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AQA GCSE Additional Science

Unit 1: Biology 2
2.1 Cells and simple cell transport
2.2 Tissues, organs and organ systems

Steve Bishop
November 2013

Table of Contents
B2.1 Cells and simple cell transport ...................................................................................... 3
B2.1.1 Cells and cell structure ........................................................................................... 4
B2.1.2 Dissolved substances ............................................................................................. 7
B2.2 Tissues, organs and organ systems............................................................................ 11
B2.2.1 Animal organs ...................................................................................................... 11
B2.2.2 Plant organs ......................................................................................................... 14
GCSE-Style questions: cells, tissues & organs ................................................................... 16
GCSE-style questions: Digestion ........................................................................................ 25
Find the odd one out........................................................................................................ 27
Blockbusters .................................................................................................................... 29

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B2.1 Cells and simple cell transport


All living things are made up of cells. The structures of different types of cells are related to
their functions. To get into or out of cells, dissolved substances have to cross the cell
membranes.
Can you:
relate the structure of different types of cells to their function?
Key words
Cell

Vacuole

Nucleus

Sap

Cytoplasm

Genes

Cell membrane

Yeast

Mitochondria

Organism

Ribosomes

Diffusion

Cellulose

Concentration

Chloroplasts

Respiration

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B2.1.1 Cells and cell structure


a) Most human and
animal cells have the
following parts:
a nucleus, which
controls the
activities of the cell
cytoplasm, in
which most of the
chemical reactions
take place
a cell membrane,
which controls the
passage of
substances into and out of the cell
mitochondria, which are where most energy is released in respiration
ribosomes, which are where protein synthesis occurs.
b) Plant and algal cells also have a cell wall made of cellulose, which strengthens the cell.
Plant cells often have:
chloroplasts, which absorb light energy to make food
a permanent vacuole filled with cell sap.

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c) A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall; the
genes are not in a distinct nucleus.

Nucleus controls the activities of the cell.


Cytoplasm where most of the chemical reactions take place.
Cell membrane - controls the passage of substances in and out of the cell.
Mitochondria - where most energy is released in respiration.
Ribosomes - where protein synthesis occurs.
Cell wall made of cellulose and strengthens plant cells.
Chloroplasts - absorb light energy to make food in plant cells.
Permanent vacuole - filled with cell sap in plant cells.

Comparison of a plant and animal cell


Both have

Plant has that animal cell doesnt

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Animal cell has that plant doesnt

d) Yeast is a single-celled organism. Yeast cells have a nucleus, cytoplasm and a


membrane surrounded by a cell wall.

Bacteria

Bacterium is a single-celled organism.


A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
The genes are not in a distinct nucleus.

e) Cells may be specialised to carry out a particular function.

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Cells, Tissues and Organs PowerPoint Notes

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B2.1.2 Dissolved substances


Movement into and out of cells

To get into or out of cells, dissolved substances have to cross the cell membranes.
Solutes = particles in solution eg glucose, sodium ions, chloride ions.
Solvent = liquid in which the particles are dissolved eg water.
Solute and solvent molecules move around randomly.
Solutes can move into and out of cells by diffusion.

a) Dissolved substances can move into and out of cells by diffusion.


b) Diffusion is the spreading of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution,
resulting in a net movement from a region where they are of a higher concentration to a
region with a lower concentration.
The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.

c) Oxygen required for respiration passes through cell membranes by diffusion.

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B2.2 Tissues, organs and organ systems


The cells of multicellular organisms may differentiate and become adapted for specific
functions. Tissues are aggregations of similar cells; organs are aggregations of tissues
performing specific physiological functions.
Organs are organised into organ systems, which work together to form organisms.
Key words
Tissue

Liver

Organs

Bile

Systems

Small intestine

Multicellular

Large intestine

Muscle

Faeces

Gland

Roots

Epithelial

Leaves

Digestive

Stems

Glands

Epidermal

Pancreas

Mesophyll

Salivary glands

Xylem

Digestive juices

Pholem

B2.2.1 Animal organs


a) Large multicellular organisms develop systems for exchanging materials. During the
development of a multicellular organism, cells differentiate so that they can perform different
functions.
b) A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function. Examples of tissues
include:
muscular tissue, which can contract to bring about movement
glandular tissue, which can produce substances such as enzymes and hormones
epithelial tissue, which covers some parts of the body.

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c) Organs are made of tissues. One organ may contain several tissues. The stomach is an
organ that contains:
muscular tissue, to churn the contents
glandular tissue, to produce digestive juices
epithelial tissue, to cover the outside and the inside of the stomach

Type of tissue
Muscular

Glandular

Epithelial

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General role

Role in the stomach organ

d) Organ systems are groups of organs that perform a particular function. The digestive
system is one example of a system in which humans and other mammals exchange
substances with the environment.
The digestive system includes:
glands, such as the pancreas and salivary glands, which produce digestive juices
the stomach and small intestine, where digestion occurs
the liver, which produces bile
the small intestine, where the absorption of soluble food occurs
the large intestine, where water is absorbed from the undigested food, producing
faeces.
Label the diagram:
Use the following terms
Gall Bladder
Large intestine
Liver
Mouth
Oesophagus
Salivary gland
Small intestine
Stomach
Anus

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B2.2.2 Plant organs


a) Plant organs include stems, roots and
leaves.
b) Examples of plant tissues include:
epidermal tissues, which cover the
plant
mesophyll,

which carries out


photosynthesis
xylem

and phloem, which transport


substances around the plant.

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Label the leaf section

Use these terms:


Lower epidermis
Mesophyll
Palisade mesophyll
Spongy mesophyll
Upper epidermis
Wax Cuticle (2)

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GCSE-Style questions: cells, tissues & organs


Q1.

The drawing shows the cell of a bacterium.

(a)

List A gives the four structures labelled on the diagram.


List B includes information about each structure.
Draw one line from each structure in List A to the correct information about the structure
in List B.
List A
Structure

List B
Information

(4)

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(b)

Give two differences between an animal cell and the cell of a bacterium.
1 .....................................................................................................................
2 .....................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

The diagrams show cells containing and surrounded by oxygen molecules.


Oxygen can move into cells or out of cells.

Into which cell, A, B, C or D, will oxygen move the fastest?

Write the correct letter, A, B, C or D, in the box.


(1)

(d)

Complete the following sentence.


Oxygen is taken into the cell by the process of .............................................
(1)
(Total 8 marks)

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Q2.

Plants and animals have tissues which carry out different functions.
List A gives three tissues in living organisms.
List B includes information about each tissue.
Draw one line from each tissue in List A to the correct information about the tissue in List B.
List ATissue

List BInformation
Transports substances around a plant

Muscular
Covers roots, stems and leaves
Xylem
Contracts to cause movement
Glandular
Produces enzymes
(Total 3 marks)

Q3.

Diagram 1 shows a cell from a leaf.


Diagram 1

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(a)

How is the leaf cell specialised to carry out photosynthesis?


Tick (

) one box.

It has a permanent vacuole.


It has many chloroplasts.
It has cytoplasm.
It has many mitochondria.
(1)

(b)

Diagram 2 shows another type of plant cell.


Diagram 2

Give two ways in which this cell is different from an animal cell.
1 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
2 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 3 marks)

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Q4.

The diagram shows a group of muscle cells from the wall of the intestine.

(a)

On the diagram, use words from the box to name the structures labelled A, B and C.

cell membrane

cell wall

chloroplast

cytoplasm

nucleus
(3)

(b)

How are these muscle cells adapted to release a lot of energy?


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

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Q5.

The diagram shows a bacterium.

On the drawing, name the structures labelled A, B, C and D.


(Total 4 marks)

Q7.

The diagram shows a cell from the lining of the lung. This cell is specialised to allow gases
to pass through quickly.

(a)

Use words from the box to label structures A, B and C.

cell
membrane

chloroplast

cytoplasm

mitochondria

nucleus
(3)

(b)

(i)

Which feature of this cell allows oxygen to pass through quickly?


Put a tick (

) in the box next to your choice.

It is thin.

It has a large nucleus.

It has many
mitochondria.
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(ii)

Complete the sentence by drawing a ring around the correct answer in the box.
diffusion
Oxygen passes through this cell
by

osmosis
respiration
(1)

Q8.

The diagrams show a cheek cell from a human and a leaf cell from a plant.

(a)

The two cells have a number of parts in common.


(i)

On the cheek cell, label three of these parts which both cells have.

(ii)

In the table, write the names of the three parts you have labelled above and
describe the main function of each part.
Part

(3)

Function

..................................

..................................

..................................

(3)

(b)

Blood contains white cells and red cells. State the function of each type of cell in the
blood.
White cells .................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
Red cells ....................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................... (2)

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Q9.

The diagram shows an animal cell.

(a)

Name each labelled part and give its function.


A

Name ...............................................................................................................
Function ..........................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................

Name ..............................................................................................................
Function .........................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................

Name ..............................................................................................................
Function .........................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
(6)

(b)

(i)

This plant cell also contains chloroplasts, a cell wall and a vacuole. Label each of
these parts on the diagram.

(3)

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(ii)

Give the function of these parts of a plant cell.


Chloroplast function .........................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
Cell wall function .............................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
Vacuole function ..............................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 12 marks)

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GCSE-style questions: Digestion


Q1.

The diagram shows the digestive system.

For each question write the correct letter in the box.


Which structure, A, B, C, D or E, is:

(a)

the stomach
(1)

(b)

the small intestine


(1)

(c)

the liver?
(1)
(Total 3 marks)

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Q2.

The human stomach is an organ.


Describe how the tissues in the stomach enable the stomach to function.
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
(Total 6 marks)

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Find the odd one out


Identify the odd one out in each of the terms given below and suggest a reason why it is the
odd one out.
The first one has been done for you

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Make some up of your own and try it out on a partner:

Reason:

Reason:

Reason:

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Blockbusters

Make your own Blockbuster game.


Make a list of 20 key words to include on the board.
Add the first letter of each word at random on the board.
Now compile a set of questions for which each word is the correct answer.
Play your game with two others.

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Question
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Answer

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