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CHEMISTRY PROJECT On DETERMINATION OF THE CONTENTS OF COLD DRINK

PROJECT PREPARED BY :
Amit Debnath
Class :- H.S 2 year Session :- 2013-2014 Reg.No :Roll number :College :- Arya Vidyapeeth College
nd

Dept of Chemistry Arya Vidyapeet College

CONTENTS
1. Aim 2. Certificate 3. Acknowledgement 4. Introduction 5. Theory 6. Requirements 7. Chemical Required 8. Detection of PH 9. Test for CO2 10. Test for Glucose 11. Test for Phosphate 12. Test for Alcohol 13. Test for Sucrose 14. Result 15. Conclusion

Aim
Comparative study and qualitative analysis of different brands of cold drinks available in market.

CERTIFICATE
This is hereby to certify that, the original and genuine investigation work has been carried out to investigate about the subject matter and the related data collection and investigation has been completed solely, sincerely and satisfactorily by AMIT DEBNATH of CLASS XII. Roll no ,Arya Vidyapeeth College, regarding his project titled Comparative study and

qualitative analysis of different brands of cold drinks available in market.

Teachers Signature

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It would be my utmost pleasure to express my sincere thanks to My Chemistry Teachers in providing a helping hand in this project. Their valuable guidance, support and supervision all though this project titled

Comparative study and qualitative analysis of different brands of cold drinks available in market.

Amit Debnath Class XII ( SC ) Roll no:

INTRODUCTION
The era of cold drinks began in 1952 but the industrialization in Indian market as began with launching of Limca and Goldspot by parley group of companies. Since the beginning of cold drinks was highly profitable and luring, many multinational companies launch their brands in India like Pepsi and Coke. Now a days, it is observed in general that majority of people viewed Sprite, Fanta and Limca to give feeling of lightness, while Pepsi and Thumps Up to activate pulse and brain.

THEORY
Cold drinks of different brands art composed of alcohols, carbohydrates,carbon dioxide,phosphate ions etc .These soft drinks give us the feeling of warmth,lightness and a tangy taste which is liked by everyone ,carbon dioxide is responsible for the formation of forth on shaking the bottle . The CO2 gas is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid which is responsible for the tangy taste. Carbohydrates are the naturally occurring organic compounds and are major source of energy to our body .general formula of carbohydrates is Cx(H2O)y On the basis of their molecular size ,carbohydrate are classified asMONOSACCHARIDE,DISSACCHARIDE and POLYSACCHARIDE . Glucose is a monsaccharide with formula C6H12O6.It occurs in the free state in the ripen grapes in bones and also in many sweet fruit .It is also resent in human blood to the extent of about 0.1%.Sucrose is one of the most useful dissaccharide in our daily life . It is widely distributed in nature of in juices ,seeds and also in flowers of many plants . The main source of sucrose is sugarcane juices -which contains 15-20% sucrose and sugar but which has about 10-17%sucrose .The molecular formula of sucrose is C12H12O11 .It is produced by a mixture of glucose and fructose .It is non-reducing in nature whereas glucose is reducing .Cold drinks are a bi acidic in nature and their acidity can be measured by finding their pH value .The acidic contents such as critic acid and phosphoric acid.

Requirements
1. Test tube 2. Test tube holder 3. Test tube stand 4. Stop watch 5. Beaker 6. Burner 7. pH Paper 8. Tripod Stand 9. China Dish 10. Wire Gauge 11. Water Bath

CHEMICALS REQUIRED
Iodine solution Potassium solution Lime solution Sodium solution Fehling 's A and B solution Concentrated nitric solution Benedict solution Ammonium molybdate

Detection of ph
Experiment
Small sample of cold drinks of different brands were taken in a test tubes and put on the pH paper .The change in colour of pH was noticed and was compared with standard pH scale.

OBSERVATION
Sl. No. Name of the drinks Colour change PH value
1 Coca-Cola Reddish Pink 2

2 3 4

Sprite Pink 7-UP Pink Mountain Dew Pink

3 3 3

INFERENCE
Soft drinks are generally acidic because of presence of critic acid and phosphoric acid .pH value of cold drinks of different brands are different due to variation in amount of acid content.

TEST FOR CARBON DIOXIDE


As soon as the bottles were opened, one by one the samples was passed through lime water .The water turned milky.

OBSERVATION
Sl Name of the drink Time taken conclusion no.
1 Coca Cola 2 Sprite 3 7-UP 4 Mountain Dew 30 Sec 25 Sec 20Sec 23Sec Co2 is present Co2is present Co2 is present Co2is present

INFERENCE
All the soft drinks dissolved CO2 in water .The CO2 dissolve in water to form carbonic acid which is responsible for its tangy taste. CHEMICAL REACTION Ca(OH)2(s)+CO2(g)---->CaCO3(s)+H2O(l)

TEST FOR GLUCOSE

EXPERIMENT
Glucose is reducing agent .Its presence is detected by the following test Benedict Reagent test:Small sample of cold drinks of different brands were taken in a test tube and a few drops of Benedicts reagent were added .The test tube was heated for a few seconds .Formation of reddish colour confirmed the presence of Glucose in cold drink.

OBSERVATION
Sl Name of the no drink 1 Coca-Cola Observation Conclusion Glucose is present Glucose is present Glucose is present Glucose is present Reddish Orange 2 Sprite Reddish Orange 3 7-UP Reddish Orange 4 Mountain Dew Reddish Orange

INFERENCE
All the samples gave positive test for Glucose with Benedicts reagent .Hence, all drinks contain Glucos.

TEST FOR PHOSPHATE


EXPERIMENT

Small samples of each brand of cold drinks were taken in separate test tubes and Ammonium Molybdate followed by concentrated nitric acid(HNO3) was added to it .The solution was heated and appearance of canary yellow precipitate confirm the presence of the phosphate ions in cold drinks .

OBSERVATION
Sl no
1 2 3 4

Name of the drink


Coca-Cola Sprite 7-up Mountain Dew

Observation
No canary yellow ppt. No canary yellow ppt. No canary yellow ppt. No canary yellow ppt.

Conclusion
Phosphate is absent Phosphate is absent Phosphate is absent Phosphate is absent

INFERENCE
The soft drinks samples gave negative test for phosphate ions. Hence, all the cold drinks do not contain phosphate.

Test for alcohol


EXPERIMENT

Small samples of each brand of cold drink were taken in separate test tubes and iodine followed by potassium iodide and sodium hydroxide (NaOH)solution was added to each test tube. Then the test tube are heated in hot water bath for 30 minutes .Appearance of yellow colour precipitate confirmed the presence of alcohol in cold drink.

OBSERVATION
Sl.no Name of the drink Observation
1 2 3 4 Coca Cola Sprite 7-UP Mountain Dew No yellow ppt. No yellow ppt. No yellow ppt. No yellow ppt.

Conclusion
Alcohol is absent Alcohol is absent Alcohol is absent Alcohol is absent

INFERENCE
All the soft drink samples gave negative test for alcohol. Hence all the cold drinks do not contain alcohol.

CHEMICAL REACTION

CH3CH2OH+4I2+6NaOH-----> CHI3+HCOONa+5NaI+5H2O

TEST FOR SUCROSE


EXPERIMENT
5ml samples of each brand of cold drinks were taken in separate china dishes and were heated very strongly until changes occur .Black colored residue left confirmed the presence of sucrose in cold drinks.

OBSERVATION
Sl no Name of the drink Observation
1 2 3 4 Coca-Cola Sprite 7-UP Mountain Dew Black Residue Black Residue Black Residue Black Residue

Conclusion
Sucrose is present Sucrose is present Sucrose is present Sucrose is present

INFERENCE
ALL the brands of cold drink contain sucrose but amount of sucrose varies in each brand each brand of drink. 7-UP contain highest amount of sucrose.

RESULT
After conducting several tests, it was concluded that the different brands of Cold drinks namely:1. Coca Cola 2. Sprite 3. Fanta All contains glucose, alcohol, sucrose, phosphate, and carbon dioxide. All Cold drinks are acidic in nature. On comparing the pH value of different brands Coca Cola

is the most acidic and Fanta is least acidic of all the three brands taken.

CARBON DIOXIDE
Among the four samples of Cold drinks taken, Sprite has the maximum amount of dissolved carbon dioxide and Fanta has the minimum amount of dissolved carbon dioxide.

CONCLUSION
Dis-Advantages of Cold Drinks
1. Soft drinks are little more harmful than sugar solution. As they contain sugar in large amount which causes problems in diabetes patients. 2. Soft drinks can cause weight gain as they interface with the bodys natural ability to dissolve the calcium so they are also harmful for our bones. 3. Soft drinks have the ability to dissolve the calcium so they are harmful for our bones. 4. Soft drinks contain phosphoric acid which has a pH of 2.8 so they can dissolve a nail in four days.

5. Soft drinks have also ability to remove blood so they are very harmful to our body.

Uses of Cold Drinks


Cold drinks can be used as toilet cleaners. They can remove rust spot from chrome car bumper. They clean corrosions from car battery terminals. Soft drinks are used as an excellent detergent to remove grease from clothes. They can loose rusted bolts.