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Considerations 1.

RAKE receiver when multiple versions of a signal arrive more than one chip interval apart, RAKE receiver attempts to recover signals from multiple paths and combine them 2. his method achieves better performance than simpl! recovering dominant signal and treating remaining signals as noise ". #oft $andoff mobile station temporaril! connected to more than one base station simultaneousl!.
%#&'( C)*A +orward Channel, 1. he forward lin- uses the same fre.uenc! spectrum as A*/# 0122&12' *$34 2. Each channel is spread across a bandwidth of about 1.2(*$3 and filtered for spectral containment. ". 2 t!pes of logical channel, A pilot, a s!nchroni3ation , 5 paging, and (( traffic channels 2. Channels are separated using different spreading codes 6/#K is the modulation scheme (. 7rthogonal 8alsh codes are used 092 total4 9. After orthogonal codes, the! are further spread b! short /: spreading codes 5. #hort /: spreading codes are * se.uences generated b! ;+#Rs of length 1( with a period of "2591 chips.

+orward channel&2,

1. 8h! we have two spreading codes< 2. he orthogonal codes are used to differentiate between the transmissions within a cell ". he /: spreading codes are used to isolate different cells 0=#s4 that are using the same 2. fre.uencies. (. he same /: se.uence is used in all =#s. 9. he offset for each =# is different. 7f course, this re.uires s!nchroni3ation 5. #!nchroni3ation is achieved b! >/#.

he pilot channel a. /rovide a reference signal for all *#s that provides the phase reference for C7$ERE: demodulation b. 2&9 d= stronger than all other channels c. ?sed to loc- onto other channels d. 7btained using all 3ero 8alsh code@ i.e., contains no information eAcept the R+ carrier e. #pread using the /: spreading code to identif! the =#. 0(12 different =#B92 offsets4 f. :o power control in the pilot channel

#!nc channel, a. ?sed to ac.uire initial time s!nchroni3ation b. #!nch message includes s!stem %) 0#%)4, networ- %) 0:%)4, the offset of the /: short code, the state of the /:&long code, and the paging channel data rate 02.1C'.9 Kbps4 c. ?ses 8"2 for spreading d. 7perates at 12DD bps

he traffic channels, E Carr! user information E wo possible date rates R#1FG'.9, 2.1, 2.2, 1.2 KbpsH R#2FG12.2, 5.2, ".9, 1.1 KbpsH E R#1 is mandator! for %#&'(, but support for R#2 is optional E Also carr! power control bits for the reverse channel

%#&'( C)*A Reverse Channel, E +undamentall! different from the forward channels E?ses 76/#K for power efficienc! E6/#K demodulation is eas! E 19'&1'2 *$3 range. E :o spreading of the data using orthogonal codes E #ame orthogonal codes are used for 8AIE+7R* encoding

E wo t!pes of logical channels, he access channels and the reverse traffic channels

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA): %n C)*A we do modulation twice. +irst with a binar! se.uence g0t4, the properties of which we will discuss below and then b! a carrier. he binar! se.uence modulation ahead of the carrier modulation accomplishes two functions, 1. %t spread the signal and 2. %t introduces a form of encr!ption because the same se.uence is needed at the receiver to demodulate the signal. %n %#&'( and C)*A 2DDD we do this three times, once with a code called 8alsh, then with a code called #hort Code and then with one called ;ong code. Long code: he ;ong Codes are 222 bits 0created from a ;+#R of 22 registers4 long and run at 1.2211 *bCs. %t is used to both spread the signal and to encr!pt it. A c!clicall! shifted version of the long code is generated b! the cell phone during call setup. he shift is called the Long Code Mask and is uni.ue to each phone call. C)*A networ-s have a securit! protocol called CAIE that re.uires a 92&bit authentication -e!, called A&-e! and the uni.ue E#: 0Electronic #erial :umber, assigned to mobile based on the phone number4. he networ- uses both of these to create a random

number that is then used to create a mas- for the long code used to encr!pt and spread each phone call. his number, the long code mas- is not fiAed but changes each time a connection is created. here is a /ublic long code and a /rivate long code. he /ublic long code is used b! the mobile to communicate with the base during the call setup phase. he private long code is one generated for each call then abandoned after the call is completed. Short code he short code used in C)*A s!stem is based on a m&se.uence 0created from a ;+#R of 1( registers4 of length 21( 1 F "2,595 codes. hese codes are used for s!nchroni3ation in the forward and reverse lin-s and for cellCbase station identification in the forward lin- he short code repeats ever! 29.999 milliseconds. he se.uences repeat eAactl! 5( times in ever! 2 seconds. 8e want this se.uence to be fairl! short because during call setup, the mobile is loo-ing for a short code and needs to be able find it fairl! .uic-l!. wo seconds is the maAimum time that a mobile will need to find a base station, if one is present because in 2 seconds the mobile has chec-ed each of the allowed base stations in its database against the networ- signal it is receiving. Each base station is assigned one of these codes. #ince short code is onl! one se.uence, how do we assign it to all the stations< 8e c!clicall! shift it. Each station gets the same se.uence but it is shifted.