remains.I"-,JI"-)J +n 'arch 0--#, a photograph ta5en of a 1)-?ear old 'anson, shoEing a receding hairline, grizzled gra? beard and hair and the sEasti5a tattoo still prominent on his forehead, Eas released to the public b? !alifornia corrections officials.I"-CJ +n September 0--#, The Fistor? !hannel broadcast a docudrama covering the 2amil?Bs activities and the murders as part of its coverage on the )-th anniversar? of the 5illings.I"-(J The program included an in-depth intervieE Eith .inda Masabian, Eho spo5e publicl? for the first time since a "#<# appearance on # Current #ffair, an *merican television neEs magazine.I"-(J *lso included in the Fistor? !hannel program Eere intervieEs Eith ;incent 8ugliosi, !atherine Share, and $ebra Tate, sister of Sharon.I"-1J *s the )-th anniversar? of the Tate-.a8ianca murders approached, in &ul? 0--#, Los #ngeles magazine published an 9oral histor?9, in Ehich former 2amil? members, laE-enforcement officers, and others involved Eith 'anson, the arrests, and the trials offered their recollections ofDand observations onDthe events that made 'anson notorious. +n the article, &uan 2l?nn, a Spahn %anch Eor5er Eho had become associated Eith 'anson and the 2amil?, said, 9!harles 'anson got aEa? Eith ever?thing. 4eople Eill sa?, BFeBs in jail.B 8ut !harlie is exactl? Ehere he Eants to be.9I"-<J +n 7ovember 0--#, a .os *ngeles $& and songEriter named 'attheE %oberts released correspondence and other evidence indicating he had been biologicall? fathered b? 'anson. %obertsB biological mother claims to have been a member of the 'anson 2amil? Eho left in the summer of "#(1 after being raped b? 'ansonH the mother returned to her parentsB home to complete the pregnanc?, gave birth on 'arch 00, "#(<, and subseKuentl? gave up %oberts for adoption. 'anson himself has stated that he 9could9 be the father, ac5noEledging the biological mother and a sexual relationship Eith her during "#(1H this Eas nearl? tEo ?ears before the 2amil? began its murderous phase.I"-#JI""-J +n 0-"-, the Los #ngeles Times reported that 'anson Eas caught Eith a cell phone in 0--#, and had contacted people in !alifornia, 7eE &erse?, 2lorida and 8ritish !olumbia. * spo5esperson for the !alifornia $epartment of !orrections stated that it Eas not 5noEn if 'anson had used the phone for criminal purposes.I"""J On October ), 0-"0, 8ruce $avis, Eho had been convicted of the murder of Short? Shea and the attempted robber? b? 'anson 2amil? members of a FaEthorne gun shop in "#1", Eas recommended for parole b? the !alifornia $epartment of !orrections at his 01th parole hearing. +n 0-"-, 6overnor *rnold SchEarzenegger had reversed the boardBs previous finding in favor of $avis, den?ing him parole for tEo more ?ears.I""0J On 'arch ", 0-",, 6overnor &err? 8roEn also denied parole for $avis.I"",J

!arole hearings

'anson at age 1( in &une 0-"" * footnote to the conclusion of California v #nderson, the "#10 decision that neutralized !aliforniaBs then-current death sentences, stated, 9I*Jn? prisoner noE under a sentence of death ... ma? file a petition for Erit of habeas corpus in the superior court inviting that court to modif? its judgment to provide for the appropriate alternative punishment of life imprisonment or life imprisonment Eithout possibilit? of parole specified b? statute for the crime for Ehich he Eas sentenced to death.9I"")J This made 'anson eligible to appl? for parole after seven ?earsB incarceration.I0J/)<< Fis first parole hearing too5 place on 7ovember "(, "#1<, at the !alifornia 'edical 2acilt? in ;acaville.I0J/)#<I""CJ 'anson Eas denied parole for the "0th time on *pril "", 0-"0. 'anson did not attend the hearing Ehere prison officials argued that 'anson had a histor? of controlling behavior and mental health issues including schizophrenia and paranoid delusional disorderI""(J and Eas too great a danger to be released.I""1J +t Eas determined that 'anson Eould not be reconsidered for parole for another "C ?ears,I""<J at Ehich time he Eould be #0 ?ears old. Fis !alifornia $epartment of !orrections and %ehabilitation inmate number at !orcoran State 4rison is 8,,#0-.I""#JI"0-J

Manson and culture


Recordings
'ain article/ !harles 'anson discograph? On 'arch (, "#1-, the da? the court vacated 'ansonBs status as his oEn attorne?,I0J/0C<G0(# L1,, an album of 'anson music, Eas released.I"0"JI"00JI"0,J This included 9!ease to Exist,9 a 'anson composition the 8each 8o?s had recorded Eith modified l?rics and the title 97ever .earn 7ot to .ove9.I"0)JI"0CJ Over the next couple of months, onl? about ,-- of the albumBs 0,--- copies sold. I"0(J Since that time, there have been several releases of 'anson recordingsDboth musical and spo5en. I"01J The 3amily Jams includes tEo compact discs of 'ansonBs songs recorded b? the 2amil? in "#1-, after 'anson and the others had been arrested. 6uitar and lead vocals are supplied b? Steve 6roganHI0J/"0CG"01 additional vocals are supplied b? .?nette 2romme, Sandra 6ood, !atherine Share, and others.I"01JI"0<J >ne Mind, an album of music, poetr?, and spo5en Eord, neE at the time of its release, in *pril 0--C,I"01J Eas put out under a !reative !ommons license.I"0#JI",-J

*merican roc5 band 6uns 7B %oses recorded 'ansonBs 9.oo5 at Lour 6ame, 6irl9, included as an unlisted ",th trac5 on their "##, album !The S-aghetti 1ncident<!I0J/)<<G)#"I","JI",0J 9'? 'on5e?,9 Ehich appears on %ortrait of an #merican 3amily b? 'aril?n 'anson @no relation, as is explained beloEA, includes the l?rics 9+ had a little mon5e? N + sent him to the countr? and + fed him on gingerbread N *long came a choo-choo N Mnoc5ed m? mon5e? cuc5oo N *nd noE m? mon5e?Bs dead.9I",,J These l?rics are from 'ansonBs 9'echanical 'an,9I",)J Ehich is heard on L1,. !rispin 6lover covered 97ever Sa? B7everB To *lEa?s9 on his album The Big %roblem J The Solution The Solution K Let 1t Be released in "#<#. Several of 'ansonBs songs, including 9+Bm Scratching 4eace S?mbols on Lour Tombstone9 @a.5.a. 92irst The? 'ade 'e Sleep in the !loset9A, 96arbage $ump9, and 9+ !anBt %emember >hen9, are featured in the soundtrac5 of the "#1( T;-movie 4elter S&elter, Ehere the? are performed b? Steve %ailsbac5, Eho portra?s 'anson.I",CJ *ccording to a popular urban legend, 'anson unsuccessfull? auditioned for the 'on5ees in late "#(CH this is refuted b? the fact that 'anson Eas still incarcerated at 'c7eil +sland at that time. I",(J

Cultural reverberation
>ithin months of the Tate-.a8ianca arrests, 'anson Eas embraced b? underground neEspapers of the "#(-s counterculture from Ehich the 2amil? had emerged.I0J/00"G000I"0(J >hen a Rolling Stone Eriter visited the .os *ngeles $istrict *ttorne?Bs office for a &une "#1- cover stor?,I",1J he Eas shoc5ed b? a photograph of the blood? 9Fealter IsicJ S5elter9 that Eould bind 'anson to popular culture.I",<J 'anson has been a presence in fashion,I",#JI")-J graphics,I")"JI")0J music,I"),J and movies, as Eell as on television and the stage. +n an afterEord composed for the "##) edition of the non-fiction 4elter S&elter, prosecutor ;incent 8ugliosi Kuoted a 88! emplo?eeBs assertion that a 9neo-'anson cult9 existing then in Europe Eas represented b?, among other things, approximatel? 1- roc5 bands pla?ing songs b? 'anson and 9songs in support of him.9I0J/)<<G)#" &ust one specimen of popular music Eith 'anson references is *l5aline TrioBs 9Sadie,9 Ehose l?rics include the phrases 9Sadie 6,9 9's. Susan *,9 and 9!harlieBs bro5en .00.9I"))J 9Sadie 'ae 6lutz9 Eas the name b? Ehich Susan *t5ins Eas 5noEn Eithin the 2amil?HI0J/1CG11I)<J and as noted earlier, the revolver grip that shattered Ehen Tex >atson used it to bludgeon >ojciech 2r?5oEs5i Eas a tEent?-tEo caliber.IC,J 9SadieBs9 l?rics are folloEed b? a spo5en passage derived from *t5insBs testimon? in the penalt? phase of the trial of 'anson and the Eomen.I0J/)0<G)0#I")CJ 'anson has even influenced the names of musical performers such as Spahn %anch, Masabian, and 'aril?n 'anson, the last a stage name assembled from 9!harles 'anson9 and 9'aril?n 'onroe9. I")(J The stor? of the 2amil?Bs activities inspired &ohn 'oranBs opera The Manson 3amily and Stephen SondheimBs musical #ssassins, the latter of Ehich has .?nette 2romme as a character.I")1J I")<J The tale has been the subject of several movies, including tEo television dramatizations of 4elter S&elter.I")#JI"C-J +n the South 4ar5 episode Merry Christmas Charlie Manson, 'anson is a comic character Ehose inmate number is -(((-, an apparent reference to (((, the 8iblical 9number of the beast.9I"C"JI"C0J The 0--0 novel The Dead Circus b? &ohn Ma?e includes the activities of the 'anson 2amil? as a major plot point.I"C,J

Documentaries
Manson, directed b? %obert Fendric5son and .aurence 'erric5. "#1,.I"C)J Charles Manson Su-erstar, directed b? 7i5olas Schrec5. "#<#.I"CCJ

1ee also
$oomsda? cult Felter S5elter @'anson scenarioA [ The template beloE @%ortal barA is being considered for merging. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus.\ California portal Biograph$ portal Crime portal

References
otes
". 2 .inder, $oug. The Charles Manson ETateBLaBianca MurderF Trial. :'M! .aE. 0--0. %etrieved *pril 1, 0--1. 0. R a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at
au av aw ax ay a ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by b ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy c da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy d ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey e fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy f ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl

8ugliosi, ;incent Eith 6entr?, !urt. 4elter S&elter L The True Story of the Manson Murders A7th #nniversary ,dition, >.>. 7orton S !ompan?, "##). +S87 --,#,--<1---3. ,. 2 Smith, $avid E. and %ose, *lan &. @"#1-A. 9* !ase Stud? of the !harles 'anson 6roup 'arriage !ommune9. Journal of the #merican Society of %sychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine 9: @,A/ ##G"-(. 4'+$ )#0))-#. *rchived from the original on 7ovember 01, 0--1. ). 2 4rosecutionBs closing argument 4age " of multi-page transcript, 0violent.com. %etrieved *pril "(, 0--1. C. 2 4rosecutionBs closing argument 4age ,1 of multi-page transcript, 0violent.com. %etrieved 'arch 0<, 0--#. (. 2 Fistor? of !aliforniaBs $eath 4enalt? deathpenalt?.org. %etrieved 'arch 0<, 0--#. 1. 2 9BB+nternet *ccurac? 4roject/ !harles 'ansonBB, a Eebsited dedicated to providing accurate information on the Eeb9. *ccurac?project.org. %etrieved 0-"0-"--0<. <. 2 Emmons, 7uel. Manson in 4is >$n .ords. 6rove 4ress, 7eE Lor5H "#<<. +S87 --<-0",-0)--. 4age 0<. @+f lin5 does not go directl? to page 0<, scroll to itH 9no name 'addox9 is highlighted.A #. R a b c Smith, $ave. Mother Tells Life of Manson as Boy "#1" article. %etrieved &une C, 0--1. "-.2 %eitEiesner, >illiam *ddams. %rovisional ancestry of Charles Manson.. %etrieved *pril 0(, 0--1. "".R a b 4hotocop? of 'anson birth certificate 'anson$irect.com. %etrieved *pril 0(, 0--1. "0.2 9BB+nternet *ccurac? 4roject/ !harles 'ansonBB9. *ccurac?project.org. %etrieved 0-"0-"-0<. ",.2 Emmons, 7uel. Manson in 4is >$n .ords. 6rove 4ress, 7eE Lor5H "#<<. +S87 --<-0",-0)--. 4ages 0<G0#. ").R a b c d e f g Emmons, 7uel. Manson in 4is >$n .ords. 6rove 4ress, 7eE Lor5H "#<<. +S87 --<-0"-,-0)--

"C.2 9Short 8its 0 G !harles 'anson and the 8each 8o?s9. Lost in the 'rooves. %etrieved 0 &ul? 0-"0. "(.2 %ule, *nn @*ugust "<, 0-",A. 9There >ill 8e 8lood9. The Ce$ =or& Times Boo& Revie$ @*ugust "<, 0-",A/ "). |accessdate= reKuires |url= @helpA "1.2 "#<" Tom Sn?der intervieE Eith !harles 'anson. Transcribed b? *aron 8redlau. !harlie'anson.com. %etrieved *pril 0(, 0--1. "<.2 Marpis, *lvin, Eith %obert .ivese?. >n the Roc&" T$entyBfive =ears at #lcatra5, "#<"#.2 8ugliosi, ;incent/ 4elter S&elter, "##). pg. C", 0-.2 8ugliosi, ;incent/ 4elter S&elter, "#1). pg. 2v. 0".2 Sanders, Ed @0--0A. The 3amily. 7eE Lor5/ ThunderBs 'outh 4ress. +S87 "-C(-0C-,#(1. 4ages ",G0-. 00.2 9The Six $egrees of Felter S5elter9, 0--# $ocumentar? 0,.R a b Sanders 0--0, p. ,). 0).R a b >at5ins, 4aul Eith Soledad, 6uillermo @"#1#A. My Life $ith Charles Manson, 8antam. +S87 --CC,-"01<<-<. !hapter ). 0C.R a b c d >atson, !harles as told to %a? Foe5stra. D. 9>ill Lou $ie for 'e?9. aboundinglove org. %etrieved , 'a? 0--1. 0(.R a b 9>atson, !h. (9. *boundinglove.org. %etrieved 7ovember 0<, 0-"-. 01.R a b 9>atson, !h. 19. *boundinglove.org. %etrieved 7ovember 0<, 0-"-. 0<.2 >at5ins, pages ,) S )-. 0#.2 9>atson, !h. )9. *boundinglove.org. %etrieved 7ovember 0<, 0-"-. ,-.R a b c >at5ins, !h. "-. ,".2 >at5ins, !h. "" ,0.2 8. 9'anson9. aboundinglove org @'ansonBs %ight-Fand 'an Spea5s Out]A. +S87 -#(1<C"#-"-0. %etrieved 0" 7ovember 0--1. ,,.R a b c d >at5ins, !h. "0 ,).2 9.arr? Ming +ntervieE Eith 4aul >at5ins9. !77 .arr? Ming .ive" 1ntervie$ $ith %aul .at&ins. 'ansonBs obsession Eith the 8eatles is discussed at the intervieEBs ver? end. ,C.2 Sanders 0--0, "". ,(.R a b c 9>atson, !h. ""9. *boundinglove.org. %etrieved 7ovember 0<, 0-"-. ,1.R a b The 1nfluence of the Beatles on Charles Manson. :'M! .aE. %etrieved *pril 1, 0--(. ,<.2 Sanders 0--0, ##G"--. ,#.2 >at5ins, p. ",1. )-.R a b >at5ins, !h. ", )".R a b >atson, !h. "0. )0.2 Testimon? of 4aul >at5ins in the !harles 'anson Trial :'M! .aE. %etrieved *pril 1, 0--1. ),.2 Sanders 0--0, ",,G,(. )).2 >at5ins, !h. "C )C.R a b c d e 9>atson, !h. ",9. *boundinglove.org. *ugust <, "#(#. %etrieved 7ovember 0<, 0-"-. )(.2 Sanders 0--0, ")1G)#. )1.2 Sanders 0--0, "C". )<.R a b c *t5ins, Susan, Eith Slosser, 8ob @"#11A. Child of Satan; Child of 'od. 4lainfield, 7&/ .ogos +nternational. pp. #)G"0-. +S87 --<<01--01(-#. )#.2 Sanders 0--0, page "<). C-.R a b 98eausoleil >ui intervieE9. charliemanson com.Idead lin&J C".R a b 98eausoleil Seconds intervieEs9. beausoleil net. C0.2 4rosecutionBs closing argument 4age ( of multi-page transcript, 0violent.com. C,.R a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p 9>atson, !h. ")9. *boundinglove.org. %etrieved 7ovember 0<,

0-"-. C).R a b 9>atson, !h. "#9. *boundinglove.org. %etrieved 7ovember 0<, 0-"-. CC.R a b c d e f g h 9>atson, !h. "C9. *boundinglove.org. %etrieved 7ovember 0<, 0-"-. C(.2 9*t5inson grand jur? testimon?9. #fternoon grandBGury testimony of Susan #t&ins; Los #ngeles; California; December 7; 8D)D. The statement comes in a moment of confusion on the part of *t5insH itBs possible sheBs sa?ing she believes MrenEin5el is the person Eho told her about the carving of 9>ar9. C1.2 9Susan *t5insB Stor? of 0 7ights of 'urder9. Los #ngeles Times. Sunda?, $ecember "), "#(#. C<.2 Sanders 0--0, 0),G)). C#.R a b Transcript and s?nopsis of >illiam 6arretson comments. 9The .ast $a?s of Sharon Tate,9 The ,I True 4olly$ood Story. !harlie'anson.com. %etrieved &une "-, 0--1. (-.2 >at5ins, !h. 0". (".2 9>atson, !h. 09. *boundinglove.org. %etrieved 7ovember 0<, 0-"-. (0.2 Sanders 0--0, 0<0G<,. (,.2 >at5ins, !h. 00 ().2 %eport on Kuestioning of Matherine .utesinger and Susan *t5ins October ",, "#(#, b? .os *ngeles SheriffBs officers 4aul >hitele? and !harles 6uenther. (C.2 *t5ins "#11, ")". ((.2 Sanders 0--0, ,<<. (1.2 4rosecutionBs closing argument 4age 0# of multi-page transcript, 0violent.com. (<.R a b 4rosecutionBs closing argument 4ages 00G0, of multi-page transcript, 0violent.com. (#.2 Biogra-hy G 9!harles 'anson.9 *SE 7etEor5. 1-.2 Sanders 0--0, ),(G,<. 1".R a b 'anson 2amil? Suspect in Milling, The Times Standard, 7ovember "), "#10. 10.R a b 9TEo men and three Eomen charged Eith murder of "#-?ear-old girl9, %euters 7eEs Service, "#10. 1,.2 9Ex-cons, 'anson 6irls !harged9, The Billings 'a5ette, 7ovember "C, "#10. 1).2 9>atson, !h. "<9. *boundinglove.org. %etrieved 7ovember 0<, 0-"-. 1C.2 9>atson, !h. "(9. *boundinglove.org. %etrieved 7ovember 0<, 0-"-. 1(.2 6eorge, EdEardH $ar? 'atera @"###A. Taming the Beast" Charles Manson's Life Behind Bars. 'acmillan. pp. )0G)C. +S87 #1<---,"0-0-#1--). 11.2 Sanders 0--0, 01"G0. 1<.2 Transcript of !harles 'ansonBs "##0 parole hearing :niversit? of 'issouri-Mansas !it? School of .aE. %etrieved 'a? 0), 0--1. 1#.2 9"< :.S.!. ^ "1C"9. .laE.cornell.edu. &une 0<, 0-"-. %etrieved 7ovember 0<, 0-"-. <-.2 &o?nt, !arol. Diary of a Mad Saloon >$ner. *prilG'a? 0--C. <".2 9%iveraBs B$evil >orshipB Eas T; at its >orst9. %evieE b? Tom Shales. San Jose Mercury Ce$s, October ,", "#<<. <0.2 +tz5off, $ave @&ul? ,", 0--1A. 9Fearts and Souls $issected, in "0 'inutes or .ess9. Ce$ =or& Times. %etrieved October ,", 0--#. 9*ppraisal of Tom Sn?der, upon his death. +ncludes photograph of 'anson Eith sEasti5a on forehead during "#<" intervieE.9 <,.2 Charles Manson Su-erstar, "#<# <).2 +nterano %adio 9+ntervieE Eith 7i5olas Schrec59 *ugust, "#<<. <C.2 9>ould-8e *ssassin BSKuea5?B 2romme %eleased from 4rison9. *8!. *ugust "), 0--#. %etrieved *ugust "), 0--#. <(.2 !atherine Share Eith ;incent 8ugliosi, 4ard Co-y, "##1 ?outube.com. %etrieved 'a? ,-, 0--1. <1.2 9'ansonBs 2amil? *ffair .iving in !?berspace9. .ired, *pril "(, "##1. %etrieved 'a? 0#, 0--1. <<.2 Order of *T>*. 9Order of *T>*9. %etrieved 0--(-"0-0<.

<#.R a b 9'anson moved to a tougher prison after drug charge9. Sun Journal @.eEiston, 'aineA. *4. *ugust 00, "##1. p. 1*. %etrieved &anuar? "(, 0-",. #-.2 Transcript of >illiam 6arretson pol?graph exam. !harlie'anson.com. %etrieved &une "-, 0--1. #".R a b 9*iling 'anson folloEer denied release from prison9 CCC, &ul? "C, 0--<. #0.2 7etter, SarahH .indsa? 6oldEert @September 0, 0--#A. 9$?ing 'anson 'urderer $enied %elease9. *8! 7eEs. %etrieved September ,, 0--#. #,.2 2ox, 'argalit @September 0(, 0--#A. 9Susan *t5ins, 'anson 2olloEer, $ies at ("9. Ce$ =or& Times. %etrieved September 0(, 0--#. #).2 8lan5stein, *ndreE @September 0C, 0--#A. 9'anson folloEer Susan *t5ins dies at ("9. Los #ngeles Times. %etrieved September 0C, 0--#.Idead lin&J #C.2 Transcript, MSCBC Live. September C, 0--1. %etrieved 7ovember 0", 0--1. #(.2 9!harles 'anson 'urders9. Most ,vil. Season ,. Episode ". 0--<--"-,". $iscover? !hannel. #1.2 9*4 Exclusive/ On 'ansonBs trail, forensic testing suggests possible neE grave sites9. *ssociated 4ress, posted at 1nternational 4erald Tribune. %etrieved 'arch "(, 0--<. #<.2 More tests at Manson ranch for buried bodies. !77.com. %etrieved 'arch 0<, 0--<. ##.2 *uthorities dela? decision on digging at 'anson ranch *ssociated 4ress report, mercur?neEs.com. %etrieved *pril 01, 0--<. "--.2 *uthorities to dig at old 'anson famil? ranch cnn.com. %etrieved 'a? #, 0--<. "-".2 Letter from Manson lieutenant !77. %etrieved 'a? #, 0--<. "-0.2 Monthly :ie$ ? May A99*. *boundinglove.org. %etrieved 'a? #, 0--<. "-,.2 3our holes dug; no bodies found iht.com. %etrieved 'a? 0(, 0--<. "-).2 Dig turns u- no bodies at Manson ranch site !77.com, 'a? 0", 0--<. %etrieved 'a? 0(, 0--<. "-C.2 97eE prison photo of !harles 'anson released9. !77. 'arch 0-, 0--#. %etrieved &ul? 0", 0--#. "-(.R a b 9'anson 2amil? member intervieEed for special9. %euters. &ul? 0<, 0--#. %etrieved October 01, 0--#. "-1.2 9'anson, *bout the ShoE9. Fistor? !hannel. %etrieved October 01, 0--#.Idead lin&J "-<.2 One?, Steve. 9.ast >ords. +n the endSnbspH...9Idead lin&J Los #ngeles magazine. &ul? 0--#. %etrieved &ul? <, 0--#. "-#.2 9'an 2inds Fis .ong-.ost $ad +s !harles 'anson9 b? FuE 8orland, S&y Ce$s >nline, 7ovember 0,, 0--# ""-.2 9+ traced m? dad ... and discovered he is !harles 'anson9 b? 4eter Samson, The Sun, 7ovember 0,, 0--# """.2 >ilson, 6reg @0-"--"0--,A. 99!ell9 4hone/ !harles 'anson 8usted Eith a 'obile9. 7bclosangeles.com. %etrieved 0-"0-"--0<. ""0.2 98ruce $avis, 'anson 2olloEer, 6ets !leared 2or %elease 8? !alifornia 4arole 8oard9. Fuffingtonpost.com. %etrieved 0-"0-"--0<. "",.2 96overnor denies parole to ex-'anson folloEer9. seattlepi. %etrieved " 'arch 0-",. "").2 4eople v. *nderson, )#, 4.0d <<-, ( !al. ,d (0< @!al. "#10A, footnote @)CA to final sentence of majorit? opinion. %etrieved *pril 1, 0--<. ""C.2 9!harles 'anson 2amil? and Sharon Tate-.abianca 'urders - !ielodrive.com9. %etrieved 0) *pril 0-"0. ""(.2 'ichael 'artinez @0-"0--)-""A. 9!harles 'anson denied parole9. *rticles.cnn.com. %etrieved 0-"0-"--0<. ""1.2 9!harles 'anson uic5l? $enied 4arole9. .* Times. *pril "", 0-"0. %etrieved *pril "", 0-"0. ""<.2 &ones, Mi5i @0-"0--)-""A. 9'urderer !harles 'anson $enied 4arole G !entral !oast 7eEs M+O7NM!8*9. MionrightnoE.com. %etrieved 0-"0--<-"#. ""#.2 9Life %risoner %arole Consideration 4earings May /; A99/ ? June A; A99/9 @4$2A.

*rchived from the original on $ecember 0, 0--1.. 8oard of 4arole Fearings, !alif. $ept. of !orrections and %ehabilitation. 4. ,. %etrieved 'a? 0, 0--1. "0-.2 9+nmate Search.9 !alifornia $epartment of !orrections and %ehabilitation. %etrieved on October "C, 0-"-. 97ame/ '*7SO7, !F*%.ES !$!%T/ 8,,#0- *ge/ 1C *dmission $ate/ *pril 00, "#1" !urrent .ocation/ !orcoran9 "0".2 Sanders 0--0, ,,(. "00.2 Lie" The Love #nd Terror CultIdead lin&J. *S+7/ 8-----C3"&. *mazon.com. *ccess date/ 7ovember 0,, 0--1. "0,.2 S?ndicated column re .+E release 'i5e &ahn, *ugust "#1-. "0).2 Sanders 0--0, ()G(C. "0C.2 $ennis >ilson intervieE Circus magazine, October 0(, "#1(. %etrieved $ecember ", 0--1. "0(.R a b Rolling Stone stor? on 'anson, &une "#1-Idead lin&J !harlie'anson.com. %etrieved 'a? 0, 0--1. "01.R a b c .ist of 'anson recordings mansondirect.com. %etrieved 7ovember 0), 0--1. "0<.2 The 3amily Jams. *S+7/ 8---0:3'0 . 0--). *mazon.com. "0#.2 !harles 'anson +ssues *lbum under !reative !ommons pcmag.com. %etrieved *pril "), 0--<. ",-.2 Les itBs !!]Idead lin&J 4hoto verif?ing !reative !ommons license of >ne Mind. blog.limeEire.com. %etrieved *pril ",, 0--<. ",".2 %evieE of The S-aghetti 1ncident< allmusic.com. %etrieved 7ovember 0,, 0--1. ",0.2 6uns 7B %oses biograph?Idead lin&J rollingstone.com. %etrieved 7ovember 0,, 0--1. ",,.2 9'anson related music.9 charliemanson.com. %etrieved &une ,, 0--#. ",).2 .?rics of 9'echanical 'an9 charliemanson.com. %etrieved &anuar? 00, 0--<. ",C.2 Soundtrac5, 4elter S&elter @"#1(A Section of Steve %ailsbac5 entr?, imdb.com. %etrieved 'arch 0C, 0--<. ",(.2 9The 'usic 'anson.9 snopes.com. %etrieved October C, 0--<. ",1.2 'anson on cover of Rolling Stone rollingstone.com. %etrieved 'a? 0, 0--1. ",<.2 $alton, $avid. 1f Christ Came Bac& as a Con Man. gadfl?online.com. %etrieved September ,-, 0--1. ",#.2 98ant Shirts 'anson T-shirt9. 8ant-shirts.com. %etrieved 7ovember 0<, 0-"-. ")-.2 94ran5 4lace 'anson T-shirt9. 4ran5place.com. %etrieved 7ovember 0<, 0-"-. ")".2 97o 7ame 'addox9 'anson portrait in marijuana seeds. %etrieved 7ovember 0,, 0--1. ")0.2 4oster of 'anson on cover of %olling StoneIdead lin&J "),.2 'anson-related music charliemanson.com. %etrieved 2ebruar? <, 0--<. ")).2 .?rics of 9Sadie,9 b? *l5aline Trio sing,(C.com. %etrieved 7ovember 0,, 0--1. ")C.2 *l5aline Trio on '?Space +ncludes full-length audio of 9Sadie.9 %etrieved $ecember 0, 0--1. ")(.2 8iograph? for 'aril?n 'anson imdb.com. %etrieved 7ovember 0,, 0--1. ")1.2 9>ill the 'anson Stor? 4la? as '?th, Operaticall? at That?9 Ce$ =or& Times. &ul? "1, "##-. %etrieved 7ovember 0,, 0--1. ")<.2 9BB*ssassinsBB9. Sondheim.com. 7ovember 00, "#(,. %etrieved 7ovember 0<, 0-"-. ")#.2 4elter S&elter EA990F at the +nternet 'ovie $atabase "C-.2 4elter S&elter E8D/)F at the +nternet 'ovie $atabase "C".2 Merry Christmas Charlie Manson ;ideo clips at southpar5.comed?central.com "C0.2 8east 7umber >olfram'ath>orld. %etrieved 7ovember 0#, 0--1. "C,.2 Stephanie =achare5 @*ugust "<, 0--0A. 98ad ;ibrations9. The Ce$ =or& Times. %etrieved 'arch 0,, 0-"". "C).2 Manson at the +nternet 'ovie $atabase "CC.2 Charles Manson Su-erstar at the +nternet 'ovie $atabase

3or%s cited
*t5ins, Susan Eith 8ob Slosser. Child of Satan; Child of 'od. .ogos +nternationalH 4lainfield, 7eE &erse?H "#11. +S87 --<<01--01(-#. 8ugliosi, ;incent Eith !urt 6entr?. Felter S5elter" The True Story of the Manson Murders. @7orton, "#1)H *rroE boo5s, "##0 edition, +S87 ---#-##1C---#H >. >. 7orton S !ompan?, 0--", +S87 --,#,-,000,-<A Emmons, 7uel, as told to. Manson in 4is >$n .ords. 6rove 4ress, "#<<. +S87 --<-0",-0)--. Sanders, Ed The 3amily. ThunderBs 'outh 4ress. rev. update edition 0--0. +S87 "-C(-0C,#(-1. >at5ins, 4aul Eith 6uillermo Soledad. My Life $ith Charles Manson. 8antam, "#1#. +S87 --CC,-"01<<-<. >atson, !harles. .ill you die for me<. 2. F. %evell, "#1<. +S87 --<--1--#"0-<.

/urther reading
6eorge, EdEard and $ar? 'atera. Taming the Beast" Charles Manson's Life Behind Bars. St. 'artinBs 4ress, "###. +S87 --,"0-0-#1--,. Emmons, 7uel. Manson in his >$n .ords. 6rove 4ress. "##). +S87 --<-0"-,-0)- 6ilmore, &ohn. Manson" The @nholy Trail of Charlie and the 3amily. *mo5 8oo5s, 0---. +S87 "-<1<#0,-",-1. 6ilmore, &ohn. The 'arbage %eo-le. Omega 4ress, "#1". .e8lanc, &err? and +vor $avis. 7 to Die. FolloEa? Fouse 4ublishing, "#1". +S87 --<1-(1,-(-<. 4elloEs5i, 'ichael &. The Charles Manson Murder Trial" # 4eadline Court Case. EnsloE 4ublishers, 0--). +S87 --1((--0"(1-3. Schrec5, 7i5olas. The Manson 3ile *mo5 4ress. "#<<. +S87 --#)"(#,--)-3. Schrec5, 7i5olas. The Manson 3ile; Myth and Reality of an >utla$ Shaman >orld Operations. 0-"". +S87 #1<-,-<))0-"-#)-" :do, Tomm?. Charles Manson" Music; Mayhem; Murder. Sanctuar? %ecords, 0--0. +S87 "-<(-1)-,<<-#.

()ternal lin%s
2ind more about Charles Manson at >i5ipediaBs sister projects $efinitions and translations from >i5tionar? 'edia from !ommons .earning resources from >i5iversit? uotations from >i5iKuote Source texts from >i5isource Textboo5s from >i5iboo5s 8ardsle?, 'aril?n. !rime .ibrar? G !harles 'anson. !rime .ibrar?. !ourtroom Television 7etEor5, ..!. *pril 1, 0--(. $alton, $avid. 1f Christ Came Bac& as a Con Man. "##< article b? coauthor of "#1- Rolling Stone stor? on 'anson. gadfl?online.com. %etrieved September ,-, 0--1.

.inder, $ouglas. 3amous Trials ? The Trial of Charles Manson. :niversit? of 'issouri at Mansas !it? .aE School. 0--0. *pril 1, 0--1. 7oe, $enise. 9The 'anson '?th9 !rime'agazine.com $ecember "0, 0--) 7oe, $enise. '? 2riendship Eith !harles 'anson !rime'agazine.com October 0<, 0--< 28+ file on !harles 'anson 4rosecutionBs closing argument in trial of !harles 'anson 0;iolent.com. %etrieved *pril "(, 0--1. *rt b? !harles 'anson $ecision in appeal b? 'anson, *t5ins, MrenEin5el, and ;an Fouten from Tate-.a8ianca convictions%eo-le v Manson, (" !al. *pp. ,d "-0 @!alifornia !ourt of *ppeal, Second $istrict, $ivision One, *ugust ",, "#1(A. %etrieved &une "#, 0--1. $ecision in appeal b? 'anson from Finman-Shea conviction %eo-le v Manson, 1" !al. *pp. ,d " @!alifornia !ourt of *ppeal, Second $istrict, $ivision One, &une 0,, "#11A. Forrific past haunts former cult members San 2rancisco !hronicle *ugust "0, 0--# 5sho-6 v t e Manson /amil$ >orld!at ;+*2/ #0"0")0, .!!7/ n1#""C#<( +S7+/ ---- ---" ")#1 "1167$/ ""<C110<3

,uthorit$ control

!ategories/ "#,) births .iving people *merican people convicted of murder *merican prisoners sentenced to death *merican prisoners sentenced to life imprisonment *pocal?pticists !riminals from !alifornia !rimes involving Satanism or the occult 2ormer Scientologists Fistor? of .os *ngeles, !alifornia 'anson 2amil? Outsider musicians 4eople convicted of murder b? !alifornia 4eople from !incinnati, Ohio 4risoners sentenced to death b? !alifornia 4risoners sentenced to life imprisonment b? !alifornia 4eople Eith antisocial personalit? disorder *merican Satanists

4eople Eith schizophrenia

Giuseppe Tartini
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6iuseppe Tartini.Giuseppe Tartini @< *pril "(#0 G 0( 2ebruar? "11-A Eas an +talianI"J 8aroKue composer and violinist.

Contents
" 8iograph? 0 !ompositions , Theoretical Eor5 ) 2ictional portra?al C %eferences ( 7otes 1 External lin5s

Biograph$
Tartini Eas born in 4iran, a toEn on the peninsula of +stria, in the %epublic of ;enice @noE in SloveniaA to 6ianantonio G native of 2lorence G and !aterina =angrando, a descendant of one of the oldest aristocratic 4iranian families.I0J +t appears TartiniBs parents intended him to become a 2ranciscan friar and, in this Ea?, he received basic musical training. Fe studied laE at the :niversit? of 4adua, Ehere he became s5illed at fencing. *fter his fatherBs death in "1"-, he married Elisabetta 4remazone, a Eoman his father Eould have disapproved of because of her loEer social class and age difference. :nfortunatel?, Elisabetta Eas a favorite of the poEerful !ardinal 6iorgio !ornaro, Eho promptl? charged Tartini Eith abduction. Tartini fled 4adua to go to the monaster? of St. 2rancis in *ssisi, Ehere he could escape prosecution. >hile there, Tartini too5 up pla?ing the violin.

.egend sa?s Ehen Tartini heard 2rancesco 'aria ;eraciniBs pla?ing in "1"(, he Eas impressed b? it and dissatisfied Eith his oEn s5ill. Fe fled to *ncona and loc5ed himself aEa? in a room to practice, according to !harles 8urne?, 9in order to stud? the use of the boE in more tranKuilit?, and Eith more convenience than at ;enice, as he had a place assigned him in the opera orchestra of that cit?.9I,J TartiniBs s5ill improved tremendousl? and, in "10", he Eas appointed Maestro di Ca--ella at the 8asilica di SantB*ntonio in 4adua, Eith a contract that alloEed him to pla? for other institutions if he Eished. +n 4adua he met and befriended felloE composer and theorist 2rancesco *ntonio ;allotti. Tartini Eas the first 5noEn oEner of a violin made b? *ntonio Stradivari in "1"C, Ehich Tartini bestoEed upon his student Salvini, Eho in turn bestoEed it to Marol .ipi_s5i upon hearing him perform, from Ehich it derives its moni5er, the .ipins5i Stradivarius. +n "10(, Tartini started a violin school Ehich attracted students from all over Europe. 6raduall?, Tartini became more interested in the theor? of harmon? and acoustics, and from "1C- to the end of his life he published various treatises. Fis home toEn, 4iran, noE has a statue of Tartini in the sKuare, Ehich Eas the old harbour, originall? %oman, named the Tartini SKuare @Slovene/ Tartinijev trg, +talian/ Piazza TartiniA. Silted up and obsolete, the port Eas cleared of debris, filled, and redeveloped. One of the old stone Earehouses is noE the Fotel 6iuseppe Tartini. Fis birthda? is celebrated b? a concert in the main toEn cathedral.

Compositions

Statue of Tartini in 4iran, Slovenia Toda?, TartiniBs most famous Eor5 is the 9$evilBs Trill Sonata,9 a solo violin sonata that reKuires a number of technicall? demanding double stop trills and is difficult even b? modern standards. @One "#th-centur? m?th had it that Tartini had six digits on his left hand, ma5ing these trills easier for him to pla?.A *ccording to a legend embroidered upon b? 'adame 8lavats5?, Tartini Eas inspired to Erite the sonata b? a dream in Ehich the $evil appeared at the foot of his bed pla?ing the violin. *lmost all of TartiniBs Eor5s are violin concerti @at least ",CA and violin sonatas. TartiniBs compositions include some sacred Eor5s such as a 'iserere, composed betEeen "1,# and "1)" at

the reKuest of 4ope !lement 3++,I)J and a Stabat 'ater, composed in "1(#.ICJ Fe also composed trio sonatas and a sinfonia in *. TartiniBs music is problematic to scholars and editors because Tartini never dated his manuscripts, and he also revised Eor5s that had been published or even finished ?ears before, ma5ing it difficult to determine Ehen a Eor5 Eas Eritten, Ehen it Eas revised and Ehat the extent of those revisions Eere. The scholars 'inos $ounias and 4aul 8rainard have attempted to divide TartiniBs Eor5s into periods based entirel? on the st?listic characteristics of the music. Sixt?-tEo manuscripts Eith compositions of Tartini are housed at the 8iblioteca comunale .uciano 8enincasa in *ncona.I(J .uigi $allapiccola Erote a piece called Tartiniana based on various themes b? Tartini.

Theoretical -or%
+n addition to his Eor5 as a composer, Tartini Eas a music theorist, of a ver? practical bent. Fe is credited Eith the discover? of sum and difference tones, an acoustical phenomenon of particular utilit? on string instruments @intonation of double-stops can be judged b? careful listening to the difference tone, the 9terzo suono9A. Fe published his discoveries in a treatise 9Trattato di musica secondo la vera scienza dellBarmoniaB9 @4adua, "1C)A. Fis treatise on ornamentation Eas eventuall? translated into 2renchD though Ehen its influence Eas rapidl? Eaning, in "11"D b? a certain 94. $enis,9 Ehose introduction called it 9uniKue9H indeed, it Eas the first published textI1J devoted entirel? to ornament and, though it Eas all but forgotten, as onl? the printed edition survived, has provided first-hand information on violin techniKue for modern historicall? informed performances, once it Eas published in English translation b? Sol 8abitz in "#C(. Of greater assistance to such performance Eas ErEin &acobiBs published edition. +n "#(", &acobi published a tri-lingual edition consisting of the 2rench @basis of the folloEing tEoA, English @translation b? !uthbert 6irdlestoneA, plus &acobiBs oEn translation into 6erman @6iuseppe Tartini. 9Traite des agr`ment de la musiKue,9 trans. and ed. ErEin &acobi. !elle/ Fermann 'oec5 ;erlag, "#("A. Of significant import, &acobiBs edition also includes a facsimile of the original +talian found in ;enice in "#C1, copied in the hand of 6iovanni 7icolai @one of TartiniBs best 5noEn studentsA and including an opening section on boEing and a closing section on hoE to compose cadenzas not previousl? 5noEn. *nother cop? @though less completeA of the +talian original Eas found among manuscripts purchased b? the :niversit? of !alifornia, 8er5ele? in "#C<, a collection that also included numerous ornamented versions of sloE movements of concertos and sonatas, Eritten in TartiniBs hand. 'innie Elmer anal?zed these ornamented versions in her masterBs thesis at :!, 8er5ele? in "#C# @'innie Elmer. 9The +mprovised Ornamentation of 6iuseppe Tartini.9 :npublished '.*. thesis. 8er5ele?, "#C#A.

/ictional portra$al
Tartini is mentioned in 'adame 8lavats5?Bs 9The Ensouled ;iolin,9 a short stor? included in the collection Cightmare Tales. Tartini, the great composer and violinist of the 3;+++th centur?, Eas denounced as one Eho got his best inspirations from the Evil One, Eith Ehom he Eas, it Eas said, in regular league. This accusation Eas, of course, due to the almost magical impression he produced upon his audiences. Fis inspired performance on the violin secured for him in his native countr? the title of P'aster of 7ations.Q The Sonate du $iable, also called PTartiniOs $reamQDas ever? one Eho has heard it Eill be read? to testif?Dis the most Eeird melod? ever heard or invented/ hence, the marvellous composition has become the source of endless legends. 7or Eere the? entirel? baseless, since it Eas he, himselfH Eho Eas shoEn to have originated them. Tartini confessed to having Eritten it on aEa5ening from a dream, in Ehich he had heard his sonata performed b? Satan, for his benefit, and in conseKuence of a bargain made Eith his infernal majest?.

The fol5lore of the 9$evilBs violin,9 classicall? exemplified b? a similar stor? told of 7iccola 4aganini, is EidespreadH it is a subset of the 9$eal Eith the $evil.9 'odern variants are %oland 8oEmanBs 9The $evilBs ;iolin9J, the countr? song 9The $evil Eent doEn to 6eorgia9H the 48S segment on violin in its series 9*rt9 Eas titled 9*rt of violin/ the devilBs instrument.9 TartiniBs The Devil's Trill is the signature Eor5 of a central character in $aniel SilvaBs The ,nglish #ssassin *nna %olfe, the daughter of a SEiss ban5er, is a famous violinist and the sonata features prominentl? in the novel. The stor? of TartiniBs inspirational dream is told. TartiniBs 9The $evilBs Trill9 is also featured in the &apanese *nime $escendants of $ar5ness @Lami no 'atsueiA. The three part stor? is also named after the song. +n the episode, a ?oung &apanese high school student has the abilit? to pla? the difficult piece after he becomes possessed b? the devil after receiving a cornea transplant from the organ donor Eho Eas also himself possessed.

References
4aul 8rainard/ !Le sonate -er violino di 'iuse--e Tartini Catalogo tematico! - edition 9+ Solisti ;eneti9, 4adova "#1C 6iuseppe Tartini/ !Scien5a %latonica fondata nel cerchio! b? *nna !avalla Todeschini for *ccademia Tartiniana of 4adova president Enzo 8andelloni, executive committee 2rancesco !avalla, Edoardo 2arina, !laudio Scimone. The text reproduces an unpublished Eor5, the manuscript is at the 'useo del 'are a 4irano. edizione !E$*' 6iuseppe Tartini,Trattato di musica secondo la vera scien5a dell'armonia, 7ella Stamperia del Seminario, *ppresso 6iovanni 'anfrb, 4*$O;*, '$!!.+; G %iedizione *nastatica, Edition 9+ Solisti ;eneti9, !E$*', 4*$O;*, "#1, 6iuseppe Tartini, De' -rinci-G dell'armonia musicale contenuta nel diatonico genere ? Disserta5ione, Stamperia del Seminario, 4*$O;*, '$!!.3;++ G 2acsimile edition, Edizione 9+ Solisti ;eneti9, !E$*', 4*$O;*, "#1)

otes
". 2 6iuseppe Tartini ,ncyclo-aedia Britannica on line 0. 2 Tartini The official Eeb site of 4ortoroc and 4iran ,. 2 8urne?, !harles @"1<#A. # 'eneral 4istory of Music; from the ,arliest #ges to the %resent %eriod To .hich 1s %refi2ed; a Dissertation on the Music of the #ncients ; @0 ed.A. .ondon/ T. 8ec5et , &. %obson, and 6. %obinson. pp. C()GC(C. ). 2 8iograph? at istrianet.org, under External lin5s C. 2 8iograph? on *llmusic, under External lin5s (. 2 8iblioteca !ommunale .uciano 8enincasa @*7A 1. 2 T?picall?, Tartini never published the +talian original itself, but it circulated Eidel? in manuscript, and .eopold 'ozart appropriated sections of it for his oEn :iolinschule, Eritten in "1C), published at *ugsburg, "1C(. @Sol 8abitz, ed. 9Treatise on Ornamentation9 Journal of Research in Music ,ducation <.0 I*utumn "#C(/1CG"-0JA.

()ternal lin%s
6iuseppe Tartini 4rominent +strians at istrianet.org *llmusic 8iograph? 77$8 entr? and biograph? * Tartini 4age Eith 4artial $iscograph? 2ree scores b? Tartini at the +nternational 'usic Score .ibrar? 4roject 2ree scores b? 6iuseppe Tartini in the !horal 4ublic $omain .ibrar? @!horal>i5iA

Tartini, a computer program that uses combination tones for pitch recognition. .B*rte dellB*rco 6iuseppe Tartini Statue G 'icrosoft 4hotos?nth 5sho-6 v t e Municipalit$ of !iran >orld!at ;+*2/ (((C,"(< .!!7/ n<--,C<0# +S7+/ ---- ---" "-0< (,03 67$/ ""<(0-<1< 872/ cb",#--0#(j

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Charles Baudelaire
2rom >i5ipedia, the free enc?clopedia &ump to/ navigation, search 98audelaire9 redirects here. 2or other uses, see 8audelaire @disambiguationA. Charles Baudelaire

!harles 8audelaire, "<(, b? dtienne !arjat !harles 4ierre 8audelaire Born *pril #, "<0" 4aris, 2rance *ugust ,", "<(1 @aged )(A Died 4aris, 2rance

Occupation ationalit$ !eriod #iterar$ movement

4oet, art critic 2rench "<))G"<(( S?mbolist, 'odernist

1ignature /rench literature b? categor? /rench literar$ histor$ 'edieval "(th "1th "<th "#th 0-th centur? !ontemporar? /rench -riters !hronological list >riters b? categor? 7ovelists 4la?Erights 4oets Essa?ists Short stor? Eriters !ortals 2rance .iterature v t e Charles !ierre Baudelaire @2rench/ Ial bodlJH *pril #, "<0" G *ugust ,", "<(1A Eas a 2rench poet Eho produced notable Eor5 as an essa?ist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar *llan 4oe. Fis most famous Eor5, Les 3leurs du mal @The 3lo$ers of ,vilA, expresses the changing nature of beaut? in modern, industrializing 4aris during the "#th centur?. 8audelaireBs highl? original st?le of prose-poetr? influenced a Ehole generation of poets including 4aul ;erlaine, *rthur %imbaud and St`phane 'allarm` among man? others. Fe is credited Eith coining the term 9modernit?9 @modernitMA to designate the fleeting, ephemeral experience of life in an urban metropolis, and the responsibilit? art has to capture that experience.I"J

Contents
" 8audelaire the poet

"." Earl? life ".0 4ublished career ".0." The 3lo$ers of ,vil "., 2inal ?ears 0 !ritiKues 0." Edgar *llan 4oe 0.0 Eugbne $elacroix 0., %ichard >agner 0.) Th`ophile 6autier 0.C ddouard 'anet 0.( 7adar , 4hilosoph? ,." .ove ,.0 'arriage ,., The artist ,.) 4leasure ,.C 4olitics ,.( The 4ublic ,.1 Time ) +nfluence C >or5s C." $iscograph? ( See also 1 %eferences < External lin5s <." Online texts <."." Single Eor5s

Baudelaire the poet


>ho among us has not dreamt, in moments of ambition, of the miracle of a poetic prose, musical Eithout rh?thm and rh?me, supple and staccato enough to adapt to the l?rical stirrings of the soul, the undulations of dreams, and sudden leaps of consciousness. This obsessive idea is above all a child of giant cities, of the intersecting of their m?riad relations. D$edication of Le S-leen de %aris 8audelaire is one of the major innovators in 2rench literature. Fis poetr? is influenced b? the 2rench romantic poets of the earlier "#th centur?, although its attention to the formal features of verse connect it more closel? to the Eor5 of the contemporar? 94arnassians9. *s for theme and tone, in his Eor5s Ee see the rejection of the belief in the supremac? of nature and the fundamental goodness of man as t?picall? espoused b? the romantics and expressed b? them in rhetorical, effusive and public voice in favor of a neE urban sensibilit?, an aEareness of individual moral complexit?, an interest in vice @lin5ed Eith decadenceA and refined sensual and aesthetical pleasures, and the use of urban subject matter, such as the cit?, the croEd, individual passers-b?, all expressed in highl? ordered verse, sometimes through a c?nical and ironic voice. 2ormall?, the use of sound to create atmosphere, and of 9s?mbols9, @images Ehich ta5e on an expanded function Eithin the poemA, betra? a move toEards considering the poem as a self-referential object, an idea further developed b? the S?mbolists ;erlaine and 'allarm`, Eho ac5noEledge 8audelaire as a pioneer in this regard.

8e?ond his innovations in versification and the theories of s?mbolism and 9correspondences9, an aEareness of Ehich is essential to an? appreciation of the literar? value of his Eor5, aspects of his Eor5 Ehich regularl? receive @or have receivedA much critical discussion include the role of Eomen, the theological direction of his Eor5 and his alleged advocac? of 9satanism9, his experience of drug-induced states of mind, the figure of the dand?, his stance regarding democrac? and its implications for the individual, his response to the spiritual uncertainties of the time, his criticisms of the bourgeois, and his advocac? of modern music and painting @e.g., >agner, $elacroixA.

(arl$ life
8audelaire Eas born in 4aris, 2rance, on *pril #, "<0", and baptized tEo months later at SaintSulpice %oman !atholic !hurch.I0J Fis father, 2raneois 8audelaire, a senior civil servant and amateur artist, Eas thirt?-four ?ears older than 8audelaireBs mother. 2raneois died during 8audelaireBs childhood, in "<01. The folloEing ?ear, !aroline married .ieutenant !olonel &acKues *upic5, Eho later became a 2rench ambassador to various noble courts. 8iographers have often seen this as a crucial moment, considering that finding himself no longer the sole focus of his motherBs affection left him Eith a trauma Ehich goes some Ea? to explaining the excesses later apparent in his life. Fe stated in a letter to her that, 9There Eas in m? childhood a period of passionate love for ?ou9.I,J 8audelaire regularl? implored his mother for mone? throughout his career, often promising that a lucrative publishing contract or journalistic commission Eas just around the corner. 8audelaire Eas educated in .?on, Ehere he boarded. 8audelaire at fourteen Eas described b? a classmate/ 9Fe Eas much more refined and distinguished than an? of our felloE pupils I...J Ee are bound to one anotherI...J b? shared tastes and s?mpathies, the precocious love of fine Eor5s of literature9.I)J 8audelaire Eas erratic in his studies, at times diligent, at other times prone to 9idleness9. .ater, he attended the .?c`e .ouis-le-6rand in 4aris, stud?ing laE, a popular course for those not ?et decided on an? particular career. 8audelaire began to freKuent prostitutes and ma? have contracted gonorrhea and s?philis during this period. 8audelaire began to run up debts, mostl? for clothes. :pon gaining his degree in "<,#, he told his brother 9+ donBt feel + have a vocation for an?thing.9 Fis stepfather had in mind a career in laE or diplomac?, but instead 8audelaire decided to embar5 upon a literar? career. Fis mother later recalled/ 9Oh, Ehat grief] +f !harles had let himself be guided b? his stepfather, his career Eould have been ver? different... Fe Eould not have left a name in literature, it is true, but Ee should have been happier, all three of us9.ICJ

4ortrait b? Emile $ero? @"<0-G"<)(A Fis stepfather sent him on a vo?age to !alcutta, +ndia, in "<)" in the hope of ending his dissolute habits. The trip provided strong impressions of the sea, sailing, and exotic ports, that he later

emplo?ed in his poetr?.I(J @8audelaire later exaggerated his aborted trip to create a legend about his ?outhful travels and experiences, including 9riding on elephants9.A 8audelaire returned to the taverns Ehere he began to compose some of the poems of .es 2leurs du 'al. *t tEent?-one, he received a good-sized inheritance but sKuandered much of it Eithin a feE ?ears. Fis famil? obtained a decree to place his propert? in trustI1J Ehich he resented bitterl?, at one point arguing that alloEing him to fail alone financiall? Eould have been the one sure Ea? of teaching him the value of maintaining Eell-ordered finances. 8audelaire became 5noEn in artistic circles as a dand? and free-spender. $uring this time &eanne $uval became his mistress. Fis mother thought $uval a 98lac5 ;enus9 Eho 9tortured him in ever? Ea?9 and drained him of mone? at ever? opportunit?.I<J She Eas rejected b? his famil?. Fe made a suicide attempt during this time. 8audelaire too5 part in the %evolutions of "<)< and Erote for a revolutionar? neEspaper. FoEever, his interest Eas passing, as he Eas later to note in his political Eritings in his journals. +n the earl? "<C-s, 8audelaire struggled Eith poor health, pressing debts, and irregular literar? output. Fe often moved from one lodging to another to escape creditors. Fe received man? projects that he Eas unable to complete, though he did finish translations of stories b? Edgar *llan 4oe. :pon the death of his stepfather in "<C1, 8audelaire received no mention in the Eill but he Eas heartened nonetheless that the division Eith his mother might noE be mended. *t thirt?-six he Erote her/ 9believe that + belong to ?ou absolutel?, and that + belong onl? to ?ou9.I#J

!ublished career
Fis first published Eor5 Eas his art revieE 9Salon of "<)C,9 Ehich attracted immediate attention for its boldness. 'an? of his critical opinions Eere novel in their time, including his championing of $elacroix, and some of his vieEs seem remar5abl? in tune Eith the future theories of the +mpressionist painters. +n "<)(, 8audelaire Erote his second Salon revieE, gaining additional credibilit? as an advocate and critic of %omanticism. Fis support of $elacroix as the foremost %omantic artist gained Eidespread notice.I"-J The folloEing ?ear 8audelaireBs novella La 3anfarlo Eas published. !he "lowers of #vil

The first edition of Les 3leurs du mal Eith authorBs notes.

8audelaire Eas a sloE and fastidious Eor5er, often sidetrac5ed b? indolence, emotional distress and illness, and it Eas not until "<C1 that he published his first and most famous volume of poems, Les 3leurs du mal @The 3lo$ers of ,vilA. Some of these poems had alread? appeared in the Revue des deu2 mondes @Revie$ of T$o .orldsA, Ehen the? Eere published b? 8audelaireBs friend *uguste 4oulet 'alassis. The poems found a small, appreciative audience, but greater public attention Eas given to their subject matter. The effect on felloE artists Eas, as Th`odore de 8anville stated, 9immense, prodigious, unexpected, mingled Eith admiration and Eith some indefinable anxious fear9.I""J 2laubert, recentl? attac5ed in a similar fashion for Madame Bovary @and acKuittedA, Eas impressed and Erote to 8audelaire/ 9Lou have found a Ea? to rejuvenate %omanticism... Lou are as un?ielding as marble, and as penetrating as an English mist9.I"0J The principal themes of sex and death Eere considered scandalous. Fe also touched on lesbianism, sacred and profane love, metamorphosis, melanchol?, the corruption of the cit?, lost innocence, the oppressiveness of living, and Eine. 7otable in some poems is 8audelaireBs use of imager? of the sense of smell and of fragrances, Ehich is used to evo5e feelings of nostalgia and past intimac?.I",J The boo5, hoEever, Kuic5l? became a b?Eord for unEholesomeness among mainstream critics of the da?. Some critics called a feE of the poems 9masterpieces of passion, art and poetr?9 but other poems Eere deemed to merit no less than legal action to suppress them.I")J &. Fabas Eriting in Le 3igaro, led the charge against 8audelaire, Eriting/ 9Ever?thing in it Ehich is not hideous is incomprehensible, ever?thing one understands is putrid9. Then 8audelaire responded to the outcr?, in a prophetic letter to his mother/ 9Lou 5noE that + have alEa?s considered that literature and the arts pursue an aim independent of moralit?. 8eaut? of conception and st?le is enough for me. 8ut this boo5, Ehose title @3leurs du malA sa?s ever?thing, is clad, as ?ou Eill see, in a cold and sinister beaut?. +t Eas created Eith rage and patience. 8esides, the proof of its positive Eorth is in all the ill that the? spea5 of it. The boo5 enrages people. 'oreover, since + Eas terrified m?self of the horror that + should inspire, + cut out a third from the proofs. The? den? me ever?thing, the spirit of invention and even the 5noEledge of the 2rench language. + donBt care a rap about all these imbeciles, and + 5noE that this boo5, Eith its virtues and its faults, Eill ma5e its Ea? in the memor? of the lettered public, beside the best poems of ;. Fugo, Th. 6autier and even 8?ron.9I"CJ

+llustration cover for Les N-aves, b? 8audelaireBs friend 2`licien %ops. 8audelaire, his publisher and the printer Eere successfull? prosecuted for creating an offense against public morals. The? Eere fined but 8audelaire Eas not imprisoned.I"(J Six of the poems Eere suppressed, but printed later as Les N-aves @The .rec&sA @8russels, "<((A. *nother edition of

Les 3leurs du mal, Eithout these poems, but Eith considerable additions, appeared in "<(". 'an? notables rallied behind 8audelaire and condemned the sentence. ;ictor Fugo Erote to him/ 9Lour fleurs du mal shine and dazzle li5e stars... + applaud ?our vigorous spirit Eith all m? might9.I"1J 8audelaire did not appeal the judgment but his fine Eas reduced. 7earl? "-- ?ears later, on 'a? "", "#)#, 8audelaire Eas vindicated, the judgment officiall? reversed, and the six banned poems reinstated in 2rance.I"1J +n the poem 9*u lecteur9 @9To the %eader9A that prefaces Les 3leurs du mal, 8audelaire accuses his readers of h?pocris? and of being as guilt? of sins and lies as the poet/ ...+f rape or arson, poison or the 5nife Fas Eove no pleasing patterns in the stuff Of this drab canvas Ee accept as lifeD +t is because Ee are not bold enough] @%o? !ampbellBs translationA

/inal $ears
8audelaire next Eor5ed on a translation and adaptation of Thomas de uince?Bs Confessions of an ,nglish >-ium ,ater.I"<J Other Eor5s in the ?ears that folloEed included %etits %oOmes en -rose @Small 4rose poemsAH a series of art revieEs published in the %ays; ,2-osition universelle @Country; .orld 3airAH studies on 6ustave 2laubert @in L'#rtiste, October "<, "<C1AH on Th`ophile 6autier @Revue contem-oraine, September "<C<AH various articles contributed to Eugene !repetBs %oOtes francaisH .es 4aradis artificiels" o-ium et haschisch @3rench -oetsP #rtificial %aradises" o-ium and hashishA @"<(-AH and @n Dernier Cha-itre de l'histoire des oeuvres de Bal5ac @# 3inal Cha-ter of the history of $or&s of Bal5acA @"<<-A, originall? an article 9!omment on pa?e ses dettes Kuand on a du g`nie9 @9FoE one pa?s oneBs debts Ehen one has genius9A, in Ehich his criticism turns against his friends Fonor` de 8alzac, Th`ophile 6autier, and 6`rard de 7erval.

&eanne $uval, in a painting b? ddouard 'anet

*pollonie Sabatier, muse and one time mistress, painted b? ;incent ;idal. 8? "<C#, his illnesses, his long-term use of laudanum, his life of stress and povert? had ta5en a toll and 8audelaire had aged noticeabl?. 8ut at last, his mother relented and agreed to let him live Eith her for a Ehile at Fonfleur. 8audelaire Eas productive and at peace in the seaside toEn, his poem Le :oyage being one example of his efforts during that time.I"#J +n "<(-, he became an ardent supporter of %ichard >agner. Fis financial difficulties increased again, hoEever, particularl? after his publisher 4oulet 'alassis Eent ban5rupt in "<(". +n "<(), he left 4aris for 8elgium, partl? in the hope of selling the rights to his Eor5s and also to give lectures.I0-J Fis long-standing relationship Eith &eanne $uval continued on-and-off, and he helped her to the end of his life. 8audelaireBs relationships Eith actress 'arie $aubrun and Eith courtesan *pollonie Sabatier, though the source of much inspiration, never produced an? lasting satisfaction. Fe smo5ed opium, and in 8russels he began to drin5 to excess. 8audelaire suffered a massive stro5e in "<(( and paral?sis folloEed. *fter more than a ?ear of aphasia, he received the last rites of the !atholic !hurch.I0"J The last tEo ?ears of his life Eere spent, in a semi-paral?zed state, in 9maisons de sant`9 in 8russels and in 4aris, Ehere he died on *ugust ,", "<(1. 8audelaire is buried in the !imetibre du 'ontparnasse, 4aris. 'an? of 8audelaireBs Eor5s Eere published posthumousl?. *fter his death, his mother paid off his substantial debts, and at last she found some comfort in 8audelaireBs emerging fame. 9+ see that m? son, for all his faults, has his place in literature9. She lived another four ?ears.

Criti+ues
8audelaire Eas an active participant in the artistic life of his times. *s critic and essa?ist, he Erote extensivel? and perceptivel? about the luminaries and themes of 2rench culture. Fe Eas fran5 Eith friends and enemies, rarel? too5 the diplomatic approach and sometimes responded violentl? verball?, Ehich often undermined his cause.I00J Fis associations Eere numerous and included/ 6ustave !ourbet, Fonor` $aumier, 2ranz .iszt, !hampfleur?, ;ictor Fugo, 6ustave 2laubert, 8alzac and the artists and Eriters that folloE.

(dgar ,llan !oe


+n "<)( and "<)1, 8audelaire became acKuainted Eith the Eor5s of 4oe, in Ehich he found tales and poems that had, he claimed, long existed in his oEn brain but never ta5en shape. 8audelaire had much in common Eith 4oe @Eho died in "<)# at age fort?A. The tEo poets displa? a similar

sensibilit? of the macabre and supernatural turn of mindH each struggled Eith illness, povert?, and melanchol?. .i5e 4oe, 8audelaire believed in the doctrine of original sin, denounced democrac? and the idea of progress and of manBs natural goodness, and 4oe held a disdainful aristocratic attitude similar to 8audelaireBs dand?.I0,J 8audelaire saE in 4oe a precursor and tried to be his 2rench contemporar? counterpart.I0)J 2rom this time until "<(C, he Eas largel? occupied Eith translating 4oeBs Eor5sH his translations Eere Eidel? praised. 8audelaire Eas not the first 2rench translator of 4oe, but his 9scrupulous translations9 Eere considered among the best. These Eere published as 4istoires e2traordinaires @,2traordinary storiesA @"<C0A, Couvelles histoires e2traordinaires @Ce$ e2traordinary storiesA @"<C1A, #ventures d'#rthur 'ordon %ym, ,ure&a, and 4istoires grotesQues et sMrieuses @'rotesQue and serious storiesA @"<(CA. TEo essa?s on 4oe are to be found in his >euvres com-lOtes @Com-lete $or&sA @vols. v. and vi.A.

(ug=ne Delacroi)
* strong supporter of the %omantic painter $elacroix, 8audelaire called him 9a poet in painting.9 8audelaire also absorbed much of $elacroixBs aesthetic ideas as expressed in his journals. *s 8audelaire elaborated in his 9Salon of "<)(9, 9*s one contemplates his series of pictures, one seems to be attending the celebration of some grievous m?ster?... This grave and loft? melanchol? shines Eith a dull light... plaintive and profound li5e a melod? b? >eber9.I"-J $elacroix, though appreciative, 5ept his distance from 8audelaire, particularl? after the scandal of Les 3leurs du mal. +n private correspondence, $elacroix stated that 8audelaire 9reall? gets on m? nerves9 and he expressed his unhappiness Eith 8audelaireBs persistent comments about 9melanchol?9 and 9feverishness9.I0CJ

Richard 3agner
8audelaire had no formal musical training, and 5neE little of composers be?ond 8eethoven and !arl 'aria von >eber. >eber Eas in some Ea?s >agnerBs precursor, using the leitmotif and conceiving the idea of the 9total art Eor59 @96esamt5unstEer59A, both of Ehich found 8audelaireBs admiration. 8efore even hearing >agnerBs music, 8audelaire studied revieEs and essa?s about him, and formulated his impressions. .ater, 8audelaire put them into his non-technical anal?sis of >agner, Ehich Eas highl? regarded, particularl? his essa? 9%ichard >agner et Tannhfuser g 4aris9. I0(J 8audelaireBs reaction to music Eas passionate and ps?chological. 9'usic engulfs @possessesA me li5e the sea9.I0(J *fter attending three >agner concerts in 4aris in "<(-, 8audelaire Erote to the composer/ 9+ had a feeling of pride and jo? in understanding, in being possessed, in being overEhelmed, a trul? sensual pleasure li5e that of rising in the air9.I01J 8audelaireBs Eritings contributed to the elevation of >agner and to the cult of >agnerism that sEept Europe in the folloEing decades.

Th>ophile Gautier
6autier, Eriter and poet, earned 8audelaireBs respect for his perfection of form and his master? of language, though 8audelaire thought he lac5ed deeper emotion and spiritualit?. 8oth strove to express the artistBs inner vision, Ehich Feinrich Feine had earlier stated/ 9+n artistic matters, + am a supernaturalist. + believe that the artist can not find all his forms in nature, but that the most remar5able are revealed to him in his soul9.I0<J 6autierBs freKuent meditations on death and the horror of life are themes Ehich influenced 8audelaire Eritings. +n gratitude for their friendship and commonalit? of vision, 8audelaire dedicated Les 3leurs du mal to 6autier.

?douard Manet
'anet and 8audelaire became constant companions from around "<CC. +n the earl? "<(-s, 8audelaire accompanied 'anet on dail? s5etching trips and often met him sociall?. 'anet also lent

8audelaire mone? and loo5ed after his affairs, particularl? Ehen 8audelaire Eent to 8elgium. 8audelaire encouraged 'anet to stri5e his oEn path and not succumb to criticism. 9'anet has great talent, a talent Ehich Eill stand the test of time. 8ut he has a Eea5 character. Fe seems to me crushed and stunned b? shoc59.I0#J +n his painting Music in the Tuileries, 'anet includes portraits of his friends Th`ophile 6autier, &acKues Offenbach, and 8audelaire.I,-J >hile itBs difficult to differentiate Eho influenced Ehom, both 'anet and 8audelaire discussed and expressed some common themes through their respective arts. 8audelaire praised the modernit? of 'anetBs subject matter/ 9almost all our originalit? comes from the stamp that BtimeB imprints upon our feelings9.I,"J >hen 'anetBs famous >lym-ia @"<(,A, a portrait of a nude prostitute, provo5ed a scandal for its blatant realism mixed Eith an imitation of %enaissance motifs, 8audelaire Eor5ed privatel? to support his friend, though he offered no public defense @he Eas, hoEever, ill at the timeA. >hen 8audelaire returned from 8elgium after his stro5e, 'anet and his Eife Eere freKuent visitors at the nursing home and she Eould pla? passages from >agner for 8audelaire on the piano.I,0J

adar
7adar @2`lix TournachonA Eas a noted caricaturist, scientist and important earl? photographer. 8audelaire admired 7adar, one of his closest friends, and Erote/ 97adar is the most amazing manifestation of vitalit?9.I,,J The? moved in similar circles and 8audelaire made man? social connections through him. 7adarBs ex-mistress &eanne $uval became 8audelaireBs mistress around "<)0. 8audelaire became interested in photograph? in the "<C-s and denounced it as an art form and advocated for its return to 9its real purpose, Ehich is that of being the servant to the sciences and arts9. 4hotograph? should not, according to 8audelaire, encroach upon 9the domain of the impalpable and the imaginar?9.I,)J 7adar remained a stalEart friend right to 8audelaireBs last da?s and Erote his obituar? notice in Le 3igaro.

!hilosoph$
'an? of 8audelaireBs philosophical proclamations Eere considered scandalous and intentionall? provocative in his time. Fe Erote on a Eide range of subjects, draEing criticism and outrage from man? Kuarters.

#ove
9There is an invincible taste for prostitution in the heart of man, from Ehich comes his horror of solitude. Fe Eants to be BtEoB. The man of genius Eants to be BoneB... +t is this horror of solitude, the need to lose oneself in the external flesh, that man nobl? calls Bthe need to loveB.9I,CJ

Marriage
9:nable to suppress love, the !hurch Eanted at least to disinfect it, and it created marriage.9I,CJ

The artist
9The more a man cultivates the arts, the less rand? he becomes... Onl? the brute is good at coupling, and copulation is the l?ricism of the masses. To copulate is to enter into anotherGand the artist never emerges from himself.9I,CJ

!leasure
94ersonall?, + thin5 that the uniKue and supreme delight lies in the certaint? of doing BevilBGand men and Eomen 5noE from birth that all pleasure lies in evil.9I,CJ

98ut Ehat matters an eternit? of damnation to one Eho has found an infinit? of jo? in a single second?9

!olitics
*long Eith 4oe, 8audelaire named the arch-reactionar? &oseph de 'aistre as his mahtre g penserI,(J and adopted increasingl? aristocratic vieEs. +n his journals, he Erote 9There is no form of rational and assured government save an aristocrac?. * monarch? or a republic, based upon democrac?, are eKuall? absurd and feeble. The immense nausea of advertisements. There are but three beings Eorth? of respect/ the priest, the Earrior and the poet. To 5noE, to 5ill and to create. The rest of man5ind ma? be taxed and drudged, the? are born for the stable, that is to sa?, to practise Ehat the? call professions.9I,1J

The !ublic
9+n this regards, m? friend, ?ouBre li5e the public, to Ehom one should never offer a delicate perfume. +t exasperates them. 6ive them onl? carefull? selected garbage.9 I,<J

Time
9The Eill to Eor5 must dominate, for art is long and time is brief.9 I,<J 9Each man bears Eithin himself his oEn dose of natural opium, incessantl? secreted and reneEed, and, from birth to death, hoE man? hours can Ee count filled Eith pleasure,Eith prosperous and effective action?9 I,<J

&nfluence

4ortrait b? 6ustave !ourbet, "<)<. 8audelaireBs influence on the direction of modern 2rench @and EnglishA language literature Eas considerable. The most significant 2rench Eriters to come after him Eere generous Eith tributesH four ?ears after his death, *rthur %imbaud praised him in a letter as Bthe 5ing of poets, a true 6odB. I,#J +n "<#C, St`phane 'allarm` published a sonnet in 8audelaireBs memor?, B.e Tombeau de !harles 8audelaireB. 'arcel 4roust, in an essa? published in "#00, stated that along Eith *lfred de ;ign?, 8audelaire Eas Bthe greatest poet of the nineteenth centur?B.I)-J +n the English-spea5ing Eorld, Edmund >ilson credited 8audelaire as providing an initial impetus for the S?mbolist movement, b? virtue of his translations of 4oe.I)"J +n "#,-, T. S. Eliot, Ehile asserting that 8audelaire had not ?et received a 9just appreciation9 even in 2rance, claimed that the poet had 9great genius9 and asserted that his 9technical master? Ehich can hardl? be overpraised... has made his verse an inexhaustible stud? for later poets, not onl? in his oEn language9.I)0J Eliot also alluded to 8audelaireBs poetr? directl? in his oEn poetr?. 2or example, he Kuoted the last line of

8audelaireBs B*u .ecteurB in the last line of Section + of BThe >aste .and.B *t the same time that Eliot Eas affirming 8audelaireBs importance from a broadl? conservative and explicitl? !hristian vieEpoint,I),J left-Eing critics such as >ilson and >alter 8enjamin Eere able to do so from a dramaticall? different perspective. 8enjamin translated 8audelaireBs Tableau2 %arisiens into 6erman and published a major essa? on translationI))J as the foreEord. +n the late "#,-s, 8enjamin used 8audelaire as a starting point and focus for his monumental attempt at a materialist assessment of "#th centur? culture, $as 4assagenEer5 I)CJ 2or 8enjamin, 8audelaireBs importance la? in his anatomies of the croEd, of the cit? and of modernit?.I)(J 2raneois 4orche published a poetr? collection called Charles Baudelaire in memor? of 8audelaire. +n "#<0, avant-garde performance artist and vocalist $iamanda 6alis recorded an adaptation of his poem The Litanies of Satan @Les Litanies de SatanA. +n 0--<, the italian band 8austelle dedicates to him the song Baudelaire on its album #men. The 8audelaires, protagonists of .emon? Snic5etBs # Series of @nfortunate ,vents, Eere named after him.Icitation neededJ !urrentl?, ;anderbilt :niversit? has 9assembled one of the EorldOs most comprehensive research collections on...8audelaire.9I)1J The &apanese comic or manga #&u no 4ana, b? Shjzk Oshimi is loosel? based on 8audelaireBs .es fleurs du mal. The anime Eas aired in 0-", and dreE attention due to it heav? use of rotoscope animation. The protagonist in both manga and the anime, Ta5ao Masuga, is a boo5Eorm Ehose favorite boo5 is Les fleurs du mal; translated in &apanese as #&u no 4ana.

3or%s
Salon de 8*07, "<)C Salon de 8*0), "<)( La 3anfarlo, "<)1 Les 3leurs du mal, "<C1 Les -aradis artificiels, "<(RMfle2ions sur RuelQuesBuns de mes Contem-orains, "<(" Le %eintre de la :ie Moderne, "<(, CuriositMs ,sthMtiQues, "<(< L'art romantiQue, "<(< Le S-leen de %aris, "<(# >euvres %osthumes et Corres-ondance 'MnMrale, "<<1G"#-1 3usMes, "<#1 Mon Coeur Mis S Cu, "<#1 >euvres Com-lOtes, "#00GC, @"# vols.A Mirror of #rt, "#CC The ,ssence of Laughter, "#C( CuriositMs ,sthMtiQues, "#(0 The %ainter of Modern Life and >ther ,ssays, "#() Baudelaire as a Literary Critic, "#() #rts in %aris 8*07?8*)A, "#(C Selected .ritings on #rt and #rtist, "#10 Selected Letters of Charles Baudelaire, "#<( T$enty %rose %oems, "#<< CritiQue d'artP CritiQue musicale, "##0

Discograph$
2rench composer !laude $ebuss? set five poems from 8audelaire into music in "<#-/ Le Balcon, 4armonie du soir, Le Jet d'eau, Recueillement and La mort des amants. 2rench singer-songEriter .`o 2err` devoted himself to set 8audelaireBs poetr? into music in three albums/ Les 3leurs du mal in "#C1 @"0 poemsA, LMo 3errM chante Baudelaire in "#(1 @0) poems, including one from Le S-leen de %arisA, and the posthumous Les 3leurs du mal Esuite et finF @0" poemsA, recorded in "#11 but released in 0--<. SovietN%ussian composer $avid Tu5hmanov has set 8audelaireBs poem to music @cult album >n a .ave of My Memory, "#1CA.I)<J >arEic5shire, Englands avant garde poet Siln .avinia Fmlme, *rtist name BThe %avenessB is 5noEn to adore 8audelaire and refers to him regularl? in her Eor5. +ncluding a sort of B.ove letterB Eritten in homage to his Eor5 featured on her best selling album BOf blood and absintheB, The poem is entitled BTo 8audelaire/ Sinful ExtraordinaireB. 2rench singer $avid T'3 recorded the poem 9.esbos9 from The 3lo$ers of ,vil. 2rench metalNshoegaze groups *lcest and *mesoeurs used his poetr? for the l?rics of the trac5s 9dl`vation9 @on Le SecretA and 9%ecueillement9 @on #mesoeursA, respectivel?. !eltic 2rost used his poem Tristesses de la lune as a l?rics for song on album +nto the 4andemonium. +sraeli singer 'aor !ohenBs 0--C album, the FebreE name of Ehich translates to 2rench as 9.es 2leurs $u 'al9, is a compilation of songs from 8audelaireBs boo5 of the same name. The texts Eere translated to FebreE b? +sraeli poet $ori 'anor, Ehile the music Eas composed b? !ohen himself. +talian singer 2ranco 8attiato set 1nvitation au voyage to music as 1nvito #l :iaggio on his "### album 3leurs E,sem-i #ffini Di Scritture , SimiliF. *merican composer 6erard 4ape set Tristesses de la luneHSorro$s of the Moon from 3leurs du Mal for voice and electronic tape. 2rench band 'arc Seberg Erote an adaptation of %ecueillement for their "#<C album .e !hant $es Terres. %ussian heav? metal band 8lac5 Obelis5 used %ussian translations of several 8audelaire poems as l?rics for their songs. 2rench singer '?lene 2armer performed 9.BFO%.O6E9 to music b? .aurent 8outonnat on the album9 *insi soi je9 and the opening number of her "#<# concert tour.

1ee also
$oetry portal dpater la bourgeoisie

References
". 2 98? modernit? + mean the transitor?, the fugitive, the contingent Ehich ma5e up one half of art, the other being the eternal and the immutable.9 !harles 8audelaire, 9The 4ainter of 'odern .ife9 in The %ainter of Modern Life and >ther ,ssays, edited and translated b? &onathan 'a?ne. .ondon/ 4haidon 4ress, ",. 0. 2 !harles 8audelaire, %ichard FoEard. Les 3leurs Du Mal. $avid %. 6odine 4ublisher, "#<,, p.xxv. +S87 --<1#0,-)(0-<, +S87 #1<---<1#0,-)(0-". ,. 2 %ichardson "##), p."( ). 2 %ichardson "##), p.,C C. 2 %ichardson "##), p.1-

(. 2 %ichardson "##), pp. (1G(< 1. 2 %ichardson "##), p.1" <. 2 %ichardson "##), p.1C #. 2 %ichardson "##), p.0"#. "-.R a b %ichardson "##), p.""-. "".2 %ichardson "##), p.0,(. "0.2 %ichardson "##), p.0)". ",.2 %ichardson "##), p.0,". ").2 %ichardson "##), pp. 0,0G0,1 "C.2 %ichardson "##), p.0,<. "(.2 %ichardson "##), p.0)< "1.R a b %ichardson "##), p.0C-. "<.2 %ichardson "##), p.,"". "#.2 %ichardson "##), p.0<". 0-.2 %ichardson "##), p. )-0".2 .ibrar?.vanderbilt.edu 00.2 %ichardson "##), p.0(<. 0,.2 8audelaire, Selected Eritings on art and artists, !:4 *rchive, "#<", +ntroduction, p."1. 0).2 %ichardson "##), p.")-. 0C.2 F?slop, .ois 8oe @"#<-A. Baudelaire; Man of 4is Time. Lale :niversit? 4ress. p. "). +S87 --,----0C",--. 0(.R a b F?slop @"#<-A, p. (<. 01.2 F?slop @"#<-A, p. (# 0<.2 F?slop @"#<-A, p. ",". 0#.2 F?slop @"#<-A, p. CC. ,-.2 9'usic in the Tuileries 6ardens9. The 7ational 6aller?. %etrieved &ul? ",, 0--<. ,".2 F?slop @"#<-A, p. C,. ,0.2 F?slop @"#<-A, p. C". ,,.2 F?slop @"#<-A, p. (C. ,).2 F?slop @"#<-A, p. (,. ,C.R a b c d %ichardson "##), p.C,(.2 *ssets.cambridge.orgn ,1.2 3T2.lib.virginia.edu ,<.R a b c 8audelaire, !harles. Translated b? >illiam F. !rosb?, The 3lo$ers of ,vil T %aris S-leen, 8O* Editions, .td., "##". ,#.2 %imbaud, *rthur/ >euvres com-lOtes, p. 0C,, 7%2N6allimard, "#10. )-.2 Concerning Baudelaire in 4roust, 'arcel/ #gainst SainteBBeuve and >ther ,ssays, p. 0<(, trans. &ohn Sturroc5, 4enguin, "##). )".2 >ilson, Edmund/ #2el's Castle, p. 0-, 2ontana, "#(0 @originall? published "#,"A. )0.2 B8audelaireB, in Eliot, T. S./ Selected ,ssays, pp. )00 and )0C, 2aber S 2aber, "#(". ),.2 cf. Eliot, B%eligion in .iteratureB, in Eliot, op. cit., p.,<<. )).2 BThe Tas5 of the TranslatorB, in 8enjamin, >alter/ Selected .ritings :ol 8" 8D86?8DA), pp. 0C,G0(,, 8el5napNFarvard, "##(. )C.2 8enjamin, >alter/ The #rcades %roGect, trans. FoEard Eiland and Mevin 'c.aughlin, 8el5napNFarvard, "###. )(.2 BThe 4aris of the Second Empire in 8audelaireB in 8enjamin, >alter/ Selected .ritings :ol 0 8D6*?8D09, pp. ,G#0, 8el5napNFarvard, 0--,. )1.2 .ibrar?.vanderbilt.edu )<.2 7Russian8 $avid Tu5hmanov This article incorporates text from a publication noE in the public domain/ !hisholm, Fugh, ed. @"#""A. ,ncyclo-Udia Britannica @""th ed.A. !ambridge :niversit? 4ress.

%ichardson, &oanna @"##)A. Baudelaire. 7eE Lor5/ St. 'artinBs 4ress. +S87 --,"0-"")1(-". O!.! ,-1,(1<).

()ternal lin%s
>i5iKuote has a collection of Kuotations related to/ %harles Baudelaire >i5imedia !ommons has media related to/ %harles Baudelaire >i5isource has original Eor5s Eritten b? or about/ %harles Baudelaire TEilight to $aEn/ !harles 8audelaire. Translations, Cordite %oetry Revie$ EEE.baudelaire.cz D .argest +nternet site dedicated to !harles 8audelaire. 4oems and prose are available in English, 2rench and !zech. !harles 8audelaireDSite dedicated to 8audelaireBs poems and prose, containing 3leurs du mal, %etit -oemes et -rose, 3anfarlo and more in 2rench. !harles 8audelaire +nternational *ssociation >or5s b? or about !harles 8audelaire in libraries @>orld!at catalogA 7i5olas Mompridis on 8audelaireBs poetr?, art, and the 9memor? of loss9 @2lashNFT'.CA baudelaireetbengale.blogspot.comDthe influence of 8audelaire on 8engali poetr? *lexander 8ar?5in D The +nvitation to Travel on LouTube

Online te)ts
!harles 8audelaireD.argest site dedicated to 8audelaireBs poems and prose, containing 3leurs du mal, %etit -oemes et -rose, 3anfarlo and more in 2rench. >or5s b? or about !harles 8audelaire at the +nternet *rchive @scanned original editions, color illustratedA >or5s b? !harles 8audelaire at 4roject 6utenberg 7/rench8 and 7(nglish8 .a 7ouvelle $`cadenceDExtensive online librar? of 8audelaire translations and biographies 4oems b? !harles 8audelaireDSelected Eor5s at 4oetr? *rchive 8audelaireBs poems at 4oems 2ound in Translation 8audelaire - Eighteen 4oems 9baudelaire in english9, Onedit.netDSean 8onne?Bs experimental translations of 8audelaire @humorA 7/rench8 8audelaire, Les 3leurs du Mal and %etits %oOmes en %rose @Le S-leen de %arisA, at athena.unige.ch 1ingle -or%s 2leurs$u'al.orgD$efinitive online presentation of 3leurs du mal, featuring the original 2rench alongside multiple English translations *n illustrated version @< 'bA of .es 2leurs du 'al, "<(" edition @!harles 8audelaire N une `dition illustr`e par in5Eatercolor.comA 9The %ebel9Dpoem b? 8audelaire .es 2oules @The !roEdsADEnglish translation ,uthorit$ control >orld!at

;+*2/ "10"<1,.!!7/ n1#-"<(#) +S7+/ ---- ---" 0"00 "<(, 67$/ ""<C-1"<) 872/ cb""<#-C<0,

!ategories/ "<0" births "<(1 deaths "#th-centur? 2rench Eriters 8urials at 'ontparnasse !emeter? $eaths from s?philis $ecadent literature 2rench art critics 2rench poets 2rench translators Translators of Edgar *llan 4oe 2rench-language poets .?c`e .ouis-le-6rand alumni >riters from 4aris 4eople Eith bipolar disorder 4obtes maudits 4s?chedelic drug advocates Obscenit? controversies S?mbolist poets

iccol@ !aganini
2rom >i5ipedia, the free enc?clopedia @%edirected from 7icolo 4aganiniA &ump to/ navigation, search This article includes a list of references, related reading or external lin5s, but its sources remain unclear because it lac%s inline citations. 4lease improve this article b? introducing more precise citations. ESe-tember A986F

7iccola 4aganini @"<"#A, b? +ngres iccol@ @or 7icolaA !aganini @01 October "1<0 G 01 'a? "<)-A Eas an +talian violinist, violist, guitarist, and composer. Fe Eas the most celebrated violin virtuoso of his time, and left his mar5 as one of the pillars of modern violin techniKue. Fis Ca-rice Co A0 in # minor, Op. ", is among the best 5noEn of his compositions, and has served as an inspiration for man? prominent composers.

Contents
" 8iograph? "." !hildhood ".0 Earl? career "., Travelling virtuoso ".) .ate career and health decline ".C 2inal ?ears, death and burial ".( 4ersonal and professional relationships ".1 4aganiniBs instruments 0 !ompositions , 4aganini and violin techniKue ) >or5s inspired b? 4aganini C 'emorials ( $ramatic portra?als 1 %eferences < 8ibliograph? # External lin5s

Biograph$
Childhood
7iccola 4aganini Eas born in 6enoa, +tal?, the third of the six children of *ntonio and Teresa @n`e

8occiardoA 4aganini. 4aganiniBs father Eas an unsuccessful trader, but he managed to supplement his income through pla?ing music on the mandolin. *t the age of five, 4aganini started learning the mandolin from his father, and moved to the violin b? the age of seven. Fis musical talents Eere Kuic5l? recognized, earning him numerous scholarships for violin lessons. The ?oung 4aganini studied under various local violinists, including 6iovanni Servetto and 6iacomo !osta, but his progress Kuic5l? outpaced their abilities. 4aganini and his father then traveled to 4arma to see5 further guidance from *lessandro %olla. 8ut upon listening to 4aganiniBs pla?ing, %olla immediatel? referred him to his oEn teacher, 2erdinando 4aer and, later, 4aerBs oEn teacher, 6asparo 6hiretti. Though 4aganini did not sta? long Eith 4aer or 6hiretti, the tEo had considerable influence on his composition st?le.

(arl$ career
The 2rench invaded northern +tal? in 'arch "1#(, and 6enoa Eas not spared. The 4aganinis sought refuge in their countr? propert? in %omairone, near 8olzaneto. 8? "<--, 4aganini and his father traveled to .ivorno, Ehere 4aganini pla?ed in concerts and his father resumed his maritime Eor5. +n "<-", the "<-?ear-old 4aganini Eas appointed first violin of the %epublic of .ucca, but a substantial portion of his income came from freelancing. Fis fame as a violinist Eas matched onl? b? his reputation as a gambler and Eomanizer. +n "<-C, .ucca Eas annexed b? 7apoleonic 2rance, and the region Eas ceded to 7apoleonBs sister, Elisa 8aciocchi. 4aganini became a violinist for the 8aciocchi court, Ehile giving private lessons to her husband, 2elice. +n "<-1, 8aciocchi became the 6rand $uchess of Tuscan? and her court Eas transferred to 2lorence. 4aganini Eas part of the entourage, but, toEards the end of "<-#, he left 8aciocchi to resume his freelance career.

Travelling virtuoso

"<," bulletin advertising a performance of 4aganini 2or the next feE ?ears, 4aganini returned to touring in the areas surrounding 4arma and 6enoa. Though he Eas ver? popular Eith the local audience, he Eas still not ver? Eell 5noEn in the rest of Europe. Fis first brea5 came from an "<", concert at .a Scala in 'ilan. The concert Eas a great success. *s a result, 4aganini began to attract the attention of other prominent, albeit more conservative, musicians across Europe. Fis earl? encounters Eith !harles 4hilippe .afont and .ouis Spohr created intense rivalr?. Fis concert activities, hoEever, Eere still limited to +tal? for the next feE ?ears. Fis fame spread across Europe Eith a concert tour that started in ;ienna in *ugust "<0<, stopping in ever? major European cit? in 6erman?, 4oland, and 8ohemia until 2ebruar? "<," in Strasbourg.

This Eas folloEed b? tours in 4aris and 8ritain. Fis technical abilit? and his Eillingness to displa? it received much critical acclaim. +n addition to his oEn compositions, theme and variations being the most popular, 4aganini also performed modified versions of Eor5s @primaril? concertosA Eritten b? his earl? contemporaries, such as %odolphe Mreutzer and 6iovanni 8attista ;iotti.

#ate career and health decline


Throughout his life, 4aganini Eas no stranger to chronic illnesses. *lthough no definite medical proof exists, he Eas reputed to have been affected b? 'arfan s?ndrome.I"JI0J +n addition, his freKuent concert schedule, as Eell as his extravagant lifest?le, too5 their toll on his health. Fe Eas diagnosed Eith s?philis as earl? as "<00, and his remed?, Ehich included mercur? and opium, came Eith serious ph?sical and ps?chological side effects. +n "<,), Ehile still in 4aris, he Eas treated for tuberculosis. Though his recover? Eas reasonabl? Kuic5, his future career Eas marred Eith freKuent cancellations due to various health problems, from the common cold to depression, Ehich lasted from da?s to months.

4aganini on his death bed +n September "<,), 4aganini put an end to his concert career and returned to 6enoa. !ontrar? to popular beliefs involving him Eishing to 5eep his music and techniKues secret, 4aganini devoted his time to the publication of his compositions and violin methods. Fe accepted students, of Ehom tEo enjo?ed moderate success/ violinist !amillo Sivori and cellist 6aetano !iandelli. 7either, hoEever, considered 4aganini helpful or inspirational. +n "<,C, 4aganini returned to 4arma, this time under the emplo? of *rchduchess 'arie .ouise of *ustria, 7apoleonBs second Eife. Fe Eas in charge of reorganizing her court orchestra. FoEever, he eventuall? conflicted Eith the pla?ers and court, so his visions never saE completion. +n 4aris, he befriended the ""-?ear old 4olish virtuoso *pollinaire de Monts5i, giving him some lessons and a signed testimonial. +t Eas Eidel? put about, falsel?, that 4aganini Eas so impressed Eith de Monts5iBs s5ills that he beKueathed him his violins and manuscripts.

/inal $ears, death and burial

Tomb of 4aganini in 4arma, +tal?

+n "<,(, 4aganini returned to 4aris to set up a casino. +ts immediate failure left him in financial ruin, and he auctioned off his personal effects, including his musical instruments, to recoup his losses. *t !hristmas of "<,<, he left 4aris for 'arseilles and, after a brief sta?, travelled to 7ice Ehere his condition Eorsened. +n 'a? "<)-, the 8ishop of 7ice sent 4aganini a local parish priest to perform the last rites. 4aganini assumed the sacrament Eas premature, and refused.I,J * Eee5 later, on 01 'a? "<)-, 4aganini died from internal hemorrhaging before a priest could be summoned. 8ecause of this, and his Eidel? rumored association Eith the devil, the !hurch denied his bod? a !atholic burial in 6enoa. +t too5 four ?ears and an appeal to the 4ope before the !hurch let his bod? be transported to 6enoa, but it Eas still not buried. Fis remains Eere finall? laid to rest in "<1(, in a cemeter? in 4arma. +n "<#,, the !zech violinist, 2rantioe5 Ondpqre5, persuaded 4aganiniBs grandson, *ttila, to alloE a vieEing of the violinistBs bod?. *fter this bizarre episode, 4aganiniBs bod? Eas finall? reinterred in a neE cemeter? in 4arma in "<#(.

!ersonal and professional relationships


Though having no shortage of romantic conKuests, 4aganini Eas seriousl? involved Eith a singer named *ntonia 8ianchi from !omo, Ehom he met in 'ilan in "<",. The tEo gave concerts together throughout +tal?. The? had a son, *chilles !?rus *lexander, born on 0, &ul? "<0C in 4alermo and baptized at San 8artolomeoBs. The? never legalized their union and it ended around *pril "<0< in ;ienna. 4aganini brought *chilles on his European tours, and *chilles later accompanied his father until the latterBs death. Fe Eas instrumental in dealing Eith his fatherBs burial, ?ears after his death. Throughout his career, 4aganini also became close friends Eith composers 6ioachino %ossini and Fector 8erlioz. %ossini and 4aganini met in 8ologna in the summer of "<"<. +n &anuar? "<0", on his return from 7aples, 4aganini met %ossini again in %ome, just in time to become the composerBs substitute conductor for his opera Mathilde de Sharbran, upon the sudden death of the original conductor. The violinistBs efforts earned gratitude from the composer. 'eanEhile, 4aganini Eas introduced to 8erlioz in 4aris in "<,,. Though 4aganini also commissioned from him 4arold en 1talie for viola and orchestra, he never performed it, and instead it Eas premiered a ?ear later b? violist !hristian :rhan. $espite his alleged lac5 of interest in 4arold, 4aganini often referred to 8erlioz as the resurrection of 8eethoven and, toEards the end of his life, he gave large sums to the composer.

!aganini4s instruments

;ieEs of the 4ubay "10( Stradivari

1l Cannone 'uarnerius on exhibit at the 4alazzo $oria-Tursi in 6enoa, +tal? 4aganini Eas in possession of a number of fine string instruments. 'ore legendar? than these Eere the circumstances under Ehich he obtained @and lostA some of them. >hile 4aganini Eas still a teenager in .ivorno, a Eealth? businessman named .ivron lent him a violin, made b? the master luthier 6iuseppe 6uarneri, for a concert. .ivron Eas so impressed Eith 4aganiniBs pla?ing that he refused to ta5e it bac5. This particular violin came to be 5noEn as 1l Cannone 'uarnerius.I)J On a later occasion in 4arma, he Eon another valuable violin @also b? 6uarneriA after a difficult sightreading challenge from a man named 4asini. Other instruments associated Eith 4aganini include the #ntonio *mati "(--, the CicolV #mati "(C1, the %aganiniBDesaint "(<- Stradivari, the 6uarneri-filius #ndrea "1-(, the Le Brun "1"0 Stradivari, the :uillaume c. "10- 8ergonzi, the 4ubay "10( Stradivari, and the Comte Co5io di Salabue "101 violinsH the Countess of 3landers "C<0 da Sala-di 8ertolotti, and the Mendelssohn "1," Stradivari violasH the %iatti "1-- 6offriller, the Stanlein "1-1 Stradivari, and the Ladenburg "1,( Stradivari cellosH and the 'robert of Mirecourt "<0- @guitarA.ICJI(J 2our of these instruments are noE pla?ed b? the To5?o String uartet.

Compositions
!antabile @4aganiniA

&oshua 8ell and Sharon +sbin perform 4aganiniBs !antabile at the >hite Fouse Evening of !lassical 'usic on ) 7ovember 0--#. !antabile @4aganiniA 'enu -/-&oshua 8ell and Sharon +sbin *udio onl? version ;ariations on One String 'enu -/-4erformed b? &ohn 'ichell %roblems -laying these files< See media hel'ain article/ .ist of compositions b? 7iccola 4aganini 4aganini composed his oEn Eor5s to pla? exclusivel? in his concerts, all of Ehich profoundl? influenced the evolution of violin techniKue. Fis 0) !aprices Eere probabl? composed in the period betEeen "<-C to "<-#, Ehile he Eas in the service of the 8aciocchi court. *lso during this period, he composed the majorit? of the solo pieces, duo-sonatas, trios and Kuartets for the guitar. These chamber Eor5s ma? have been inspired b? the publication, in .ucca, of the guitar Kuintets of 8occherini. 'an? of his variations @and he has become the de facto master of this musical genreA, including Le Streghe, The Carnival of :enice, and Cel cor -iW non mi sento, Eere composed, or at least first performed, before his European concert tour. 6enerall? spea5ing, 4aganiniBs compositions Eere technicall? imaginative, and the timbre of the instrument Eas greatl? expanded as a result of these Eor5s. Sounds of different musical instruments and animals Eere often imitated. One such composition Eas titled 1l 3andango S-anolo @The Spanish $anceA, Ehich featured a series of humorous imitations of farm animals. Even more outrageous Eas a solo piece Duetto #moroso, in Ehich the sighs and groans of lovers Eere intimatel? depicted on the violin. There survives a manuscript of the Duetto, Ehich has been recorded. The existence of the 3andango is 5noEn onl? through concert posters. FoEever, his Eor5s Eere criticized for lac5ing characteristics of true pol?phonism, as pointed out b? Eugbne Lsase.I1J Lehudi 'enuhin, on the other hand, suggested that this might have been the result of his reliance on the guitar @in lieu of the pianoA as an aid in composition.I)J The orchestral parts for his concertos Eere often polite, unadventurous, and clearl? supportive of the soloist. +n this, his st?le is consistent Eith that of other +talian composers such as 4aisiello, %ossini and $onizetti, Eho Eere influenced b? the guitar-song milieu of 7aples during this period.I<J

4aganini Eas also the inspiration of man? prominent composers. 8oth 9.a !ampanella9 and the * minor !aprice @7o. 0)A have been an object of interest for a number of composers. 2ranz .iszt, %obert Schumann, &ohannes 8rahms, Sergei %achmaninoff, 8oris 8lacher, *ndreE .lo?d >ebber, 6eorge %ochberg and >itold .utostaEs5i, among others, Erote Eell-5noEn variations on these themes.

!aganini and violin techni+ue

8ust of 7iccola 4aganini b? $avid dB*ngers @"<,-G"<,,A The +sraeli violinist +vr? 6itlis once referred to 4aganini as a phenomenon rather than a development. Though some of the techniKues freKuentl? emplo?ed b? 4aganini Eere alread? present, most accomplished violinists of the time focused on intonation and boEing techniKues. *rcangelo !orelli @"(C,G"1",A Eas considered a pioneer in transforming the violin from an ensemble instrument to a solo instrument. +n the meantime, the pol?phonic capabilit? of the violin Eas firml? established through the Sonatas and 4artitas 8>; "--"G"--( of &ohann Sebastian 8ach @"(<CG"1C-A. Other notable violinists included *ntonio ;ivaldi @"(1<G"1)"A and 6iuseppe Tartini @"(#0G"11-A, Eho, in their compositions, reflected the increasing technical and musical demands on the violinist. *lthough the role of the violin in music drasticall? changed through this period, progress in violin techniKue Eas stead? but sloE. TechniKues reKuiring agilit? of the fingers and the boE Eere still considered unorthodox and discouraged b? the established communit? of violinists. 'uch of 4aganiniBs pla?ing @and his violin compositionA Eas influenced b? tEo violinists, 4ietro .ocatelli @"(#,G"1)(A and *ugust $uranoEs5i @"11-G"<,)A. $uring 4aganiniBs stud? in 4arma, he came across the 0) !aprices of .ocatelli @entitled L'arte di nuova modula5ione ? Ca-ricci enigmatici or The art of the ne$ style ? the enigmatic ca-ricesA. 4ublished in the "1,-s, the? Eere shunned b? the musical authorities for their technical innovations, and Eere forgotten b? the musical communit? at large. *round the same time, $urand, a former student of 6iovanni 8attista ;iotti @"1CCG"<0)A, became a celebrated violinist. Fe Eas renoEned for his use of harmonics and the left hand pizzicato in his performance. 4aganini Eas impressed b? $urandBs innovations and shoEmanship, Ehich later also became the hallmar5s of the ?oung violin virtuoso. 4aganini Eas instrumental in the revival and popularization of these violinistic techniKues, Ehich are noE incorporated into regular compositions. *nother aspect of 4aganiniBs violin techniKues concerned his flexibilit?. Fe had exceptionall? long fingers and Eas capable of pla?ing three octaves across four strings in a hand span, an extraordinaril? difficult feat even b? toda?Bs standards. Fis seemingl? unnatural abilit? ma? have been a result of 'arfan s?ndrome.I#J

3or%s inspired b$ !aganini

M?o5o Lonemoto pla?ing !aprice 7o. 0) in * minor 7otable Eor5s inspired b? compositions of 4aganini include/ &ason 8ec5er G Ca-rice Co 7 'i5e !ampese G 94aganini9, arrangement of !aprice 7o. "( and various Eor5s. *lfredo !asella G %aganiniana, arrangement of four caprices 'ario !astelnuovo-Tedesco G Ca-riccio Diabolico for classical guitar is a homage to 4aganini, and Kuotes 9.a campanella9 2r`d`ric !hopin G Souvenir de %aganini for solo piano @"<0#H published posthumousl?A &ohann 7epomu5 Fummel G 2antasia for piano in ! major 9Souvenir de 4aganini9, >oO <, S. "#-. 2ritz Mreisler G %aganini !oncerto in $ major @recomposed paraphrase of the first movement of the Op. ( !oncertoA for violin and orchestra 2ranz .ehir G %aganini, a fictionalized operetta about 4aganini @"#0CA 2ranz .iszt G Six 'randes Ntudes de %aganini, S.")" for solo piano @"<C"A @virtuoso arrangements of C caprices, including the 0)th, and La Cam-anella from ;iolin !oncerto 7o. 0A !esare 4ugni G !Le Carnaval de :enise! -as de deu2 @a5a !Satanella! -as de deu2A. 8ased on airs from 4aganiniBs !1l Carnevale di :ene5ia!, op. "-. Originall? choreographed b? 'arius 4etipa as a concert piece for himself and the ballerina *malia 2erraris. 2irst performed at the +mperial 8olshoi Mamenn? Theatre of Saint 4etersburg on 0) 2ebruar? IO.S. "0 2ebruar?J "<C#. The -as de deu2 Eas later added to the ballet Satanella in "<(( Ehere it acKuired its more Eell-5noEn title, the !Satanella! -as de deu2. 6eorge %ochberg G Ca-rice :ariations @"#1-A, C- variations for solo violin :li &on %oth G 9Scherzo *lla 4aganini9 and 94aganini 4araphrase9 %obert Schumann G Studies after !aprices b? 4aganini, Op. , @"<,0H pianoAH ( !oncert Studies on !aprices b? 4aganini, Op. "- @"<,,, pianoA. * movement from his piano Eor5 Carnaval @Op. #A is named for 4aganini. &ohann Sedlatze5 @"#th-centur? 4olish flautist 5noEn as 9The 4aganini of the 2lute9A G 9Souvenir a 4aganini9 6rand ;ariations on 9The !arnival of ;enice9 'aril?n Shrude G Rene$ing the Myth for alto saxophone and piano Steve ;ai G 9EugeneBs Tric5 8ag9 from the movie Crossroads. 8ased on !aprice 7r. C .es 2rad5in G 9SurfinB The !lassics, 4art "9 from the album S-lashI. 8ased on !aprice 7r. 0) 4hilip >ilb? G %aganini :ariations, for both Eind band and brass band Eugbne Lsase G %aganini variations for violin and piano

The !aprice 7o. 0) in # minor, Op. ", @Tema con varia5ioniA has been the basis of Eor5s b? man? other composers. 7otable examples include 8rahmsBs :ariations on a Theme of %aganini and %achmaninoffBs Rha-sody on a Theme of %aganini.

Memorials
The 4aganini !ompetition @%remio %aganiniA is an international violin competition created in "#C) in his home cit? of 6enoa and named in his honour. +n "#10 the State of +tal? purchased a large collection of 7iccola 4aganini manuscripts from the >. Fe?er .ibrar? of !ologne. The? are housed at the 8iblioteca !asanatense in %ome.I"-J +n "#<0 the cit? of 6enoa commissioned a thematic catalogue of music b? 4aganini, edited b? 'aria %osa 'oretti and *nna Sorrento, hence the abbreviation 9'S9 assigned to his catalogued Eor5s.I""J * minor planet 0<C# 4aganini discovered in "#1< b? Soviet astronomer 7i5olai !hern?5h is named after him.I"0J

Dramatic portra$als
'ain article/ .ist of composers depicted on film 4aganini has been portra?ed b? a number of actors in film and television productions, including SteEart 6ranger in the "#)( biographical portrait The Magic Bo$, %ox? %oth in # Song to Remember @"#)CA, and Mlaus Mins5i in Kins&i %aganini @"#<#A.I",J +n the Soviet "#<0 miniseries Ciccolo %aganini the musician is portra?ed b? the *rmenian actor ;ladimir 'sr?an. The series focuses on 4aganiniBs relationship Eith the %oman !atholic !hurch. *nother Soviet actor, *rmen $zhigar5han?an, pla?s 4aganiniBs fictionalized arch-rival, an insidious &esuit official. The information in the series is generall? spurious and it also pla?s to some of the m?ths and legends rampant during the musicianBs lifetime. One memorable scene shoEs 4aganiniBs adversaries sabotaging his violin before a high-profile performance, causing all strings but one to brea5 during the concert. *n undeterred 4aganini continues to perform on three, tEo, and finall? on a single string. +n actualit?, 4aganini occasionall? bro5e strings during a performance on purpose so he could further displa? his virtuosit?.I")J +n "<01, 4ope .eo 3++ honoured 4aganini Eith the Order of the 6olden Spur.I,JI"CJ +n $on 7igroBs satirical comed? %aganini @"##CA, the great violinist see5s vainl? for his salvation, claiming that he un5noEingl? sold his soul to the $evil. 9;ariation upon variation,9 he cries at one point, 9but Ehich variation leads to salvation and Ehich to damnation? 'usic is a Kuestion for Ehich there is no ansEer.9 4aganini is portra?ed as having 5illed three of his lovers and sin5ing repeatedl? into povert?, prison, and drin5. Each time he is 9rescued9 b? the $evil Eho appears in different guises, returning 4aganiniBs violin so he can continue pla?ing. +n the end, 4aganiniBs salvationDadministered b? a god-li5e !loc5ma5erDturns out to be imprisonment in a large bottle Ehere he pla?s his music for the amusement of the public through all eternit?. 9$o not pit? him, m? dear,9 the !loc5ma5er tells *ntonia, one of 4aganiniBs murdered Eives. 9Fe is alone Eith the ansEer for Ehich there is no Kuestion. The saved and the damned are the same.9

References
". 2 '?ron %. Schoenfeld, '$ @0 &anuar? "#1<A. 97icolo 4aganini, &anuar? 0, "#1<, Schoenfeld 0,# @"A/ )- G &*'*9. &ama.ama-assn.org. %etrieved "0 7ovember 0-"". 0. 2 94aganiniBs left hand9. ;iolinist.com. %etrieved "0 7ovember 0-"". ,. R a b $avid, 4aul. 94aganini, 7icolo9, 6rove @ed.A # Dictionary of Music and Musicians @"#--A, ;ol. ++, pp. (0<G(,0. ). R a b Lehudi 'enuhin and !urtis >. $avis. The Music of Man. 'ethuen, "#1#. C. 2 9'ediatheKue.cite9. 'ediatheKue.cite-musiKue.fr. %etrieved "0 7ovember 0-"". (. 2 9Fautetfort.com9. 8oulevarddesresistants.hautetfort.com. 0, &anuar? 0--<. %etrieved "0

7ovember 0-"". 1. 2 .ev Solomonovich 6inzburg. =saye. 4aganiniana, "#<-. <. 2 7. Till/ %ossini, pp. C-GC". Omnibus 4ress, "#<1 #. 2 2rom 4aganini stories m?ths. The *2: and :rban .egends *rchive. %etrieved on ", &anuar? 0--#H based primaril? on Schoenfeld '% @&anuar? "#1<A. 97icolo 4aganini. 'usical magician and 'arfan mutant?9. J#M# A;B @"A/ )-G0. doi/"-."--"Njama.0,#.".)-. 4'+$ ,,(#"#. "-.2 8iblioteca !asanatense "".2 'oretti, '. %. S Sorrento, *. @edsA. Catalogo tematico delle musiche di CiccolV %aganini @6enoa/ !omune di 6enova, "#<0A. "0.2 Schmadel, .utz $. @0--,A. Dictionary of Minor %lanet Cames @Cth ed.A. 7eE Lor5/ Springer ;erlag. p. 0,C. +S87 ,-C)----0,<-,. ",.2 +'$b. 97iccola 4aganini @!haracterA9. %etrieved 0" 2ebruar? 0-"-. ").2 94aganini, 7iccola.9 ,ncyclo-Udia Britannica @ltimate Reference Suite !hicago/ Enc?clopudia 8ritannica, 0-"". "C.2 ,ncyclo-aedia Britannica @"#""A, ;ol. 33, p. )C#, 94aganini, 7icolo9.

Bibliograph$
.eopold *uer, :iolin -laying as 1 teach it, Sto5es, "#0" @reprint $over, "#<-A. *lberto 8achmann, #n ,ncyclo-edia of the violin, $a !apo, "#0C. 8oscassi *ngelo, 1l :iolino di CiccolV %aganini conservato nel %ala55o Munici-ale di 'enova, 2ratelli 4agano, "#-#. 6eraldine +. !. de !ourc?, %aganini the 'enoese, :niversit? of O5lahoma, "#C1 @reprint $a !apo, "#11A. &effre? 4ulver, %aganini" The Romantic :irtuoso, Ferbert &oseph, "#,( @reprint $a !apo, "#1-A. Lehudi 'enuhin and >illiam 4rimrose, :iolin and viola, 'ac$onald and &aneBs, "#1(. Lehudi 'enuhin and !urtis >. $avis, The Music of man, 'ethuen, "#1#. &ohn Sugden, %aganini, Omnibus 4ress, "#<-. 8runo 'onsaingeon,The #rt of violin, 7;! *rts @on filmA, 0--". 'asters of the 7ineteenth !entur? 6uitar, 'el 8a? 4ublications. 4hilippe 8orer, The T$entyB3our Ca-rices of CiccolV %aganini Their significance for the history of violin -laying and the music of the Romantic era, Stiftung =entralstelle der Studentenschaft der :niversitft =mrich, =urich, "##1 $anilo 4refumo, CiccolV %aganini, .BEpos, 0--( G +S87<<,-0,-0"

()ternal lin%s
>i5imedia !ommons has media related to/ &iccol' $aganini 2ree scores b? 7iccola 4aganini at the +nternational 'usic Score .ibrar? 4roject ;iola in music G 7iccola 4aganini !loselin5s.com, 2ree 2amil? Tree 7icolo 4aganini $iscograph?/ Exhaustive list of recordings @coarse- and micro-groove records, !$, S*!$, ;FS S $;$A arranged under "0 instrumental sectionsH includes index of artists, selected album covers S detailed composition list The 'utopia 4roject has compositions b? CiccolV %aganini &mages

+mages of and about 4aganini @%o?al *cadem? of 'usicA +mages of 4aganini @6allicaA 5hide6 v t e Romanticism $enmar5 England @literatureA 2rance @literatureA 6erman? 7orEa? 4oland %ussia @literatureA Scotland 8ohemianism !ounter-Enlightenment $msseldorf School 6esamt5unstEer5 6othic %evival @architectureA Fudson %iver School 7azarene movement Ossian %omantic nationalism Transcendentalism >allenrodism *ndersen *. v. *rnim 8. v. *rnim 8arbauld 8at?ush5ov 8eer 8ertrand 8la5e 8otev 8rentano 8r?ant 8urns 8?ron !hateaubriand !lare !oleridge

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!ooper $e uince? $ias $umas Eichendorff Emerson Espronceda 2oscolo 6arrett 6autier 6oethe 6rimm 8rothers Fauff FaEthorne Feine Feliade Ferculano Foffmann Fvlderlin Fugo +rving &ean 4aul Maramzin Meats Mleist Mrasi_s5i .amartine .arra .eopardi .ermontov 'icha 'agalhwes 'alczeEs5i 'anzoni 'ic5ieEicz 'usset 7erval 7odier 7orEid 7ovalis Oehlenschlfger 4oe 4olidori 4otoc5i 4reoeren 4ush5in Schiller SchEab

Scott '. Shelle? 4. 8. Shelle? Shevchen5o StoEac5i de Staxl Stendhal Tiec5 :hland >ordsEorth =hu5ovs5? =orrilla *dam *l5an *uber 8eethoven 8ellini 8erlioz 8ertin 8erEald !hopin 2`licien $avid 2erdinand $avid $onizetti 2ield 2ranc5 2ranz 6lin5a Fal`v? Mal5brenner .iszt .oeEe 'arschner 'asarnau '`hul 2ann? 'endelssohn 2elix 'endelssohn '`reaux 'e?erbeer 'oniusz5o 'oscheles 7iederme?er !aganini 4rudent %eicha %ossini

Music

%ubinstein Schubert !lara Schumann %obert Schumann Smetana Sor Spohr Spontini Thalberg ;erdi ;opqoe5 >agner >eber !haada?ev !oleridge 2euerbach 2ichte 6oethe Fegel 'mller %ousseau Schiller *. Schlegel 2. Schlegel Schopenhauer Schleiermacher Tiec5 >ac5enroder *ivazovs5? 8ierstadt 8la5e 8r?ullov !hurch !onstable !ole !orot $ahl $elacroix 2riedrich 2useli 6`ricault 6toEac5i 6o?a 6ude Fa?ez

Theologians and philosophers

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y *ge of Enlightenment %ealism z

.eutze 'artin 'ichatoEs5i 4almer %unge Turner ;eit >ard >iertz

,uthorit$ control

>orld!at ;+*2/ #,<C-<1" .!!7/ n1#"-C<<" +S7+/ ---- ---" 00<, -(#C 67$/ ""<C#""11 872/ cb",<#<"1,1

!ategories/ "1<0 births "<)- deaths !omposers for the classical guitar !omposers for violin +talian classical violinists +talian composers 4eople from 6enoa %omantic composers

"rbain Grandier
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:rbain 6randier "rbain Grandier @"C#- in 8oubre, 'a?enne G "< *ugust "(,) in .oudunA Eas a 2rench !atholic priest Eho Eas burned at the sta5e after being convicted of Eitchcraft, folloEing the events of the so-called 9.oudun 4ossessions9. The circumstances of 2ather 6randierBs trial and execution have attracted the attention of Eriters *lexandre $umas, pbre and *ldous Fuxle?, as Eell as historian &ules 'ichelet and various scholars of European Eitchcraft. 'ost modern commentators have concluded that 6randier Eas the victim of a politicall? motivated persecution led b? the poEerful !ardinal %ichelieu.

Contents
" .ife 0 $iabolical pact , *rtistic depictions ) See also C %eferences

#ife
6randier served as priest in the church of Sainte !roix in .oudun, in the $iocese of 4oitiers. +gnoring his voE of celibac?, he is 5noEn to have had sexual relationships Eith a number of Eomen and to have acKuired a reputation as a philanderer. Fe also Erote a boo5 attac5ing the doctrine of clerical celibac?.I"J +n "(,0, a group of nuns from the local :rsuline convent accused him of having beEitched them, sending the demon *smodai, among others, to commit evil and impudent acts Eith them. 'odern commentators on the case, such as the author *ldous Fuxle?, have argued that the accusations began after 6randier refused to become the spiritual director of the convent, unaEare that the 'other Superior, Sister &eanne of the *ngels, had become obsessed Eith him, having seen him from afar and heard of his sexual exploits. *ccording to Fuxle?, Sister &eanne, enraged b? his rejection, instead invited !anon 'ignon, an enem? of 6randier, to become the director. &eanne then accused 6randier of using blac5 magic to seduce her. The other nuns graduall? began to ma5e similar accusations. 6randier Eas arrested, interrogated and tried b? an ecclesiastical tribunal, Ehich acKuitted him. FoEever, 6randier had gained the enmit? of the poEerful !ardinal %ichelieu, the chief minister of 2rance, after a public verbal attac5 against him. 6randier had also Eritten and published scathing criticisms of %ichelieu. %ichelieu ordered a neE trial, conducted b? his special envo? &ean de .aubardemont, a relative of the 'other Superior of the convent of .oudun. 6randier Eas rearrested at *ngers and the possibilit? of appealing to the 4arlement of 4aris Eas denied to him. +nterrogated for a second time, the nuns @including the 'other SuperiorA did not reneE their accusations, but this did not affect the predetermined outcome of the trial. *fter torturing 2ather 6randier, the judges @clerics .actance, .aubardemont, Surin and TranKuilleA introduced documents purportedl? signed b? 6randier and several demons as evidence that he had made a diabolical pact. +t is un5noEn if 6randier Erote or signed the pacts under duress, or if the? Eere entirel? forged. 6randier Eas found guilt? and sentenced to death. The judges Eho condemned 6randier ordered that he be put to the 9extraordinar? Kuestion9, a form of torture Ehich Eas usuall?, but not immediatel?, fatal, and Eas therefore onl? administered to victims Eho Eere to be executed immediatel? afterEards. $espite torture, 6randier never confessed to Eitchcraft. Fe Eas burned alive at the sta5e. 'an? theories exist as to the cause of the .oudun 9possessions9. One of the most li5el? explanations is that the Ehole affair Eas a hoax orchestrated b? %ichelieu. Fuxle? in his boo5 The Devils of Loudun @"#C0A and in the Men %ussell film version of the Fuxle? boo5 @"#1"A alleged that the initial accusations against 6randier b? the nuns of the convent of .oudun Eere part of a case of collective h?steria.

Diabolical pact

4act in 8ac5Eards .atin .atin >i5isource has original text related to this article/ pactum foederis "rbani Grandieri

!actum foederis "rbani Grandieri


Salire ad/ navigationem, Kuaerere !,CT"M /O(D(R&1 "RB, & GR, ca 9C;< &.a. mlE ntv. bbzl8 ntS entvuj rfc. snetpp so7 tcap tpecca smebah eidh Ksila torats* Kta mecillop ciuh te .e sibon iuK rdnar6 br: siredeof . po te pulov noh nom suced munigriv merolf lum meroma lemes terffo sbo7 .re arac illi teirbe oudirt bacinrof te ealccE as baclucoc sdep bus gis gas ona ni xilef giv na teviv tcap K Hture suispi tagor sbon .$ delam son tni aetsop nev te moh art ni mead ssoc tni fni ni tca2 sanataS bubezle8 rfc. imilE nahtaive. htorats* mod pcnirp mead te baid gam sop giS tprcs htrbl8 &.b. 7os pptens .cfr juvnte Stn 8lzbb .vtn Elm atK *starot alisK hdie habems accept pact foederis :rb 6randr Kui nobis e. et huic pollicem amorem mul florem virginum decus mon hon volup et op. fornicab triduo ebriet illi cara er. 7obs offret semel in ano sag sig sub peds coculcab sa Ecclae et
D&(R&

nobs rogat ipsius erutH K pact vivet an vig felix in tra hom et ven postea int nos maled $. 2act in inf int coss daem .cfr 8elzebub Satanas *staroth .eviathan Elimi Sig pos mag diab et daem princp dom 8lbrth scrpt &.c. 7os praepotens .ucifer, juvante Satan, 8elzebub, .eviathan, Elimi, atKue *staroth, allisKue, hodie habemus acceptum pactum foederis :rbani 6randieri Kui nobis est. Et huic pollicemur amorem mulierum, florem virginum, decus monacharum, honores, voluptates et opes. 2ornicabitur triduoH ebrietas illi cara erit. 7obis offerit semel in anno sanguinis sigillum, sub pedibus conculcabit sacra ecclesiae et nobis rogationes ipsius eruntH Kuo pacto vivet annos viginti felix in terra hominum, et veniet postea inter nos maleficere $eo. 2actum in infernis, inter consilia daemonum. .ucifer 8elzebub Satanas *staroth .eviathan Elimi Sigilla posuere magister diabolus et daemones principes domini. 8aalberith, scriptor. &&. $omine magisterKue .ucifer te deum et principem agnosco, et polliceor tibi servire et obedire Kuandiu potero vivere. Et renuncio alterum $eum et &esum !hristum et alios sanctos atKue sanctas et Ecclesiam *postolicam et %omanam et omnia ipsius sacramenta et omnes orationes et rogationes Kuibus fideles possint intercedere pro meH et tibi polliceor Kuid faciam KuotKuot malum potero, et attrahere ad mala per omnesH et abrenuncio chrismam et baptismum, et omnia merita &esu !hristi et ipsius sanctorumH et si deero tuae servitui et adorationiH et si non oblationem mei ipsius fecero, ter KuoKue die, tibi do vitam meam sicut tuam. 2eci hoc anno et die. :rb. 6randier. Extractum ex infernis.

One of the documents introduced as evidence during 6randierBs second trial is a diabolical pact Eritten in .atin and apparentl? signed b? 6randier. *nother, Ehich loo5s illegible, is Eritten bac5Eards, in .atin Eith scribal abbreviation, and has since been published and translated in a number of boo5s on Eitchcraft. This document also carries man? strange s?mbols, and Eas 9signed9 b? several demons Eith their seals, as Eell as b? Satan himself.Icitation neededJ $eciphered and translated to English, it reads/ >e, the influential .ucifer, the ?oung Satan, 8eelzebub, .eviathan, Elimi, and *staroth, together Eith others, have toda? accepted the covenant pact of :rbain 6randier, Eho is ours. *nd him do Ee promise the love of Eomen, the floEer of virgins, the respect of monarchs, honors, lusts and poEers. Fe Eill go Ehoring three da?s longH the carousal Eill be dear to him. Fe offers us once in the ?ear a seal of blood, under the feet he Eill trample the hol? things of the church and he Eill as5 us man? KuestionsH Eith this pact he Eill live tEent? ?ears happ? on the earth of men, and Eill later join us to sin against 6od. 8ound in hell, in the council of demons. .ucifer 8eelzebub Satan *staroth .eviathan Elimi The seals placed the $evil, the master, and the demons, princes of the lord. 8aalberith, Eriter.

,rtistic depictions
6randierBs trials Eere the subject of tEo treatments b? *lexandre $umas, pbre/ an entr? in volume

four of his Crimes CMlObres @"<)-A and a pla?, @rbain 'randier @"<C-A. The 2rench historian &ules 'ichelet discussed 6randier in a chapter of La SorciOre @"<(0A. The same subject Eas revisited about a centur? later in the boo5-length essa?, The Devils of Loudun, b? *ldous Fuxle?, published in "#C0. Fuxle?Bs boo5 Eas adapted for the stage in "#(" b? &ohn >hiting @commissioned b? the %o?al Sha5espeare !ompan?A. The pla? Eas adapted for the movie screen b? Men %ussell in "#1" @as The DevilsA. The novel Eas also adapted for the opera stage in "#(# b? Mrz?sztof 4enderec5i @as Die Teufel von LoudunA. +t Eas also an inspiration for Mat&a Joanna od #nioXY$ @Mother Joan of the #ngelsA G a film b? &erz? MaEaleroEicz.

1ee also
.ist of people executed for Eitchcraft

References
This article incorporates text from a publication noE in the public domain/ !hisholm, Fugh, ed. @"#""A. ,ncyclo-Udia Britannica @""th ed.A. !ambridge :niversit? 4ress. %obbins, %ossell Fope @"#C#A. The ,ncyclo-edia of .itchcraft and Demonology 7eE Lor5/ !roEn 4ublishers, +nc. @see article on :rbain 6randierA ". 2 ,rrest de condemnation de mort contre maistre "rbain Grandier... 4aris, Etienne Febert, "(,) ,uthorit$ control ;+*2/ 0)#)C-#

!ategories/ "C#- births "(,) deaths 2rench %oman !atholic priests "1th-centur? %oman !atholic priests 4eople executed for Eitchcraft 4eople executed b? 2rance b? burning 2rench people executed b? burning

/rancis Bacon
2rom >i5ipedia, the free enc?clopedia &ump to/ navigation, search This article is about the philosopher. 2or other people Eith the same name, see 2rancis 8acon @disambiguationA. 2rancis 8acon

4ortrait of 2rancis 8acon, b? 2rans 4ourbus @"("1A, 4alace on the >ater in >arsaE. 00 &anuar? "C(" Born Strand, .ondon, England # *pril "(0( @aged (CA Died Fighgate, 'iddlesex, England ationalit$ English (ra English %enaissance, The Scientific %evolution Region >estern philosoph? 1chool %enaissance 4hilosoph?, Empiricism ,lma mater !ambridge :niversit? +nfluenced b?IshoEJ +nfluencedIshoEJ 1ignature 1ir /rancis Bacon, 9st *iscount 1t. ,lban,I"JIaJ Mt., M! @00 &anuar? "C(" G # *pril "(0(A Eas an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator and author. Fe served both as *ttorne? 6eneral and .ord !hancellor of England. *fter his death, he remained extremel? influential through his Eor5s, especiall? as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution. 8acon has been called the creator of empiricism.I0J Fis Eor5s established and popularized inductive methodologies for scientific inKuir?, often called the Baconian method, or simpl? the scientific method. Fis demand for a planned procedure of investigating all things natural mar5ed a neE turn in the rhetorical and theoretical frameEor5 for science, much of Ehich still surrounds conceptions of proper methodolog? toda?. 8acon Eas 5nighted in "(-,, and created both 8aron ;erulam in "("< and ;iscount St. *lban in "(0"HIbJ as he died Eithout heirs, both peerages became extinct upon his death. Fe famousl? died

b? contracting pneumonia Ehile stud?ing the effects of freezing on the preservation of meat.

Contents
" 8iograph? "." Earl? life ".0 4arliamentarian "., *ttorne? 6eneral ".) &ames + comes to the throne ".C .ord !hancellor and public disgrace ".( 4ersonal life ".1 $eath 0 4hilosoph? and Eor5s , +nfluence ,." Science ,.0 7orth *merica ,., .aE ) Fistorical debates )." 8acon and Sha5espeare ).0 Occult h?potheses C 8ibliograph? ( See also 1 7otes < %eferences # External lin5s

Biograph$
(arl$ life

The "<-?ear-old 2rancis 8acon. +nscription around head reads/ 9+f one could but paint his mind9. 7ational 4ortrait 6aller?, .ondon

Sir 2rancis 8acon 8acon Eas born on 00 &anuar? "C(" at Lor5 Fouse near the Strand in .ondon, the son of Sir 7icholas 8acon b? his second Eife, *nne @!oo5eA 8acon, the daughter of the noted humanist *nthon? !oo5e. Fis motherOs sister Eas married to >illiam !ecil, "st 8aron 8urghle?, ma5ing 8urghle? 2rancis 8aconOs uncle. 8iographers believe that 8acon Eas educated at home in his earl? ?ears oEing to poor health @Ehich plagued him throughout his lifeA, receiving tuition from &ohn >alsall, a graduate of Oxford Eith a strong leaning toEard 4uritanism. Fe entered Trinit? !ollege, !ambridge, on C *pril "C1, at the age of "0,I,J living for three ?ears there together Eith his older brother *nthon? 8acon under the personal tutelage of $r &ohn >hitgift, future *rchbishop of !anterbur?. 8aconOs education Eas conducted largel? in .atin and folloEed the medieval curriculum. Fe Eas also educated at the :niversit? of 4oitiers. +t Eas at !ambridge that he first met ueen Elizabeth, Eho Eas impressed b? his precocious intellect, and Eas accustomed to calling him The Loung .ord Meeper.I)J Fis studies brought him to the belief that the methods and results of science as then practised Eere erroneous. Fis reverence for *ristotle conflicted Eith his loathing of *ristotelian philosoph?, Ehich seemed to him barren, disputatious, and Erong in its objectives.

The +talianate Lor5 >ater 6ate G the entr? to Lor5 Fouse, built about "(0( after 8aconBs death On 01 &une "C1(, he and *nthon? entered de societate magistrorum at 6ra?Bs +nn. * feE months later, 2rancis Eent abroad Eith Sir *mias 4aulet, the English ambassador at 4aris, Ehile *nthon? continued his studies at home. The state of government and societ? in 2rance under Fenr? +++ afforded him valuable political instruction. 2or the next three ?ears he visited 8lois, 4oitiers, Tours, +tal?, and Spain. $uring his travels, 8acon studied language, statecraft, and civil laE Ehile performing routine diplomatic tas5s. On at least one occasion he delivered diplomatic letters to

England for >alsingham, 8urghle?, and .eicester, as Eell as for the Kueen. The sudden death of his father in 2ebruar? "C1# prompted 8acon to return to England. Sir 7icholas had laid up a considerable sum of mone? to purchase an estate for his ?oungest son, but he died before doing so, and 2rancis Eas left Eith onl? a fifth of that mone?. Faving borroEed mone?, 8acon got into debt. To support himself, he too5 up his residence in laE at 6ra?Bs +nn in "C1#.

!arliamentarian
8acon had three goals/ to uncover truth, to serve his countr?, and to serve his church. Fe sought to further these ends b? see5ing a prestigious post. +n "C<-, through his uncle, .ord 8urghle?, he applied for a post at court that might enable him to pursue a life of learning. Fis application failed. 2or tEo ?ears he Eor5ed Kuietl? at 6ra?Bs +nn, until he Eas admitted as an outer barrister in "C<0.

2rancis 8aconBs statue at 6ra?Bs +nn Fall Fis parliamentar? career began Ehen he Eas elected '4 for 8ossine?, $evon, in a b?-election in "C<". +n "C<), he too5 his seat in parliament for 'elcombe in $orset, and subseKuentl? for Taunton @"C<(A. *t this time, he began to Erite on the condition of parties in the church, as Eell as on the topic of philosophical reform in the lost tract Tem-oris %artus Ma2imus. Let he failed to gain a position he thought Eould lead him to success. Fe shoEed signs of s?mpath? to 4uritanism, attending the sermons of the 4uritan chaplain of 6ra?Os +nn and accompan?ing his mother to the Temple !hurch to hear >alter Travers. This led to the publication of his earliest surviving tract, Ehich criticised the English churchOs suppression of the 4uritan clerg?. +n the 4arliament of "C<(, he openl? urged execution for 'ar?, ueen of Scots. *bout this time, he again approached his poEerful uncle for helpH this move Eas folloEed b? his rapid progress at the bar. Fe became 8encher in "C<(, and he Eas elected a reader in "C<1, delivering his first set of lectures in .ent the folloEing ?ear. +n "C<#, he received the valuable appointment of reversion to the !ler5ship of the Star !hamber, although he did not formall? ta5e office until "(-<Da post that Eas Eorth {",(-- a ?ear.ICJ +n "C<< he became '4 for .iverpool and then for 'iddlesex in "C#,. Fe later sat three times for +psEich @"C#1, "(-", "(-)A and once for !ambridge :niversit? @"(")A.I(J Fe became 5noEn as a liberal-minded reformer, eager to amend and simplif? the laE. Though a friend of the croEn, he opposed feudal privileges and dictatorial poEers. Fe spo5e against religious persecution. Fe struc5 at the Fouse of .ords in its usurpation of the 'one? 8ills. Fe advocated for the union of England and Scotland, Ehich made him a significant influence toEard the

consolidation of the :nited MingdomH and he also advocated, later on, the integration of +reland into the :nion. !loser constitutional ties, he believed, Eould bring greater peace and strength to these countries.I1JI<J

,ttorne$ General

'emorial to 2rancis 8acon, in the chapel of Trinit? !ollege, !ambridge 8acon soon became acKuainted Eith %obert $evereux, 0nd Earl of Essex, ueen ElizabethBs favourite. 8? "C#" he acted as the earlOs confidential adviser. +n "C#0 he Eas commissioned to Erite a tract in response to the &esuit %obert 4arsonOs antigovernment polemic, Ehich he titled Certain observations made u-on a libel, identif?ing England Eith the ideals of democratic *thens against the belligerence of Spain. 8acon too5 his third parliamentar? seat for 'iddlesex Ehen in 2ebruar? "C#, Elizabeth summoned 4arliament to investigate a %oman !atholic plot against her. 8aconOs opposition to a bill that Eould lev? triple subsidies in half the usual time offended the ueen/ opponents accused him of see5ing popularit?, and for a time the !ourt excluded him from favour.I#J >hen the *ttorne?-6eneralship fell vacant in "C#), .ord EssexOs influence Eas not enough to secure 8acon that office, Ehich Eas given to Sir EdEard !o5e. .i5eEise, 8acon failed to secure the lesser office of Solicitor 6eneral in "C#C, the ueen pointedl? snubbing him b? appointing Sir Thomas 2leming instead.ICJ To console him for these disappointments, Essex presented him Eith a propert? at TEic5enham, Ehich he sold subseKuentl? for {",<--. +n "C#( 8acon became ueenOs !ounsel, but missed the appointment of 'aster of the %olls. $uring the next feE ?ears, his financial situation remained embarrassing. Fis friends could find no public office for him, and a scheme for retrieving his position b? a marriage Eith the Eealth? and ?oung EidoE .ad? Elizabeth Fatton failed after she bro5e off their relationship upon accepting marriage to a Eealthier man. +n "C#< 8acon Eas arrested for debt. *fterEard, hoEever, his standing in the ueenOs e?es improved. 6raduall?, 8acon earned the standing of one of the learned counsels, though he had no commission or Earrant and received no salar?. Fis relationship Eith the ueen further improved Ehen he severed ties Eith %obert $evereux, 0nd Earl of Essex, a shreEd move, because Essex Eas executed for treason in "(-". >ith others, 8acon Eas appointed to investigate the charges against Essex, his former friend and benefactor. * number of EssexOs folloEers confessed that Essex had planned a rebellion against the ueen.I"-J 8acon Eas subseKuentl? a part of the legal team headed b? *ttorne? 6eneral Sir

EdEard !o5e at EssexBs treason trial.I"-J *fter the execution, the ueen ordered 8acon to Erite the official government account of the trial, Ehich Eas later published as # D,CL#R#T1>C of the %ractices and Treasons attem-ted and committed by Robert late ,arle of ,sse2 and his Com-lices; against her MaGestie and her Kingdoms after 8aconOs first draft Eas heavil? edited b? the ueen and her ministers.I""J *ccording to his personal secretar? and chaplain >illiam %aEle?, as a judge 8acon Eas alEa?s tender-hearted, Ploo&ing u-on the e2am-les $ith the eye of severity; but u-on the -erson $ith the eye of -ity and com-assionZ. *nd also that Phe $as free from maliceZ, Pno revenger of inGuriesZ, and Pno defamer of any man ZI"0J

James & comes to the throne


The succession of &ames + brought 8acon into greater favor. Fe Eas 5nighted in "(-,. +n another shreEd move, 8acon Erote his #-ologies in defense of his proceedings in the case of Essex, as Essex had favored &ames to succeed to the throne. The folloEing ?ear, during the course of the uneventful first parliament session, 8acon married *lice 8arnham. +n &une "(-1 he Eas at last reEarded Eith the office of solicitor general.ICJ The folloEing ?ear, he began Eor5ing as the !ler5ship of the Star !hamber. $espite a generous income, old debts still couldnOt be paid. Fe sought further promotion and Eealth b? supporting Ming &ames and his arbitrar? policies. +n "("- the fourth session of &amesOs first parliament met. $espite 8aconOs advice to him, &ames and the !ommons found themselves at odds over ro?al prerogatives and the 5ingOs embarrassing extravagance. The Fouse Eas finall? dissolved in 2ebruar? "("". Throughout this period 8acon managed to sta? in the favor of the 5ing Ehile retaining the confidence of the !ommons. +n "(", 8acon Eas finall? appointed attorne? general, after advising the 5ing to shuffle judicial appointments. *s attorne? general, 8acon successfull? prosecuted %obert !arr, "st Earl of Somerset, and his Eife, 2rances FoEard, !ountess of Somerset, for murder in "("(. The so-called 4rinceOs 4arliament of *pril "(") objected to 8aconOs presence in the seat for !ambridge and to the various ro?al plans that 8acon had supported. *lthough he Eas alloEed to sta?, parliament passed a laE that forbade the attorne? general to sit in parliament. Fis influence over the 5ing had evidentl? inspired resentment or apprehension in man? of his peers. 8acon, hoEever, continued to receive the MingOs favour, Ehich led to his appointment in 'arch "("1 as the temporar? %egent of England @for a period of a monthA, and in "("< as .ord !hancellor. On "0 &ul? "("< the 5ing created 8acon Baron *erulam, of ;erulam, in the 4eerage of England. *s a neE peer he then st?led himself as 2rancis, .ord ;erulam.ICJ 8acon continued to use his influence Eith the 5ing to mediate betEeen the throne and 4arliament, and in this capacit? he Eas further elevated in the same peerage, as *iscount 1t ,lban, on 01 &anuar? "(0".IaJ

#ord Chancellor and public disgrace

2rancis 8acon and the members of the 4arliament in the da? of his political fall

8aconOs public career ended in disgrace in "(0". *fter he fell into debt, a parliamentar? committee on the administration of the laE charged him Eith 0, separate counts of corruption. Fis lifelong enem?, Sir EdEard !o5e, Eho had instigated these accusations,I",J Eas one of the appointed to prepare the charges against the chancellor.I")J To the lords, Eho sent a committee to enKuire Ehether a confession Eas reall? his, he replied, P'? lords, it is m? act, m? hand, and m? heartH + beseech ?our lordships to be merciful to a bro5en reed.Q Fe Eas sentenced to a fine of {)-,--- and committed to the ToEer of .ondon during the 5ingOs pleasureH the imprisonment lasted onl? a feE da?s and the fine Eas remitted b? the 5ing.I"CJ 'ore seriousl?, parliament declared 8acon incapable of holding future office or sitting in parliament. Fe narroEl? escaped undergoing degradation, Ehich Eould have stripped him of his titles of nobilit?. SubseKuentl?, the disgraced viscount devoted himself to stud? and Eriting. There seems little doubt that 8acon had accepted gifts from litigants, but this Eas an accepted custom of the time and not necessaril? evidence of deepl? corrupt behaviour.I"(J >hile ac5noEledging that his conduct had been lax, he countered that he had never alloEed gifts to influence his judgement and, indeed, he had on occasion given a verdict against those Eho had paid him. Fe even had an intervieE Eith Ming &ames in Ehich he assured/ The la$ of nature teaches me to s-ea& in my o$n defence" .ith res-ect to this charge of bribery 1 am as innocent as any man born on St 1nnocents Day 1 never had a bribe or re$ard in my eye or thought $hen -ronouncing Gudgment or order 1 am ready to ma&e an oblation of myself to the King D*pril "1, "(0"I"1J Fe had also Erote the folloEing to 8uc5ingham/ My mind is calm; for my fortune is not my felicity 1 &no$ 1 have clean hands and a clean heart; and 1 ho-e a clean louse for friends or servantsP but Job himself; or $hoever $as the Gustest Gudge; by such hunting for matters against him as hath been used against me; may for a time seem foul; es-ecially in a time $hen greatness is the mar& and accusation is the game. DI"<J The true reason for his ac5noEledgement of guilt is the subject of debate, but some authors speculate that it ma? have been prompted b? his sic5ness, or b? a vieE that through his fame and the greatness of his office he Eould be spared harsh punishment. Fe ma? even have been blac5mailed, Eith a threat to charge him Eith sodom?, into confession.I"(JI"#J The 8ritish jurist 8asil 'ontagu Erote in 8aconOs defense, concerning the episode of his public disgrace/ 8acon has been accused of servilit?, of dissimulation, of various base motives, and their filth? brood of base actions, all unEorth? of his high birth, and incompatible Eith his great Eisdom, and the estimation in Ehich he Eas held b? the noblest spirits of the age. +t is true that there Eere men in his oEn time, and Eill be men in all times, Eho are better pleased to count spots in the sun than to rejoice in its glorious brightness. Such men have openl? libelled him, li5e $eEes and >eldon, Ehose falsehoods Eere detected as soon as uttered, or have fastened upon certain ceremonious compliments and dedications, the fashion of his da?, as a sample of his servilit?, passing over his noble letters to the ueen, his loft? contempt for the .ord Meeper 4uc5ering, his open dealing Eith Sir %obert !ecil, and Eith others, Eho, poEerful Ehen he Eas nothing, might have blighted his opening fortunes for ever, forgetting his advocac? of the rights of the people in the face of the court, and the true and honest counsels, alEa?s given b? him, in times of great difficult?, both to Elizabeth and her successor. >hen Eas a 9base s?cophant9 loved and honoured b? piet? such as that of Ferbert, Tennison, and %aEle?,

b? noble spirits li5e Fobbes, 8en &onson, and Selden, or folloEed to the grave, and be?ond it, Eith devoted affection such as that of Sir Thomas 'eaut?s. I0-J

!ersonal life

2rancis 8acon portrait >hen he Eas ,(, 8acon engaged in the courtship of Elizabeth Fatton, a ?oung EidoE of 0-. %eportedl?, she bro5e off their relationship upon accepting marriage to a Eealthier man, EdEard !o5e. Lears later, 8acon still Erote of his regret that the marriage to Fatton had not ta5en place.I0"J *t the age of )C, 8acon married *lice 8arnham, the ")-?ear-old daughter of a Eell-connected .ondon alderman and '4. 8acon Erote tEo sonnets proclaiming his love for *lice. The first Eas Eritten during his courtship and the second on his Eedding da?, "- 'a? "(-(. >hen 8acon Eas appointed lord chancellor, Pb? special >arrant of the Ming,Q .ad? 8acon Eas given precedence over all other !ourt ladies. %eports of increasing friction in his marriage to *lice appeared, Eith speculation that some of this ma? have been due to financial resources not being as readil? available to her as she Eas accustomed to having in the past. *lice Eas reportedl? interested in fame and fortune, and Ehen reserves of mone? Eere no longer available, there Eere complaints about Ehere all the mone? Eas going. *lice !hambers 8unten Erote in her Life of #lice BarnhamI00J that, upon their descent into debt, she actuall? Eent on trips to as5 for financial favors and assistance from their circle of friends. 8acon disinherited her upon discovering her secret romantic relationship Eith Sir &ohn :nderhill. Fe reErote his Eill, Ehich had previousl? been ver? generous to her @leaving her lands, goods, and incomeA, revo5ing it all. 8aconOs personal secretar? and chaplain, >illiam %aEle?, hoEever, Erote in his biograph? of 8acon that his intermarriage Eith *lice 8arnham Eas one of Pmuch conGugal love and res-ectZ, mentioning a robe of honor that he gave to her, and Ehich Pshe $ore unto her dying day; being t$enty years and more after his deathZ.I"0J

Engraving of *lice 8arnham The Eell-connected antiKuar? &ohn *ubre? noted in his Brief Lives concerning 8acon, 9Fe Eas a 4ederast. Fis 6animeds and 2avourites too5e 8ribes9,I0,J biographers continue to debate about 8aconBs sexual inclinations and the precise nature of his personal relationships.IcJ Several authorsI0)JI0CJ believe that despite his marriage 8acon Eas primaril? attracted to the same sex. 4rofessor 2or5erI0(J for example has explored the 9historicall? documentable sexual preferences9 of both Ming &ames and 8acon G and concluded the? Eere all oriented to 9masculine love9, a contemporar? term that 9seems to have been used exclusivel? to refer to the sexual preference of men for members of their oEn gender.9I01J The &acobean antiKuarian, Sir Simonds $BEEes implied there had been a Kuestion of bringing him to trial for bugger?.I0<J This conclusion has been disputed b? others,I"-JI0#JI,-JI,"JI,0J Eho point to lac5 of consistent evidence, and consider the sources to be more open to interpretation. +n his P7eE *tlantis,Q 8acon describes his utopian island as being 9the chastest nation under heaven9, in Ehich there Eas no prostitution or adulter?, and further sa?ing that !as for masculine love; they have no touch of it!.I,,J

Death
On # *pril "(0( 8acon died of pneumonia Ehile at *rundel mansion at Fighgate outside .ondon. *n influential account of the circumstances of his death Eas given b? &ohn *ubre?Os Brief Lives. *ubre? has been criticised for his evident credulousness in this and other Eor5sH on the other hand, he 5neE Thomas Fobbes, 8aconBs felloE-philosopher and friend. *ubre?Bs vivid account, Ehich portra?s 8acon as a mart?r to experimental scientific method, had him journe?ing to Fighgate through the snoE Eith the MingOs ph?sician Ehen he is suddenl? inspired b? the possibilit? of using the snoE to preserve meat/ PThe? Eere resolved the? Eould tr? the experiment presentl?. The? alighted out of the coach and Eent into a poor EomanOs house at the bottom of Fighgate hill, and bought a foEl, and made the Eoman exenterate it.Q *fter stuffing the foEl Eith snoE, 8acon contracted a fatal case of pneumonia. Some people, including *ubre?, consider these tEo contiguous, possibl? coincidental events as related and causative of his death/ 9The SnoE so chilled him that he immediatel? fell so extremel? ill, that he could not return to his .odging... but Eent to the Earle of *rundelOs house at Fighgate, Ehere the? put him into... a damp bed that had not been la?n-in... Ehich gave him such a cold that in 0 or , da?s as + remember 'r Fobbes told me, he died of Suffocation.9 8eing unEittingl? on his deathbed, the philosopher Erote his last letter to his absent host and friend .ord *rundel/

'onument to 8acon at his burial place, St 'ichaelBs !hurch in St *lbans '? ver? good .ord,D+ Eas li5el? to have had the fortune of !aius 4linius the elder, Eho lost his life b? tr?ing an experiment about the burning of 'ount ;esuviusH for + Eas also desirous to tr? an experiment or tEo touching the conservation and induration of bodies. *s for the experiment itself, it succeeded excellentl? EellH but in the journe? betEeen .ondon and Fighgate, + Eas ta5en Eith such a fit of casting as + 5noE not Ehether it Eere the Stone, or some surfeit or cold, or indeed a touch of them all three. 8ut Ehen + came to ?our .ordshipBs Fouse, + Eas not able to go bac5, and therefore Eas forced to ta5e up m? lodging here, Ehere ?our house5eeper is ver? careful and diligent about me, Ehich + assure m?self ?our .ordship Eill not onl? pardon toEards him, but thin5 the better of him for it. 2or indeed ?our .ordshipBs Fouse Eas happ? to me, and + 5iss ?our noble hands for the Eelcome Ehich + am sure ?ou give me to it. + 5noE hoE unfit it is for me to Erite Eith an? other hand than mine oEn, but b? m? troth m? fingers are so disjointed Eith sic5ness that + cannot steadil? hold a pen.9I,)J *nother account appears in a biograph? b? >illiam %aEle?, 8aconBs personal secretar? and chaplain/ Fe died on the ninth da? of *pril in the ?ear "(0(, in the earl? morning of the da? then celebrated for our SaviourBs resurrection, in the sixt?-sixth ?ear of his age, at the Earl of *rundelBs house in Fighgate, near .ondon, to Ehich place he casuall? repaired about a Eee5 beforeH 6od so ordaining that he should die there of a gentle fever, accidentall? accompanied Eith a great cold, Ehereb? the defluxion of rheum fell so plentifull? upon his breast, that he died b? suffocation.I,CJ *t the neEs of his death, over ,- great minds collected together their eulogies of him, Ehich Eas then later published in .atin.I,(J Fe left personal assets of about {1,--- and lands that realised {(,--- Ehen sold.I,1J Fis debts amounted to more than {0,,---, eKuivalent to more than {,m at current value.I,1JI,<J

!hilosoph$ and -or%s


'ain article/ >or5s b? 2rancis 8acon 2rancis 8aconBs philosoph? is displa?ed in the vast and varied Eritings he left, Ehich might be

divided in three great branches/ Scientifical $or&s G in Ehich his ideas for an universal reform of 5noEledge, scientific method and the improvement of man5indBs state are presented. ReligiousHliterary $or&s G in Ehich he presents his moral philosoph? and theological meditations. Juridical $or&s G in Ehich his reforms in .aE are proposed.

&nfluence

92rontspiece to BThe Fistor? of %o?al-Societ? of .ondonB, picturing 8acon @in the rightA among the founding influences of the Societ?. 7ational 4ortrait 6aller?, .ondon

1cience
8aconBs ideas Eere influential in the "(,-s and "(C-s among scholars, in particular Sir Thomas 8roEne, Eho in his enc?clopedia 4seudodoxia Epidemica @"()(G10A freKuentl? adheres to a 8aconian approach to his scientific enKuiries. $uring the %estoration, 8acon Eas commonl? invo5ed as a guiding spirit of the %o?al Societ? founded under !harles ++ in "((-.I,#JI)-J +n the "#th centur? his emphasis on induction Eas revived and developed b? >illiam >heEell, among others. Fe has been reputed as the 92ather of Experimental Science9.I)"J 8acon is also considered to be the philosophical influence behind the daEning of the +ndustrial age. I)0J +n his Eor5s, 8acon called for a 9spring of a progen? of inventions, Ehich shall overcome, to some extent, and subdue our needs and miseries9,I),J alEa?s proposing that all scientific Eor5 should be done for charitable purposes, as matter of alleviating man5indBs miser?, and that therefore science should be practical and have as purpose the inventing of useful things for the improvement of man5indBs estate. This changed the course of science in histor?, from a merel? contemplative state, as it Eas found in ancient and medieval ages, to a practical, inventive state G that Eould have eventuall? led to the inventions that made possible the +ndustrial %evolutions of the folloEing centuries.I))J Fe also Erote a long treatise on 'edicine, 4istory of Life and Death,I)CJ Eith natural and experimental observations for the prolongation of life. 2or one of his biographers, FepEorth $ixon, 8aconBs influence in modern Eorld is so great that ever? man Eho rides in a train, sends a telegram, folloEs a steam plough, sits in an eas? chair, crosses the channel or the *tlantic, eats a good dinner, enjo?s a beautiful garden, or undergoes a

painless surgical operation, oEes him something.I)(J

orth ,merica
8aconBs vision for a utopian 7eE >orld in 7orth *merica ma? have been laid out in his novel The Ce$ #tlantis, Ehich ta5es place on a fictional island, 8ensalem, in the 4acific Ocean betEeen 4eru and &apan. 2reedom of religion existed on 8ensalem D a &eE is treated eKuall? on an island of !hristians D but Ehether Ce$ #tlantis influenced other reforms, such as EomenBs rights, abolition of slaver?, elimination of debtorsB prisons, separation of church and state, and freedom of political expression, is a matter of debate.I)1JI)<JI-age neededJI)#JI-age neededJIC-JI-age neededJ There is no reference to an? of these reforms in The Ce$ #tlantis itselfH but his proposals for legal reform @Ehich Eere not established during his lifetimeA ma? have influenced the 7apoleonic !ode.IC"J

* 7eEfoundland stamp Ehich reads 9.ord 8acon D the guiding spirit in colonization scheme9 2rancis 8acon pla?ed a leading role in creating the 8ritish colonies, especiall? in ;irginia, the !arolinas and 7eEfoundland in northeastern !anada. Fis government report on 9The ;irginia !olon?9 Eas submitted in "(-#. +n "("- 8acon and his associates received a charter from the 5ing to form the Tresurer and the Com-anye of #dventurers and -lanter of the Cittye of London and Bristoll for the Collonye or -lantacon in Ce$foundlandIC0J and sent &ohn 6u? to found a colon? there. +n "#"-, 7eEfoundland issued a postage stamp to commemorate 8aconBs role in establishing the province. The stamp describes 8acon as 9the guiding spirit in !olonization Schemes in "("-.9I0"J 'oreover, some scholars believe he Eas largel? responsible for the drafting, in "(-# and "("0, of tEo charters of government for the ;irginia !olon?.IC,J Thomas &efferson, the third 4resident of the :nited States and author of the $eclaration of +ndependence, Erote/ 98acon, .oc5e and 7eEton. + consider them as the three greatest men that have ever lived, Eithout an? exception, and as having laid the foundation of those superstructures Ehich have been raised in the 4h?sical and 'oral sciences9.IC)J Fistorian and biographer >illiam FepEorth $ixon considered that 8aconBs name could be included in the list of 2ounders of the :nited States of *merica.ICCJ The %osicrucian organization *'O%! believes that 8aconBs Eor5 The Ce$ #tlantis inspired a colon? of %osicrucian m?stics led b? &ohannes Melpius to sail to 7orth *merica in the late "1th centur?. Melpius and his folloEers settled on the shores of >issahic5on !ree5, in the colon? of 4enns?lvania, Ehere the? became 5noEn as 9Fermits of '?stics of the >issahic5on9 or simpl? 9'on5s of the >issahic5on9.IC(JIC1J *ccording to *'O%!, this and other %osicrucian communities 9...made valuable contributions to the neEl?-emerging *merican culture in the fields of printing, philosoph?, the sciences, and arts9.IC<J

#a-

Statue of 2rancis 8acon in the .ibrar? of !ongress, >ashington, $.!. *lthough much of his legal reform proposals Eere not established in his lifetime, his legal legac? Eas considered b? the magazine Ce$ Scientist, in a publication of "#(", as having influenced the drafting of the 7apoleonic !ode, and the laE reforms introduced b? Sir %obert 4eel.IC#J The historian >illiam FepEorth $ixon referred to the 7apoleonic !ode as !the sole embodiment of Bacon's thought!, sa?ing that 8aconBs legal Eor5 !has had more success abroad than it has found at home!, and that in 2rance !it has blossomed and come into fruit!.IC"J The scholar Farve? >heeler attributed to 8acon, in his Eor5 92rancis 8aconBs ;erulamium G the !ommon .aE Template of The 'odern in English Science and !ulture9, the creation of these distinguishing features of the modern common laE s?stem/ :sing cases as repositories of evidence about the 9unEritten laE9H $etermining the relevance of precedents b? exclusionar? principles of evidence and logicH Treating opposing legal briefs as adversarial h?potheses about the application of the 9unEritten laE9 to a neE set of facts. *s late as the "<th centur? some juries still declared the laE rather than the fact, but alread? before the end of the "1th centur? Sir 'attheE Fale explained modern common laE adjudication procedure and ac5noEledged 8acon as the inventor of the process of discovering unEritten laEs from the evidences of their applications. The method combined empiricism and inductivism in a neE Ea? that Eas to imprint its signature on man? of the distinctive features of modern English societ?.I(-J +n brief, 8acon is considered b? some juristsI$ho<J to be the father of modern &urisprudence.I("J &ames 'c!lellan, a political scientist from the :niversit? of ;irginia, considered 8acon to have had 9a great folloEing9 in the *merican colonies.I(0J 'ore recent scholarship on 8aconBs jurisprudence has focused on his advocating torture as a legal recourse to the croEn.I(,J 8acon himself Eas not a stranger to the torture chamber/ in his various legal capacities in both Elizabeth +Os and &ames +Os reigns, 8acon Eas listed as a commissioner on five torture Earrants. +n a "(-, letter addressed to Ming &ames + on the Kuestion of tortureOs place Eithin English laE, 8acon identifies the scope of torture/ a means to further the investigation of threats to the state/ P+n the cases of treasons, torture is used for discover?, and not for evidence.9I()J 2or 8acon, torture Eas not a punitive measure, an intended form of state repression, but instead offered a modus operandi for the government agent tas5ed Eith uncovering acts of treason.

.istorical debates
Bacon and 1ha%espeare
'ain articles/ 8aconian theor? and 8aconBs cipher The 8aconian h?pothesis of Sha5espearean authorship, first proposed in the mid-"#th centur?, contends that Sir 2rancis 8acon Erote some or all the pla?s conventionall? attributed to >illiam Sha5espeare, in opposition to the scholarl? tradition that >illiam Sha5espeare of Stratford Eas the author.

Occult h$potheses
'ain article/ Occult theories about 2rancis 8acon 2rancis 8acon often gathered Eith the men at 6ra?Bs +nn to discuss politics and philosoph?, and to tr? out various theatrical scenes that he admitted Eriting.I(CJ 8aconBs alleged connection to the %osicrucians and the 2reemasons has been Eidel? discussed b? authors and scholars in man? boo5s.I((J FoEever others, including $aphne du 'aurier @in her biograph? of 8aconA, have argued there is no substantive evidence to support claims of involvement Eith the %osicrucians.I(1J 2rances LatesI(<J does not ma5e the claim that 8acon Eas a %osicrucian, but presents evidence that he Eas nevertheless involved in some of the more closed intellectual movements of his da?. She argues that 8aconBs movement for the advancement of learning Eas closel? connected Eith the 6erman %osicrucian movement, Ehile 8aconBs Ce$ #tlantis portra?s a land ruled b? %osicrucians. Fe apparentl? saE his oEn movement for the advancement of learning to be in conformit? Eith %osicrucian ideals.I(#J

*n old volume of 2rancis 8acon and a rose The lin5 betEeen 8aconBs Eor5 and the %osicrucians ideals Ehich Lates allegedl? found, Eas the conformit? of the purposes expressed b? the %osicrucian 'anifestos and 8aconBs plan of a 96reat +nstauration9,I(#J for the tEo Eere calling for a reformation of both 9divine and human understanding9,IdJI1-J as Eell as both had in vieE the purpose of man5indBs return to the 9state before the 2all9.IeJIfJ *nother major lin5 is said to be the resemblance betEeen 8aconBs 97eE *tlantis9 and the 6erman %osicrucian &ohann ;alentin *ndreaeBs 9$escription of the %epublic of !hristianopolis @"("#A9.I1"J +n his boo5, *ndreae shoEs an utopic island in Ehich !hristian theosoph? and applied science ruled, and in Ehich the spiritual fulfillment and intellectual activit? constituted the primar? goals of each individual, the scientific pursuits being the highest intellectual calling G lin5ed to the achievement of spiritual perfection. *ndreaeBs island also depicts a great advancement in technolog?, Eith man? industries separated in different zones Ehich supplied the populationBs needs G Ehich shoEs great resemblance to 8aconBs scientific methods and purposes.I))JI10J The %osicrucian organization *'O%! claims that 2rancis 8acon Eas the 9+mperator9 @leaderA of the %osicrucian Order in both England and the European continent, and Eould have directed it during his lifetime.IC<J

2rancis 8aconBs influence can also be seen on a variet? of religious and spiritual authors, and on groups that have utilised his Eritings in their oEn belief s?stems.I1,JI1)JI1CJI1(JI11J

Bibliograph$
'ain article/ 2rancis 8acon bibliograph? Some of the more notable Eor5s b? 8acon include/ ,ssays @"st ed., "C#1A The #dvancement and %roficience of Learning Divine and 4uman @"(-CA ,ssays @0nd edition G ,< essa?s, "("0A Covum >rganum Scientiarum @B7eE 'ethodB, "(0-A Essa?s; or Counsels Civil and Moral @,rdNfinal edition G C< essa?s, "(0CA Ce$ #tlantis @"(01A

1ee also
!estui Kue @$efense and !omment on !hudleighBs !aseA

otes
". R a b There is some confusion over the spelling of 9;iscount St. *lban9. Some sources, such as the $ictionar? of 7ational 8iograph? @"<<CA and the Enc?clopudia 8ritannica @""th ed., "#""A, spell the title Eith 9St. *lbans9H others, such as the Oxford $ictionar? of 7ational 8iograph? @0--1A, spell it 9St. *lban9 @2oEler "<<C, p. ,)(H !hisholm "#""H 4eltonen 0--1A. 0. 2 !ontemporar? spelling, used b? 8acon himself in his letter of than5s to the 5ing for his elevation. 8irch, Thomas @"1(,A. Letters; S-eeches; Charges; #dvices; Tc of Lord Chancellor Bacon C. .ondon/ *ndreE 'illar. pp. 01"G0. O!.! 00<(1(-,<. ,. 2 See opposing opinions of/ *. .. %oEse, 4omose2uals in 4istory, 7eE Lor5/ !arroll S 6arf, "#11. page ))H &ardine, .isaH SteEart, *lan 4ostage To 3ortune" The Troubled Life of 3rancis Bacon Fill S >ang, "###. page ")<H 7ieves 'atheEs, 3rancis Bacon" The 4istory of a Character #ssassination, Lale :niversit? 4ress, "##(H %oss &ac5son, The Com-anion to Sha&er of the S-eare" The 3rancis Bacon Story, England/ 8oo5 6uild 4ublishing, 0--C. pages )C G )( ). 2 9FoEbeit Ee 5noE after a time there Eil noE be a general reformation, both of divine and humane things, according to our desire, and the expectation of others/ for itBs fitting, that before the rising of the Sun, there should appear and brea5 forth *urora, or some clearness, or divine light in the s5?9 G 2ama 2raternitatis http/NNEEE.sacredtexts.comNsroNrhrNrhr-(.htm C. 2 9.i5e good and faithful guardians, Ee ma? ?ield up their fortune to man5ind upon the emancipation and majorit? of their understanding, from Ehich must necessaril? folloE an improvement of their estate I...J. 2or man, b? the fall, fell at the same time from his state of innocenc? and from his dominion over creation. 8oth of these losses hoEever can even in this life be in some part repairedH the former b? religion and faith, the latter b? arts and sciences. G 2rancis 8acon, 7ovum Organum (. 2 9>e ought therefore here to observe Eell, and ma5e it 5noEn unto ever?one, that 6od hath certainl? and most assuredl? concluded to send and grant to the Ehole Eorld before her end ... such a truth, light, life, and glor?, as the first man *dam had, Ehich he lost in 4aradise, after Ehich his successors Eere put and driven, Eith him, to miser?. >herefore there shall cease all servitude, falsehood, lies, and dar5ness, Ehich b? little and little, Eith

the great EorldBs revolution, Eas crept into all arts, Eor5s, and governments of men, and have dar5ened most part of them9. G !onfessio 2raternitatis ". 2 4eltonen 0--1. 0. 2 http/NNEEE.ps?cholog?.sbc.eduNEmpiricism.htm ,. 2 ;enn, &.H ;enn, &. *., eds. @"#00G"#C<A. 98acon, 2rancis9. *lumni !antabrigienses E89 volsF @online ed.A. !ambridge :niversit? 4ress. ). 2 !ollins, *rthur @"1)"A. The ,nglish Baronetage" Containing a 'enealogical and 4istorical #ccount of #ll the ,nglish Baronets; Co$ ,2isting" Their Descents; Marriages; and 1ssuesP Memorable #ctions; Both in .ar; and %eaceP Religious and Charitable DonationsP Deaths; %laces of Burial and Monumental 1nscri-tions (sic+. 4rinted for Tho. >otton at the Three $aggers and ueenBs Fead. p. C. C. R a b c d 4eltonen 0--1. (. 2 9Fistor? of 4arliament9. %etrieved 0-""-"---0. 1. 2 Spedding, &ames. 9The letters and life of 2rancis 8acon9 @"<("A. <. 2 http/NNpublish.ucc.ieNceltNdocsNE(----"--"C #. 2 >eir, *lison ,li5abeth the Rueen 4imlico "### p.)") "-.R a b c 7ieves 'attheEs, 3rancis Bacon" The 4istory of a Character #ssassination @Lale :niversit? 4ress, "##(A "".2 'attheEs @"##(/ C(GC1A "0.R a b %aEle?, >illiam @"(1-A. The Life of the Right 4onorable 3rancis Bacon Baron of :erulam; :iscount ST #lban. .ondon/ Thomas &ohns, .ondon. ",.2 +an Ousb? @"##(A, 9The !ambridge 4aperbac5 6uide to .iterature in English9, !ambridge :niversit? 4ress, p. 00 ").2 4erez =agorin @"###A, 3rancis Bacon, 4rinceton :niversit? 4ress, p. 00 "C.2 4arris, 'attheEH 'aguire, Mevin @0--)A. 92rancis 8aconD"(0"9. 'reat %arliamentary Scandals. .ondon/ !hr?salis. pp. <G#. +S87 #1<-"-<("-C-1,(-C. "(.R a b =agorin, 4erez @"###A. 3rancis Bacon. 4rinceton, 7&/ 4rinceton :niversit? 4ress. pp. 00G0,. +S87 #1<---(#"---#((-1. "1.2 !ampbell, &ohnH 8aron !ampbell @"<"<A, &. 'urra?. 9The .ives of the .ord !hancellors and Meepers of the 6reat Seal of England9 "<.2 4. E. S E. 2. 'atheson, @"#00A, 93rancis Bacon" Selections9, !ornell :niversit? .ibrar?, Oxford :niversit? 4ress, *men Fouse, .ondon "#.2 Fistorian *. .. %oEse, Kuoted in 4arrisH 'aguire @0--)/ <A/ 9a charge of sodom? Eas...to be brought against the sixt?-?ear-old .ord !hancellor9. 0-.2 'ontagu, 8asil @"<,1A. ,ssays and Selections. pp. ,0C, ,0(. +S87 #1<-"-),(<-,111-). 0".R a b *lfred $odd, 3rancis Bacon's %ersonal Life Story'; :olume A ? The #ge of James, England/ %ider S !o., "#)#, "#<(. pages "C1 G "C<, )0C, C-0 G C-,, C"< G C,0 00.2 *lice !hambers 8unten, Life of #lice Barnham; .ife of Sir 3rancis Bacon, .ondon/ Oliphants .td. "#0<. 0,.2 Oliver .aEson $ic5, ed. #ubrey's Brief Lives ,dited from the >riginal Manuscri-ts, "#)#, s v 92rancis 8acon, ;iscount of St. *lbans9 p. "". 0).2 *. .. %oEse, 4omose2uals in 4istory, 7eE Lor5/ !arroll S 6arf, "#11. page )) 0C.2 &ardine, .isaH SteEart, *lan 4ostage To 3ortune" The Troubled Life of 3rancis Bacon Fill S >ang, "###. page ")< 0(.2 !harles %. 2or5er, Masculine Love; %enaissance >riting, and the Ce$ 1nvention of Fomosexualit?/ *n *ddendum in the Journal of 4omose2uality @"##(A, +ndiana :niversit? 01.2 &ournal of Fomosexualit?, ;olume/ ," +ssue/ ,, "##(, pages <CG#,, +SS7/ --#"-<,(# 0<.2 2ulton *nderson, 3rancis Bacon"4is career and his thought, .os *ngeles, "#(0 0#.2 %oss &ac5son, The Com-anion to Sha&er of the S-eare" The 3rancis Bacon Story, England/ 8oo5 6uild 4ublishing, 0--C. pages )C G )( ,-.2 8r?an 8evan, The %eal 2rancis 8acon, England/ !entaur 4ress, "#(-

,".2 Felen ;eale, Son of England, +ndia/ +ndo 4olish .ibrar?, "#C,0.2 4eter $aE5ins, $edication to the .ight, England/ 2rancis 8acon %esearch Trust, "#<) ,,.2 8acon, 2rancis. The 7eE *tlantis. "(01 ,).2 8acon, 2rancis @"<0CG,)A, 'ontagu, 8asil, ed., The .or&s of 3rancis Bacon; Lord Chancellor of ,ngland @neE ed.A, .ondon. ,C.2 >illiam %aEle? @8aconBs personal secretar? and chaplainA Resuscitatio; or; Bringing into %ublic& Light Several %ieces of the .or&s; Civil; 4istorical; %hiloso-hical; T Theological; 4itherto Slee-ingP of the Right 4onourable 3rancis Bacon Together $ith his Lordshi-'s Life "(C1. 92rancis 8acon, the glor? of his age and nation, the adorner and ornament of learning, Eas born in Lor5 Fouse, or Lor5 4lace, in the Strand, on the tEo and tEentieth da? of &anuar?, in the ?ear of our .ord "C(-.9 ,(.2 >.6.!. 6undr?, ed. Manes :erulamani. This important volume consists of ,0 eulogies originall? published in .atin shortl? after 8aconBs funeral in "(0(. 8aconBs peers refer to him as Pa supreme poet9 and 9a concealed poet,9 and also lin5 him Eith the theatre. ,1.R a b .ovejo?, 8enjamin @"<<<A. 3rancis Bacon" # Critical Revie$. .ondon/ :nEin. p. "1". O!.! 1#<<("<). ,<.2 Officer, .aErenceH >illiamson, Samuel. 94urchasing 4oEer of 8ritish 4ounds from "0() to 4resent9. 'easuring >orth. %etrieved "< October 0--#. ,#.2 'artin, &ulian @"##0A, 3rancis Bacon" The State and the Reform of Catural %hiloso-hy. )-.2 Steel, 8?ron @"#,-A, Sir 3rancis Bacon" The 3irst Modern Mind, 6arden !it?, 7L/ $oubleda?, $oran S !o. )".2 :rbach, 4eter @"#<1A, 3rancis Bacon's %hiloso-hy of Science, Open !ourt 4ublishing !o. * stud? Ehich argues from a close consideration of 8aconBs actual Eords in context, that he Eas immensel? more sophisticated and modern than is generall? alloEed. 8aconBs reputation as a philosopher of science has sun5 since the "1th and earl? "<th centuries, Ehen he Eas accorded the title 92ather of Experimental 4hilosoph?9. )0.2 *. *lbert EdEard 'usson, Eric %obinson @"#(#A. 9Science and technolog? in the +ndustrial %evolution9. p. "(. 'anchester :niversit? 4ress ),.2 8acon, 2rancis. 9The 6reat +nstauration9. 1nstauratio Magna. )).R a b 2arrington, 8enjamin @"#C"A, 3rancis Bacon; -hiloso-her of industrial science, +S87 #1<---,1)-#01-(-(. )C.2 8acon, 2rancis @0--,--(--"A. 4istory of Life and Death. +S87 #1<-1(("(010,. )(.2 FepEorth $ixon, >illiam @"<(0A. !The story of Lord Bacon's Life! E8*)AF . )1.2 Farve? >heeler, 3rancis Bacon's Case of the %ostBCati"E8)9*FP 3oundations of #ngloB #merican ConstitutionalismP #n #--lication of Critical Constitutional Theory, >ard, "##< )<.2 >hite, FoEard 8 @"#(<A, %eace #mong the .illo$s" The %olitical %hiloso-hy of 3rancis Bacon, The Fague/ 'artinus 7ijhoff. )#.2 >heeler, Farve? @"###A, 3rancis Bacon's !:erulamium!" the Common La$ Tem-late of The Modern in ,nglish Science and Culture. C-.2 Lates, 2rances @"#<)A, 98aconBs 'agic9, 1deas and 1deals in the Corth ,uro-ean Renaissance @essa?A, .ondon/ %outledge S Megan 4aul. C".R a b FepEorth $ixon, >illiam @"<("A. %ersonal history of Lord Bacon" 3rom un-ublished -a-ers. p. ,C. C0.2 Lab @laEA <, 72, !*/ Feritage, "1-". C,.2 3B life @essa?A, :M/ 28%T. C).2 98acon, .oc5e, and 7eEton9, The Letters of Thomas Jefferson" 8/06?8*A), 7./ %:6, retrieved ", &une 0--#, 98acon, .oc5e and 7eEton, Ehose pictures + Eill trouble ?ou to have copied for me/ and as + consider them as the three greatest men that have ever lived, Eithout an? exception, and as having laid the foundation of those superstructures Ehich have been raised in the 4h?sical S 'oral sciences9. CC.2 FepEorth $ixon, >illiam @0--,--0--"A. %ersonal 4istory of Lord Bacon from @n-ublished %a-ers. p. 0--. +S87 #1<-1(("01#<0.

C(.2 T?son, Southern cross revie$ AD http/NNEEE.southerncrossrevieE.orgN0CNt?son.htm | url= missing title @helpA. C1.2 9Fello >orld9, 3leur de lys 0 me, >ord press, 0-"" $ec ). C<.R a b 9The 'aster? of .ife9. 4age ," C#.2 !roEther, &. 6. 9*rticle about 2rancis 8acon9. Ce$ Scientist January 8D; 8D)8. (-.2 >heeler, Farve?. !3rancis Bacon's ':erulamium'" the Common La$ Tem-late of The Modern in ,nglish Science and Culture! (".2 Mocher, 4aul @"#C1A. 92rancis 8acon and the Science of &urisprudence9. Journal of the 4istory of 1deas @4hiladelphia, 4*/ :niversit? of 4enns?lvania 4ressA E/ ,G0(. doi/"-.0,-1N01-1C11. (0.2 'c!lellan, &ames @"#<#A, The Common La$ Tradition ? Liberty; >rder; and Justice" #n 1ntroduction to the Constitutional %rinci-les of #merican 'overnment, .ibert? fund. (,.2 Fanson, Elizabeth @Spring "##"A. 9Torture and Truth in %enaissance England.9. Re-resentations ;</ C,G<). ().2 .angbein, &ohn F. @"#1(A. Torture and the La$ of %roof. The :niversit? of !hicago 4ress. p. #-. (C.2 2rances Lates, Theatre of the .orld, .ondon/ %outledge S Megan 4aul, "#(# ((.2 8r?an 8evan, The Real 3rancis Bacon, England/ !entaur 4ress, "#((1.2 $aphne du 'aurier, The .inding Stair; Biogra-hy of Bacon "#1(. (<.2 2rances Lates, The >ccult %hiloso-hy in the ,li5abethan #ge, pages ("G(<, .ondon/ %outledge S Megan 4aul, "#1# (#.R a b 2rances Lates, The Rosicrucian ,nlightenment, .ondon and 8oston/ %outledge S Megan 4aul, "#10 1-.2 8acon, 2rancis. Of the 4roficience and *dvancement of .earning, $ivine and Fuman 1".2 *ndreae "("#. 10.2 9.iterar? criticism of &ohann ;alentin *ndreae9. 1,.2 Saint 6ermain 2oundation. The 4istory of the !1 #M! #ctivity and Saint 'ermain 3oundation. Schaumburg, +llinois/ Saint 6ermain 4ress 0--, 1).2 .u5, *.$.M.. La$ of Life ? Boo& 11. 4ueblo, !olorado/ *.$.M. .u5 4ublications "#<#, pages 0C)G0(1 1C.2 .hite %a-er ? .esa& .orld Congress A99A. *cropolis Sophia 8oo5s S >or5s 0--,. 1(.2 4artridge, !hristopher ed. Ce$ Religions" # 'uide" Ce$ Religious Movements; Sects and #lternative S-iritualities Oxford :niversit? 4ress, :S* 0--). 11.2 Schroeder, >erner #scended Masters and Their Retreats *scended 'aster Teaching 2oundation 0--), pages 0C-G0CC

References
*ndreae, &ohann ;alentin @"("#A. 9!hristianopolis9. Descri-tion of the Re-ublic of Christiano-olis. !hisholm, Fugh, ed. @"#""A. 98acon, 2rancis9. ,ncyclo-Udia Britannica @""th ed.A. !ambridge :niversit? 4ress. !ousin, &ohn >illiam @"#"-A. 9 8acon, 2rancis, .ord ;erulam, *nd ;iscount St. *lban9. # Short Biogra-hical Dictionary of ,nglish Literature. .ondon/ &. '. $ent S Sons. >i5isource 2arrell, &ohn @0--(A. 9!hapter (/ The Science of Suspicion.9. K%aranoia and Modernity" Cervantes to Rousseau. !ornell :niversit? 4ress. +S87 #1<--<-")1)-(). 2arrington, 8enjamin @"#()A. The %hiloso-hy of 3rancis Bacon. :niversit? of !hicago 4ress. !ontains English translations of Tem-oris %artus Masculus Cogitata et :isa

Redargutio %hilos-hiarum Feese, 'ar? @"#(<A. 92rancis 8aconBs 4hilosoph? of Science9. +n ;ic5ers, 8rian. ,ssential #rticles for the Study of 3rancis Bacon. Famden, !T/ *rchon 8oo5s. pp. "")G",#. 2oEler, Thomas @"<<CA. 98acon, 2rancis @"C("-"(0(A9. +n .eslie Stephen. Dictionary of Cational Biogra-hy A. .ondon/ Smith, Elder S !o. pp. ,0<SndasH,(-. 4eltonen, 'ar55u @0--1A I0--)J. 98acon, 2rancis, ;iscount St *lban @"C("G"(0(A9. >2ford Dictionary of Cational Biogra-hy @online ed.A. Oxford :niversit? 4ress. doi/"-."-#,Nref/odnbN##-. @subscription or :M public librar? membership reKuiredA %oselle, $anielH Loung, *nne 4. 9!hapter C/ The BScientific %evolutionB and the B+ntellectual %evolutionB9. >ur .estern 4eritage.Ifull citation neededJ

Spedding, &amesH Ellis, %obert .eslieH Feath, $ouglas $enon @"<C1G"<1)A. The .or&s of 3rancis Bacon; Baron of :erulam; :iscount St #lbans and Lord 4igh Chancellor of ,ngland E87 volumesF. .ondon. %ossi, 4aolo @"#1<A. 3rancis Bacon" from Magic to Science. Ta?lor S 2rancis. *ttribution This article incorporates text from a publication noE in the public domain/ &ac5son, Samuel 'acaule?, ed. @"#-<A. 98acon, 2rancis9. Ce$ Schaff?4er5og ,ncyclo-edia of Religious Kno$ledge A @third ed.A. .ondon and 7eE Lor5/ 2un5 and >agnalls.

()ternal lin%s
2ind more about /rancis Bacon at >i5ipediaBs sister projects 'edia from !ommons uotations from >i5iKuote Source texts from >i5isource *rchival material relating to 2rancis 8acon listed at the :M 7ational *rchives Bacon b? Thomas 2oEler @"<<"A public domain |6oogle8oo5s 2rancis 8acon entr? b? &uergen Mlein in the Stanford ,ncyclo-edia of %hiloso-hy 2rancis 8acon entr? in the 1nternet ,ncyclo-edia of %hiloso-hy >or5s b? 2rancis 8acon at 4roject 6utenberg The 2rancis 8acon Societ? !ontains the 7eE Organon, slightl? modified for easier reading 2rancis 8acon of ;erulam. %ealistic 4hilosoph? and its *ge @"<C1A b? Muno 2ischer and &ohn Oxenford in English !olitical offices #ord .igh Chancellor "("1G"(0" ,ttorne$ General of (ngland and 3ales "(",G"("1 !arliament of (ngland Member of !arliament for Taunton "C<(G"C<< Member of !arliament for Succeeded b? &n Commission Succeeded b? .enr$ 'elverton

4receded b? 1ir Thomas (gerton 4receded b? .enr$ .obart

4receded b? Miles 1and$s 4receded b?

Succeeded b? 3illiam ,ubre$ Succeeded b?

,rthur ,t$e 4receded b? 3illiam /leet-ood 5sho-6 v t e /rancis Bacon 5sho-6 v t e

#iverpool "C<<G"C#) Member of !arliament for Middlese) "C#)G"C#<

Thomas Gerard Succeeded b? 1ir John !e$ton

1ha%espeare authorship +uestion 7.istor$8 5sho-6 v t e !hilosoph$ of science >orld!at ;+*2/ ,"##0,"# .!!7/ n1#"--0,C +S7+/ ---- ---" 0"0( C1-67$/ ""<C-C(#( 872/ cb""<<#<"0K

,uthorit$ control

!ategories/ "C(" births "(0( deaths 2rancis 8acon "(th-centur? .atin-language Eriters "1th-centur? .atin-language Eriters "1th-centur? philosophers "1th-centur? English Eriters "1th-centur? novelists *lumni of Trinit? !ollege, !ambridge *ttorne?s 6eneral for England and >ales 8aconian theor? of Sha5espeare authorship

!hristian philosophers !hristian Eriters $eaths from pneumonia Earl? modern philosophers Empiricists English *nglicans English essa?ists English philosophers English rhetoricians English spies Fistor? of scientific method +nfectious disease deaths in England .ord !hancellors of England 'embers of 6ra?Bs +nn 8ritish ueenBs !ounsel 4eople from St *lbans 4eople from >estminster 4hilosophers of science ueenBs !ounsel "C#1G"<-4eople of the Tudor period :topists ;iscounts in the 4eerage of England "(th-centur? English people "1th-centur? English people :niversit? of 4oitiers alumni English legal Eriters English '4s "C10G"C<, English '4s "C<)G"C<C English '4s "C<(G"C<1 English '4s "C<# English '4s "C#, English '4s "C#1G"C#< English '4s "(-" English '4s "(-)G"("" English '4s "(") 'embers of the pre-"1-1 4arliament of England for the :niversit? of !ambridge "(th-centur? spies

,leister Cro-le$
2rom >i5ipedia, the free enc?clopedia &ump to/ navigation, search ,leister Cro-le$

*leister !roEle?, c. "#"0 EdEard *lexander !roEle? "0 October "<1C Born %o?al .eamington Spa, >arEic5shire England, :M " $ecember "#)1 @aged 10A Died Fastings, East Sussex England, :M Occupation Occultist, poet, novelist 1pouse7s8 %ose Edith Mell? .ilith Children .ola =aza !arents EdEard !roEle?, Emil? 8ertha !roEle? @ne` 8ishopA ,leister Cro-le$ @N5roliN (R)*BleeH "0 October "<1C G " $ecember "#)1A, born (d-ard ,le)ander Cro-le$, and also 5noEn as both /rater !erdurabo and The Great Beast CCC, Eas an English occultist, ceremonial magician, poet, and mountaineer, Eho Eas responsible for founding the religion of Thelema. +n his role as the founder of the Thelemite philosoph?, he came to see himself as the prophet Eho Eas entrusted Eith informing humanit? that it Eas entering the neE *eon of Forus in the earl? 0-th centur?. 8orn to a Eealth? evangelical !hristian famil?, !roEle? rejected this faith to embrace an interest in Eestern esotericism, poetr?, and mountaineering. Educated at !ambridge :niversit?, some biographers have argued that here he Eas recruited as a sp? for 8ritish intelligence, a role the? allege he maintained throughout his life. +n "<#< he joined the esoteric Fermetic Order of the 6olden $aEn, before moving to 8oles5ine Fouse b? .och 7ess, and traveling to +ndia to stud? Findu and 8uddhist practices. *fter marr?ing %ose Edith Mell?, in "#-) the? Eere in !airo, Eg?pt, Ehen !roEle? claimed to have been contacted b? a supernatural entit? named *iEass, Eho provided him Eith The Boo& of the La$, a sacred text that served as the basis for Thelema.

*fter an unsuccessful attempt to climb Mangchenjunga, !roEle? returned to 8ritain to found his oEn occult societ?, the ** and eventuall? rose to become a leader of Ordo Templi Orientis @O.T.O.A, before founding a religious commune in !efal}, Sicil?, 5noEn as the *bbe? of Thelema, Ehich he led from "#0- until "#0,. *fter abandoning the *bbe? amid Eidespread opposition, !roEle? returned to 8ritain, Ehere he continued to promote Thelema until his death. $uring his lifetime, !roEle? gained Eidespread notoriet?, being openl? bisexual, a recreational drug experimenter, and a social critic. *s a result, he Eas denounced in the popular press as 9the Eic5edest man in the Eorld9. !roEle? has remained a highl? influential figure over Eestern esotericism and the counter-culture. +n 0--0, a 88! poll ran5ed him as the sevent?-third greatest 8riton of all time.I"J

Contents
" Earl? life "." Louth/ "<1CG"<#) ".0 !ambridge :niversit?/ "<#CG"<#< "., The 6olden $aEn/ "<#<G"<## ".) 'exico, +ndia, 4aris, and marriage/ "#--G"#-, 0 $eveloping Thelema 0." Eg?pt and The Boo& of the La$/ "#-) 0.0 Mangchenjunga and !hina/ "#-CG"#-( 0., The ** and the Fol? 8oo5s of Thelema/ "#-1G"#" 0.) Ordo Templi Orientis/ "#"0G"#", 0.C :nited States and !anada/ "#")G"#"< 0.( *bbe? of Thelema/ "#0-G"#0, , .ater life ,." *fter the abbe?/ "#0,G"#)1 ,."." 8an5ruptc? ,.0 $eath ) 8eliefs )." 2reemasonr? ).0 Science and magic )., Spiritual and recreational use of drugs C 4ersonal life C." %acism and sexism ( 8ibliograph? 1 .egac? and influence 1." Occult 1.0 +n popular culture 1.0." +n 2iction 1.0.0 +n !omics and 6ames 1.0., +n 'usic 1.0.) +n !inema 1.0.C +n Television < %eferences <." 2ootnotes <.0 8ibliograph?

# External lin5s

(arl$ life
'outh0 9E:DF9EB<
!roEle? Eas born as EdEard *lexander !roEle? at ,- !larendon SKuare in %o?al .eamington Spa, >arEic5shire, on "0 October "<1C.I0J Fis father, EdEard !roEle? @"<,)G"<<1A, Eas trained as an engineer but never Eor5ed as one, instead oEning shares in a lucrative famil? breEing business, !roEle?Bs *lton *les, Ehich alloEed him to retire before his son Eas born.I,J Fis mother, Emil? 8ertha 8ishop @"<)<G"#"1A, dreE roots from a $evonshire-Somerset famil? and had a strained relationship Eith her son, Ehom she described as 9the 8east9, a name that he revelled in.I)J The couple had been married at .ondonBs Mensington %egistr? Office in 7ovember "<1),ICJ and Eere evangelical !hristians. !roEle?Bs father had been born a ua5er, but had converted to the Exclusive 8rethren, an ultra-conservative faction of the 4l?mouth 8rethren, Eith Emil? joining him upon marriage. !roEle?Bs father Eas particularl? devout, spending his time as a travelling preacher for the sect and reading a chapter from the 8ible to his Eife and son after brea5fast ever? da?.I(J 2olloEing the death of their bab? daughter in "<<-, in "<<" the famil? moved to %edhill, Surre?.I1J *ged <, !roEle? Eas sent to F.T. FabershonBs evangelical !hristian boarding school in Fastings, and then to the preparator? Ebor school in !ambridge, run b? the %everend Fenr? dB*rc? !hampne?, Ehom !roEle? considered a sadist.I<J +n 'arch "<<1, Ehen !roEle? Eas "", his father died of tongue cancer. !roEle? Eould describe this as a turning point in his life,I#J and he alEa?s maintained an admiration of his father, describing him as 9his hero and his friend9.I"-J +nheriting a third of his fatherBs Eealth, he began misbehaving at school, and Eas harshl? punished b? !hampne?H !roEle?Bs famil? removed him from the school Ehen he contracted albuminuria.I""J Fe then attended 'alvern !ollege and then Tonbridge School, both of Ehich he despised and left after onl? a feE terms.I"0J Fe became increasingl? sceptical regarding !hristianit?, pointing out to his religious teachers +nconsistencies in the 8ible,I",J and Eent against the !hristian moralit? of his upbringing b? smo5ing, masturbating, and having sex Eith Eomen, including a prostitute from Ehom he contracted gonorrhea.I")J Sent to live Eith a 8rethren tutor in Eastbourne, Ehere he undertoo5 chemistr? courses at Eastbourne !ollege, !roEle? developed his interests in chess, poetr?, and mountain climbing, and in "<#) climbed 8each? Fead before visiting the *lps and joining the Scottish 'ountaineering !lub. The folloEing ?ear he returned to the 8ernese *lps, climbing the Eiger, Trift, &ungfrau, 'vnch, and >etterhorn, Eith his achievements being recognised b? the alpinist communit?.I"CJ

Cambridge "niversit$0 9EBDF9EBE


Faving adopted the name of *leister over EdEard, in October "<#C !roEle? began a three-?ear course at Trinit? !ollege, !ambridge, Ehere he Eas entered for the 'oral Science Tripos stud?ing philosoph?, but Eith approval from his personal tutor, he sEitched to English literature, Ehich Eas not then part of the curriculum offered.I"(J !roEle? spent much of his time at universit? engaged in his pastimes, becoming president of the chess club and practising the game for tEo hours a da?H he briefl? considered a professional career in the sport.I"1J !roEle? also embraced his love of literature and poetr?, becoming a particular fan of %ichard 8urton and 4erc? 8?sshe Shelle?, and man? of his oEn poems appeared in student publications The 'ranta, Cambridge Maga5ine, and Cantab.I"<J *nother hobb? Eas mountaineeringH he Eent on holida? to the *lps to do so ever? ?ear from "<#) to "<#<, often Eith his friend Oscar Ec5enstein, and in the summer of "<#1 he made the first guideless ascent of the 'vnch, receiving recognition from the *lpine mountaineering communit?.I"#J

2or man? ?ears + had loathed being called *lic5, partl? because of the unpleasant sound and sight of the Eord, partl? because it Eas the name b? Ehich m? mother called me. EdEard did not seem to suit me and the diminutives Ted or 7ed Eere even less appropriate. *lexander Eas too long and Sand? suggested toE hair and frec5les. + had read in some boo5 or other that the most favourable name for becoming famous Eas one consisting of a dact?l folloEed b? a spondee, as at the end of a hexameter/ li5e Jeremy Taylor. *leister !roEle? fulfilled these conditions and *leister is the 6aelic form of *lexander. To adopt it Eould satisf? m? romantic ideals. *leister !roEle?, on his name change.I0-J

!roEle? later claimed to have had his first significant m?stical experience Ehile on a Einter holida? in Stoc5holm, SEeden in $ecember "<#(.I0"J Several biographers, including .aErence Sutin, %ichard Macz?ns5i, and Tobias !hurton, believed that this Eas the result of !roEle?Bs first same-sex sexual encounter, enabling him to recognise his bisexualit?.I00J *t !ambridge, !roEle? maintained a vigorous sex life, largel? Eith female prostitutes, from one of Ehom he caught s?philis, but eventuall? he too5 part in same-sex activities, despite the illegal nature of same-sex relations.I0,J +n October "<#1, !roEle? met Ferbert !harles 4ollitt, president of the !ambridge :niversit? 2ootlights $ramatic !lub, and the tEo entered into a relationship. The? bro5e apart because 4ollitt didnBt share !roEle?Bs increasing interest in >estern esotericism, something !roEle? regretted for ?ears.I0)J +n the summer of "<#1, !roEle? travelled to St 4etersburg in %ussia, later claiming that he Eas tr?ing to learn %ussian as he considered a future diplomatic career there. FoEever, biographers %ichard Spence and Tobias !hurton suggested that !roEle? had done so as an intelligence agent under the emplo? of the 8ritish secret service, speculating that he had been enlisted Ehile at !ambridge.I0CJ

+n October "<#1, a brief illness triggered considerations of mortalit? and 9the futilit? of all human endeavour9, and !roEle? abandoned all thoughts of a diplomatic career in favour of pursuing an interest in the occult.I0(J +n 'arch "<#<, he obtained *.E. >aiteBs The Boo& of Blac& Magic and of %acts @"<#<A, and then Marl von Ec5artshausenBs The Cloud @-on the Sanctuary @"<#(A, furthering his occult interests.I01J +n "<#< !roEle? privatel? published "-- copies of his poem #celdama" # %lace to Bury Strangers 1n, but it Eas not a particular success.I0<J That same ?ear he published a string of other poems, the most notable of Ehich Eas .hite Stains, a piece of decadent erotica that had to be printed abroad as a safet? measure in case it caused trouble Eith the 8ritish authorities. I0#J +n &ul? "<#<, he left !ambridge, not having ta5en an? degree at all despite a 9first class9 shoEing in his spring "<#1 exams and consistent 9second class honours9 results before that.I,-J

The Golden Da-n0 9EBEF9EBB

!roEle? in 6olden $aEn garb. +n *ugust "<#<, !roEle? Eas in =ermatt, SEitzerland, Ehere he met the chemist &ulian .. 8a5er,

and the tEo began discussing their common interest in alchem?.I,"J 8ac5 in .ondon, 8a5er introduced !roEle? to 6eorge !ecil &ones, a member of the occult societ? 5noEn as the Fermetic Order of the 6olden $aEn, Ehich had been founded in "<<<.I,0J !roEle? Eas subseKuentl? initiated into the Outer Order of the 6olden $aEn on "< 7ovember "<#< b? the groupBs leader, Samuel .iddell 'ac6regor 'athers. The ceremon? too5 place at the +sis-:rania Temple in .ondonBs 'ar5 'asons Fall, Ehere !roEle? accepted his motto and magical name of 92rater 4erdurabo9, a .atin term meaning 98rother + shall endure to the end9.I,,J 8iographers %ichard Spence and Tobias !hurton have suggested that !roEle? joined the Order under the command of the 8ritish secret services, to monitor the activities of 'athers, Eho Eas 5noEn to be a !arlist.I,)J !roEle? moved from the Fotel !ecil to his oEn luxur? flat at (1G(# !hancer? .ane. Fe soon invited a senior 6olden $aEn member, *llan 8ennett, to live Eith him as his personal magical tutor. 8ennett Eould teach !roEle? more about ceremonial magic and the ritual use of drugs, and together the? performed the magic of the 'oetia.I,CJ 8ennett hoEever desired to stud? 8uddhism, and left for *sia to do so.I,(J +n 7ovember "<##, !roEle? acKuired 8oles5ine Fouse in 2o?ers on the shore of .och 7ess in Scotland. Fe subseKuentl? developed a love of Scottish culture, describing himself as the 9.aird of 8oles5ine9 and too5 to Eearing traditional highland dress, even during visits to .ondon.I,1J Fe continued Eriting poetr?, publishing Je5ebel and >ther Tragic %oems @"<#<A, Tales of #rchais @"<#<A, Songs of the S-irit @"<#<A, #--eal to the #merican Re-ublic @"<##A, and Je-hthah @"<##AH Ehile most gained mixed revieEs, the latter Eas a critical success.I,<J !roEle? soon progressed through the grades of the 6olden $aEn, and Eas read? to enter the inner Second Order.I,#J FoEever, he Eas unpopular in the group, having gained a bad reputation for his bisexualit? and libertine lifest?le, and he had developed feuds Eith members li5e >.8. Leats.I)-J >hen the .ondon members of the group refused to initiate !roEle? into the Second Order, he visited 'athers in 4aris, Eho personall? upgraded him.I)"J * schism had developed betEeen 'athers and the .ondon members of the 6olden $aEn, Eho Eere unhapp? Eith his autocratic rule. I)0J *cting under 'athersB orders, !roEle? G Eith the help of his mistress and felloE initiate Elaine Simpson G attempted to seize the ;ault of %osen5reutz, a temple space at ,( 8l?the %oad, from the .ondon rebels. FoEever, Ehen the case Eas ta5en to court, the judge ruled in favour of the rebels, as the? had paid for the spaceBs rent.I),J Spence suggested that this Eas part of an intelligence operation to undermine 'athersB authorit?.I))J

Me)ico, &ndia, !aris, and marriage0 9BGGF9BG;


+n "#--, !roEle? travelled to 'exico via the :nited States, settling in 'exico !it? and ta5ing a local Eoman as his mistress. $eveloping a love of the countr?, he continued experimenting Eith ceremonial magic, Eor5ing Eith &ohn $eeBs Enochian invocations. Fe later claimed to have been initiated into 2reemasonr? Ehile in the cit?, and spending time Eriting, he authored a pla? based on %ichard >agnerBs Tannh[user as Eell as a series of poems, published as >racles @"#-CA. Ec5enstein joined him later that ?ear, and together the? climbed several mountains, including +ztaccihuatl, 4opocatepetl, and !olima, the latter of Ehich the? had to abandon oEing to a volcanic eruption.I)CJ Spence has suggested that the purpose of the trip might have been to explore 'exican oil prospects for 8ritish intelligence.I)(J .eaving 'exico, !roEle? headed to San 2rancisco before sailing for FaEaii aboard the Ci--on Maru. On the ship he had a brief affair Eith a married Eoman named 'ar? *lice %ogersH claiming to have fallen in love Eith her, he Erote a series of poems about the romance, published as #lice" #n #dultery @"#-,A.I)1J

!roEle? during the M0 Expedition. 8riefl? stopping at &apan and Fong Mong, !roEle? reached !e?lon, Ehere he met Eith *llan 8ennett, Eho Eas there stud?ing Shaivism. The pair spent some time in Mand? before 8ennett decided to become a 8uddhist mon5 in the Theravada tradition, travelling to 8urma to do so.I)<J !roEle? decided to tour +ndia, devoting himself to the Findu practice of raGa yoga, from Ehich he claimed to have achieved the spiritual state of dhyana. Fe spent much of this time stud?ing at the 'eena5shi *mman Temple in 'adura, and also Erote poetr? Ehich Eould be published as The S$ord of Song @"#-)A. !ontracting malaria, he had to recuperate from the disease in !alcutta and %angoon.I)#J +n "#-0, he Eas joined in +ndia b? Ec5enstein and several other mountaineersH 6u? MnoEles, F. 4fannl, ;. >essele?, and &ules &acot-6uillarmod. Together the Ec5enstein-!roEle? expedition attempted to climb M0, Ehich had never been conKuered b? mountaineers. On the journe?, !roEle? Eas afflicted Eith influenza, malaria, and snoE blindness, Ehile other expedition members Eere similarl? struc5 Eith illness. The? reached an altitude of 0-,--- feet @(,"-- mA before deciding to turn bac5.IC-J *rriving in 4aris in 7ovember "#-0, he associated largel? Eith the painter 6erald 2estus Mell?, and through him became a fixture of the 4arisian arts scene, authoring a series of poems on the Eor5 of an acKuaintance, the sculptor *uguste %odin, published as Rodin in Rime @"#-1A.IC"J One of those freKuenting this milieu Eas >. Somerset 'augham, Eho after briefl? meeting !roEle? Eould later use him as a model for the character of Oliver Faddo in his novel The Magician @"#-<A.IC0J %eturning to 8oles5ine in *pril "#-,, in *ugust !roEle? Eed 6eraldBs sister %ose Edith Mell? in a 9marriage of convenience9 to prevent her entering an arranged marriageH the marriage appalled the Mell? famil? and damaged his friendship Eith 6erald. Feading on a hone?moon to 4aris, !airo, and then !e?lon, !roEle? actuall? fell in love Eith her and set about to successfull? prove his affections. Fe Erote her a series of love poems, published as Rosa Mundi and other Love Songs @"#-(A, also authoring .hy Jesus .e-t.IC,J

Developing Thelema
(g$pt and !he Book of the +aw0 9BG<
+n 2ebruar? "#-), !roEle? and %ose arrived in !airo, Eg?pt. !laiming to be a prince and princess, the? rented an apartment in Ehich !roEle? set up a temple room and began invo5ing ancient Eg?ptian deities, also stud?ing *rabic and +slamic m?sticism.IC)J *ccording to !roEle?Bs later account, %ose regularl? became delirious and informed him 9the? are Eaiting for ?ou9. On "< 'arch, she explained that 9the?9 Eere the god Forus, and on 0- 'arch proclaimed that 9the EKuinox of the 6ods has come.9 She proceeded to lead him to a nearb? museum Ehere she shoEed him a seventhFad] The manifestation of 7uit. The unveiling of the compan? of heaven. Ever? man and Eoman is a star. Ever? number is infiniteH there is no difference. Felp me, o Earrior lord of Thebes, in m? unveiling before the !hildren of men] The opening lines of The Boo& of the La$.

centur? 8!E mortuar? stele 5noEn as the Stele of *n5h-ef-en-Mhonsu @!roEle? later termed it the 9Stele of %evealing9AH !roEle? Eas astounded, for the exhibitBs number Eas (((, the number of the beast in !hristian belief.ICCJ *ccording to later claims, on < *pril !roEle? heard a disembodied voice claiming to be coming from *iEass, an entit? Eho Eas the messenger of Forus, or Foor-4aar-Mraat. !roEle? said that he Erote doEn ever?thing the voice told him over the course of the next three da?s, and subseKuentl? titled it Liber #L vel Legis or The Boo& of the La$.IC(J The Boo& proclaimed that humanit? Eas entering a neE *eon, and that !roEle? Eould serve as its prophet. +t stated that a supreme moral laE Eas to be introduced in this *eon, 9$o Ehat thou Eilt shall be the Ehole of the laE9, and that people should learn to live in tune Eith their 9True >ill9. This boo5, and the philosoph? that it espoused, Eould be the cornerstone of !roEle?Bs religion, Thelema.IC1J !roEle? Eas unsure as to Ehat to do Eith The Boo& of the La$, and often came to resent it. Fe ignored the instructions that it commanded him to perform, Ehich included ta5ing the Stele of %evealing from the museum, fortif?ing his oEn island, and translating the 8oo5 into all the EorldBs languages. +nstead he sent t?pescripts of the Eor5 to several occultists Ehom he 5neE, and then 9put aside the boo5 Eith relief9.IC<J

HangchenIunga and China0 9BGDF9BGC


%eturning to 8oles5ine, !roEle? came to believe that 'athers had begun using magic against him, and the relationship betEeen the tEo bro5e doEn.IC#J On 0< &ul? "#-C, %ose gave birth to !roEle?Bs first child, a daughter named .ilith, Eith !roEle? authoring the pornographic Sno$dro-s 3rom a Curate's 'arden to entertain his recuperating Eife.I(-J Fe also founded a publishing compan? through Ehich to publish his poetr?, naming it the Societ? for the 4ropagation of %eligious Truth in parod? of the Societ? for 4romoting !hristian MnoEledge. *mong its first publications Ehere !roEle?Bs Collected .or&s, edited b? +vor 8ac5.I("J >hile his poetr? often received strong revieEs @either positive or negativeA, it never sold Eell, and attempting to gain more publicit?, he issued a reEard of {"-- for Ehomever could Erite the best essa? on the topic of his Eor5. The Einner of this Eould be &.2.!. 2uller, a 8ritish *rm? officer and militar? historian, Ehose essa?, The Star in the .est @"#-1A, heralded !roEle?Bs poetr? as some of the greatest ever Eritten.I(0J

The mountain of Mangchenjunga, as seen from $arjeeling. !roEle? decided to climb Mangchenjunga in the Fimala?as, Eidel? recognised as the EorldBs most treacherous mountain to climb. *ssembling a team consisting of &acot-6uillarmod, !harles *dolphe %e?mond, *lexis 4ache, and *lcesti !. %igo de %ighi, the expedition Eas marred b? much argument betEeen !roEle? and the others, Eho felt that he Eas rec5less. The? eventuall? mutinied against !roEle?Bs control, Eith the other climbers heading bac5 doEn the mountain as nightfall approached despite !roEle?Bs Earnings that it Eas too dangerous. !roEle? Eas proved right as 4ache and several porters Eere subseKuentl? 5illed in an accident, something for Ehich !roEle? Eas Eidel? blamed b? the mountaineering communit?.I(,J Spending time in 'oharbhanj, Ehere he too5 part in big game hunting and authored homoerotic Eor5 The Scented 'arden, !roEle? then met up Eith %ose and .ilith in !alcutta before being

forced to leave +ndia after shooting dead a native Eho had tried to mug him.I()J 8riefl? visiting 8ennett in 8urma, !roEle? and his famil? decided to tour Southern !hina, hiring porters and a nann? for the purpose.I(CJ Spence has suggested that this Eas part of !roEle?Bs job as an intelligence agent, in order to report on the regionBs opium trade.I((J +t is 5noEn that !roEle? smo5ed opium throughout the journe?, Ehich too5 the famil? from Teng?ueh through to Lungchang, Tali, Lunnanfu, and then Fanoi, before sailing to Fong Mong. On the Ea? he spent much time on spiritual and magical Eor5, reciting invocations from the 'oetia on a dail? basis. I(1J >hile %ose and .ilith returned to Europe, !roEle? headed to Shanghai to meet old friend Elaine Simpson, Eho Eas fascinated b? The Boo& of the La$ and together the? performed rituals attempting to contact *iEass. !roEle? then sailed to &apan and !anada, before continuing to 7eE Lor5 !it?, Ehere he unsuccessfull? attempted to gain support for a second expedition up Mangchenjunga.I(<J

The , , and the .ol$ Boo%s of Thelema0 9BG:F9B9G

The seal of the ** :pon arrival at 8ritain, !roEle? learned that his daughter .ilith had died of t?phoid in %angoon, something he later blamed on %oseBs increasing alcoholism. Feartbro5en, his health began to suffer, and he underEent a series of surgical operations.I(#J Fe proceeded to begin short-lived romances Eith actress ;era 9.ola9 Stepp and author *da .everson.I1-J +n 2ebruar? "#-1, %ose gave birth to !roEle?Bs second daughter, .ola =aza.I1"J SubseKuentl?, Eith his old mentor 6eorge !ecil &ones, !roEle? continued performing the *bramelin rituals at the *shdoEn 4ar5 Fotel in !oulsdon, Surre?. !roEle? claimed that in doing do he attained samadhi, or union Eith 6odhead, thereb? mar5ing a turning point in his life.I10J 'a5ing heav? use of hashish during these rituals, he penned an influential essa? on 9The 4s?cholog? of Fashish9 @"#-#A.I1,J Fe also claimed to have been contacted once again b? *iEass, resulting in tEo further texts, 9.iber ;++9 and 9.iber !ordis !incti Serpente9, Ehich Eould later be classified in the corpus of Fol? 8oo5s of Thelema.I1)J FoEever, it Eould onl? be in &une "#-# that !roEle? finall? came to full? accept Thelema and The Boo& of the La$ as objective truth.I1CJ !roEle?Bs inheritance Eas running out.I1(J Tr?ing to earn mone?, he Eas hired b? 6eorge 'ontagu 8ennett, the Earl of Tan5erville, to help protect him from EitchcraftH recognising 8ennettBs paranoia as being based in his cocaine addiction, !roEle? too5 him on a holida? to 2rance and 'orocco to recuperate.I11J +n the summer of "#-1, he also began ta5ing in pa?ing students, Eho he instructed in occult and magical practice.I1<J Fis closest discipline became ;ictor 7euburg, Ehom he met in 2ebruar? "#-1. The? became close friends and sexual partners, and in summer "#-< toured northern Spain before heading to Tangiers, 'orocco.I1#J +n the summer of "#-#, 7euburg sta?ed at 8oles5ine, Ehere he and !roEle? engaged in sadomasochistic behaviour.I<-J !roEle? continued to Erite prolificall?, producing such Eor5s of poetr? as #mbergris, Clouds .ithout .ater, and Kom >n %a2,I<"J as Eell as his first attempt an an autobiograph?, The .orld's Tragedy.I<0J %ecognising the popularit? of short horror stories, he Erote a number of his oEn, some of Ehich saE publication.I<,J Fe also penned Liber ///, a boo5 of magical and abalistic correspondences that borroEed much from 'athers and 8ennett.I<)J

!roEle? and &ones decided to found an occult order to act as a successor to the Fermetic Order of the 6olden $aEn. The result Eas the **, also 5noEn as the #rgenteum #strum, or the Silver Star. The groupBs headKuarters and temple Eere situated at "0) ;ictoria Street in !entral .ondon, and it soon attracted members.I<(J 'embers included solicitor %ichard 7oel >arren, artist *ustin Osman Spare, Forace SheridanThe opening lines of .iber ;++ 8ic5ers, author 6eorge %affalovich, 2rancis Fenr? Everard @"#-1A, the first of the Fol? 8oo5s &oseph 2ielding, engineer Ferbert EdEard +nman, Menneth of Thelema to be revealed to >ard and !harles Stansfeld &ones.I<1J 2olloEing the orderBs !roEle? after The Boo& of the La$. foundation, !roEle? continued to Erite doEn more received I<CJ Thelemic Fol? 8oo5s during the last tEo months of the ?ear, including 9.iber .3;+9, 9.iber *rcanorum9, 9.iber 4orta .ucis, Sub 2igura 39, 9.iber Tau9, 9.iber Trigrammaton9 and 9.iber $!!!3+++ vel *rarita9.I<<J +nto m? loneliness comes -The sound of a flute in dim groves that haunt the uttermost hills. Even from the brave river the? reach to the edge of the Eilderness. *nd + behold 4an. !roEle? began production of a biannual periodical that acted as the 9Official Organ9 of the **, titled The ,Quino2, Ehich Eas billed as 9The %evieE of Scientific +lluminism9. The philosoph? it espoused Eas described as 9The 'ethod of Science, the *id of %eligion9, and it contained both articles on occultism, non-fiction pieces, and artEor5s. I<#J 'eanEhile, unable to stand her alcoholism, !roEle? divorced %ose, and she Eas subseKuentl? institutionalised in September "#"". I#-J +n "#"-, !roEle? performed his series of dramatic rites, the %ites of Eleusis, Eith ** members .eila >addell @.a?lahA and ;ictor 8enjamin 7euburg.Icitation neededJ

Ordo Templi Orientis0 9B9AF9B9;


'ain article/ Ordo Templi Orientis

!roEle? in ceremonial garb, "#"0. *ccording to !roEle?, Theodor %euss called on him in "#"0 to accuse him of publishing O.T.O. secrets, Ehich !roEle? dismissed on the grounds of having never attained the grade in Ehich these secrets Eere given @+3th $egreeA. %euss opened up !roEle?Bs latest boo5, The Boo& of Lies, and shoEed !roEle? the passage. This spar5ed a long conversation Ehich led to !roEle? assuming the 3th $egree of O.T.O. and becoming 6rand 'aster of the English-spea5ing section of O.T.O. called Mysteria Mystica Ma2ima.I#"J !roEle? Eould eventuall? introduce the practice of male homosexual sex magic5 into O.T.O. as one of the highest degrees of the Order.I#0J +n 'arch "#",, producer !roEle? introduced .eila >addell in The Ragged Ragtime 'irls follies

revieE at the Old Tivoli in .ondon Ehere it enjo?ed a brief run. +n &ul? "#",, the production enjo?ed a six-Eee5 run in 'oscoE Ehere !roEle? met a ?oung Fungarian girl named *nn? %ingler. !roEle? Eent on to practice sado-masochistic sex Eith %ingler. >hile in 'oscoE, !roEle? Eould see *nn? for an hour and then he Eould Erite poetr?. $uring this summer in 'oscoE, !roEle? Eould Erite tEo of his most memorable Eor5s, the 4ymn to %an and the 6nostic 'ass or ,cclesiae 'nosticae Catholicae Canon Missae. The 4ymn to %an Eould be read at his funeral thirt? four ?ears later and the 6nostic 'ass is still regularl? performed b? OTO.I#,J :pon returning to .ondon in the autumn of "#",, !roEle? published the tenth and final number of volume one of The ,Quino2. +n $ecember "#", in 4aris, !roEle? Eould engage ;ictor 8enjamin 7euburg in The %aris .or&ing. The first ritual too5 place on 7eE LearBs Eve "#"). +n a period of seven Eee5s, !roEle? and 7euburg performed a total of tEent?-four rituals Ehich the? recorded in the Bhol?B or partiall? hol? boo5 formall? entitled >-us .utetianum.I#)J *round eight months later, 7euburg had a nervous brea5doEn. *fterEard, !roEle? and 7euburg Eould never see each other again.I#CJ

"nited 1tates and Canada0 9B9<F9B9E


$uring his time in the :S, !roEle? practised the tas5 of a 'agister Templi in the ** as he conceived it, namel? interpreting ever? phenomenon as a particular dealing of 96od9 Eith his soul. I#(J Fe began to see various Eomen he met as officers in his ongoing initiation, associating them Eith priests Eearing animal mas5s in Eg?ptian ritual.I#1J * meditation during his relationship Eith one of these Eomen, the poet &eanne %obert 2oster, led him to claim the title of 'agus, also referring to the s?stem of the **. +n "#"C he Erote a couple of columns in the Telegraph-Ferald, titled 'erman :ie$s of the .ar, in Ehich he represented the 6erman political-philosophical point of vieE in >orld >ar +.I#<JI##J +n &une "#"C, !roEle? met &eanne %obert 2oster in the compan? of her friend Fellen Follis, a journalistH !roEle? Eould have affairs Eith both Eomen. 2oster Eas a famous 7eE Lor5 fashion model, journalist, editor, poet and married. !roEle?Bs plan Eith 2oster Eas to produce his first sonH but in spite of a series of magical operations, she did not get pregnant. 8? the end of "#"C, the affair Eould be over.I"--J $uring a trip to ;ancouver in "#"C, !roEle? met >ilfred Smith, 2rater ",0 of the ;ancouver .odge of O.T.O., and in "#,-, granted him permission to establish *gape .odge in Southern !alifornia.I"-"J $uring the same trip in "#"C, !roEle? stopped over at 4ar5e $avis in $etroit for some mescaline.I"-0J +n earl? "#"(, !roEle? had an illicit liaison Eith *lice %ichardson, the Eife of *nanda !oomarasEam?, one of the greatest art historians of the da?. On the stage, %ichardson Eas 5noEn as %atan $evi, mezzo-soprano interpreter of East +ndian music. %ichardson became pregnant, but on a vo?age bac5 to England in mid-"#"(, she had a miscarriage. &ust before his affair Eith %atan $evi, !roEle? Eas practising sex magic Eith 6erda 'aria von Mothe5, a 6erman prostitute.I"-,J TEo periods of magical experimentation folloEed. +n &une "#"(, he began the first of these at the 7eE Fampshire cottage of Evangeline *dams, having ghostEritten most of her tEo boo5s on astrolog?.I"-)J Fis diaries at first shoE discontent at the gap betEeen his vieE of the grade of 'agus and his vieE of himself/ 9+t is no good ma5ing up m? mind to do an?thing materialH for + have no means. 8ut this Eould vanish if + could ma5e up m? mind.9 $espite his objections to sacrificing a living animal, he resolved to crucif? a frog as part of a rehearsal of the life of &esus in the 6ospels @afterEard declaring it his Eilling familiarA, 9Eith the idea ... that some supreme violation of all the laEs of m? being Eould brea5 doEn m? Marma or dissolve the spell that seems to bind me9.I"-CJ Slightl? more than a month later, having ta5en ether @eth?l oxideA, he had a vision of the universe from a modern scientific cosmolog? that he freKuentl? referred to in later Eritings. I"-(J !roEle? began another period of magical Eor5 on an island in the Fudson %iver after bu?ing large

amounts of red paint instead of food. Faving painted 9$o Ehat thou Eilt9 on the cliffs at both sides of the island, he received gifts from curious visitors. Fere at the island he had visions of seeming past lives, though he refused to endorse an? theor? of Ehat the? meant be?ond lin5ing them to his unconscious. ToEards the end of his sta?, he had a shoc5ing experience he lin5ed to 9the !hinese Eisdom9 Ehich made even Thelema appear insignificant.I"-1J 7evertheless, he continued in his Eor5. 8efore leaving the countr?, he formed a sexual and magical relationship Eith .eah Firsig, Ehom he had met earlier, and Eith her help began painting canvases Eith more creativit? and passion.I"-<J %ichard 8. Spence Erites in his 0--< boo5 Secret #gent )))" #leister Cro$ley; British 1ntelligence and the >ccult that !roEle? could have been a lifelong agent for 8ritish +ntelligence. >hile this ma? have alread? been the case during his man? travels to Tsarist %ussia, SEitzerland, *sia, 'exico and 7orth *frica that had started in his student da?s, he could have been involved Eith this line of Eor5 during his life in *merica during the 2irst >orld >ar, under a cover of being a 6erman propaganda agent and a supporter of +rish independence. !roEle?Bs mission might have been to gather information about the 6erman intelligence netEor5, the +rish independence activists and produce aberrant propaganda, aiming at compromising the 6erman and +rish ideals. *s an agent provocateur, he could have pla?ed some role in provo5ing the sin5ing of the %'S Lusitania, thereb? bringing the :nited States closer to active involvement in the Ear alongside the *llies.I"-#J Fe also used 6erman magazines The 3atherland and The 1nternational as outlets for his other Eritings. The Kuestion of Ehether !roEle? Eas a sp? has alEa?s been subject to debate, but Spence uncovered a document from the :S *rm?Bs old 'ilitar? +ntelligence $ivision supporting !roEle?Bs oEn claim to having been a sp?/ *leister !roEle? Eas an emplo?ee of the 8ritish 6overnment ... in this countr? on official business of Ehich the 8ritish !onsul, 7eE Lor5 !it? has full cognizance.I""-J

*bbe? of Thelema

,bbe$ of Thelema0 9BAGF9BA;


'ain article/ *bbe? of Thelema Soon after moving from >est #th St. in 6reenEich ;illage, 7eE Lor5 !it?, to 4alermo, Sicil?, Eith their neEborn daughter *nne .eah @nic5named 4oup`e, born 2ebruar? "#0-, died in a hospital in 4alermo ") October "#0-A, !roEle?, along Eith .eah Firsig, founded the *bbe? of Thelema in !efal} @4alermoA on ") *pril "#0-, the da? the lease for the villa Santa 8arbara Eas signed b? Sir *lastor de Merval @!roEle?A and !ontessa .ea Farcourt @.eah FirsigA. The !roEle?s arrived in !efalu on " *pril "#0-.I"""J $uring their sta? at the abbe?, Firsig Eas 5noEn as Soror *lostrael, !roEle?Bs Scarlet >oman, the name !roEle? used for his female sex magic5 practitioners in reference to the consort of the 8east of the *pocal?pse Ehose number is (((.I""0J The name of the abbe? Eas borroEed from %abelaisBs epic 6argantua,I"",J Ehere the 9*bbe? of Th`lbme9 is described as a sort of anti-monaster? Ehere the lives of the inhabitants Eere 9spent not in laEs, statutes, or rules, but according to their oEn free

Eill and pleasure9.I"")J This idealistic utopia Eas to be the model of !roEle?Bs commune, Ehile also being a t?pe of magical school, giving it the designation 9!ollegium ad Spiritum Sanctum9, The !ollege of the Fol? Spirit. The general programme Eas in line Eith the ** course of training, and included dail? adorations to the Sun, a stud? of !roEle?Bs Eritings, regular ?ogic and ritual practices @Ehich Eere to be recordedA, as Eell as general domestic labour. The object, naturall?, Eas for students to devote themselves to the 6reat >or5 of discovering and manifesting their True >ills. TEo Eomen, Firsig and 7inette ShumEa? @her magical name Eas Sister !?pris after *phroditeA, Eere both carr?ing !roEle?Bs seed. Firsig had a tEo-?ear old son named Fansi and ShumEa? had a three-?ear old bo? named FoEardH the? Eere not !roEle?Bs, but he nic5named them $ion?sus and Fermes respectivel?. *fter 4oup`e died, Firsig had a miscarriage, but ShumEa? gave birth to a daughter, *starte .ulu 4anthea. Firsig suspected ShumEa?Bs blac5 magic foul pla? and Ehat !roEle? found Ehen reading ShumEa?Bs magical diar? @ever?bod? had to 5eep one Ehile at the abbe? for reasons explained in .iber EA appalled him. ShumEa? Eas banished from the abbe? and the 8east lamented the death of his children. FoEever, ShumEa? Eas soon bac5 in the abbe? again to ta5e care of her offspring.I""CJ 'ussoliniBs 2ascist government expelled !roEle? from the countr? at the end of *pril "#0,. Icitation neededJ

#ater life
,fter the abbe$0 9BA;F9B<:
+n 2ebruar? "#0), !roEle? visited 6urdjieffBs +nstitute for the Farmonious $evelopment of 'an. Fe did not meet the founder on that occasion, but called 6urdjieff a 9tip-top man9 in his diar?.I""(J !roEle? privatel? criticised some of the +nstituteBs practices and teachings, but doubted that Ehat he heard from disciple 4indar reflected the masterBs true position. Some claim that on a later visit he met 6urdjieffDEho firml? repudiated !roEle?.I""1J 8iographer Sutin expresses scepticism,I""<J and 6urdjieffBs student !.S. 7ott tells a different version. 7ott perceives !roEle? as a blac5 or at least ignorant magician and sa?s his teacher 95ept a sharp Eatch9 on the visitor, but mentions no open confrontation.I""#J On "( *ugust "#0#, !roEle? married 'aria de 'iramar, a 7icaraguan, Ehile in .eipzig. The? separated b? "#,-, but Eere never divorced.I"0-J +n &ul? "#,", de 'iramar Eas admitted to the !olne? Fatch 'ental Fospital in 7eE Southgate, Ehere she remained until her death thirt? ?ears later.I"0"J +n September "#,-, !roEle? Eas in .isbon to meet the poet 2ernando 4essoa, Eho translated his poem 9F?mn To 4an9 into 4ortuguese. >ith the assistance of 4essoa, !roEle? fa5ed his oEn death at a notorious roc5 formation on the shore called 8oca do +nferno @'outh of FellA. !roEle? then left the countr? and enjo?ed the neEspaper reports of his death, and reappeared three Eee5s later at an exhibition in 8erlin.I"00J 7orman Faire and !roEle? give Eidel? different versions of meetings the? ma? @or ma? notA have had in 8erlin in &anuar? "#,) and in .ondon in &une that ?ear.I"0,J Ban%ruptc$ +n "#,), !roEle? Eas declared ban5rupt after losing a court case in Ehich he sued the artist 7ina Famnett for calling him a blac5 magician in her "#,0 boo5, Laughing Torso. +n addressing the court, 'r. &ustice SEift said/ + have been over fort? ?ears engaged in the administration of the laE in one capacit? or another. + thought that + 5neE of ever? conceivable form of Eic5edness. + thought that ever?thing Ehich Eas vicious and bad had been produced at one time or another before

me. + have learnt in this case that Ee can alEa?s learn something more if Ee live long enough. + have never heard such dreadful, horrible, blasphemous and abominable stuff as that Ehich has been produced b? the man @!roEle?A Eho describes himself to ?ou as the greatest living poet. D'r. &ustice SEiftI"0)J 4atricia 9$eirdre9 'ac*lpine approached !roEle? on the da? of the verdict and offered to bear him a child, Ehom he named *leister *tatmr5. She sought no m?stical or religious role in !roEle?Bs life and rarel? saE him after the birth, 9an arrangement that suited them both9.I"0CJ +n 'arch "#,#, $ion 2ortune and *leister !roEle? met publicl? for the first time. 2ortune had alread? used !roEle? as a model for the blac5 magician Fugo *stle? in her "#,C novel The .inged Bull.I"0(J $uring the Second >orld >ar, future &ames 8ond author +an 2leming @then a 7av? intelligence officerA along Eith other colleagues proposed a disinformation plot in Ehich !roEle? Eould have helped an '+C agent suppl? 7azi official %udolf Fess Eith fa5ed horoscopes. The? could then pass along false information about an alleged pro-6erman circle in 8ritain. The government abandoned this plan Ehen Fess fleE to Scotland, crashing his plane on the moors near Eaglesham, and Eas captured. 2leming then suggested using !roEle? as an interrogator to determine the influence of astrolog? on other 7azi leaders, but his superiors rejected this plan. *t some point, 2leming also suggested that 8ritain could use Enochian as a code to plant evidence.I"01J On 0" 'arch "#)), !roEle? undertoo5 Ehat he considered his croEning achievement, the publication of The Boo& of Thoth, 9strictl? limited to 0-- numbered and signed copies bound in 'orocco leather and printed on pre-Eartime paper9. !roEle? sold {",C-- Eorth of the edition in less than three months.I"0<J +n *pril "#)), !roEle? moved from #, &erm?n St. to 8ell +nn at *ston !linton, 8uc5s. $aphne Farris Eas the landlad?.I"0#J

Death
+n &anuar? "#)C, !roEle? moved to 7etherEood, a Fastings boarding house Ehere in the first three months, he Eas visited tEice b? $ion 2ortuneH she died of leu5aemia in &anuar? "#)(. On ") 'arch "#)C, in a letter 2ortune Erote to !roEle?, she declares/ 9... The ac5noEledgement + made in the introduction of The Mystical Rabalah of m? indebtness to ?our Eor5, Ehich seemed to me to be no more than common literar? honest?, has been used as a rod for m? bac5 b? people Eho loo5 on ?ou as *ntichrist9.I",-J !roEle? died at 7etherEood on " $ecember "#)1 at the age of 10. *ccording to one biographer, the cause of death Eas a respirator? infection.I","J Fe had become addicted to heroin after being prescribed morphine for his asthma and bronchitis man? ?ears earlier.I",0J Fe and his last doctor died Eithin 0) hours of each otherH neEspapers Eould claim, in differing accounts, that $r. Thomson had refused to continue his opiate prescription and that !roEle? had put a curse on him. I",,J 8iographer .aErence Sutin passes on various stories about !roEle?Bs death and last Eords. 2rieda Farris supposedl? reported him sa?ing, 9+ am perplexed9, though she did not see him at the ver? end. *ccording to &ohn S?monds, a 'r. %oEe Eitnessed !roEle?Bs death along Eith a nurse, and reported his last Eords as 9Sometimes + hate m?self9. 8iographer 6erald Suster accepted the version of events he received from a 9'r >.F.9 Eho Eor5ed at the house, in Ehich !roEle? dies pacing in his living room.I","J Supposedl? 'r >.F. heard a crash Ehile polishing furniture on the floor beloE, and entered !roEle?Bs rooms to find him dead on the floor. 4atricia 9$eirdre9 'ac*lpine, Eho visited !roEle? Eith their son and her three other children,

denied all this and reports a sudden gust of Eind and peal of thunder at the @otherEise KuietA moment of his death. *ccording to 'ac*lpine, !roEle? remained bedridden for the last feE da?s of his life, but Eas in light spirits and conversational. %eadings at the cremation service in nearb? 8righton included excerpts from !roEle?Bs Eor5s, among them his poem 4ymn to %an, and neEspapers referred to the service as a 8lac5 'ass. The 8righton council subseKuentl? resolved to ta5e all the necessar? steps to prevent such an incident from occurring again.I","J

Beliefs

*leister !roEle?Bs rendition of the :nicursal Fexagram, the s?mbol of Thelema 'ain article/ Thelema 4hilosopher &ohn 'oore opined that !roEle?Bs thought Eas rooted in %omanticism and the $ecadent movement.I",)J

/reemasonr$
!roEle? claimed to be a 2reemason,I",CJ but the organisations he joined are not recognised as regular b? 'asonic bodies in the *nglo-*merican tradition.I",(J !roEle? also had a decline of interest in 2reemasonr? after being initiated into the 9non-regular9 'asonic fraternities, stating that it Eas 9Either vain pretense, tomfooler?, an excuse for drun5en roEdiness, or a sinister association for political intrigues.I",1J9 I",<J

1cience and magic


!roEle? saE 'agic5 as a third Ea? betEeen religion and magic.I",#J !roEle? has been labelled b? some anthropologists as a practitioner of neoshamanism and revivalist of shamanistic philosophies in the earl? 0-th centur?.I")-J $efining magic5 in simplistic, ?et enigmatic terms Eas perhaps !roEle?Bs most notable contribution to the occult studiesIcitation neededJ, 9I'agic5Jis the Science and *rt of causing !hange to occur in conformit? Eith >ill.9 Magic& .ithout Tears, !h. " 9>hat is 'agic5?9I")"J

1piritual and recreational use of drugs


!roEle? Eas a habitual drug user and also maintained a meticulous record of his drug-induced experiences Eith opium, cocaine, hashish, cannabis, alcohol, ether, mescaline, morphine, and heroin.I")0J *llan 8ennett, !roEle?Bs mentor, Eas said to have 9instructed !roEle? in the magical use of drugs9.I"),J +n October "#,-, !roEle? dined Eith *ldous Fuxle? in 8erlin, and to this da? rumours persist that he introduced Fuxle? to pe?ote on that occasion.I"))J !roEle? developed a drug addiction after a .ondon doctor prescribed heroin for his asthma and

bronchitis.I")CJ Fis life as an addict influenced his "#00 novel, Diary of a Drug 3iend, but the fiction presented a hopeful outcome of rehabilitation and recover? b? means of magical techniKues and the exercise of True >ill. Fe overcame his addiction to heroin during this period @chronicled in Liber \:111 ? The 3ountain of 4yacinthA but began ta5ing it once more late in his life, again on doctorBs prescription for his respirator? difficulties.I")(J

!ersonal life
!roEle? biographer 'artin 8ooth asserted that in his ?outh, !roEle? Eas 9self-confident, brash, eccentric, egotistic, highl? intelligent, arrogant, Eitt?, Eealth?, and, Ehen it suited him, cruel.9I")1J Similarl?, %ichard Spence noted that !roEle? Eas 9capable of immense ph?sical and emotional cruelt?9.I")<J 8iographer .aErence Sutin noted that !roEle? exhibited 9courage, s5ill, dauntless energ?, and remar5able focus of Eill9 Ehile at the same time shoEing his 9blind arrogance, pett? fits of bile, IandJ contempt for the abilities of his felloE men9.I")#J !roEle? enjo?ed being outrageous and flaunting conventional moralit?,I"C-J Eith &ohn S?monds noting that he 9Eas in revolt against the moral and religious values of his time9.I"C"J Fe Eas a Social $arEinist and 9amateur eugenicist9,I"C0J although opposed abortion on moral grounds.I"C,J !roEle? also saE himself as an aristocrat, describing himself as .ord 8oles5ine, although had contempt for most of the 8ritish aristocrac?.I"C)J !roEle? Eas bisexual, although exhibited a sexual preference for Eomen.I"CCJ +n particular he had an attraction toEard 9exotic Eomen9,I"C(J and claimed to have fallen in love on multiple occasionsH Macz?ns5i stated that 9Ehen he loved, he did so Eith his Ehole being, but the passion Eas t?picall? short-lived.9I"C1J $uring same-sex anal intercourse, he usuall? pla?ed the passive role,I"C<J Ehich 8ooth believed 9appealed to his masochistic side.9I"C#J !roEle? argued that ga? and bisexual people should not suppress their sexual orientation, commenting that individuals 9must not be ashamed or afraid of being homosexual if he happens to be so at heartH he must not attempt to violate his oEn true nature because of public opinion, or medieval moralit?, or religious prejudice Ehich Eould Eish he Eere otherEise.9I"(-J

Racism and se)ism


8iographer .aErence Sutin stated that 9blatant bigotr? is a persistent minor element in !roEle?Bs Eritings9.I"("J Sutin thought !roEle? 9a spoiled scion of a Eealth? ;ictorian famil? Eho embodied man? of the Eorst &ohn 8ull racial and social prejudices of his upper-class contemporaries9,I"(0J noting that he 9embodied the contradiction that Erithed Eithin man? >estern intellectuals of the time/ deepl? held racist vieEpoints courtes? of their culture, coupled Eith a fascination Eith people of colour9.I"(,J Fe Eould insult his close &eEish friend ;ictor 7euburg using anti-Semitic slurs, although had mixed feelings to &eEs as a group. *lthough praising their 9sublime9 poetr? and claiming that the 9&eEish race9 contained 9imagination, romance, lo?alt?, probit? and humanit? in an exceptional degree9, he thought that centuries of persecution had led &eEs to exhibit 9avarice, servilit?, falseness, cunning and the rest9.I"()J Fe Eas also 5noEn to praise various ethnic and cultural groups, for instance claiming that the !hinese people exhibited a 9spiritual superiorit?9 to the English,I"(CJ and praising 'uslims for exhibiting 9manliness, straightforEardness, subtlet?, and self-respect.9I"((J !roEle? also exhibited a 9general misog?n?9 that 8ooth believed arose from his bad relationship Eith his mother.I"(1J Sutin noted that !roEle? 9largel? accepted the notion, implicitl? embodied in ;ictorian sexolog?, of Eomen as secondar? social beings in terms of intellect and sensibilit?9.I"(<J Elizabeth %eis claims that !roEle? ph?sicall? abused his Scarlet >omen in sadomasochistic sex rituals, and also outside the ritual context b? battering them.I"(#J !roEle? himself described Eomen as 9moral inferiors9 Eho had to be treated Eith 9firmness, 5indness and justice.9I"1-J !onversel?, !roEle? himself Erote that 9>e of Thelema sa? that BEver? man and ever? Eoman is a

star.B >e do not fool and flatter Eomen, Ee do not despise and abuse them. To us, a Eoman is herself, absolute, original, independent, free, self-justified, exactl? as a man is.9I"1"J

Bibliograph$
.ist of Eor5s b? *leister !roEle?

#egac$ and influence


!roEle? has remained an influential figure, both amongst occultists and in popular culture, particularl? that of 8ritain, but also of other parts of the Eorld. *cademic >outer Fanegraaff asserted that !roEle? Eas an extreme representation of 9the dar5 side of the occult9,I"10J Ehile philosopher &ohn 'oore opined that !roEle? stood out as a 9'odern 'aster9 Ehen compared Eith other prominent occult figures li5e 6eorge 6urdjieff, 4.$. Ouspens5?, %udolf Steiner, or 'adame 8lavats5?.I"1,J 'oore also thought that !roEle? acted as a 9living embodiment9 to OsEald SpenglerBs 92austian 'an9.I"1)J 8iographer Tobias !hurton considered !roEle? 9a pioneer of consciousness research9,I"1CJ Ehile Sutin thought that he had made 9distinctl? original contributions9 to the stud? of ?oga in the >est.I"1(J

Occult
*fter !roEle?Bs death, various colleagues and felloE Thelemites continued Eith his Eor5. One of his 8ritish disciples, Menneth 6rant, subseKuentl? founded the T?phonian O.T.O. in the "#C-s. +n *merica, his folloEers also continued, one of the most prominent of Ehom Eas &ac5 4arsons, the influential roc5et scientist. 4arsons performed Ehat he described as the 8abalon >or5ing in "#)(, and subseKuentl? claimed to have been taught the fourth part of the Boo& of the La$. 4arsons Eould also later Eor5 Eith and influence .. %on Fubbard, the later founder of Scientolog?.Icitation neededJ !roEle? inspired and influenced a number of later 'alvernians including 'ajor-6eneral &ohn 2uller, the inventor of artificial moonlight, and !ecil >illiamson, the neo-pagan Eitch.Icitation neededJ One of !roEle?Bs acKuaintances in the last months of his life Eas 6erald 6ardner, Eho Eas initiated into O.T.O. b? !roEle? and subseKuentl? Eent on to found the 7eopagan religion of >icca. ;arious scholars on earl? >iccan histor?, such as %onald Futton, 4hilip Feselton and .eo %uic5bie concur that >iccaBs earl? rituals, as devised b? 6ardner, contained much from !roEle?Bs Eritings such as the 6nostic 'ass.Icitation neededJ

&n popular culture


&n /iction 2ictionalised accounts of !roEle? or characters based upon him have been included in a number of literar? Eor5s, published both during his life and after. The Eriter >. Somerset 'augham used him as the model for the character in his novel The Magician, published in "#-<.I"11J !roEle? Eas flattered b? 'aughamBs fictionalised depiction of himself, stating that 9he had done more than justice to the Kualities of Ehich + Eas proud... The Magician Eas, in fact, an appreciation of m? genius such as + had never dreamed of inspiring.9I"1<J Other Eor5s including characters based on or inspired b? !roEle? include/ 9$ance To The 'usic of Time9 b? *nthon? 4oEell, 98lac5 Easter9 b? &ames 8lish, and 9The >inged 8ull9 b? $ion 2ortune.

&n Comics and Games The acclaimed comic boo5 author *lan 'oore, himself a practitioner of ceremonial magic, has also included !roEle? in several of his Eor5s. +n 'ooreBs 3rom 4ell, he appears in a cameo as a ?oung bo? declaring that magic is real, Ehile in the series %romethea he appears several times existing in a realm of the imagination called the +mmateria. : for :endetta ma5es reference to 9$o Ehat thou Eilt...9 on more than one occasion in the comic series. 'oore has also discussed !roEle?Bs associations Eith the Fighbur? area of .ondon in his recorded magical Eor5ing, The 4ighbury .or&ing.I"1#J Other comic boo5 Eriters have also made use of him, Eith 4at 'ills and Olivier .edroit portra?ing him as a reincarnated vampire in their series ReQuiem Chevalier :am-ire. !roEle? also is referenced in the 8atman comic *r5ham *s?lum/ * Serious Fouse on Serious Earth, b? 6rant 'orrison, Ehere the character *madeus *r5ham meets Eith him, discuss the s?mbolism of Eg?ptian tarot, and the? pla? chess. Fe has also appeared in &apanese media, such as D 'rayBMan and Toaru MaGutsu no 1nde2, as Eell as the hentai series Bible Blac&, Ehere he has a fictional daughter named &od? !roEle? Eho continues her fatherBs search for the Scarlet >oman. Occult scholar Firoshi *ramata, author of the groundbrea5ing historical fantas? novel Teito Monogatari, has described the protagonist of his Eor5 as a person 9closel? resembling9 *leister !roEle?.I"<-J Fe is also depicted in the Original 4la?Station game Cightmare Creatures as a poEerful demonic resurrection of himself.I"<"J &n Music !roEle? has been an influence for a string of popular musicians throughout the 0-th centur?. The 8eatles included him as one of the man? figures on the cover sleeve of their "#(1 album Sgt %e--er's Lonely 4earts Club Band, Ehere he is situated betEeen Sri Lu5tesEar 6iri and 'ae >est. * more intent interest in !roEle? Eas held b? &imm? 4age, the guitarist and co-founder of "#1-s roc5 band .ed =eppelin. $espite not describing himself as a Thelemite, 4age Eas still fascinated b? !roEle?, and oEned some of his clothing, manuscripts and ritual objects, and during the "#1-s bought 8oles5ine Fouse, Ehich also appears in the bandBs movie The Song Remains the Same. On the bac5 cover of the $oors 86 album, &im 'orrison and the other members of the $oors are shoEn posing Eith a bust of *leister !roEle?. *uthor 4aulo !oelho introduced the Eritings of *leister !roEle? to 8razilian roc5er %aul Seixas, Eho Eent on to Erite and perform songs @most notabl?, 9;iva a Sociedade *lternativa9 and 97ovo *eon9A that Eere strongl? influenced b? !roEle?.I"<0J The later roc5 musician Ozz? Osbourne released a song titled 9'r. !roEle?9 on his solo album Bli55ard of >55, Ehile a comparison of !roEle? and Osbourne in the context of their media portra?als can be found in the Journal of Religion and %o-ular Culture I"<,J !roEle? has also been a favourite of SEiss *vant-6arde metal band !eltic 2rost. +n fact, the song Os *b?smi ;el $aath from 'onotheist is based partiall? on some of his Eritings. +n the earl? "##-s, 8ritish +ndie band 2ive Thirt? carried Eith them on tour a front door Ehich the? alleged had belonged to !roEle?. The door Eas placed prominentl? on stage during their gigs.I"<)J &n Cinema !roEle? has also had an influence in cinema. 4hotographs shoEing him on-set noE in the 4rinceton :niversit? librar? confirm !roEle? Eas hired in "#"( b? Theodore and .eo >harton, earl? filmma5ers Eith a studio in +thaca, 7eE Lor5, as a consultant on their film serial 9The '?steries of '?ra9 Ehich featured a !roEle?-li5e figure as the serialBs occult-magician villain, initiall? depicted in a near-exact duplicate of a 96olden $aEn9 costume including blac5 triangular hat Eith golden triangle s?mbol. +n the film series, members of the 9'asterBs9 cult perform occult rituals and spells Eearing the triangle s?mbol and identif? themselves to each other Eith the 9thumbs-up9 gesture depicted in the photograph attached to the top of this article.Icitation neededJ !roEle? Eas also a major influence and inspiration to the Eor5 on the radical avant garde underground film-ma5er Menneth *nger, especiall? his 'agic5 .antern !?cle series of Eor5s. One of *ngerBs Eor5s is a

film of !roEle?Bs paintings,I"<CJ and in 0--# he gave a lecture on the subject of !roEle?.I"<(J 8ruce $ic5inson, singer Eith +ron 'aiden, Erote the screenpla? of Chemical .edding @released in *merica on $;$ as Cro$leyA,I"<1J Ehich features Simon !alloE as Oliver Faddo, the name ta5en from the 'agician-villain character in the Somerset 'augham boo5 9The 'agician9, Eho Eas in turn inspired b? 'aughamBs meeting Eith !roEle?I"<<J Spanish underground filmma5er !arlos *tanes started to shoot three feature films about !roEle? unsuccessfull? and finall? he has published the screenpla? #leister Cro$ley in the Mouth of 4ell in 0-",.I"<#J The +talian historian of esotericism 6iordano 8erti, in his boo5 Tarocchi di #leister Cro$ley @"##<A Kuotes a number of films inspired b? !roEle?Bs life and legends. Some of the films are The Magician @"#0(A b? %ex +ngram, based upon the epon?mous boo5 Eritten b? >illiam Somerset 'augham @"#-<AH Cight of the Demon @"#C1A b? &acKues Tourneur, based on the stor? 9!asting the %unes9 b? '. %. &amesH and The Devil Rides >ut @"#(<A b? Terence 2isher, from the epon?mous thriller b? $ennis >heatle?. refn8erti, 6iordanoH 7egrini, %obertoH Tebani, %odrigo @"##<A. 1 Tarocchi di #leister Cro$ley IThe Tarot of #leister Cro$leyJ @in +talianA. Torino/ .o Scarabeo.~Nrefn &n Television %ecurring T'>%7& character %oger !roEle? Eas based on !roEle?, and claimed to be 9the Eic5edest man in the Eorld.9I"#-J

References
/ootnotes
". 2 !hurton 0-"". p. ,. 0. 2 8ooth 0---, pp. )GCH Sutin 0---, p. "CH Macz?ns5i 0-"-, p. "). ,. 2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0G,H Sutin 0---, pp. ,"G0,H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. )G<H !hurton 0-"", pp. ")G"C. ). 2 8ooth 0---, p. ,H Sutin 0---, pp. "<G0"H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. ",G"(H !hurton 0-"", pp. "1G0". C. 2 8ooth 0---, p. ,H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, p. ",G")H !hurton 0-"", p. "1. (. 2 8ooth 0---, pp. ,G), (, #G"-H Sutin 0---, pp. "1G0,H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. ""G"0, "(. 1. 2 8ooth 0---, pp. (G1H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, p. "(H !hurton 0-"", p. 0). <. 2 8ooth 0---, pp. "0G")H Sutin 0---, p. 0CG0#H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. "1G"<H !hurton 0-"", p. 0). #. 2 8ooth 0---, p. "CH Sutin 0---, pp. 0)G0CH Macz?ns5i 0-"-, p. "#H !hurton 0-"", pp. 0)G 0C. "-.2 8ooth 0---, p. "-H Sutin 0---, p. 0". "".2 Sutin 0---, pp. 01G,-H Macz?n5si 0-"-, pp. "#, 0"G00. "0.2 8ooth 0---, pp. ,0G,#H Sutin 0---, pp. ,0G,,H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, p. 01H !hurton 0-"", pp. 0(G01. ",.2 8ooth 0---, pp. "CG"(H Sutin 0---, pp. 0CG0(H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, p. 0,. ").2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0(G01H Sutin 0---, p. ,,H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. 0),01H !hurton 0-"", p. 0(. "C.2 8ooth 0---, pp. ,#G),H Sutin 0---, pp. ,-G,0, ,)H MaEcz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. 01G,-H !hurton 0-"", pp. 0(G01. "(.2 8ooth 0---, p. )#H Sutin 0---, pp. ,)G,CH Macz?ns5i 0-"-, p. ,0H !hurton 0-"", pp. 01G 0<. "1.2 8ooth 0---, pp. C"GC0H Sutin 0---, pp. ,(G,1H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, p. 0,. "<.2 8ooth 0---, pp. C-GC"H Macz?ns5i 0-"0, pp. ,,G,C. "#.2 S?monds "##1, p. ",H 8ooth 0---, pp. C,GC(H Sutin 0---, pp. C-GC0H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, p. ,C, )0G)C, C-GC"H !hurton 0-"", p. ,C.

0-.2 !roEle? "#<#, p. ",#. 0".2 S?monds "##1, p. ")H 8ooth 0---, pp. C(GC1H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, p. ,(H !hurton 0-"", p. 0#. 00.2 Sutin 0---, p. ,<H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, p. ,(H !hurton 0-"", p. 0#. 0,.2 8ooth 0---, pp. C#G(0H Sutin 0---, p. ),H !hurton 0-"", pp. 01G0<. 0).2 8ooth 0---, pp. ()G(CH Sutin 0---, pp. )"G)1H !hurton 0-"", pp. ,,G0). 0C.2 Spence 0--(, pp. "#G0-H !hurton 0-"", pp. ,-G,". 0(.2 8ooth 0---, pp. C1GC<H Sutin 0---, pp. ,1G,#H MaEcz?ns5i 0-"-, p. ,(. 01.2 8ooth 0---, pp. C<GC#H Sutin 0---, p. )"H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. )-G)0. 0<.2 S?monds "##1, pp. ")G"CH 8ooth 0---, pp. 10G1,H Sutin 0---, pp. ))G)CH Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. )(G)1. 0#.2 S?monds "##1, p. "CH 8ooth 0---, pp. 1)G1CH Sutin 0---, pp. ))G)CH Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. )<GC-. ,-.2 8ooth 0---, pp. 1<G1#H Sutin 0---, pp. ,CG,(. ,".2 8ooth 0---, pp. <"G<0H Sutin 0---, pp. C0GC,H Macz?n5si 0-"-, pp. C0GC,. ,0.2 8ooth 0---, pp. <0G<CH Sutin 0---, pp. C,GC)H Macz?n5si 0-"-, pp. C)GCC. ,,.2 8ooth 0---, pp. <C, #,G#)H Sutin 0---, pp. C)GCCH Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. (-G("H !hurton 0-"", p. ,C. ,).2 Spence 0--<, pp. 00G0<H !hurton 0-"", pp. ,<G)(. ,C.2 8ooth 0---, pp. #<G"-,H Sutin 0---, pp. ()G((H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. C)GCC, (0G(), (1G (<H !hurton 0-"", p. )#. ,(.2 8ooth 0---, pp. "-,G"-CH Sutin 0---, pp. 1-G1"H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. 1-G1"H !hurton 0-"", p. CC. ,1.2 S?monds "##1, p. 0#H 8ooth 0---, pp. "-1G"""H Sutin 0---, pp. 10G1,H !hurton 0-"", p. C0. ,<.2 8ooth 0---, p. "")G""CH Sutin 0---, pp. ))G)CH Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. (", ((, 1-. ,#.2 8ooth 0---, pp. ""CG""(H Sutin 0---, p. 1"G10H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, p. (). )-.2 S?monds "##1, p. ,1H 8ooth 0---, pp. ""CG""(H Sutin 0---, pp. (1G(#H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. ()G(1. )".2 8ooth 0---, p. ""(H Sutin 0---, pp. 1,G1CH Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. 1-G1,H !hurton 0-"", pp. C,GC). )0.2 8ooth 0---, p. ""<H Sutin 0---, pp. 1,G1CH Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. 1)G1CH !hurton 0-"", p. C1. ),.2 8ooth 0---, pp. ""<G"0,H Sutin 0---, pp. 1(G1#H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. 1CG<-H !hurton 0-"", pp. C<G(-. )).2 Spence 0--<, p. 01. )C.2 8ooth 0---, pp. "01G",1H Sutin 0---, pp. <-G<(H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. <,G#-H !hurton 0-"", pp. ()G1-. )(.2 Spence 0--<, p. ,0. )1.2 8ooth 0---, pp. ",1G",#H Sutin 0---, pp. <(G#-H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. #-G#,H !hurton 0-"", pp. 1"G1C. )<.2 8ooth 0---, pp. ",#G"))H Sutin 0---, pp. #-G#CH Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. #,G#(H !hurton 0-"", pp. 1(G1<. )#.2 8ooth 0---, pp. "))G")1H Sutin 0---, pp. #)G#<H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. #(G#<H !hurton 0-"", pp. 1<G<,. C-.2 8ooth 0---, pp. ")<G"C(H Sutin 0---, pp. #<G"-)H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. #<G"-<H !hurton 0-"", p. <,. C".2 8ooth 0---, pp. "C#G"(,H Sutin 0---, pp. "-)G"-<H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. "-#G""CH !hurton 0-"", pp. <)G<(. C0.2 8ooth 0---, pp. "()G"(1H Sutin 0---, pp. "-CG"-1H Macz?ns5i 0---, pp. ""0G"",H !hurton 0-"", p. <C. C,.2 8ooth 0---, pp. "1"G"11H Sutin 0---, pp. ""-G""(H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. ""#G"0)H

!hurton 0-"", pp. <#G#-. C).2 8ooth 0---, pp. "<"G"<0H Sutin 0---, pp. ""<G"0-H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, p. "0)H !hurton 0-"", p. #). CC.2 8ooth 0---, pp. "<0G"<,H Sutin 0---, pp. "0-G"00H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. "0)G"0(H !hurton 0-"", pp. #(G#<. C(.2 8ooth 0---, pp. "<)G"<<H Sutin 0---, pp. "00G"0CH Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. "01G"0#. C1.2 8ooth 0---, pp. "<)G"<<H Sutin 0---, pp. "0CG",,. C<.2 8ooth 0---, p. "<<H Sutin 0---, p. ",#H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, p. "0#. C#.2 8ooth 0---, pp. "<#, "#)G"#CH Sutin 0---, pp. ")-G")"H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, p. ",-H !hurton 0-"", p. "-<. (-.2 8ooth 0---, pp. "#CG"#(H Sutin 0---, p. ")0H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, p. ",0H !hurton 0-"", p. "-<. (".2 8ooth 0---, p. "#-H Sutin 0---, p. ")0H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. ","G",,. (0.2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0)"G0)0H Sutin 0---, pp. "11G"1#H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. ",(G",1, ",#, "(<G"(#. (,.2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0-"G0"CH Sutin 0---, pp. ")#G"C<H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. ",<G")#H !hurton 0-"", pp. """G""0. ().2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0"1G0"#H Sutin 0---, pp. "C<G"(0H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. "C"G"C0. (C.2 8ooth 0---, p. 00"H Sutin 0---, pp. "(0G"(,H !hurton 0-"", p. ""). ((.2 Spence 0--<, pp. ,,G,CH !hurton 0-"", p. ""C. (1.2 8ooth 0---, pp. 00"G0,0H Sutin 0---, pp. "()G"(#H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. "C,G"C)H !hurton 0-"", pp. ""CG""<. (<.2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0,0G0,CH Sutin 0---, pp. "(#G"1"H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. "CCG"C(H !hurton 0-"", pp. ""<G"0". (#.2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0,CG0,(, 0,#H Sutin 0---, pp. "1"G"10H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. "C#G"(-H !hurton 0-"", p. "0". 1-.2 8ooth 0---, p. 0)(H Sutin 0---, p. "1#H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. "C#G"(-, "1,G"1). 1".2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0,(G0,1H Sutin 0---, pp. "10G"1,H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. "C#G"(-H !hurton 0-"". 10.2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0,#G0)-H Sutin 0---, pp. "1,G"1)H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. "C1G"(-. 1,.2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0)-G0)"H Sutin 0---, pp. "1,, "1CG"1(. 1).2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0C"G0C0H Sutin 0---, p. "<"H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, p. "10. 1C.2 Sutin 0---, pp. "#CG"#(. 1(.2 8ooth 0---, p. 0),. 11.2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0)#G0C"H Sutin 0---, p. "<-. 1<.2 8ooth 0---, p. 0C0. 1#.2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0CCG0(0H Sutin 0---, pp. "<)G"<1. <-.2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0(1G0(<H Sutin 0---, pp. "#(G"#<. <".2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0))G0)CH Sutin 0---, pp. "1#, "<". <0.2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0)(G0)1H Sutin 0---, pp. "<0G"<,. <,.2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0C)G0CC. <).2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0)1G0)<H Sutin 0---, p. "1C. <C.2 !roEle? "#<,. p. ,0. <(.2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0(,G0()H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. "10G"1,. <1.2 Macz?ns5i 0-"-. pp. "<CG"<#. <<.2 Macz?ns5i 0-"-. pp. "1,G"1C. <#.2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0(CG0(1H Sutin 0---, pp. "#0G"#,H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, p. "<,. #-.2 8ooth 0---, pp. 01-G010H Sutin 0---, pp. "#<G"##H Macz?ns5i 0-"-, pp. "<0G"<,. #".2 Ming, 'agical >orld, pages <-G<" #0.2 Sutin. Do $hat thou $ilt. p. 00<. +S87 --,"0-0<<#1-0. 9!roEle? also added a neE degree of his oEn devising G an 3+Z magical Eor5ing utilizing anal sex Ehich Eas, in practice, primaril? homosexual.9

#,.2 Sutin. Do $hat thou $ilt. pp. 0,0G0,(. +S87 --,"0-0<<#1-0. 9Once arrived in 'oscoE, !roEle? Eas entranced b? the beaut? of the cit?...9 #).2 The material *! considered hol? 9is inextricabl? imbedded in the !lass B text, often Eithout the benefit of Kuotation mar5s9. The 4oly Boo&s of Thelema intro to "#<) ed, p xxiii. #C.2 Sutin p. 0)" #(.2 Liber #B# 4art ++ gives this tas5. #1.2 Sutin p 0C". #<.2 *leister !roEle? @0C &anuar? "#"CA. 96erman ;ieEs of the >ar9. Telegra-hB4erald. %etrieved "< 'arch 0-",. ##.2 *leister !roEle? @0# &anuar? "#"CA. 96erman ;ieEs of the >ar9. Telegra-hB4erald. %etrieved "< 'arch 0-",. "--.2 Sutin, $o >hat Thou >ilt, pp. 0C"G0C) "-".2 MnoElton, &aniceH 7eEton, 'ichael @"##CA. Daddy $as the Blac& Dahlia &iller. Simon S Schuster. p. "0#. +S87 #1<---(1"-<<-<)-0. 9... Smith got things rolling in Foll?Eood b? luring celebrities to special invitation-onl? rituals at Ehich 9sex magic59 Eas one of the major attractions.9 "-0.2 Sutin, $o >hat Thou >ilt, pp. 0C0G0C, "-,.2 Sutin, .aErence @0---A. Do .hat Thou .ilt" a life of #leister Cro$ley. 'acmillan. p. 0C(. +S87 #1<---,"0-0C0),-). "-).2 Sutin p0C1. "-C.2 Sutin pp0(-, 0(". "-(.2 Sutin p0C<. "-1.2 Sutin pp01", 010. "-<.2 Sutin p01C "-#.2 Spence, %ichard 8. @0--<A. Secret #gent )))" #leister Cro$ley; British 1ntelligence and the >ccult. 4ort ToEnsend/ 2eral Fouse. +S87 #1<-"-#,0C#C-,,-<. ""-.2 Spence p.(, Kuoting :S 7ational *rchives, %ecord 6roup "(C, 'ilitar? +ntelligence $ivision file "--"0-""0, 96eneral Summar?9, +ntelligence Officer, >est 4oint, 7eE Lor5, 0, September "#"< """.2 Sutin, Do .hat Thou .ilt, pp.01#G0<""0.2 .evenda, 4eter @0--0A. @nholy alliance" a history of Ca5i involvement $ith the occult. !ontinuum +nternational 4ublishing 6roup. p. ",0. +S87 #1<---<0()-")-#--. 94erhaps the most famous to !roEle?Bs enthusiasts Eas the ghostl? .eah Firzig, the ?ounger sister of the SEiss-6erman *lma Firzig,...9 "",.2 7ature of the 8east b? !olin >ilsonH page 1, "").2 %abelais, 2. 'argantua and %antagruel !h. ". ""C.2 Sutin, .aurence @0---A. Do .hat Thou .ilt" a life of #leister Cro$ley. 'acmillan. p. 0<C. +S87 #1<---,"0-0C0),-). ""(.2 9Feard more sense and insight than +Bve done in ?ears.9 uoted in Sutin, p. ,"1. ""1.2 &ames >ebb, The 4armonious Circle, p. ,"C. uoted in +ntroduction to 6nosis 7o. 0-, online version. %etrieved 0- $ecember 0--1. ""<.2 9+f this brutal banishment did occur, then it is remar5able that !roEle?, Eho harbored animus toEard so man? rival teachers, never did so toEard 6urdjieff.9 Sutin p.,"<. ""#.2 Teachings of 6urdjieff/ * 4upilBs &ournal "0-.2 9The Enc?clopedia of Thelema S 'agic5 V 'aria de 'iramar9. Thelemapedia. %etrieved < &anuar? 0-"-.Idead lin&J "0".2 Sutin, .aErence @0---A. Do $hat thou $ilt" a life of #leister Cro$ley. 'acmillan. p. ,C#. +S87 #1<---,"0-0C0),-). "00.2 9The +nfluence of *leister !roEle? on 2ernando 4essoaBs Esoteric >ritings9 in 6nostics ,/ dsot`risme, 6noses S +maginaire S?mboliKue @.euven, 8elgium/ 4eeters, 0--"A pp.(#,G 1"".

"0,.2 $iana >?ndham. @0-"0A 9B7orman Faire and the Stud? of SexB9. 2oreEord b? the Fon. 'ichael Mirb? *! !'6. @S?dne?/ 9S?dne? :niversit? 4ressA9., pp. 0")G0"C. "0).2 The :nited 4ress @", *pril "#,)A. 9!onfessed 6enius .oses >eird Suit9. The %ittsburgh %ress. %etrieved "< 'arch 0-",. "0C.2 Sutin, pp ,1,G,1). "0(.2 Sutin, Do $hat thou $ilt, p. )-1 "01.2 Sutin, pp. ,<<G,<# "0<.2 Sutin Do $hat thou $ilt, pp, )--G)-" "0#.2 Sutin Do $hat thou $ilt, p. )-0 ",-.2 Sutin Do $hat thou $ilt, pp. )-1G)-< ",".R a b c Sutin, pp. )"1G)"# ",0.2 Sutin pp )"", )"(, initial prescription p 011. ",,.2 9$ail? Express9. ) $ecember "#)1. and 9The >innipeg 2ree 4ress9. ," 'a? "#(#.. See also Sutin p )"<. ",).2 'oore 0--#, pp. "#G)-. ",C.2 Sutin/$o >hat Thou >ilt @p. <,A ",(.2 E.g. Starr ' 4 0--), 9*leister !roEle?/ freemason]9, 6rand .odge of 8ritish !olumbia and Lu5on, freemasonr?.bc?.ca ",1.2 http/NNEEE.freemasonr?.bc?.caNaKcNcroEle?.html ",<.2 Short, 'artin +nside the 8rotherhood/ 2urther Secrets of the 2reemasons 7eE Lor5 !it? $orset 4ress "##- pages #1G#< ",#.2 8ogdan S Starr 0-"0, p. ). ")-.2 ShamansNneo-Shamans/ ecstas?, alternative archaeologies, and contemporar? pagans 8? %obert &. >allis. %etrieved # September 0--#. ")".2 http/NNhermetic.comNcroEle?Nmagic5-Eithout-tearsNmEt-".html ")0.2 9The !onfessions of *leister !roEle?/ *n *utohagiograph?9 b? *leister !roEle? @*r5ana 4ublishing, "#<#AH 9$o >hat Thou >ilt/ * .ife of *leister !roEle?9 b? .aErence Sutin. @St. 'artinBs 4ress, 0---AH 9The 'agical $iaries of *leister !roEle?9 edited b? Stephen S5inner @>eiser, 0--,A "),.2 OEen, *lex @") *pril 0--)A. 9*leister !roEle? in the $esert9. The %lace of ,nchantment" British >ccultism and the Culture of the Modern @Fardcover ed.A. :niversit? of !hicago 4ress. p. "#0. +S87 #1<---00(-()0-"-1. ")).2 !ornelius, 0--". ")C.2 9$o >hat Thou >ilt/ * .ife of *leister !roEle?9 b? .aErence Sutin. @St. 'artinBs 4ress, 0---A ch. 1, p. 011 ")(.2 9$o >hat Thou >ilt/ * .ife of *leister !roEle?9 b? .aErence Sutin. @St. 'artinBs 4ress, 0---A p. )"( ")1.2 8ooth 0---, p. "0C. ")<.2 Spence 0--<, p. "-. ")#.2 Sutin 0---, p. ")<. "C-.2 'oore 0--#, p. ,,. "C".2 S?monds "##1, p. vii. "C0.2 Sutin 0---, p. "0#. "C,.2 Sutin 0---, p. ")C. "C).2 8ooth 0---, p. "-#. "CC.2 8ooth 0---, p. (1H Spence 0--<, p. "#. "C(.2 8ooth 0---, p. ",-. "C1.2 Macz?ns5i 0-"-, p. #". "C<.2 8ooth 0---, p. (,H Sutin 0---, p. "C#. "C#.2 8ooth 0---, p. (,. "(-.2 Sutin 0---, p. "0<. "(".2 Sutin 0---, pp. 00,G00).

"(0.2 Sutin 0---, p. 0. "(,.2 Sutin 0---, p. ,,(. "().2 8ooth 0---, pp. 0(<G0(#. "(C.2 8ooth 0---, p. ",1. "((.2 Sutin 0---, p. "<-. "(1.2 8ooth 0---, p. (". "(<.2 Sutin 0---, p. 0<. "(#.2 Elizabeth %eis "##<, S-ellbound" .omen and .itchcraft in #merica, %oEman S .ittlefield, +S87 -<)0-0C11), p. 0C0 "1-.2 Sutin 0---, p. ""). "1".2 !roEle?, *leister @"##(-"0A. The La$ 1s for #ll" The #uthori5ed %o-ular Commentary of Liber #l :el Legis sub figura CC\\; the Boo& of the La$. .ouis >il5inson @ed.A. Thelema 'edia. +S87 -#10(C<,<(. "10.2 Fanegraaff 0-"0, p. ix. "1,.2 'oore 0--#, p. C. "1).2 'oore 0--#, p. )-. "1C.2 !hurton 0-"", p. <<. "1(.2 Sutin 0---, p. #,. "11.2 !urtis, *nthon?H >hitehead, &ohn @"#<1A. . Somerset Maugham" the critical heritage. %outledge. p. )). +S87 #1<---1"---#()--". 9... in 4aris in "#-C... *t that time he got to 5noE *leister !roEle?,...9 "1<.2 S?monds "##1. p. ",0. "1#.2 $o?le->hite 0--# "<-.2 Firoshi *ramata, Birds of the .orld" as -ainted by 8Dth century artists @!roEn 4ublishers "#<#A, p. "", +S87 --C"1-C1,1)-" "<".2 'orehead, &ohn >. @, *ugust 0-"-A. 9;ideo games/ =ombies *te '? 7eighbours, and 7ightmare !reatures9. TheofantastiQue" a meeting -lace for myth; imagination and mystery in -o- culture. >ordpress. %etrieved "C 7ovember 0-"-. "<0.2 Essinger, Silvio. 9* redenewo do mago e ocultista *leister !roEle?9. > 'lobo ) &anuar? 0-"0. I"J "<,.2 !hristopher '. 'oreman, 9$evil 'usic and the 6reat 8east/ Ozz? Osbourne, *leister !roEle?, and the !hristian %ight9, Journal of Religion and %o-ular Culture C @0--,A, :niversit? of Sas5atcheEan "<).2 6ar? !roEle? @"##"A. 98and Explosion9. %etrieved "# &une 0-"". "<C.2 4il5ington, 'ar5 @"C 'a? 0--1A. 9Menneth *nger/ celluloid sorcer? and ps?chedelic Satanism9. Bi5arre Maga5ine. *rchived from the original on C $ecember 0-"-. %etrieved "C 7ovember 0-"-. "<(.2 *nger, Menneth. 0--#. Do .hat Thou .ilt" Kenneth #nger and #leister Cro$ley and the >ccult. Loutube.com "<1.2 Chemical .edding at the +nternet 'ovie $atabase "<<.2 9%oadrunner %ecords9. %oadrunner %ecords. %etrieved < &anuar? 0-"-. "<#.2 9*leister !roEle? in the 'outh of Fell/ The screenpla? never filmed9 b? !arlos *tanes. @!reateSpace +ndependent 4ublishing 4latform, 0-",A "#-.2 http/NNEEE.fistoffun.netNepisodeguidesNtmErnj-"-".htm

Bibliograph$
8ogdan, Fenri5H Starr, 'artin 4. @0-"0A. 9+ntroduction9. +n 8ogdan, Fenri5H Starr, 'artin 4. #leister Cro$ley and .estern ,sotericism. Oxford and 7eE Lor5/ Oxford :niversit? 4ress. pp. ,G"). +S87 #1<---"#-#<(,-#-#. 8ooth, 'artin @0---A. # Magic& Life" The Biogra-hy of #leister Cro$ley. .ondon/ !oronet 8oo5s. +S87 #1<---,)--1"<-(-,.

!hurton, Tobias @0-""A. #leister Cro$ley" The Biogra-hy. .ondon/ >at5ins 8oo5s. +S87 #1<-"-1<-0<--"0-1. !roEle?, *leister @"#<,A. The 4oly Boo&s of Thelema. Lor5 8each, 'aine/ Samuel >eiser +nc. +S87 #1<---<110<-(<(-<. !roEle?, *leister @"#<#A. The Confessions of #leister Cro$ley" #n #utohagiogra-hy. .ondon/ *r5ana. +S87 #1<---")--"#"<#-#. Fanegraaff, >outer &. @0-"0A. 92oreEord9. +n 8ogdan, Fenri5H Starr, 'artin 4. #leister Cro$ley and .estern ,sotericism. Oxford and 7eE Lor5/ Oxford :niversit? 4ress. pp. viiGx. +S87 #1<---"#-#<(,-#-#. Macz?ns5i, %ichard @0-"-A. %erdurabo" The Life of #leister Cro$ley @second editionA. 8er5ele?, !alifornia/ 7orth *tlantic 8oo5s. +S87 #1<---,"0-0C0),-). 'organ, 'ogg @0-"0A. 9The Feart of Thelema/ 'oralit?, *moralit?, and +mmoralit? in *leister !roEle?Bs Thelemic !ult9. The %omegranate" The 1nternational Journal of %agan Studies 9; @"A @.ondon/ EKuinoxA. 'oore, &ohn @0--#A. #leister Cro$ley" # Modern Master. Oxford/ 'andra5e. +S87 #1<-"-#-(#C<--0-0. Spence, %ichard 8. @0--<A. Secret #gent )))" #leister Cro$ley; British 1ntelligence and the >ccult. 4ort ToEnsend, >*/ 2eral Fouse. +S87 #1<-"-#,0C#C-,,-<. Sutin, .aErence @0---A. Do .hat Thou .ilt" # Life of #leister Cro$ley. 7eE Lor5/ St 'artinBs 4ress. +S87 #1<---,"0-0C0),-). S?monds, &ohn @"##1A. The Beast )))" The Life of #leister Cro$ley. .ondon/ 4indar 4ress. +S87 #1<-"-<##<0<-0"--. Tull?, !aroline @0-"-A. 9>al5 .i5e an Eg?ptian/ Eg?pt as *uthorit? in *leister !roEle?Bs %eception of The Boo& of the La$9. The %omegranate" The 1nternational Journal of %agan Studies 9A @"A @.ondon/ EKuinoxA.

()ternal lin%s
>i5isource has original Eor5s Eritten b? or about/ ,leister %rowley *leister !roEle? !ollection at the Farr? %ansom !enter at the :niversit? of Texas at *ustin The .ibri of *leister !roEle? 'an? of the Eritings of !roEle? have been published for free online. *leister !roEle? 2oundation $edicated to perpetuating the teachings of *leister !roEle? and Thelema. uotations related to *leister !roEle? at >i5iKuote >orld!at ;+*2/ )"<,<C,.!!7/ n<--C100, +S7+/ ---- ---, (<(0 (0<67$/ ""<C00<#0 .+8%+S/ ,"),(872/ cb""<#<0,Cp

,uthorit$ control

5sho-6 v t

e Thelema 5sho-6 v t e Magic and -itchcraft in Britain !ategories/ "<1C births "#)1 deaths *lumni of Trinit? !ollege, !ambridge 8isexual Eriters !hannellers English expatriates in +ndia English expatriates in SEitzerland English astrological Eriters English autobiographers English astrologers English chess pla?ers English dramatists and pla?Erights English 2reemasons English mountain climbers English novelists English occult Eriters English spiritual Eriters English Thelemites 2ounders of religions 2ree love advocates Fermetic Order of the 6olden $aEn Fermetic abalists .68T Eriters from England 'agic5 '?stics Ordo Templi Orientis 4eople educated at Eastbourne !ollege 4eople educated at 'alvern !ollege 4eople educated at Tonbridge School 4eople from %o?al .eamington Spa Thelema Thelemite saints *leister !roEle? 8isexual men ;ictorian Eriters

"#th-centur? 8ritish Eriters 0-th-centur? 8ritish Eriters "#th-centur? poets 0-th-centur? 8ritish novelists