A HISTORY OF THE HUMAN OCCUPATION OF THE WHAKAKAIWHARA BLOCK

Compiled by G.J Murdoch Historian, ARC Environment For the ARC Regional Parks Service

1996

(Please note that this plan has been superseded by the Auckland Regional Parks Management Plan 2002)

I I

I I I I I I I I I I

I I

A HISTORY OF THE HUMAN OCCUPATION OF THE WHAKAKAIWHARA BLOCK

I I i I i i

COMPILED BY GJ. MURDOCH mSTORIAN, ARC ENVIRONMENT FOR THE ARC REGIONAL PARKS SERVICE SEPTEMBER 1996

I I I I 1 I I 1 I I I I I I f I I I I I

INTRODUCTION AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This history has been compiled by Graeme Murdoch a historian employed by the ARC Environment Division. It has been prepared at the request of the ARC Regional Parks Service in conjunction with the development of a Management Plan for the new, as yet formally unnamed regional park located on the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula. Every attempt has been made to honour the long associations that both Ngai Tai and the Duder family hold with the land. This^document is not however a definitive history of the human occupation of the land. Rather it has been written as a resource document for use in the interpretation of the history of the Park. This study, while being focused on the history of the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula and what is now the new regional park, is also concerned with history of the Whakakaiwhara Block with which the parkland is inextricably linked. Representatives of Ngai Tai the traditional occupants of the Whakakaiwhara Block have been consulted in the preparation of this history. The input of Mrs. R. N. Zister C.B.E. the oldest living member of the Ngai Tai Iwi into this historical account is honoured and acknowledged. This kaumatua has provided the author with treasured information relating to the placenames and traditions of the Umupuia - Whakakaiwhara area on a number of occasions over the last two decades. Barney Kirkwood a kaumatua of Ngai Tai, and representative of the Huakina Development Trust, is thanked for his input into, and approval of this study. Te Warena Taua of Ngai Tai, and Chairman of the Ngai Tai ki Tamaki Tribal Trust has also been consulted in the development of this history. His input into the draft of this document is acknowledged, and he is particularly thanked for his permission to use material previously published by him on the history of Ngai Tai. Messrs John Lidgard, Duthie Lidgard, and Rex Bailey are thanked for providing information relating to the early yachting associations with the Wairoa River. Harold Kidd is also thanked for providing information on this subject, and in particular on the history of the yachts 'Malua' and the 'Lillian'. Marianne Philson is thanked for her comments on the draft document and for giving her permission for the use of material from her outstanding history - The Duder Family in New Zealand.' Mr. C.F. Fred Duder of 'Waitiro', Clevedon is particularly thanked for providing a great deal of information on the history of the Duder family's past and ongoing associations with the Whakakaiwhara Block. Ian and Mary Duder are especially thanked for the warm hospitality they have extended to the author at their historic homestead 'Rozel'. Ian Duder has played a central role in ensuring that the Duder family's associations with the Whakakaiwhara Block have been accurately recorded. He is particularly thanked for his ongoing input into all stages of the production of this history and for allowing access to, and the use of, family archives and photographic material. Graeme Murdoch September 1996

I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 f I I I I I I

A HISTORY OF THE HUMAN OCCUPATION OF THE WHAKAKAIWHARA BLOCK The newly acquired Regional Park on the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula has a rich and intricate human history that extends back for a millenium. The history of the property is a microcosm of the history of the region and in fact the whole nation. It is nevertheless a unique and special history as it primarily concerns the relationship of one Iwi - Ngai Tai, and one European family - the Duders, with the land. The history of the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula is reflected in many ways including: oral and written traditions and memories, place names, the modification of the area's natural resources, and the archaeological and historic site record. The property has its own unique history of development, however it cannot be seen in isolation. The history of the human occupation of the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula must be viewed in its wider geographical and historical context. This history is inextricably linked with the history of Ngai Tai as a tribe and with the extended Duder family; as well as with the history of the surrounding area and the wider district. The 'Tangata Whenua' of the Whakakaiwhara Block and its surrounds are the Iwi known as 'Ngai Tai' who occupied the land for twenty generations. They have specific ancestral links with the area that extend back approximately 650 years and they still maintain an ancestral marae at nearby Umupuia. The long Ngai Tai occupation of the land is reflected in part in the archaeological sites located on the Peninsula. It is however more . richly outlined in the written and oral traditions of the tribe, and in the mosaic of traditional placenames that overlay the land. These placenames, many of which are no longer in common usage, reflect the long Ngai Tai occupation of the land, its natural resources and their usage. 'Ngai Tai', also known as 'Ngati Tai' has its specific origins as a distinct tribal group in the arrival of the Tainui canoe in the area approximately 650 years ago. The traditions of the tribe do however note that the area was already settled when the Tainui arrived. The earliest known human inhabitants of the district of which the Whakakaiwhara Block is part were the Turehu' or literally those who 'arose from the earth'. The best known of these was a woman known as Hinerangi. She is associated with a number of Ngai Tai traditions and now stands at the eastern end of Maraetai Beach in the form of a rock known as 'Ohinerangi'. Another important ancestor of Ngai Tai who was resident on this coastline was Manawatere. As recalled by Anaru Makiwhara the Ngai Tai rangatira of Umupuia, this ancestor came from Hawaiki or the Pacific homeland. However "he did not come in a canoe, he glided over the ripples of the waves." (IPS Vol.30) From this illustrious ancestor came the local placename 'O-mana', and the name of the ancient pohutukawa at Cockle Bay, 'Te Tuhi a Manawatere'. In the fourteenth century the famous ancestral voyaging canoe Tainui arrived on the eastern shores of the Hauraki Gulf. After spending some time at Waihihi (Waharau Regional Park), the canoe travelled up the coast seeking shelter from an easterly storm or 'marangai'. The Tainui ultimately entered Te Wairoa (the Wairoa River) and found shelter from the storm by anchoring in the lee of the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula. The

I I I I
I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I

shelter from the storm by anchoring in the lee of the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula. The place where the canoe was moored was remembered in local tradition as Te Tauranga o Tainui' or 'the anchorage of Tainui'. The crew of the Tainui then went ashore at the Point and ate a meal harvested from the fruits of the luxuriant coastal forest that then clothed the land. From this action came the traditional place name for the Point, and in fact the whole Peninsula. It was named 'Whaka-kai-whara' after the act of eating the 'whara' or edible bracts of the kiekie vine. After riding out the storm and reprovisioning at Whakakaiwhara the Tainui then travelled up the coast to Turanga just west of Maraetai, and then on to the Waitemata Harbour. Before the canoe departed from Whakakaiwhara one of the crew had however left behind a 'tohu' to mark the visit. This was recalled, in 1867 by the Reverend James Preece a CMS missionary who was active throughout the Hauraki area in the early nineteenth century. In reference to Whakakaiwhara he noted that, 'Tane (Tane whakatia), one of the chiefs on board, planted a karaka berry there. He planted it they say in a rock, and it still exists." (Weekly News Supplement March 30 1867 :24) This berry, which was planted near the Point, grew into a tree which was known as 'Huna a Tane', or the 'tree of Tane1. This actual tree no longer exists, although its descendants still grow as magnificent specimens in the coastal forest remnants on the Peninsula. When the Tainui canoe reached the Waitemata some of the crew settled in the district. Among them were Te Keteanataua and his son Taihaua who settled at Taurere near the mouth of the Tamaki River. They also included Rakataura and Taikehu who settled for a time on the shores of the Manukau Harbour. In time the descendants of these illustrious Tainui ancestors came to occupy the coastline between Tawhitokino and Matakana, as well as the islands of the Hauraki Gulf. In time they built kainga, or villages, and pa on the shores of the Wairoa River including on the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula. They became known as 'Ngati Tai', a tribal name which has a number of origins. "It is said by the tribe as originating firstly from their ancestral canoe Tainui. Secondly, the name is related to a specific ancestor Tainui (who descended from Taihaua). From Tainui descended Taimanawaiti who gave the name to those members of the tribe who occupied the inner islands of the Hauraki Gulf." (Taua 199.1: 6) The Ngati Tai people who occupied the area between the Tamaki and Wairoa Rivers and their relatives who occupied the eastern shores of the Manukau were also the descendants of the Tainui ancestor Taikehu. They occupied the area in large numbers as is illustrated by the following whakatauki or proverbial saying'Nga waka o Taikehu, me he kahui kataha kapi tai' 'the canoes of Taikehu like unto a shoal of herrings filling the sea'. Ngati Tai were part of the wider Tainui tribal grouping known as 'Ngaoho' and of 'Ngati Pou' who came to occupy the southern edge of the region. From Ngati Tai and Ngati Pou came Te Waiohua' the tribal grouping which unified all of the people of Tainui descent who occupied the region. The specific Waiohua subtribal groups who occupied the Wairoa area were 'Ngati Kohua' and 'Te Uri o Te Ao'. As Hori Te Whetuki the

1 I I t I 1

leading rangatira of Ngai Tai in the raid nineteenth century stated - "We were all one people formerly Ngati Tai, Ngati Pou, Ngati Kohua." (NLC Hauraki 6: 291) Those of Ngati Tai who occupied the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula and the surrounding area claimed their mana over the land through descent from Tamakiteao the eponymous ancestor of Te Uri o Te Ao'. From Tamakiteao and his wife Te Kuranui descended Te Whatatau the rangatira who held sway over all of the Wairoa - Maraetai area in the seventeenth century. He occupied both Whakakaiwhara Pa and Te Oue Pa located several kilometres to the south. It was in his time that the tribal name 'Ngai Tai' emerged as a result of an event that is famous in the history of the tribe. It was Te Hekenga o Nga Tuatoru' or 'the migration of the three'.

I I 1 I I I 1

I 1 I 1 1 I

This event, which took place about twelve generations ago, concerned the migration by a group of people of Tainui descent from Torere in the Bay of Plenty to the Wairoa area. They were, and are still known as 'Ngai Tai'. Because of difficulties at Torere, the rangatira Tamatea Toki Nui sent his three grand daughters and others of his Iwi to seek a more peaceful life among their Tainui relatives in the Hauraki area. These three women, Te Raukohekohe, Motukitawhiti and Te Kawenga, travelled north to Papaaroha near Coromandel. On hearing of the arrival of these illustrious visitors Te Whatatau left the Wairoa area and travelled across the Gulf with his wife Kaweau to welcome them on behalf of his Iwi. After being humiliated by the actions of his wife, Te Whatatau

I I I I I I 1 I 1 I t I I I 1 I I I I

abandoned her at Kikowhakarere. He then returned with 'nga tuatoru', or the three visiting women, and their party to his home at Umupuia. Te Whatatau married Te Raukohekohe and Motukitawhiti, while Te Kawenga married another Waiohua rangatira Te Whiringa. Te Whatatau and his wives lived at Umupuia and occupied the pa at Whakakaiwhara Point among other places. The other relatives of these women were given a small piece of land on which to live. (Riria Te Whetuki, NLC Auckland 4: 89) This piece of land was Te Kuiti which is the area surrounding the Duder homestead 'Rozel'. From the time of the marriage of Te Whatatau to these two women, "the broader tribal name of 'Ngai Tai' has been retained. However the people who lived between the Wairoa and Tamaki River also used the name 'Ngati Te Raukohekohe'. This name came from Te Raukohekohe, the ancestress whose marriage to Te Whatatau cemented the union between the two related tribal groups". (Taua 1991: 8) Te Wana the son of Te Whatatau and Te Raukohekohe became the leader of Ngai Tai and Te Uri o Te Ao subsequent to his father's death. He was a renowned warrior and he cemented the Ngai Tai control of the area when he conquered 'Te Ngungukauri' the local hapu of Ngati Kohua who controlled the high country to the west and north. Te Wana lived throughout the wider district, including Tamaki, and even occupied the islands of the Hauraki Gulf on a seasonal basis. His main homes were however the fortified pa of Te Oue and Whakakaiwhara at the mouth of the Wairoa River. Ngai Tai traversed their tribal domain, including the inner islands of the Hauraki Gulf, in a seasonal cycle of harvesting , gathering and fishing. In the Wairoa River valley they maintained kainga at Otau and Tuawa near present day Clevedon, at Tararua near the mouth of the Rautawhiti Stream; and at Takatekauere, Te Totara and Pehuwai on the western side of the River. In the vicinity of the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula there were settlements at Mawherawhera, Te Kuiti and Umupuia. Other settlements were also maintained at Pohaturoa near Maraetai, and at many places along the coastline to 'Te Wai o Taikehu' (the Tamaki River). In Ngai Tai tradition Whakakaiwhara Pa and nearby Te Oue Pa are identified as being the main homes of their leading rangatira, and as being the focal points of the Ngai Tai occupation of the wider district. This would appear to be supported by archaeological evidence. Te Oue, the pa on the south eastern edge of the Whakakaiwhara Block was the main residence of Te Wana. (NLC Auckland 4: 106) The distinctive features of this extensive site are its lack of visible kumara storage pits and the existence of massive middens containing a wide variety of shellfish and fishbones. (Harsant 1981) It would appear that Te Oue was the focal point for major shellfish gathering operations undertaken by the wider subtribal groups of Ngai Tai, and that it served as a major defensive site for the tribe. Whakakaiwhara Pa was occupied in conjunction with Te Oue Pa, although it is much smaller and would appear to have been less important as a defensive structure. It would seem to have fulfilled a different function, and to have been important for a wider

WHAKAKAIWHARA

PA

\
\

\
\ \ \

I
KEY

\

\ \\
mark

Sfa prfrje Survey Terrace steep Drawn 20-8-79 H.HILTON slope to sea edge

Method. Iheoitntrle. lope. compass

I I

t I t I I I I

number of traditional, geographic and practical reasons. Firstly it was the site where Taihaua, Taikehu, and the other ancestors of Ngai Tai had landed from the Tainui canoe and established their mana over the land. The pa was also of major strategic importance as it commanded a view over the entire Hauraki Gulf and controlled the entrance to the region's largest inland waterway, the Wairoa River. In this regard it also defended the rich natural resources of this estuary and the shark fishing ground located at its entrance. The eighteen pits located within the pa also indicate that it was also an important food storage site. It is thought that there would have been several large cultivations on the Peninsula in pre European times, although surface evidence of this has been largely obscured as a result of the ploughing and discing undertaken over the last century, (pers.comm. I. Lawlor 1996) One highly modified example of one of these hillside gardens remains above Waiapu (Sandy Bay). Most of the smaller occupation sites on the Peninsula appear to have been temporary sites associated with the gardens or with other seasonal resource gathering. The earliest survey map of the Peninsula made in c. 1845 indicates that the natural vegetation on the Peninsula and the adjoining flats had been extensively modified by cultivation and the fire associated with it. Undoubtedly the staple food source provide by the aruhe or bracken fem would have been harvested from the old cultivations. The stream valleys on the Peninsula, and the swamplands on its fringes would have also provided a rich natural resource. The stream margins and areas such as Waipokaia (Duck Bay) have been used for the cultivation of taro (Colocasia antiquorum) and harvested for building and weaving materials such as raupo (Typha orientalis), kuta (Scirpus lacustris) and harakeke or flax (Phormium tenax). The swamp would also have provided dyes, tuna, or eels, and wildfowl such as ducks and pukeko. The forest remnants contained in The Big Bush' behind Duck Bay, and at the head of 'Second Gully' provide an excellent example of the rich resources that would have been available to Ngai Tai. The coastal forest would have provided a wide variety of foods, medicines and building materials. Groves of karaka (Corynocarpus laevigatus) provided fruit which was processed in autumn to provide a supplementary food source during winter. Berries from trees such as kahikatea (Dacrycarpus dacrydioides), puriri (Vitex lucens), taraire (Beilschmieda tarairi) and mahoe (Melicytus ramiflorus) were gathered for food. This was also the case with whara (flowering bracts) and ureure (fruit) of the kiekie vine (Freycinetia baueriana) which had given the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula its name. The fleshy stems of the ti or cabbage tree (Cordyline australis), nikau (Rhopalostylis sapida) and various tree ferns were all eaten. The nikau was also used as a thatching material, as was a variety of the cabbage tree known as ti whanake. A locality near the 'Yellow Rocks' on the northern side of the Peninsula was named *Te Whanake' after this valuable tree. Inland of Sandy Bay there was also an occupation site known as 'Whare Whanake' which would indicate that this tree was also used in house construction. The fruiting trees of the coastal forest and flowering trees such as pohutukawa (Metrosideros excelsa), kowhai (Sophora microphylla), and rewarewa (Knightia excelsa) would have

1

t t I I I I I 1 I I

i 1 t I I I I 1 I I t I t i t f 1 1 I I

MAORI PLACENAMES - TE WAIROA Maraetai Mission

Te Pono Te|Ruangaingai \ Mataniho Wairani Tokarau -. Takang* Puka.e

Mawherawhera

Te Rautawhiti

Takatekauere

Urungahauhau Te Ruato • h Tararuatf*

Hukerte^ai hotakah Copyright G. Murdoch 1996

I t t I I I I 1 t I I t t I I
I I 1 1 I

attracted large numbers of birds such as kereru, tui and kaka which would have been trapped and speared for food. Timber trees such as kauri (Agathis australis) and totara (Podocarpus totara) were worked in the area both for building purposes and the construction of canoes, as is indicated by the number of stone adzes found in the area. The coastal environment surrounding the Peninsula also contained bountiful seafood resources. As noted earlier, the shellfish gathering activities of Ngai Tai were focused on Te Oue Pa. Shellfish gathering was also however a significant activity on the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula. This is evidenced by the shell middens which are to be found around the pa itself, and on both the northern and southern coastlines of the Peninsula. No detailed scientific analysis of these shell middens has been undertaken to date. Archaeological surface evidence indicates however that shellfish gathering was a seasonal activity carried out at localities such'as Te Whanake and Tokamai on the rocky section of the northern coastline, and in the sandy bay known as Waiapu (Sandy Bay). Te Wharau (Malua Bay) on the southern coastline is named after a 'temporary shelter', and archaeological surface evidence indicates that it was also a seasonal shellfish gathering site. A wide variety of shellfish are to be found in these middens including: cockle, pipi, mussel, scallops, oysters, whelks and topshells. The largest concentration of shell midden on the Peninsula is found in the vicinity of Whakakaiwhara Pa itself. In local tradition the Point is however particularly associated with shark fishing. Even after the sale of the Whakakaiwhara Block to Thomas Duder in 1866 Ngai Tai continued to harvest seafood from around its shores. Each summer they went to the Point to catch and 'pawhara* (split and dry) vast quantities of the pioke shark which schooled around the Wairoa River mouth at that time of year. This activity continued down over the years until around 1940, by which time most of the tribe had migrated to urban Auckland (pers.comm Ian and Fred Duder 1996). Ian Duder recalls that the sharks would be landed at the Point, cut into strips and dried in the branches of the huge pohutukawa growing below the Pa. The dried shark would then be collected by boat and taken back to Umupuia for distribution. Large quantities were packed into kerosine cases (with wild mint added to lessen the smell) to be railed to relatives in the Waikato. (Ibid.) Ngai Tai followed their traditional cycle of resource gathering with little change over the generations until Captain James Cook visited the Hauraki Gulf in late 1769. In this period the grandchildren of Te Wana were in secure occupation of their ancestral kainga and pa in the area, including Whakakaiwhara, under the leadership of rangatira such as Te Whiu, Pakihau and Te Ngakp. They lived in peace with the related sub tribal groups of the Waiohua confederation who occupied the land to the west and south west. Ngai Tai also enjoyed peaceful relations with the tribal groups of the Marutuahu confederation who occupied the southern and eastern Hauraki Gulf. The reason was that they shared both Tainui and Arawa descent, and had a specific ancestral relationship through Kaweau the first wife of Te Whatatao. Ngai Tai"were also closely related to the Te Uri Karaka hapu of Ngati Paoa who occupied the area east of the Wairoa River.

MAORI PLACENAMES - WHAKAKAIWHARA PENINStlLA

Whakakaiwhara

Tauranga o Tainui Umupuia

TE WAIROA Waipokaia

Mawherawhera

GJM. 1996

1 t t t I I t 1 I I I I I 1 I I 1 1 I I

There is no evidence that Cook came into direct contact with Ngai Tai, however he left both pigs and potatoes in the area. They had both become important items in the diet of the local people within a decade. (White 1888 Vol. V: 125 and Puna 1905: 2) Cook had observed the economic wealth of the Hauraki tribes and the vast timber resources that lay near to the coastline. This stimulated later European interest in the area. From the early 1790s whaling and sealing ships reprovisioned in the inner Hauraki Gulf and from 1801 ships had begun to cut spars in the area. The CMS missionary the Reverend Samuel Marsden walked along the western shores of the Hauraki Gulf in 1815 and once again drew attention to the area's timber resources. Captain Downie, who accompanied him on the HMS Coromandel in 1820-21, specifically charted the stands of 'cowrie' growing around the Wairoa River. Thus by the early nineteenth century Ngai Tai had come under a number of the indirect influences that resulted from European contact. In the 1820s they were to face the devastation wrought by another European influence, the musket. The Ngai Tai people who occupied the Maraetai-Wairoa River area initially avoided attack from Ngapuhi who had destroyed the Ngati Paoa settlement of Mauinaina near present day Panmure in 1821. The reason was that they shared Arawa descent with Te Kapotai who were part of the attacking party. (Anaru Makiwhara, IPS Vol. 32:42) This did not however protect Ngai Tai indefinitely from Ngapuhi attack. In the same period Te Tirarau from the Mangakahia area led a Te Parawhau party in an attack on the Wairoa River area while Tara Te Irirangi of Ngai Tai was at Whakatiwai trying to procure muskets. (Anaru Makiwhara NLC Auckland 4: 111-112) The Ngai Tai people armed only with traditional weapons were devastated, and a number of women and children were taken captive. Some of those of Ngai Tai who survived this attack took refuge with their Tainui relatives in the Waikato and were to remain there until the mid 1830s. A small number of the tribe did however remain behind to hold the mana of the land. It was as a result of this period of that the first permanent European association with the tribe came about. Ngeungeu, one of the daughters of Tara Te Irirangi, had been taken to the Bay of Islands by Ngapuhi. Here in the mid 1820s she married Thomas Maxwell (Tame Kohe) a crew member of the whaling barque 'Harriet' which was reprovisioning at Kororareka. Thomas and Ngeungeu Maxwell (Makiwhara) returned to Tamaki soon after this and settled on Waiheke and later Motutapu Island. Sadly Thomas Maxwell drowned in 1842 when his sailing cutter overturned in a storm off the east coast, and his wife was left to bring up their large family. Ngeungeu and her children then returned to live at Umupuia with her father Tara Te Irirangi. They and their many descendants were to play a prominent part in the affairs of Ngai Tai over successive generations. Mrs. R.N. Zister a great granddaughter of Thomas and Ngeungeu Maxwell is still resident at Umupuia, and at the age of 104 is the oldest living member of Ngai Tai. It also was during this period of disruption that the first documented European visit to the Wairoa River was made. In 1832 the Hauraki tribes had asked the Church Missionary Society (CMS) to establish mission stations in the district to help secure peace. The CMS responded to the request by sending a mission party to the area to select suitable

10

1
•••

t

sites. (CMS Mission Book Vol VH: 31. 36, & 39) In late 1833 Reverend Henry Williams and the lay catechist William Thomas Fairbum visited the area. Fairburn noted that there appeared to be no people in occupation of the Tamaki Isthmus and that the land between there and the Wairoa also appeared to be deserted. In November 1833 Fairburn visited Pakihi Island and explored the adjoining coastline. He then, "went a few miles up a small river called Wairoa, to gain an interview with the natives." (Ibid.:339) Being unable to find any inhabitants he fired several gunshots to attract attention. Eventually a man and a child appeared, the man armed with a musket. The man "said he was afraid it was a tribe from the Waikato come to cut them off, such is the state in which the people live, in continual dread of each other, always starting and timorous." (Ibid.)

f

-

t 1 1 I t 1
i
VV^

1
Vr

• Tara Te Irirangi the Ngai Tai rangatira painted at Umupuia by G.F. Angas in 1844.
From this encounter it would appear that the Ngai Tai settlements in the vicinity of the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula were not occupied in this period. While some of Ngai Tai had remained on their ancestral land, the majority of the tribe did not return until 1835 when they came home from exile in the Waikato under the protection of the Tainui ariki Te Wherowhero. Ngai Tai were however uneasy in the occupation of their ancestral domain in this period because of the enmity that then existed between Ngati Paoa, Waikato and Ngati Whatua. From 1835 the CMS missionaries James Preece and William Fairburn made regular visits to the Ngai Tai kainga in the Wairoa area from the CMS mission that had been established at Puriri near Thames. In 1835-36 they assisted in the conclusion of peace

A
.
11

'"

_

.

.

1 1 f

I I t f

I

between the disaffected parties in meetings held at Tamaki Heads in late 1835, and at Orere, Okahu and Otahuhu in early 1836. It became obvious during these meetings that ownership of the Tamaki Isthmus, and the land lying between it and the Wairoa River, was disputed among all of the Iwi involved. William Fairbum who attended the Otahuhu meeting stated that, "the natives of the Thames very urgently requested that the land might be purchased in order to put an end to the possibility of any future rupture between them and Waikato, as up to this time it had been a disputed point, and much blood had been shed in consequence." (CMS Mission Book Vol. 11:409) This led to what became known as 'Fairburn's Purchase'. This transaction, which was initiated on January 22 1836 and concluded in December 1839, involved an estimated 45,000 acres of land (subsequently found to be 75,000 acres). It was witnessed by Reverend Henry Williams, Reverend Robert Maunsell, Reverend James Preece and George Clarke. As a result of 'Fairburn's Purchase', to which Tara Te Irirangi, Nuku and Te Whetuki were signatories, Ngai Tai had theoretically alienated all of their land north of the Wairoa River, including the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula. However they remained in occupation of the land, and in July 1837 Fairburn undertook to return one third of the land to them and the other Maori signatories as soon as the boundaries of the block had been formally surveyed. All but one of the agreements involved in this transaction were signed at the mission station that William Fairburn had established at Maraetai in July 1837. The Maraetai mission was to have a major impact on the lives of the Ngai Tai people. Within several years most of the tribe had converted to Christianity which they practiced with vigour. Other Hauraki Iwi also moved to Maraetai to be near the mission, and a number of Ngai Tai took up residence in their old kainga of Pohaturoa at the eastern end of Maraetai Beach. This brought the tribe into regular contact with European material goods. Fairburn, or Te Pepene' as he was known to Ngai Tai, introduced the tribe to European farming implements and practices. Some of Ngai Tai also attended the mission school where they were taught to read and write by William Fairburn's daughter Elizabeth. One of her pupils was Te Whetuki the young son of the Ngai Tai chief Nuku. Te Whetuki adopted the baptismal of 'Hori' or George and befriended William Fairburn's son Edwin. In his memoirs entitled 'Maharatanga,' Edwin Fairburn made several recollections that tell us of the Ngai Tai use of the natural resources of the area. He noted that Hori Te Whetuki gave him, "a tui in a kareao (supplejack) cage. He also taught him to snare bellbirds, seagulls, or pigeons." (E. Fairburn 1901:45) It was Hori Te Whetuki who was to sell the Whakakaiwhara Block to Thomas Duder 30 years later. In the summer of 1838-1839 a major influenza epidemic struck the area. William Fairburn reported that it "has pleased the Almighty to afflict the natives of this neighbourhood very severely." (CMS Mission Book Vol. 11:416) Ngai Tai had already suffered heavy losses at the hands of Ngapuhi and they were now further reduced in numbers. Some of the tribe remained living at Pohaturoa and they maintained seasonal settlements throughout the Wairoa River Valley. This included the Whakakaiwhara

1 1 1 I I 1 f I 1 1 f I I 1 I

12

1 I I I 1 1 I 1 I I f I I I I

Peninsula which Hori Te Whetuki stated that he occupied in the time of Governor Hobson, that is in 1840-41. (NLC Hauraki 1:11) At this time most of Ngai Tai were living together at Umupuia "in a pa built by Tara Te Irirangi and Wi Te Haua." (NLC Auckland MB 4:107) It was this pa that was visited by John Logan Campbell when he called at Umupuia in 1840 to get the assent of Tara Te Irirangi to his purchase of Motukorea (Brown's Island). Campbell was "received with every sign of high respect...and was made much of." (Campbell 1881: 165) He noted that the Ngai Tai people now held morning and evening church services in their Umupuia meeting house, and that they had abandoned polygamy. He also noted interestingly that almost all of the adults smoked pipes. Tara Te Irirangi and some of his people then conveyed Campbell to Motukorea in a large canoe and they erected a nikau whare for him and his companion Brown. In 1841-42 the Land Claims Commission investigated 'Fairburn's Claim'. In recognition of William Fairburn's payment of goods to the value of 906 pounds, his occupation of the land and the improvements that he had carried out to his Maraetai farm, he was awarded title to 5,500 acres at Maraetai, Otahuhu and beside the Tamaki River. This was approved by the Acting Governor Willoughby Shortland who agreed that Ngai Tai could remain in occupation of their lands around the Wairoa River. Shortland also presented a Union Jack to the tribe to symbolise the cooperation between them and the Crown. This flag was given to Honatana Te Irirangi and "it was erected at the mouth of the Wairoa River" on Whakakaiwhara Pa. (NLC Auckland 4:110) The Ngai Tai reserve of 6063 acres was confirmed by Governor FitzRoy in c. 1844 and it was surveyed several years later. It extended from Fairburn's Maraetai property in the west to the Wairoa River in the east, and included the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula. The Governor also agreed that some of the Hingawaka hapu of Ngati Paoa could maintain a kainga on the northern edge of Oue Pa "as they had no land in the Tamaki area". (OLC File 269 and 269a) This was done with Ngai Tai consent, although they did not accept that this group had a traditional right to the land. (Ibid.) The 'Plan of a piece of land Reserved for the Natives by Governor FitzRoy at Maraetai' shows that the main Ngai Tai settlement was the pa located behind the beach in the vicinity of the present Umupuia Marae complex. It is of interest that the Australian artist G.F. Angas visited Umupuia in July 1844 during an eight day trip up the east coast of the North Island. While staying in the village he sketched the portraits of Tara Te Irirangi, his daughter Ngeungeu and his grandson James Maxwell. The plan of the Native Reserve also shows that there were still a number of outlying seasonal kainga that were still being maintained on the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula, within what is now the Regional Park. These included small clusters of whare located on the eastern side of the Te Kuiti Stream mouth, at the southern end of Te Wharau (Malua Bay), and at the northern end of Waipokaia (Duck Bay). The Crown purchase of surplus areas of the 'Fairburn Block, Wairoa' was ultimately concluded between 1851 and 1854. Ngai Tai signed the Crown Deed on February 21

I I I 1 I

13

- •
* " ^
<

? '
* ''

: ,.,. . w*» •.\;i>:- •'»:.<-^r^-:. ! :

--"--- -'^

. - • -••

'**

.

Govern o?* Iiiz-.cvov

ftfaraetat

• '^r^^it'.i :-':; • .;>•• v- - "•-«•

1 1 t I i i t i i i i t i i i i i i i i

1854. At this time they received 500 pounds and agreed to vacate all other parts of Tairburn's Claim' and "to move to that portion given to us by the Queen called Umupuia" (Turton 1877: 290), that is to the Native Reserve approved by FitzRoy. The leading signatory of the 1851 and 1854 agreements was Hori Te Whetuki who was now the leader of the tribe after the death of his father Nuku and Tara Te Irirangi in the 1840s. Being over six feet six inches in height, he became known to the local settlers as 'Long George'. Hori Te Whetuki was to remain a notable figure in the district until his death in 1882. James Jacob the sawyer who cut timber from the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula stated in this regard, "Hori was the tino kaumatua of this tribe, we always dealt with him as the owner of the land and looked to him to settle all disputes." (NLC Auckland MB 4: 99) In the 1850s the Ngai Tai people of the Umupuia area numbered under 100 people. They enjoyed a good relationship with the European settlers who had begun to take up land in the district in 1852. Ngai Tai had now been practicing Christians for two decades and they had adopted quickly to the 'European economy' by becoming involved in commercial agriculture and trade. In 1854 for example, when local European settlers were still establishing their farms, Ngai Tai sold fruit, potatoes, onions, 10 tons of firewood, nearly a ton of fish, 8 pigs and twelve bushels of wheat on the Auckland market. Land Plans from this period show that the old hillside kumara gardens on the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula had now been abandoned. As with other Iwi throughout the nation, Ngai Tai were now using the horse and plough to cultivate and crop the extensive flats lying to the west of the Peninsula. They also had large orchards of peaches, apples, pears and quinces on the flats between Umupuia and the base of the peninsula. This decade of co operation and friendship between Ngai Tai and the European settlers of the Maraetai - Wairoa area was sadly to be followed by a tragic episode in the region's history with the outbreak of the Land Wars in South Auckland in September 1863. In 1860 tension had begun to rise in the district after fighting broke out between Maori and European in Taranaki. In late 1860 the Wairoa settlers formed a local volunteer militia which mustered regularly for drill and rifle practice. In June 1861 General Cameron and Colonel Mould visited the Wairoa River in order to select sites for the construction of military installations to guard this important waterway. They inspected the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula but decided to build a series of stockades and redoubts further up river to protect the head of navigation around what is now Clevedon. Ngai Tai watched apprehensively as military installations were constructed and military activity increased in the district. The tribe and its rangatira were faced with a major dilemma. They had a long and generally amiable relationship with the local settlers and with the Government. They were however part of the Tainui confederation of tribes and many felt compelled to support their relatives in the Waikato who faced an imminent invasion of their land. When fighting broke out between the colonial militia and Te Akitai at Papakura in July 1863, the Ngai Tai kainga of Otau near Clevedon was abandoned and a number of the younger men of Ngai Tai joined the forces of King Tawhiao. The Ngai Tai rangatira Watene Te Makuru left Umupuia and went with some of the tribe to Pakihi Island. The

15

1 1

»

1
t 1 1 1 1 1

Maxwell men all left the district during this period. Robert and James Maxwell were in England, Manihera Maxwell was at the Nelson goldfields, and Anaru Maxwell had moved to Te laroa (The Bluff) near Mercer. Following Thomas Maxwell's death, Ngeungeu Maxwell had married his friend James Moncur, and had settled with him at Kawhia. Ngeungeu was still living at Kawhia in the 1 860s with her daughter Raiha. The Ngai Tai rangatira Hori Te Whetuki and Honatana Te Irirangi, the son of Tara Te Irirangi, left Umupuia and settled at Pohaturoa. Only Wi Te Haua the father of Watene Te Makuru remained at Umupuia. Hori Te Whetuki' s position was described many years later by Rapata Tamehana in the Native Land Court. He noted that Hori had gone to Sir George Grey and explained that he feared for himself and his people if they remained at Umupuia. Hori indicated to the Governor that he wished to go to Taupo (Kawakawa Bay) to live with Ngati Paoa, although he understood that if he left the area the Governor would take his land including Whakakaiwhara. (NLC Auckland 4 1893: 97-98)
i .£ '

^^*3b&.
+"4&5fTfJO\n.\ i |r<il+> III lfl 1 1 « Iff II

3s$i&tjffl! Tttfffffi rjJTuTfT tnv VMMiffll^lHSilifi^MS^^^S^i EoE *&$&*• 1 III IffifliiiiTniKTfliiiiHninBBtifii^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ - ^* ^"

The Settlers Stockade, Wairoa South as sketched by Lt.-Col. Morrow in 1863. Grey advised Hori Te Whetuki to remain on his land. "Then said Hori what am I to do. Sir George Grey said leave that to me. I will give you a flag and you should be the pole, we will set up the staff." (Ibid. : 98) Hori Te Whetuki remained in the Maraetai area and did his best to prevent fighting in the area. This is exemplified by the fact that the local British Army commander Lieutenant Colonel Morrow reported in September 1863 that, "on the afternoon of the 12th we received the welcome intelligence through a friendly chief called by the settlers 'Long George' that the rebels had decided in attacking the camp in three days." (Cowan 1955:455) On October 25 1864 a 'Proclamation of Amnesty to Rebel Natives' in the Wairoa-Hunua area was issued. Following this some of the tribe returned to Umupuia. Many were however to remain in exile with the Maori King or in the Waihou area for a decade. Ngai Tai retained their Native Reserve centred on Umupuia. They were however to lose Otau Village and all of their lands in the Upper Wairoa Valley when the 58,000 acre Eastern Wairoa Block was confiscated by proclamation on May 16 1865. Honatana Te

1 1 1

16

.

1 I I I I 1 I

Irirangi received 1000 pounds compensation for the land on behalf of the tribe however Ngai Tai continued to feel that their loyalty to the Crown had been betrayed. As Honatana stated at the Compensation Court - "We did not supply food or clothing to those of our tribe who went to the King (Tawhiao). There were some of our tribe in rebellion at Otau. We never took goods from Auckland nor were any landed at our place, and forwarded by us to Piako or the Thames. There were no messages passed between ourselves, the Ngati Tai and the rebels." (Weekly News May 27 1865:9)

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

During the six month outbreak of fighting most of the Ngai Tai villages and cultivations in the area had been damaged and they had lost most of their livestock. For this reason Ngai Tai applied to the Crown along with the local settlers for compensation for the losses that they had sustained. Hori Te Whetuki received 190 pounds and Watene Te Makuru received 30 pounds. The war had however had inflicted far more than material damage. It had left the tribe divided and devastated with a legacy of bitterness over the land confiscation that has continued to the present day. In 1865 Ngai Tai remained scattered with the small remaining community being focused on the Umupuia kainga. The tribe retained its 6063 acre Native Reserve as papa tupu or jointly owned customary land. This was soon to change however as a result of the enactment of the Native Land Act of 1865. This Act had as its primary aim the extinguishment of Maori customary title and

17

I t I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I

its replacement with a Certificate of Title to be awarded by the Native Land Court. Title was awarded to rangatira on behalf of the tribe as trustees, although "in practice they were legally able to alienate their interest." (Orange 1987:179) In late 1865 Hori Te Whetuki applied to have the Ngai Taj Native Reserve surveyed into blocks, title of which was to be determined by the Native Land Court. The largest of the ten blocks surveyed was the 1376 acre Maraetai Block which was retained by the tribe. The other blocks were to be offered for sale on the open market. In this regard Hori Te Whetuki stated at the Land Court hearing into the Te Ruangaingai Block (inland of Maraetai) that he had, "other lands sufficient to support myself and my family, more than we can work for generations to come, I wish to have the power to sell." (NLC Hauraki 1: 123) The Whakakaiwhara Block which lay on the eastern edge of the Native Reserve was surveyed by D.L. Duffus in November 1865. "Title to the Block was investigated in the Native Land Court Thames on March 7 1866 under Judge MacKay. In a brief hearing Hori Te Whetuki claimed ownership of the land with a simple statement - "I own Whakakaiwhara. I began to live there in the time of Governor Hobson (1840-41) and my ancestors lived there before." (Ibid.: 11) A counter claim was lodged by Hetaraka Takapuna of 'Ngati Paoa and Te Waiohua' on the basis Waiohua and Nga Iwi descent. After an out of Court discussion however, "an arrangement was made between the parties. Ngati Paoa resigned all claims over the block of 6000 acres sited to the west of the Wairoa," (Ibid.) Hori Te Whetuki had earlier stated that Ngati Paoa had occupied an area of land near Oue Pa on the south eastern edge of the Whakakaiwhara Block, "at the instance of Mr. Fairburn, there being no land for them at Tamaki. This was done with our consent." (OLC 589-590 File, DOSLI) On the recommendation of Judge MacKay, Hori Te Whetuki subsequently made a monetary payment to Ngati Paoa in recognition of the Te Hingawaka occupation of the Oue area. Hori Te Whetuki received a Crown Grant for the 600 acre (243 ha.) Whakakaiwhara Block from the Crown on April 12 1866 and offered it for sale. The transaction was organised and the deed of sale interpreted by the retired missionary James Preece who had worked among the Iwi of the Hauraki area since 1833. On July 16 1866 the block was purchased by Thomas Duder 'of the North Shore, Signalman' for 422 pounds. Hori Te Whetuki distributed the money to the tribe. This transaction was to begin the Duder family's association with the Whakakaiwhara Block most of which they still occupy 130 years later. In the decades following the sale of the Whakakaiwhara Block, Ngai Tai were to remain in occupation of the 3500 acre Maraetai Block which they had retained. Their main settlement continued to be the village of Umupuia which was located near the present Umupuia Marae complex. Here Rapata Tamehana, a relative of Hori Te Whetuki's wife, constructed a meeting house for the tribe. It was erected "for general election purposes, visitors and a Court House." (NLC Auckland 4: 88) The meeting house was named 'Harata Kingi' in honour of Hori's youngest daughter. Manihera and James Maxwell had their own properties just to the east of the village .and Hori Te Whetuki constructed a small two roomed weatherboard cottage for his own use at Mawherawhera to the south of what is now the Regional Park entrance.

is

PLAN OFTHl

v; A K A K A I W H A - R A
CIA I «10 CV

BLOCK

HOJU 15 W U E T U K I .

•s.
s>».

v
T0-g
-

^

I I I t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Thomas Duder (1806 -1875) who was born at Kingskerswell, Devon, England, had been living permanently in New Zealand for 26 years when he purchased the Whakakaiwhara Block. He had initially come to New Zealand as an Able Seaman in the HMS Buffalo on its first voyage to collect spars in 1833. He returned as a crew member of the HMS Buffalo in 1838, and was on board the vessel when it was wrecked at Mercury Bay on July 28 1840. During the 1838 visit Thomas Duder had visited the Waitemata Harbour in a cutter while the HMS Buffalo was loading spars at Mahurangi. His grandson William Thomas Duder recalled that during this visit Thomas "was so impressed he resolved to settle there." (B. Duder typescript, undated.)

A portrait of Thomas Duder (1806 - 1875) painted in 1873. After the wreck of the HMS Buffalo Thomas Duder was to get his opportunity to return to the Waitemata. Governor Hobson, "offered some of the crew a discharge from the Navy if they would stay and help develop the new colony." (H. Duder 1972 :5) Thomas Duder took up the offer and was appointed Cox wain of Government revenue and general service vessel checking on customs duties and smuggling around the Hauraki Gulf. The vessel that he used for this job was the HMS Buffalo's cutter which he had sailed up from Whitianga with his shipmate Oliver. In 1842 Thomas Duder was appointed as Signalman at Flagstaff (Devonport), a position he was to hold for 33 years. While engaged in customs duties and the transport of Crown Officials and Missionaries around the Hauraki Gutf 1840-42, Thomas Duder had visited most of the Maori and European settlements around the Hauraki Gulf. They included Fairbum's Mission Station and farm at Maraetai, and the Maori village of Umupuia which was located just west of the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula. Thus when the Whakakaiwhara Block was

20

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

offered for sale in 1866 Thomas Duder had been familiar with the land for a quarter of a century. Thomas Duder was 60 years old when he purchased the property. He was to be fully occupied operating the Signal Station on Mount Victoria, Devonport until shortly before his death in 1875 and is not thought to have played any direct part in the development of the Whakakaiwhara Block. Thomas did however visit the property when he could, and he is thought to have been responsible for planting the Norfolk pines that grew along the foreshore on the north western edge of the Block. One of these trees remains at the entrance to the Duder family homestead 'Rozel'. It would appear that Thomas Duder purchased the Whakakaiwhara Block to provide an opportunity for his two eldest sons William Thomas and (Thomas) John Duder who were then aged 21 and 19 respectively. From 1866 until 1873 William Duder and his brother John were to farm the Block in partnership. The Duder brothers faced a daunting task in clearing and developing the 600 acre (243 ha.) property. Their task was however to be easier than that faced by many pioneers of that era because very little of the block was covered in mature indigenous forest. When the Duder brothers settled on the property in 1866 they found a natural environment that was highly modified. There were only a few small stands of native forest on the peninsula, with most of the block being covered in manuka or fern that reflected centuries of occupation, cultivation and resource use. The Maori Land Plan of the Whakakaiwhara Block that was produced at the Native Land Court hearing in 1865, shows that when the Duder family purchased the land, the extensive flats to the west of the peninsula were in 'heavy scrub and native cultivations' (ML 123 Nov. 1865) The only areas of indigenous forest that remained were small and isolated pockets located in the main gullies on the southern side of the Peninsula. A certain amount of timber cutting had taken place on the property prior to the arrival of the Duder family. In the 1850s and 60s Hori Te Whetuki had sold timber cutting rights on the 6500 acre Native Reserve to European sawyers who established a 'Sawyers Camp' at Mawherawhera on the south western edge of the Whakakaiwhara Block. Most timber was cut from the high country to the west of what is now North Road. Sawyers such as James Jacob did however cut kauri from the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula. It is known that logs were taken from inland of Te Wharau (Malua Bay) and were sent down to the beach via a log chute which is still visible at the northern end of the bay. It is of interest to note that none of the remaining forest remnants, including the coastal pohutukawa, were to be milled by the Duder family during their 130 years of ownership of the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula. The Duder brothers initially lived in a tent pitched near the mouth of the Te Kuiti Stream on the north western edge of the Block. In January 1873 William Duder married Jannett French at Devonport and took his new wife to the Whakakaiwhara property soon after. They also initially lived in a tent, then in a nikau whare sited near the mouth of the Te Kuiti Stream. Here Jannett cooked on a camp oven and maintained the campsite and vegetable gardens while William and John developed the farm. In October 1873 Jannett gave birth to their first child Lillian. It is thought that she may well have been named

21

I I I I I I I I I I I I t I I I I I I I

after Hori Te Whetuki's eldest daughter Te Riria (Lillian). Lillian was to name her first daughter Te Riria. In 1874 John and William, almost certainly with help from their carpenter brother Frederick, built a small weatherboard cottage with a kauri shingle roof on the site now occupied by 'Rozel'. In this humble cottage William and Jannett Duder were to raise Lillian and five other children who included: Gertrude born in 1875, Zealandia 1877, William Thomas 1879, Emma 1882 and Jeanette 1886. Two months before his death in August 1875 Thomas Duder transferred the title to the Whakakaiwhara Block to his eldest son William. The transfer was completed without payment, and was made, "in consideration of the natural love and affection which the said Thomas Duder beareth his son the said William Thomas Duder." (Deeds Register 27 D 926) At this time William Duder formally dissolved his partnership with his brother John. He purchased John's share of the farm cottage for 90 pounds and compensated him for other improvements made on the property. t John returned to the property on occasions to help William. From this time however, John developed a wide range of property and business interests. They were focused on the Masonic Hotel, Devonport, which he built and lived in until his death. William also received ongoing assistance from his other brothers who were resident at Devonport, and who were all to become successful in their own chosen fields of endeavour. William's twin brothers Robert and Richard provided seasonal help at busy times. Robert, who was a champion athlete and cyclist, would have been of particular help on the largely unfenced run. "He was renowned for running down and catching sheep, without a dog to help." (Philson 1990: 75) From the late 1870s William's youngest brothers Albert and Frederick also helped out when they were able to. The development of the Whakakaiwhara Block in the late nineteenth century was however largely the work of William and Jannett Duder and their children. It was to be a major ongoing task that was to occupy their descendants for another three generations By the turn of the century William and his family had transformed the easier country and had developed one of the best farms in the district. When he retired in 1904, William had made a name for himself as a well organised and successful fanner and as a leader in the local community. This was a remarkable achievement considering the fact that he was "the first pakeha child to be born in Devonport" (Philson 1990 : 29), and that he had received only a limited formal education at Rev. Hey wood's Devonport School. Like his brother John he had begun regular menial work at a very early age. From childhood William helped run the 83 acre family farm at Duder's Point, Ngataringa Bay, and before he had reached his teens he was assisting his father in the management of Crown grazing leases on Tiritiri Matangi and Motuihe Islands. Thus when he took over the Whakakaiwhara Block at the age of 21 in 1866, William had considerable experience in stockmanship and the management of an extensive grazing run.

22

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

In spite of his basic education William Duder kept a remarkably accurate Day Book that detailed income and expenditure relating to the property 1873-1905. This Ledger, which is still in the possession of his great grandson Ian Duder, gives a remarkable insight into the development of the property and farming routines 1873 -1905. The development of the property in this period was largely focused on the fertile flats extending south from the homestead to Oue Pa. Manuka and other scrub was cleared, stumps were removed and burned, the land was ploughed, and pasture was progressively established.

William and Jannett Duder and their family in c. 1904. Back row from the left: Jeanette, Lillian, Gertrude, Zealandia. Fronfrow from the left: Emma, William snr, Jannett and William jnr. (Vera Kempt, from Philson 1990) Several post and rail timber fences were constructed, however little suitable timber was available for fencing on the property. For this reason, and to assist with drainage, the fiats to the south of the homestead were subdivided into twelve paddocks through the construction of ditch and bank structures topped by a hawthorn hedge. The flat land lying to the south of the Regional Park entrance remained undeveloped at this time in one large paddock known as 'No. 2". Farm buildings and yards were constructed to the south of the homestead on the southern side of the Te Kuiti Stream. The timber used was purchased from Jacobs Sawing Station at Mawherawhera, or was brought in by scow from David Goldie and Sons 'Oceanic SawmilP in Auckland. The portion of the property that now makes up the Regional Park saw little development in this era, and was not in fact to be intensively developed until the post World War n period. 'The Run' as it was called, remained as a large, unfenced, extensive grazing block. The development that did take place on the Peninsula in the late nineteenth

23

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

century was largely confined to the relatively accessible area adjoining Waipokaia (Duck Bay). The swampy flats behind the bay were improved through the installation of a network of drains dug by William Duder with help from local Maori. It is thought (I. Lawlor pers comm.) that this system may well overlie an older Maori drainage network constructed in conjunction with the cultivation of taro. Prior to the 1890s William Duder did much of the development work himself, although from 1877 he generally employed a permanent farm labourer who was paid fifteen shillings per week. They included: Michael Duggan, Joseph Duggan and Walter Weston. Hugh Me Crystal who worked on the property from 1880 until 1893 was the longest term employee. Duder also periodically employed local Maori to carry out scrub cutting, drainage work, shearing, wool washing and general farm maintenance. They included groups organised by Rapata Maxwell and later by Pepa Kirkwood who was to work on the property until 1906. Pepa Kirkwood had married Te Riria the daughter of Hori Te Whetuki and had settled at Umupuia following Hori Te Whetuki's death in 1882. In this period he acted as a 'Native Constable' in the district, and along with Manihera Maxwell was seen as a leader of the Ngai Tai community occupying the Maraetai - Wairoa area. In the 1890s the large 'Second Ridge' and 'Second Gully' paddocks north of Waipokaia (Duck Bay) were ploughed by local Maori. They were generally paid wages for their work, however for this job it was agreed that they would keep the kauri gum that was turned up as payment. Duder family tradition records that so much gum was collected that it was hidden by the Maori workers who felt that William Duder might decide to change the terms of this agreement. This never happened however, and with an application of bone dust, the first area of better quality pasture was developed on the Peninsula. From the early 1890s William Duder was also able to rely on help from his young son William Thomas Duder who was generally referred to as 'Willie'. Willie Duder was expected to undertake a wide variety of tasks from an early age, although his father's Day Book records that he did not receive a wage until he reached the age of 21 in 1900. In old age Willie Duder recalled that the property was still only partly developed by 1890, and that the large 'No. 2' paddock extending south to Oue Pa had just been cleared of scrub. He noted that scrub was cleared during winter months and that it was burnt during February and March. At this time the many ditches on the farm were cleared and fences were repaired. (B. Duder undated mss.) New drains were also continually being dug to improve drainage on the flats. Many of them incorporated 'Turanga' brand field tiles from Granger's Whitford brickworks. The annual burn off of the scrub and danthonia pasture on the Peninsula was to be a feature of the management of "The Run1 until the 1940s. This routine, which was undertaken to stimulate autumn pasture growth, was a standard practice on hill country farms throughout New Zealand in this era. It was to lead to a slow decline in the fertility of the pastures on the Peninsula that was not to be reversed until the 1940s. The farming regime that was to be practiced by William Duder was established early and was typical of that found throughout the Colony at that time. The farm was essentially

24

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

an extensive pastoral property, with farming operations being focused on a flock of fine woolled Romney-Merino and Merino- Corriedale sheep. Several hundred sheep were run in the 1870s and flock numbers were built up as the farm was developed. By 1890 the flock had grown to 500, and by 1892 it was one of the largest in the district at 600. It was to remain at this level until William Duder retired in 1904. William Duder's Day Book shows that his sheep were hand shorn in October or November. This difficult task was initially undertaken by William himself with help from local Maori, and then by one of the Kelly family from Maraetai. The fleeces were rolled, tied with a piece of flax, and foot pressed into bales. The bales were then sledged to the beach and taken to Auckland on the local steamers SS Planet and later the SS Waitoa. The wool clip grew from five bales in the late 1870s to thirteen bales by the turn of the century. It was generally sold on the local market through Auckland agents such as Hunter & Nolan, although it was occasionally sold 'on owner's account' on the English market. Wool was to remain the most important source of income for the farm in the late nineteenth century. In fact in relation to what is how the Regional Park it has always provided the most consistent source of farm income. The early 1870s were a time of relative prosperity as wool prices were high, at up to ls./2d. per pound. Because of this, the farm produced a profit of 163 pounds during the first year that William operated it in his own right. However between the early 1880s and the late 1890s New Zealand underwent a prolonged economic depression, with wool prices falling by as much as 50%. As with all other farmers in the country, William Duder was forced to diversify his range of farm products in order to continue the development of the farm and to provide a satisfactory income to meet the needs of his growing family. William had always sold older ewes and some wethers both to the local Wairoa South (Clevedon) butcher and to the Auckland market. These sheep were generally driven around the coast to Maraetai overland to Papatoetoe, and then via the Great South Road to W. Buckland's saleyards at Remuera or Newmarket. When refrigeration came into widespread use from the late 1880s, the sale of sheep meat became more profitable and the sale of fat lambs became an option. The ewes and lambs were driven along the clay track that was North Road to Clevedon, as Wairoa South was renamed in 1895. There the ewes were separated and driven home, while the lambs were taken in Paton's horse drawn waggons to the Westfield Sale. On some occasions Paton's waggons would arrive at the farm before daylight to take on loads of 24 fat lambs per waggon. They would then return to Clevedon where the horse teams were changed, and then proceed with the lambs to the Westfield Sale. In this period William also built up a herd of Shorthorn cattle. Most of these were run as store cattle , especially on The Run', and were sold as three year olds at the Papakura Sale for fattening. Some stock were also sold locally at the Buckland & Son Saleyards on the southern edge of Clevedon, or at the Loan & Mercantile Ltd. Saleyards located near the Clevedon Wharf. On occasions cattle were also driven overland for sale at W. Buckland's Remuera Saleyards. Cattle hides were cured and sold to the Ireland Bros.

25

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

tannery at Panmure, and later to the Jagger & Parker tannery at Motion's Creek, Auckland. From the late 1870s a small Shorthorn dairy herd was also kept. The cows were milked by hand in a simple shed that had a yard paved in scoria flagstones obtained from R&R Duder's Devonport Quarry. It is of interest to note that some of these flag stones can still be seen on the eastern edge of the present sheepyards. Cream was skimmed from the whole milk and homemade butter was produced in a large wooden churn. The butter was made into pats and then boxed for sale. Some butter was sold to Hyde's General Store at Clevedon at between 4d. and 6d. a pound. Most was however freighted out once a week on the local steamer the S.S. Planet for sale to R&R Duder's store at Devonport, or to other Auckland grocers.

MASSKV HAUdS SECTIONAL SBBHEK.

Butter was never to be a major product of the Whakakaiwhara Block prior to the 1910s, however when wool and stock prices were very low 1884-1892 it provided an important supplementary source of income for the Duder family. In the 1890s William began to grow swedes as a winter fodder crop for the herd. The seed was sown using a MasseyHarris drill purchased for 10 pounds in 1896. A Massey Harris horse rake was also used during hay making. Hay was cut on the flats, raked into rows and then taken by sledge to either be stored in the loft of the old Woolshed, or to be built into hay stacks. Prior to the 1890s pigs were generally purchased for home use from the Ngai Tai settlement located on the western edge of the Duder property. However as the dairy herd increased in the late 1890s, William Duder started keeping pigs to further supplement the family's income. The pigs were kept in a pen located on the eastern side of the Te Kuiti Stream opposite the Duder homestead and were fed skim milk from the cow shed. The pigs were butchered and sold both locally and to R&R Duder's Devonport store. Bacon was produced for home use and also sold locally.

26

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Robert and Richard Duder bred working horses, farm hacks and some renowned thoroughbreds at their North Shore property. They also bred and spelled a large number of thoroughbred race horses on their 'Waiomanu' farm at Maraetai as well as on William Duder's property. From the late 1890s William also bred farm hacks and mares which were sold for as much as 30 pounds per head. One resource that was always plentiful on the Whakakaiwhara Block was manuka. Most of it was burnt as the property was developed, although right from 1873 it was also sold to Auckland merchants such as J.J. Craig and also to R&R. Duder's. Firewood was an important product prior to the introduction of electricity and it was to be cut from the Peninsula for fifty years. William's grandson Jack Duder cut manuka from what is now the Regional Park until the 1920s. It was sledged to the cliffs above the 'Yellow Rocks' and then thrown down to the beach to be loaded on to scows for sale in Auckland. As stated earlier, kauri gum had been gathered from the area behind Waipokaia (Duck Bay) when it was ploughed in the 1890s. Kauri gum continued to be taken from the Peninsula during ploughing and track development until the 1940s. Ian Duder recalls getting 130 pounds for kauri gum that he collected behind the plough. This enabled him to pay for a trip to Australia and also to buy a tent. Another farm product that provided some income in the 1890s was grass seed. Coxfoot seed was gathered annually for use on the farm, and suprisingly rats tail seed was gathered for sale. In 1904 William Duder also received ten pounds fifteen shillings from the sale of flax to Whitechurch's Flax Mill that was located on Maori land near the north western edge of the property. Flax was brought to this mill from all around the district until it burned down in 1907 on the night that William's grandson Jack Duder was born. While some bulk stores were brought in from R&R Duder's Devonport Store and from Hyde's Wairoa South (Clevedon) Store, William and Jannett Duder were.largely self sufficient. Pigs were kept in pens across the Te Kuiti Stream from the homestead, fowls and bees were kept, and a large vegetable garden was maintained. William Duder also planted a large orchard in the paddock that became known as 'The Quinces'. The origin of this name was the windbreak of quince trees that was planted along the southern edge of the orchard. Several of these trees still remain in the Regional Park to the east of the Woolshed. There was also a small orchard adjoining the northern side of the present sheepyards. A remnant of this orchard is still to be seen in the form of a large fig tree which is still bearing prolifically. A great deal of home produce was sold locally or freighted to Auckland to further supplement the family income. Products that were sold included: potatoes, pumpkins, onions, eggs, turkeys, and fruit. Until the 1910s peaches were collected from wildling trees located on former Maori settlement sites around the Peninsula, and also from the extensive groves at "Peach Point" or Oue Pa. The peaches were sold locally or freighted to R&R Duder's Devonport Store. The transport of goods and produce to and from Auckland was always a major exercise for the Duder family. Land for a road between Umupuia and Wairoa South (Clevedon)

27

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

had been gifted to the Crown by Ngai Tai and the settler families living south of the Whakakaiwhara Block in 1879. This road was not properly formed until the early 1900s and was not metalled until the late 1920s. There was no road link with Maraetai until 1931. As a result the Duder family was totally reliant on the local coastal shipping service which had restricted access to the Umupuia Beach because of its tidal nature. If the tide was low, freight was taken out across the tidal flats using a horse drawn sledge. If the tide was full it was conveyed out to the waiting vessel in the family's 12 foot dinghy.

• '

,r/eUE3-..; -i _" -"..••~;i\=*

The S.S. Hirere at Clevedon Wharf in the 1920s. This vessel transported freight and goods for the Duder family and other local settlers from 1897 until 1928. Between 1866 and 1879 produce and goods were transported to and from Auckland in the 15 ton cutter 'Rapid' which was operated in partnership by the Wairoa South Storekeeper Thomas Hyde in partnership with Captain George Couldrey. Steam services from Wairoa South began in 1875 and the Duder family relied on little steamers such as the 'Transit', 'Gemini', 'Lily' and the 'Rotoiti' to bring in bulk stores and to freight out wool, butter and other farm produce. In the 1880s several steamers operated on the Auckland-Wairoa South run, with the best known being the 18 ton steamer 'Planet'. The 'Waitoa took over from the 'Planet' and it in turn was replaced by the 'Blanche* and the Minerva'. The best known of the coastal steamers that were used by the Duder family was the 'Hirere' which operated from 1897 until 1928 under Captains Pearce, Couldrey and Spencer. This vessel made a scheduled run twice a week but would also make special

28

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

trips to collect the annual wool clip. On these occasions the Hirere would ground 50 yards offshore and wool bales would be taken out on a sledge and loaded using a steam winch. The 'Iranui' operated briefly in 1928 - 29 at which time regular coastal shipping services to Clevedon ceased with the onset of the Great Depression and motorised road transport. William Thomas Duder was a keen sailor like his father. He had always owned a small cutter for recreational use and for travelling to see the extended family in Devonpott. In the 1890s William and Jannett Duder decided that the family needed a larger vessel which would carry their growing family, and which would make them less reliant on the coastal steamers and tidal cycles in transporting their stores and produce. In the early 1890s the Couldrey family of Maraetai had commissioned Logan Bros, of Auckland to build a shallow draft centreboard yacht the 'kia Ora'. It had been successfully used to transport flax from the many shallow tidal estuaries around the district to Whitechurch's Umupuia Flax Mill. In 1894 William Duder commissioned Logan Bros, of Auckland to build a 33 foot yacht of the same design as the 'Kia Ora' at a cost of 171 pounds. At the same time he also had a punt built at a cost of 3 pounds ten shillings. The new yacht was launched on October 20 1894 and was named 'Lillian' in honour of William and Jannett's eldest child. The shallow draft of the 'Lillian' enabled her to be taken right up the Te Kuiti Creek behind the house. Here her specially designed cockpit could be loaded with produce for export to Auckland. William used the 'Lillian' regularly on trips to Devonport and the City and generally had his daughter Emma as his crew. The family often entered the 'Lillian* in regattas held at Devonport, Judges Bay and Waiheke. They also sailed in the annual Auckland Anniversary Day Regattas and gained third place in the all comers handicap in 1897. Not long before the purchase of the 'Lillian', William Duder was faced with another considerable item of expenditure when his home was badly damaged as a result of a freak accident. In 1889 John Duder visited the farm bringing with him some new explosive material that he had obtained as a Lieutenant in the Naval Volunteer Reserve. While Jannett Duder was preparing lunch, John and William decided to test the effectiveness of this explosive material on a puriri stump located across the creek from the house. When detonated, the explosive sent a large piece of puriri through the wall of the house demolishing the dining table. At this time, partly to placate Jannett, the decision was taken to build a new house on the site. In 1890 the homestead, which is still occupied by Ian and Mary Duder, was constructed by Messrs Evans & Davis. The house was essentially a completely new structure, although the old kitchen section and much of the kauri sarking from the original cottage was retained. It incorporated puriri foundation blocks that had been cut from the Peninsula and was constructed of the best quality kauri timber and joinery obtained from Auckland timber merchants D. Goldie & Sons. William and Jannett Duder's new home was named 'Rozel' in honour of Jannett's childhood home at Fort George, Guernsey. It became the focal point of all activities on the Whakakaiwhara Block, with farm workers

29

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

and housemaids being quartered in small rooms at the rear of the house. 'Rozel' has remained an important focal point for William and Jannett Duder's descendants, and for the wider Duder family until the present day.

The yacht 'Lillian' built by Logan Bros, in 1894 for William Duder. (I. Duder) Throughout their lives William and Jannett Duder worked long hours to develop their large property. They had little leisure time, although they enjoyed musical evenings with their children and hosted family gatherings at holiday times. William also subscribed to the Observer weekly newspaper and the NZ. Farmer magazine. As with most women in the Victorian era, Jannett focused her activities around her family and the homestead while William took a more visible role in community affairs. He was a member of the Farmers Association (later the Farmers Union) and a founding member of the Wairoa South Farmers Club. William Duder was also a member of the Wairoa South Mutual Improvement Association and later the Clevedon School Committee. He was always active in the affairs of the All Souls Anglican Church, Clevedon. After Willie began full time work on the farm, William and Jannett took several trips on the steamer to Thames, and even made one trip to the South Island. This was almost certainly to visit William's uncle Humphrey Duder who had settled at Port Chalmers in 1874.

30

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

In 1903 Lillian Duder married Robert Kay at 'Rozel'. They left the district and settled in the Waikato. In the following year Willie Duder married Mary (Gert) Stephens whose family had purchased the neighbouring Papepape Block from Hori Te Whetuki in 1867. William Duder had now turned 60 and he and Jannett decided to hand over the management of the farm to Willie and his new wife, and to retire to Devonport accompanied by their four unmarried daughters who had worked so hard on the family farm since childhood. '

The Duder homestead 'Rozel' situated at the mouth of the Te Kuiti Stream in 1970. On the right is the century old Norfolk Pine which lost its top soon after. (I. Duder) Zealandia, Emma and Jeanette were married at Devonport 1905-1908. Their elder sister Gertrude did not marry and remained living with her mother for many years. Emma and Jeanette were to remain living in the Clevedon district and maintained regular contact with Willie and Gert. Emma married Frederick Mullins and settled at Ardmore, while Jeanette married Frederick Stephens and settled just down the road on a property in North Road, Clevedon. Zealandia married William Gollan and settled on a property beside the Panmure Highway where she provided accommodation to Willie and his family when they were driving stock to Westfield for sale. On retirement William Duder retained title to the property in which he had invested nearly fifty years of his life and he visited the farm as often as he could. When undertaking such visits William normally rowed out from Devonport in his 12ft. sailing dinghy and met the 'Hirere' on her scheduled run to Clevedon. On July 3 1906 he set off in his dinghy to meet the 'Hirere', however it was delayed in Auckland with mechanical

31

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

problems. It is assumed that William decided to continue on to Umupuia in blustery winter weather, and that he drowned after his small craft capsized off Howick where his body washed ashore. William was buried at O'Neill's Point Cemetery, Bayswater, near the original Duder family farm. Following William Duder's death, title to the Whakakaiwhara Block transferred to the trustees of his estate. They included: his widow Jannett, his brother John, his daughter Gertrude Isabella, and Archibald McNicol who was one of the Clevedon district's oldest settlers. The trustees were to retain title to the farm until the death of John Duder in 1934. While acting as a trustee, Jannett seldom visited Umupuia and remained living at her Devonport home with her daughter Gertrude. Here, as the family matriarch, she received regular visits from her extended family until her death in 1937 at the age of 98. Her children and grandchildren continued to visit 'Rozel' for holidays and family functions, however the subsequent history of the Whakakaiwhara Block was to be primarily concerned with Willie and Gert Duder and their descendants. Willie Duder was to live all of his 74 years on the Whakakaiwhara Block and was to farm the property in his own right for over 40 years. At 'Rozel' he and Gert raised four children William Stephen (Steve), John (Jack), Charles Frederick (Fred) and Mary Jeanette (Molly). They were all to be intimately associated with the Whakakaiwhara Block for many years. Fred was resident at 'Waitiro' on the south western edge of the Block for many years. He is now resident at Duder's Beach on the beachfront section gifted to him by his father. Molly and her husband erected a small holiday bach on the section that she inherited at Duder's Beach. She was however prevented from building a retirement home on the section as the Manukau City Council had zoned the beachfront as a proposed reserve. Although Willie Duder's period of management began with tragedy it was to be an era of prosperity, development and major change. After his father's death he simply got on with the routine of farm life, although he made one important decision that was obviously influenced by the recent family tragedy. The steamer 'Hirere' was now providing a reliable and regular shipping service, and Willie had little interest in sailing which would have further diminished on his father's death. For these reasons he decided to sell his father's pride and joy the 'Lillian' to Mr. Herbert Duke of Auckland in 1906. He in turn sold the vessel to a Mr. J. Thompson, and from 1908 the 'Lillian' operated out of Auckland as a commercial fishing boat. In the early 1900s Willie Duder initially maintained the farming practices established by his father and he continued to farm the Whakakaiwhara Block as one large unit. By 1910 he had however begun to intensify the development of the property and to increase farm production in a period which saw a revolution in agricultural practices. These included the introduction of more scientific fanning methods, mechanisation and motorised transport. In this period the property became less of a mixed farm. Wool was to continue to provide an important source of income, however increasing emphasis was placed on meat production, and in the 1920s on dairying. The viability of the farm was also increased during and just after World War I when Willie Duder purchased two 44 acre blocks of flat land on the south western edge of the Whakakaiwhara Block. These

32

I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I

two blocks were acquired from Issac Ward who had purchased the land from Ngai Tai in 1912 and 1915 respectively. In this period farm development was focused on the southern flats extending out to Oue Pa. The Whakakaiwhara Peninsula continued to be farmed as an unfenced grazing run with the area in rough danthonia pasture being maintained through scrub cutting and annual burnoffs. The stock carrying capacity of the Peninsula remained limited by the poor quality of the pasture, and also by the reliance on natural water which dried up during prolonged periods of dry weather. The developed part of the farm also faced water supply problems in summer. For this reason Willie retained the renowned water diviner Reverend H. Mason from Otahuhu to locate two good underground water sources. He selected one site near the Woolshed, and another near a brick lined well that Willie had earlier excavated beside the present Regional Park Carpark. A six horse team dragged a drilling rig to each site and the bores were drilled by a contractor who was then working in the district. A Sampson windmill was then installed above each well in order to pump what proved to be an excellent supply of water. Most of the development work on the farm was carried out by Willie Duder and his sons Steve, Jack and Fred. A number of itinerant seasonal workers were employed, although the only long term farm worker in this period was Harry Kenyon. He is particularly remembered for his use of ferrets to control rabbits which had become a problem on the farm by the 1920s. Local Maori such as Arthur Mihaka Roberts and Joseph Mihaka were also employed to carry out seasonal work such as shearing, hay making, ditch cleaning and scrub cutting. They were resident in the kainga which adjoined the Duder property. This settlement was quite a large community until the mid 1920s, although numbers declined from this time on as Ngai Tai migrated to South Auckland to be nearer to work. The Maori families who were resident in the area continued to gather kaimoana from Waipokaia (Duck Bay) and until 1945 to undertake annual shark fishing expeditions at Whakakaiwhara Point. Under Willie Duder's management the sheep flock grew steadily from 585 in 1904 to 900 in 1910. The flock was to remain at around that level until the 1920s when it was reduced to 600 as dairying became more important. In the 1930s the flock rose again to over 900 when the area in pasture on the Peninsula was extended. There was also a change in sheep breed, with the flock being switched from Merino-Corriedales to Rornneys as meat production became more important. Until 1914 the flock was still hand shorn by Willie Duder, Arthur Mihaka Roberts and other itinerant shearers at the rate of 50 sheep each per day. A hand cranked handpiece was tried however it was not found to be practical, and in 1914 a two stand Lister shearing plant was installed. It was powered by a Lister petrol engine which was permanently mounted on a sledge so that it could be towed around the farm to be used for other tasks. From the 1920s until the 1940s the shearing was carried out by Jack Duder and local men Joseph Mihaka and Tui Kepa. Rather than being foot pressed directly into bales, the wool was now pressed in a wool press purchased in 1914. It is of some interest that this wool press was to remain in regular use until 1985, and that it is still located in the

33

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

present Woolshed. The wool bales continued to be taken by sledge out across the tidal flats to the 'Hirere' when it was not on a scheduled passenger run. The wool was now sold to G. W. Binney & Sons of Parnell.

During the 1914-18 War the efforts of the Dairy Producer Board meant that there was a secure market for New Zealand dairy produce in Britain. "From 1919 to 1929 butter exports rose six times, cheese exports increased by 60 per cent, and the average production per cow by 40 per cent" (Barber 1989:117) In this period Willie Duder expanded his dairy herd and switched from the all purpose Shorthorn breed to the more specialised milk producing Friesians. The herd of 30 cows was hand milked by Willie Duder and his sons Steve, Jack and Fred in the old shed and scoria flagstone cow yard that had been constructed in the 1870s. The Duder boys were expected to milk at least six cows before riding to school. They attended both Clevedon North School, which was located near the farm, and Maraetai School which were operated as 'half time' schools until 1925. From the 1910s the Duder family ceased to make homemade butter for sale. Cream was then separated and sold to Fox & Ingram's Clevedon Butter Factory which was later operated by James McKnight from 1918, and then by Wesley Spragg's NZ Dairy Association. Until around 1918 the cream was taken by the Duder family to a bulk collection point halfway along the North Road. Then for many years the cream was picked up by Paton's two horse waggon for the various operators of the Clevedon Dairy Company.

34

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Store cattle were still sold at Papakura or sometimes driven overland to the Westfield freezing works via Brookby, Flat Bush and Otahuhu. Fat lambs continued to be transported for sale in Papakura. The other sheep were driven to Papakura and railed to Westfield. On some occasions such as the 1918 rail strike, stock were driven all the way to Westfield by Willie and his sons who stayed overnight with Willie's sister Zealandia at her home on the Mt.Wellington Highway. In the 1920s there was a significant increase both in stock numbers and production on the Whakakaiwhara Block. This growth resulted from factors that were influencing agriculture throughout the nation. In the years immediately following World War I an economic boom was anticipated and approximately one quarter of freehold land changed hands in New Zealand. In this period the viability of the farm had been greatly increased when Willie Duder purchased the 88 acres of flat land on the south western edge of the Block. Production also rose on the farm because of the influence of more scientific stock breeding methods, the introduction of pedigree stock, and in particular because of a significant improvement in pasture quality. This latter advance resulted from the use of improved perennial grass varieties and the increasing use of artificial fertiliser. From the 1890s until the 1920s bonedust was the only fertiliser used on the farm. It was initially obtained from Hellaby's and then from the Clevedon Abbatoirs. In the 1920s the first regular use of fertiliser began on the property with the application of superphosphate and 'Belgian Slag'. The fertilizer was generally brought in to Duder's Beach on the scow 'Taupo' skippered by Bill Couldrey who had previously had command of the 'Hirere'. It was then transported by horse drawn sledge to the paddock where it was to be applied, and spread by hand. It was at this time that the first fertilizer was applied to what is now the Regional Park. In this case it was basic slag that was sledged to the tops and spread over the western slopes of the first main ridge. Scows such as the 'Taupo' were to be main carriers of bulk materials to the Duder property until World War II. As well as fertilizer, they transported in loads of up to 1000 puriri posts from Great Barrier for use on the farm, and as mentioned earlier they took out occasional loads of manuka firewood. Scows also brought in stock from the islands of the Hauraki Gulf. On these occasions the cattle were pushed overboard to swim ashore. They were then driven by stockmen to the Clevedon or Papakura Sales. Some scows like the 'Edna' and the 'Glenae' took large quantities of shell and sand from Umupuia over several decades. Rights for this extraction had been leased out by Watene Te Makuru from the 1870s. (NLC Auckland 4: 92) In spite of regular requests the Duder family never permitted the sand and shingle resources of the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula to be exploited. The only known extraction of shingle from the Peninsula was a load taken illegally from the 'Yellow Rocks' area around 1914. A young Jack Duder and his childhood friend Harold Munro happened to see the scow loading shingle in the early evening. They reported this to Willie Duder who informed the authorities and duly received payment from the skipper of the scow for the shingle.

35

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

The 1920s were a time of relative prosperity for Willie Duder and his family in particular after wool and butterfat prices boomed 1925-1928. This was reflected in the construction of several new farm buildings and the purchase of the family's first motor car. It was a New Beauty Model T Ford which was purchased from John W. Andrews Ltd. of Auckland at a cost of 230 pounds. The car was personally delivered by J.W. Andrews' daughter Mary who taught Steve Duder to drive in the front paddock. It was housed in a garage built behind the homestead. Several years later Willie Duder also purchased a one ton Model T truck. Horses continued to be used for ploughing and to pull the sledge and tip dray. The body of this latter vehicle was rebuilt in the 1940s and it continued to be used on occasions until the death of the farm's last draught horse 'Brownie' in 1955. In 1927 a new walk through cowshed was built by Willie Duder and the Woolshed now used by the ARC was constructed. The Woolshed has always played an important role in the operation of the farm, thus its development and use over the years warrant some explanation. The Woolshed was built by Jim Andrews a carpenter from Papakura using rimu timber purchased from the Cashmore Bros, sawmill at Orere. He was assisted by a young Jack Duder who fondly recalled in later years Jim Andrew's saw horse which had a string attached to a large piece of mutton fat that was used to grease the hand saws. Jack Duder also remembered how Andrew's swore profusely when one of the farm dogs made off with his precious piece of fat. The two stand Lister shearing plant was transferred from the old shed where it was still powered by the Lister petrol engine. The lean-to structure on the front of the new shed was constructed with double doors to allow the sledge mounted Lister engine to be hauled into position to drive the shearing plant. Only three years later however electricity was to arrive on the farm and an electric motor was installed to power the shearing plant. The redundant Lister engine was then moved to a small shed behind 'Rozel' to drive a circular saw used for cutting household firewood. The new woolshed was initially fitted with a grating floor only as far back as the main sheep entrance from the yards. The area of grating was however extended to the rear of the southern end of the shed by Jack Duder in subsequent years in order to accommodate the growing Romney sheep flock. The rear section of the building had an earth floor and was used both to store farm implements and to store hay which was stacked with some difficulty up to fourteen bales high. The western side of the Woolshed was used entirely to house the horses which then provided the main source of motive power and transport on the farm. This part of the shed was divided into three sections. At the front of the shed a double entrance door opened into an earth floored area which included stalls and a wide manger located against the wall of the wool floor. Beyond this area was a tack and feed room, and beyond it' again was a loose box used to hold young or sick horses and foaling mares. The facilities for the working horses and a few thoroughbreds remained in use until the late 1930s when tractors replaced the horse teams which had been used on the farm for seventy years. In 1980 Ian Duder upgraded the Woolshed. A wooden floor fitted at the rear of

36

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

the shed was raised on steel bearers and the area under it was concreted. The floor of the old horse facility was also concreted in order to provide overnight accommodation for more than 400 ewes.

The Woolshed which has been the focal point for activities on the farm since its construction by Jim Andrews in 1927. The Woolshed was not only a valuable integrated facility that was the focal point for all farming operations, but it also fulfilled an important social role for the Duder family and the local community. Soon after its completion the Woolshed was used as temporary accommodation by many holiday makers camping at Duder's Beach when a severe northerly storm blew down most of their tents. During World War n the Airforce Construction Squadron staged several barn dances in the shed to which they invited local families and all available single young women. In the early 1950s Jack Duder's teenage children also organised several barn dances for their friends. More recently Ian and Mary Duder's eldest daughter's 21st birthday was also held in the Woolshed. The ARC Parks staff continue to use the Woolshed as an office and as the main base for farm operations on the Regional Park. In the first two decades of the twentieth century the Duder family lived a relatively isolated and quiet life, although they had been connected with the Clevedon Telephone Association Exchange in 1914. Their only neighbours were the Stephens family who lived on the adjoining Papepape Block and the remaining Ngai Tai families who occupied the kainga on the western edge of the Duder farm. In this period however an increasing number of visitors came to the area on weekends and during holidays. Guests from the Wairoa Hotel, and after 1910 Paton's Empire Boarding House, often travelled out by waggon over the clay road to Umupuia when it had not been made impassable by McGinty's bullock teams hauling logs off the Maraetai Block to the beach.

37

I I I I I I I I I

I I I I I I I I I I I

A highlight for the Duder family was the annual hunt held on the Whakakaiwhara Block and the neighbouring Stephens property by the Pakuranga Hunt, of which Willie Duder was a Committee Member. The Hunt has continued to be held on the property over the years. As farms on the urban fringe began to be subdivided from the 1970s, this Hunt became the most popular of the season, with up to 80 riders taking part. Hunts are still held on the Regional Park, although on a more limited basis than in the past. Where to Stay when Visiting Hunua & Clevedon
V tE« «9^K«tfivn«%9^Mk K^V^WhM** «Mk«!Sl«1**£V J0t9 fLrTl .4^fl«l 4t» 4Mb *

Morning and Afternoon Ten. Good Road tor Matoratt. Tariff; £2 21. per utdf. 10(6 ftr day.

MRS. JANE PATON, Proprietress. The Whakakaiwhara Peninsula has always been a popular spot with fishermen over the years. A keen fisherman who visited the Duder property regularly in the early 1900s was a Mr. Gamlen. He came on day trips and always fished from the same rock between Malua Bay and the Point. For this reason the Duder family still refer to the rock seventy five years later as 'Gamlen's Rock'. Gamlen was succeeded by another keen fisherman Samuel Bishop who was the principal of Papakura Central School. He often fished from 'Snapper Rock' at the southern end of Malua Bay until the late 1940s. Another keen fisherman throughout this period was Dick Waterhouse whose sister Bessie married Jack Duder in 1929. He fished off the Point in a small flat bottomed punt that was jokingly referred to as the 'Queen Mary'. The bay where he kept his punt had always been called Horseshoe Bay, however from this time it was also referred to as 'Queen Mary Bay'. By the early 1900s Umupuia had become widely known as 'Duder's Beach'. The area was promoted in the Auckland Automobile Association's Trips and Camping Guide' as "a very pretty spot, with good bathing, and plenty of shelter." (A.A.A. 1926 : 23) With the advent of the motor car it became an increasingly popular summer camping spot for the motoring public. Duder's farm also became a popular spot for Boy Scout Camps from this time. The Scouts camped on the flats behind the beach and had the run of the farm. The Peninsula was also an area that was extremely popular with the Auckland boating fraternity in this period. Launches from the Auckland based N.Z Power Boat Association, such as the 'Buffalo Bill', 'Karoro', 'Roma', and the 'Romany Lass" often visited the Wairoa River. They sometimes anchored in the lee of 'Baffle Point', as Whakakaiwhara Point was then generally known. Sometimes crew members went ashore for picnics or to shoot ducks in the area between Duck Bay and Oue Pa. The Wairoa River and the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula were also popular weekend or holiday destinations for Auckland yachtsmen. Three of Auckland's best known yachting and boat building families, the Baileys, Lidgards and Logans, often camped at Malua Bay on

38

EUROPEAN PLACENAMES - WHAKAKAIWHARA PENINSULA The Burma Road Rocks

The Point ffle Point)

Horseshoe Bay (Queen Mary Bay) Canlen's Rock Bailey's Hammock Malua Bay finapper Rock

. The Quarry dmps and Hollows

Bay

Bush G.J.M. 1996 Airforce Road

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

the southern side of the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula between the 1910s and the early 1920s. These camps of up to 50 people lasted for several weeks in summer and they took place with the permission of Willie Duder whose mother Jannet was related to the Baileys. While memories of these camps have faded, there is one enduring reminder of them in the form of two poplar trees growing several metres apart behind Malua Bay. During a summer camp in the 1910s a member of the Bailey family drove two poplar stakes into the ground behind the beach to support his hammock. They subsequently grew into two very large trees which are still referred to as 'Bailey's Hammock'.

The two poplar trees at Malua Bay that are known as 'Bailey's Hammock' The bay used for these summer camps was traditionally known as Te Wharau', although it has been known to the Duder family as 'Malua Bay' for over a century. It takes its name from the 'Malua' which was one of the best known yachts in Auckland's early racing fleet. The 'Malua' was a yacht of 7 tons displacement that was built by Charles Bailey Senior in Auckland in 1885 and owned by a Mr. Bindon. On the morning of December 28 1887 it was discovered that the 'Malua' had been stolen from its Auckland moorings, and to the great consternation of the Auckland yachting fraternity had simply disappeared. The police and the boating public, alarmed by a spate of waterfront thefts, mounted a determined search. The Auckland Customs launch 'Rita' and the tug 'Awhina', manned with a contingent of armed police, undertook a wide ranging but unsuccessful search of the Hauraki Gulf. A reward of 50 pounds was then posted and on January 2 1888 the 'MaJua' was found, "high and dry near Baffle Point, with sails unbent and a quantity of her gear thrown in

40

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

the water." (N.Z. Yachtsman Vol. IV: 342) A week later three young 'oyster and fishing boys' known as the 'Waitemata Pirates' were arrested on information received from an Albert Street barber. They were sentenced to between three and five years in prison. "This struck terror into the hearts of the thieves , and for many years after there were no water-front thefts." (Ibid.) The small bay where the stolen yacht was beached is still known as 'Malua Bay' over a century later. The late 1920s saw the onset of the economic depression which was to last until the mid 1930s. It was to be a time of economic hardship for the Duder family with little development taking place on the farm. Several important changes did however occur in the district and within the Duder family itself. Electricity arrived at Duder's Beach in 1930, and 1931 saw the completion of the Maraetai Coast Road. This road was built by the unemployed using shovels and wheelbarrows as part of a Government 'Scheme 5* project. Its completion greatly improved transport links with Auckland, and brought to an end the shipping services which had served the district for 80 years. In 1929 Willie and Gert Duder's eldest sons Steve and Jack both married local women. Steve married Vera Hyde a member of one of Clevedon's oldest settler families. They settled on the 44 acre property that had been purchased by Willie Duder from Issac Ward in January 1919. Their home was the small weatherboard cottage that had been built in c. 1870 for the Ngai Tai chief Hori Te Whetuki. Steve Duder milked a small pedigree Friesian herd on this block, which he named 'Waitiro' (Seaview), until 1934 when he gave up farming on medical advice. He then became the Auckland agent for Gordon Vacuum Break milking machines for several years. Following this Steve worked for a long period for a local builder Thomas Murray until he left the district to work at Middlemore Hospital. Jack Duder married Elizabeth (Bessie) Waterhouse of Ardmore. They settled in a cottage that was built for them to the west of the main homestead and Jack continued to work the main property with his father. During the Depression the main farm was not generating sufficient income to support all of the family. Molly continued to look after the home with her mother until she married Alfred Blundell and settled on a farm in North Road Clevedon in 1939. Fred Duder was forced to look for work elsewhere. He was able to secure a job at the Clevedon Post Office, although this meant a long bike ride there and back each day. In 1936 Fred married Madge Hyde, the sister of his brother's wife Vera, and they settled on the 'Waitiro' Block which was purchased from Steve Duder. After the death of John Duder in 1934, title to the 600 acre Whakakaiwhara Block was transferred to Willie Duder who had been farming the property in his own right for thirty years. This year also saw an important development with the purchase of a 'Gordon Vacuum Break' milking machine supplied by Steve Duder. Its installation meant that milking took far less time and that there was more time for other farm work. The Lister engine driving the machine was also used to drive a water pump installed on the main well beside the shearing shed. The windmill above the well was then relocated on Steve Duder's property on the southern edge of the Block to pump to a reticulated supply.

41

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Few exotics were planted on the Peninsula itself, although William Duder did plant a lone pine tree on the main ridge above the homestead. This tree stood as a landmark for many years until it was struck by lightning in the 1930s. The fallen trunk of the tree still lies nearby, over 120 years after it was planted. The pine was subsequently replaced by another planted by Willie Duder and his grandsons Ian and John in 1936. This malformed tree was removed in 1976.

Says EVERY COWS
'Tit be much, happier, more contented and comfortable, and I will give you greater returns" IF YOU MILK ME WITH THE

GORDON

VACUUM

BREAK MILKING MACHINE
Extract* of letter* received from satisfied users: "Without hesitation T cnn say tt lias f.731l>. of tat In 300 dnys. Tills season solvcci the Hairy Fanners' greatest she Is shaping tor an even higher problem." record. BO your machines arc Having tlie udders," "Mlflr two fonsons I can fay wllli no Injurious cITcct onfeatures of tlio shiniTlfy. the mure 1 MFC II Hie foctl^r "Olio or tlin tnnln It.v.u: nn our h«rtl is—we never tiso 1 line II." n ]ng rope anil It has entirely banished "Jty inp cow. o Pertlgren Jersey, did nil liddcr trouble!) of any description." Erery inanliliii; sold wltli i\ 3 Months' Gu»riinl«e or satisfaction or money refunded.

GORDON VACUUM BREAK MILKERS LTD.
"TUB 'PACK-TO-KATUnF.' MILKING MACHINE." 38 fltberl. St., AUCKLAND. P.O. Box 1687. Phone 41-247.

When Willie Duder turned sixty in 1937 his son Jack Duder took over the management of the main farm including the Peninsula. Fred Duder continued to farm 'Waitiro' which was extended in size when his father gifted him an additional 44 acres. In 1938 Jack Duder began the long process of developing the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula. With help from a local Maori Peter Paul he built a coast to coast fence between Sandy Bay and Duck Bay, thus subdividing the Peninsula into two blocks. This was the beginning of a development programme that was to continue for over thirty years under the management of Jack Duder and later his son Ian. It involved the subdivision of the Block into twenty two paddocks, the ploughing and discing of all but the steepest parts of the property, pasture improvement and the application of fertilizer, reading improvement, the construction of water supply dams, and the construction of three hay bams. The development of the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula had only just begun when it was interrupted by the outbreak of World War II in 1939. Both Jack and Fred were to remain working their properties as essential workers, although the six years of war were to have a major impact on their lives and on the Whakakaiwhara Block. During World War n Fred and Jack Duder served in the local unit of the Home Guard which was formed after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour in December 1941. In addition to their farm work they carried out occasional patrols and built gun pits and tank traps on the North Road.

42

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

As Duder's Beach was seen as a likely landing place for an invading force, Jack Duder was issued with a Tommy Gun and 2000 rounds of ammunition. His and all of the local families also maintained a supply of tinned food and other essentials in readiness for an immediate evacuation in the event of a Japanese attack.

Wairoa Survey March 1941. Note the coast to coast fence across the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula and the two windmills in use on the flats. The Armed Forces were to have a direct and ongoing impact on the area. At one time several thousand men from the Second Echelon arrived at Duder's Beach without warning and established a camp behind the beach. They had been training at Papakura Army Camp, and after final leave were waiting to disembark for overseas service. They and later units held training exercises in the area. On one occasion they terrified Mrs. Bessie Duder and her fishing companion Mrs. Ngeungeu Zister by firing their rifles into the vicinity in which the two women were fishing. On another occasion well remembered by the Duder family, a Vickers machine gun was set up at night on the Maraetai Road and fired across the Bay at a target erected at Sandy Bay. Then without warning the RNZAF No. 1 Airfield Construction Unit arrived on the Duder property in May 1942. They announced that under wartime regulations, a seaplane base

43

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

was to be constructed in the bay immediately inside Whakakaiwhara Point, and that two fighter airstrips were to be constructed on the flats. These installations were stated to be vital components of Nation's defences against the Japanese attack which was seen as imminent after the Fall of Singapore on February 15 1942. The seaplane base was to be an underground facility with a concrete entrance ramp extending along the entire bay. The installation was also to include several water supply dams, and a number of gun emplacements were to be built on the Peninsula. The Construction Unit of about 35 men immediately set about establishing a camp in the area that is now the entrance to the Regional Park. They erected approximately a dozen wooden framed tents as accommodation, and constructed a large Cookhouse - Mess building. The Unit then set about constructing a metalled access road from the North Road, along what is now the Regional Park access road to Duck Bay, and on around the coast to the site of the proposed seaplane base. Work began on what became known as the 'Air Force Road' in the winter of 1942. The Unit's three bulldozers, tracked loader and trucks, became hopelessly bogged down in the mud behind Duck Bay. After nearly a years work the road had been constructed only as far as the Quarry site located just beyond Duck Bay. It had been metalled only as far as the First Gully gate using metal from a quarry on the Burgoyne property in North Road, Clevedon. As the tide of the War turned, the seaplane base was no longer a priority and the project was abandoned without notice. In 1944 the Air Force again arrived on the Duder property without warning and announced that they intended to build a rocket range to be used for training purposes by the two Ranger Fighter Squadrons based at Ardmore. Most of the structures for this range were constructed on what is now Bill Duder's farm that adjoins the southern side of the Park access road, or out on the tidal flats. These structures included a line of wooden flight markers, a concreted and sandbagged observation post, and rocket and machine gun targets set up beyond the coastal shell bank. In the Park itself a Control Tower was constructed on the slopes above the 'Pit Paddock'. The activities of the Ranger Squadrons were disruptive to farming as the training exercises were held without warning. The sound of the lowflying Corsair aircraft, and the firing of their eight 2 inch rockets and 5 m.m. machine guns were exciting for the children at the Clevedon North School. However the noise frightened stock and made it particularly difficult to operate the working horse teams that were then still in use. The activities of the Construction Unit were also disruptive to the smooth running of the farm, but they did bring some long term benefits. There was now an all weather access road from North Road out to the northern end of Duck Bay. At the request of Willie Duder the Air Force bulldozers had also cut access tracks off this road. The formation of these new farm roads created better access to the Second Ridge and Gully paddocks, and also via the 'Burma Road' to the Point. At the end of the War the roading work undertaken by the Air Force was assessed as part of the compensation that was negotiated with the Government. It was also agreed that Willie Duder could retain the Cookhouse - Messroom as a farm building. Jack Duder modified

44

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

the kitchen area for use as an implement shed and the messroom was utilised for hay storage. This building remained in use until it was demolished in 1970 after its malthoid roof disintegrated. The Regional Park entrance road is still referred to as the 'Air Force Road' and the paddock it passes through is known as 'Cookhouse Paddock' as a reminder of those troubled times. In March 1946 Willie Duder subdivided the Whakakaiwhara Block into two farm units for the first time. The subdivision was a formalisation of the leases that had been held by Jack and Fred Duder since 1939-40. Lot 6 of 523 acres including the Peninsula was now leased to Jack Duder, while Lot 7 of 115 acres lying at the southern end of the Block was leased to Fred Duder who farmed it in conjunction with his original 'Waitiro' property. At the time of this subdivision Willie Duder also cut off four beach front sections at Duder's Beach to ensure that all of his children could retain an association with the family farm and the beach. Jack Duder's allotment included the cottage that had been built for him and his wife Bessie in 1929, while his brothers and sisters had to build their own beach homes. Steve Duder retired to his beach allotment which he occupied for 25 years until he moved to Dunedin to live with his son Bruce. His property was later sold to Manukau City. Fred Duder still retains his beach cottage, while Molly Blundell's section has now been a Manukau City Reserve and Carpark for fifteen years. Title to all of these allotments, including the main farm, was transferred in July 1954 following William Duder's death in 1953. During World War JJ Jack Duder resumed the development of what is now the Regional Park. In 1943-44 the top of Second Gully was ploughed and disced, and a fence was constructed along the main ridge and east to Malua Bay. Then in 1945-46 'Herb's Paddock' above the western end of Malua Bay.was ploughed and stumped. This paddock took its name from Herb Porteous who constructed a holiday bach in the south eastern corner of the paddock around 1950. He had camped on the property with his wife Ray during weekends from the late 1940s and had originally stayed in an army hut sited behind Duck Bay. The development of 'Herb's Paddock' was a major undertaking using a single furrow plough pulled by a two horse team. Because of the difficulty posed by the number of puriri roots and stumps that were encountered, only two furrows could be ploughed on the most difficult days. Discing was done both with the horse team and the newly acquired Farmhall H tractor. Pasture improvement in this paddock followed a pattern that was typical of that used in the development of the Peninsula. After it had been cultivated, the paddock was fertilised using blood and bone and super, and then planted in a fodder crop. In this case 'Herb's Paddock' was planted in swedes, carrots, cabbages and peas. A bumper crop was produced, with the largest swedes weighing up to 52 Ibs. After vegetables had been collected by the Duder family and given out around the district, the crop was break fed to wethers using netting. The paddock was then sown in permanent pasture using 40 pounds of seed per acre.

45

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

The seed mixture favoured by Jack Duder featured Italian Short rotation, HI rye and white clover and subterranean clover. The rye varieties cross pollinated and came to be recognised as an excellent drought resistant strain for dry coastal hill country. The 'South Point Paddock' was then developed using .a similar process in 1947, as were the 'Sandy Bay' and 'Hay' Paddocks in 1948. The fencing programme also continued, with a fence being run from the main ridge to the Yellow Rocks in 1947. In 1948 a fence was run from Second Ridge back to The Quinces' Paddock, and The Point' was fenced off.

The holiday bach built in 'Herb's Paddock in c. 1950 by Herb Porteous In 1949 Ian Duder left school and joined his brother John and his father Jack on the farm. At this time his youngest brothers Bill and Richard were still at school. John left the farm soon after to work for a Friesian breeder at Taupiri and then went sharemilking on various properties until he settled on his own farm in the Dargaville area. Ian Duder's first job on leaving school was to build a fence from the 'House Paddock' along the top of the First Ridge to the Air Force Road. This fence was built using heavy puriri posts that had been railed to Papakura from Okaihau. They were the first wooden fence posts that had been used on the farm for some time as they had been impossible to procure during the war years. A feature of the fencing programme on the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula 1938-1947, had been the use of reinforced concrete posts and strainers made by Jack Duder. Initially he made seven posts every Saturday morning on the beach near the house. The posts were made in home made wooden moulds using sand from the beach and shingle collected from the northern side of the Peninsula in a 12 ft. dinghy. The moulds were later shifted to the cowshed and a batch of posts were made after milking every evening. Some concrete posts were also poured in situ where internal fences ended on the coastline and

46

PADDOCK NAMES - WHAKAKAIWHARA PENINSULA North Point
Dred ge

,

Green Hill Yellow Rocks

Water Tank The Totaras

South Point

he Airstrip

second Cully bond Ridge

first Cully End of Hill Cookhouse

Paddock

C.J.M. 1996

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

the problem of preventing stock from getting around the end of the fences at low tide had to be overcome. The original coast to coast fence built in 1938 had incorporated puriri posts running down the beach to beyond the low tide mark. Several of these posts can still be seen at the top of the beach at Sandy Bay today nearly sixty years after they were put in. The first good northerly storm had however undermined and destroyed the beach section of the fence soon after it was built. Following that, a dog leg was incorporated at the northern end of the fence so that it ran out onto the rocks at the western end of Sandy Bay. Post holes were excavated into the rock with crowbars and puriri posts were concreted into place. Split kanuka rails were then wired to the puriri posts. The fastenings soon however corroded in the salt water, and sea worm ate the puriri posts off at the base. When the next fence was run out to the northern coastline at the Yellow Rocks, Jack and Ian Duder poured concrete posts on the rock platform out to the lowest tidal mark. Although this fence has been removed these posts can still be seen at low tide. With the advent of tanalised pine posts Ian began building the tidal sections of the coastal fences with treated pine posts concreted into the rock and tanalised 6x2 rails fastened with heavy galvanised bridge spikes. This system worked well, although the posts in the lower tidal area were still being destroyed by sea worm. With the introduction of marine tanalised posts this problem has been largely overcome. By 1950 the Peninsula had been subdivided into six paddocks making stock management a great deal easier than it had been previously. A water supply dam had been constructed by hand at the head of First Gully in 1944 however the lack of stock water in dry periods was to remain-a problem on the Peninsula until the installation of a fully reticulated supply in the 1970s. Access to this part of the farm had been greatly improved as a result of the road work undertaken by the Air Force, although all fencing materials, fertilizer and stock food were still transported by horse and sledge. In 1947 access to the main farm buildings was also greatly improved with the construction of a bridge across the Te Kuiti Stream. For many years the only access across the tidal inlet had been via a 15 inch wide kauri plank located on trestles. Then in the 1930s access was improved slightly when an earth embankment was built out from the southern side of the channel using a shovel and wheelbarrow. A narrow wooden bridge was then constructed over the channel on several stringers. This crossing was still only suitable for foot access, with the cream cans being brought over to the Dairy Factory's cream truck in a wheelbarrow. All material landed on the beach was still sledged up North Road, across the culvert, and through the Maori settlement to get to the farm buildings. In 1947 Jack Duder decided to construct a crossing that would provide permanent access over the Te Kuiti Stream for both trucks and the farm's horse drawn vehicles. The old embankment was extended and widened using clay trucked from cuttings on the Maraetai Coast Road. The foundations and abutments for the bridge were then boxed and poured

48

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

using hand mixed concrete. This work was carried out by Jack himself, although he was assisted by his own and other children who were camping at Duder's Beach during the 1947 Polio Epidemic. Railway lines were then placed across the bridge span and a timber deck was installed. After eighty years the Duder family finally had vehicular access between the house and the farm buildings. Access was further improved in 1970 when Ian Duder installed the present bridge which featured prestressed concrete beams and abutments, and a hand rail.

K.*?<C.V" $fe The Farmall M Tractor and the trailer mounted Gallagher lime spreader above Sandy Bay in 1955. This tractor played an important role in the development of the Peninsula. Richard Duder is to the right of the trailer. (I. Duder) The viability of the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula as a dry stock unit had improved as a result of the development work undertaken by Jack Duder and his sons. As with all marginal hill country farms its viability was however to be dramatically increased in the 1950s with the introduction of aerial topdressing and the subsequent improvement in pasture quality. In 1952 an airstrip was constructed on Fred Duder's property to the south of what is now the Regional Park. Two veteran Tiger Moth aircraft were then used to topdress the Peninsula with superphosphate. Each plane could only carry small loads in what was a slow and messy process that involved a lot of manual loading work. From 1955 purpose built Fletcher topdressing aircraft flew larger loads from an improved strip on the flats. In 1961 the present airstrip was constructed on the ridge immediately to the north east of Duck Bay using a dozer and farm tractors. In 1970 the efficiency of aerial topdressing operations on the Peninsula was further improved when a concrete fertilizer bin was

49

I I I I I I I t I I I I I I I I 1 I I I

constructed at the top of the airstrip. This strip has now been used successfully for 35 years with only one minor mishap. This occurred in 1975 when an Air Truck topdressing aircraft flipped on the airstrip after suffering engine failure over the 'First Ridge*. The aircraft was damaged however the pilot fortunately emerged unscathed. In 1950 a new cowshed was built, and soon after this the first farm building was erected on the Peninsula. It was a hay barn that was constructed above the eastern end of Duck Bay. Until 1958 hay had always been cut on the flats where it was stacked into haycocks and then dragged by a horse team to a mobile bailer which operated throughout the district. From this time however, hay was cut on the Peninsula as the pastures improved as a result of aerial topdressing. Hay was initially cut in 'Herb's Paddock' and then in the paddock that became known as the 'Hay Paddock'. In order to store this hay a second bam was built at the top of the 'Burma Road' out to the Point; and in 1965 a third barn was constructed at 'the Kowhais' beside the 'Hay Paddock'. Pasture improvement also continued in this period with the 'Fern Paddock' above Malua Bay being dozer disced and resown in 1958. Then in 1959 the top part of the 'North Point Paddock'was disced and the lower part was ploughed. The bulldozing work was parried out by a local contractor Ernie Keene who was from an old Beachlands farming family. In 1958 a brief description of the Whakakaiwhara Block was included in G. A. Tail's "Farms and Stations of New Zealand." In this account Jack Duder's 540 acre farm was referred to as 'Moata'. This name, which refers to 'the dawn,' was adopted by Jack Duder as the registered herd name for his pedigree Friesian stud and it came to be applied to the farm. 'Moata' was noted as carrying, "40 pedigree Friesian cows plus young stock and 60 Aberdeen Angus beef cattle, as well as 1000 Romney ewes and 250 ewe hoggets." (Tait 1958: 281) Wool continued to provide the single most important source of income for the farm. The flock was now mainly shorn by Ian Duder using the present three stand Cooper Stewart plant which replaced the old Lister shearing plant in 1958. Fat lambs and older ewes were sold directly to Hellaby's Westfield Freezing Works. In the early 1950s the cattle were brought in as yearlings and sold as rising three year olds to the Westfield Works. Then from the mid 1950s until the 1970s a herd of 60 Aberdeen Angus cows were crossed with a Hereford bull and the progeny were sold as yearlings at the Opaheke Sale. Jack Duder's pedigree Friesian herd was built up in part from Fred Duder's 'Waitiro' stud which contained some of the highest producing Friesians in New Zealand. In the main however the 'Moata' stud was developed using heifers and bulls purchased from the 'Mahoe' stud in the Manawatu. In the early 1950s cream was still separated on the farm and sold to the old Clevedon Dairy Factory, and then from around 1958 whole milk was picked up by tanker by the East Tamaki Dairy Co-op Factory. In 1960 Jack Duder began to plan for his retirement and for the future of his children. John the eldest as stated earlier was working elsewhere and Margaret Duder had married in 1955 and left home. Ian had married Mary Jones of Clevedon in 1954 and had been working fulltime on the farm for a decade. Bill had married in 1958 and was working as a motor mechanic in Clevedon, and Richard who had recently left school was helping on

50

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

the farm. In 1962-63 Jack Duder cut the farm into three units which were purchased by his sons Ian, Richard and Bill. The homestead area was cut off and made part of a 370 acre sheep and beef unit which was taken up by Ian Duder and his wife Mary. Jack Duder had purchased the 66 acre Maraetai Nol North Block from James Bell in 1960, thus enabling him to subdivide the flats into two adjoining 110 acre dairy units. The northern block which retained the name of 'Moata' was taken up by Richard Duder and the southern block was taken up by Bill Duder. On Fred Duder's retirement the 'Waitiro' property was taken over by his son Brian.

The Duder farm in 1958. At the far left is the Duder homestead 'Rozel' and in the right foreground is the cottage built in 1929 for Jack and Bessie Duder. On the skyline is the pine tree planted by Willie Duder and his grandsons Ian and John in 1936. Thus the former Whakakaiwhara Block, and the adjoining blocks that had been purchased subsequently, were now being fanned as four separate farm units. The area that makes up the Regional Park was now being fanned as a separate unit for the first time. Ian Duder was to spend the next thirty two years of his life working singlehandedly to develop the property into one of the highest producing coastal hill country units in the district. With two mortgages and a young family Ian and Mary faced a daunting task in making the farm a viable business success. A vital contribution was made by Mary who returned to teaching for twenty years until 1984. In the early 1960s the cultivation of the Peninsula was completed. The 'Green Hills', the lower 'Totaras,' and part of the 'House' Paddocks were ploughed and disced in 1960-61.

51

I

I I I i I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I

The 'Airstrip' Paddock was then ploughed and partly disced in 1962. In the 1960s and 1970s the productivity of the farm increased as part of a nation wide process that has been referred to as the 'Grasslands Revolution.' This was the result of aerial topdressing, the introduction of more effective weed control methods and the Rabbit Board's shooting programme. The Peninsula's improved pasture was now more effectively utilised as rotational grazing was introduced and further fencing was carried out. In 1963 a little clifftop paddock was cut off below the Hay Paddock. It was named the 'Dredge Paddock' after the hulk of the old Me Callum Bros, shingle dredge that had sunk off the northern coast of the Peninsula in c. 1938.

'v:

'.V..»«: •,'•* Vf'-KV-x . ..*"-' .t*t.~f%l

Jack and Bessie Duder and their children photographed at a Duder family reunion held in 1980. Standing from left: Richard Duder, Bill Duder, Ian Duder and John Duder. Sitting from left: Bessie Duder, Jack Duder and Margaret Pallister (nee Duder). (I. Duder) In 1968 the Point was subdivided into the 'North Point' and 'South Point' Paddocks, .thus completing the fencing programme that Jack Duder had begun on the Peninsula thirty years earlier. The carrying capacity of the property had increased in 1955 when a dam was constructed in the Tern Paddock' by Newbury Bros, of Clevedon. It was then dramatically improved in 1970 when a reticulated water supply system was introduced. Water was pumped to a tank located on the ridge near the Trig from a new bore sunk near the Woolshed by a local contractor Les Carl. From the tank it was gravity fed to troughs located all over the Peninsula, meaning that stock water was available in all paddocks throughout the year. A feature of the management of the Peninsula in this period was the planting of exotic woodlots to control erosion and to provide timber for the farm, as well as the fencing of

52

1 I I I I I I I I t I 1 t I t I 1 I I I

indigenous forest remnants. Jack Duder had planted several small pinus radiata woodlots in 1949 in scrubland above the coast east of Duck Bay and also near Sandy Bay. Ian Duder continued the policy established by his great grandfather William of preserving the stands of indigenous forest on the property. This included the 'Big Bush' which is located above the western end of Duck Bay. This outstanding coastal tawa forest remnant, which includes a particularly large kauri, had been preserved from timber extraction by the Duder family since 1866. The 'Big Bush' was ring fenced by Ian Duder in 1969, at which time a macrocarpa woodlot was planted on its eastern edge above the 'Air Force Road.'. In 1975 Ian Duder planted a small stand of pines to the north east of the old farm quarry. They were planted to provide timber for farm use, and have been thinned for posts and strainers. In the 1980s several woodlots were planted with the assistance of a fencing subsidy from the ARA Regional Water Board as part of a NWASCA scheme. They included poplars which were planted on the western slopes of the erosion prone 'First Ridge' and in 'Second Gully'; and a woodlot of Tasmanian Blackwood planted between 'Green Hill' and the 'South Point Paddock'. While these trees were.planted primarily for erosion control purposes, the fencing of the latter area ensured the preservation of another fine stand of kauri forest. Coastal pohutukawa have also been carefully preserved by the Duder family over the years, although they have suffered some serious damage as a result of fires left by uninvited visitors and campers. On the death of Jack Duder in 1982 the title to Allotment 6 was formally transferred to Ian Duder using the company name of Umupuia Farms Ltd. By this time development work had been completed on the Peninsula and farm production was at peak capacity. A flock of around 1500 Romney sheep was carried including 1100 ewes, 480 hoggets and 15 rams. Major improvements in lambing percentages had been achieved by Ian Duder. He had also achieved a significant improvement in the quality, consistency and weight of the wool clip which was still the single most important source of farm income. These improvements came about through keeping all twin ewe lambs and through the use of more open faced and easy care rams purchased from Masterton, Wellsford, and finally from Rex Alexander's Auckland Romney Development Group central flock at Puni. In the 1980s farm production on the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula was very high for a coastal hill country block of its type. Lambing percentages had stabilised at between 105 and 112 per cent, while an average of 60 kgs of wool per ha. and 200 kg of meat per ha. were being produced. At this time the property carried around 130 cattle including 65 breeding cows with a calving percentage generally in excess of 90%. 1987 was the most productive year in the property's history. That year the farm carried 143 cattle and 1695 sheep with a lambing percentage of 112 per cent and a wool clip of 11096 kgs. In spite of achieving this high level of production the fanning of the block became increasingly difficult. Real income from the farm declined in this period as a result of low meat and wool prices, increasing local body rates, high interest rates and the removal of government subsidies. In 1988 Cyclone Bola struck the property causing some major slipping in 'First Gully' and necessitating the removal of the old row of pines on the foreshore near the homestead.

53

I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I 1 I 1

From the 1970s Ian and Mary Duder had begun to receive offers from developers to purchase the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula which was now viewed as being prime coastal real estate in close proximity to Auckland. Their son Rob had completed University and wanted to take up farming in his own right, so the sale of the farm had to be seriously considered. Ian and Mary were not however prepared to consider offers which involved the subdivision of the property or the compromising of its environmental values. The stewardship of the land which had been in the family for so long always remained uppermost in their minds.

Ian and Mary Duder photographed in front of 'Rozel'in 1980. (I. Duder) In 1975 the ARA Regional Parks Division briefly investigated the possibility of acquiring the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula for regional parks purposes. The idea was however rejected by the ARA Regional Parks Committee on the grounds that the beaches were not suitable and that there was no suitable area for a carpark. A decade later Wilkins & Davies Ltd. approached the Ian and Mary Duder with a proposal to construct a marina at Duck Bay. A feasibility study for the project, including survey and test drilling work

I I I

54

I I I I I 1 I I I I I I t I I I I I I I

was undertaken, however the project was dropped following the New Zealand sharemarket crash of 1987. Ian Duder continued to farm the property into the 1990s on his own, although he reduced sheep numbers and increased the number of beef cattle as he neared retirement. In 1990 Ian and Mary Duder hosted a Duder family reunion at 'Rozel'. It was held for three days over Easter to celebrate the 150 th anniversary of Thomas Duder's arrival in New Zealand and the sesquicentennial of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. Two hundred and fifty members of the Duder family attended, and a plaque was erected on a large stone in front of 'Rozel' to commemorate the Duder family's association with the Whakakaiwhara Block. In 1994 Ian and Mary Duder once again considered the future of the property. It was not placed on the open market but was offered to the Auckland Regional Council as had been done twenty years earlier. At the urging of the Regional Parks Committee Chairman Mike Lee, the ARC Regional Parks Service once again investigated the possibility of acquiring the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula as a regional park. The purchase was negotiated in early 1994 and was approved by the ARC Regional Parks Committee in September 1994. Ian and Mary Duder agreed to the sale of the property to the ARC as it would allow the special values of the Peninsula to be retained for the benefit of future generations. The ARC took over management of the 148.2 ha. property on March 1 1995. Ian and Mary Duder retained the area around 'Rozel' the home mat has been an important focal point for the descendants of Thomas and Margaret Duder for one and a half centuries.

55

I I I I I I I I I t t I t I I I 1 I I I

APPENDIX I Maori Placenames Umupuia This name literally means the 'steaming earth oven'. The name is associated with fighting among the subtribal groups of Uri o Pou in the mid 1700s and the origin of the hapu known as 'Ngati Kohua'. (R.N. Zister 1987) The name 'Umupuia1 traditionally applied to a specific area located to the north of the present day Ngai Tai urupa located two kilometres to the west of the regional park. It later came to apply to the pa and kainga established there by Ngai Tai in the late 1830s, and to the beach that is often referred to today as 'Duder's Beach'.

TeKuiti
This name applies to the steam which rises on the south eastern slopes of the hill known as Pukekawa, and flows north east and enters the sea on the north western edge of the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula. 'Te Kuiti' literally means 'the narrowing or confinement'. It has its origin in the narrow and confined nature of the tidal reaches of the Te Kuiti Stream. The name was also applied to the Ngai Tai settlement that was located on the sandy flats behind the eastern end of Umupuia Beach. Waiapu This is the traditional name for the bay on the northern side of the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula that is generally referred to today as 'Sandy Bay'. It takes its name from the 'expansive* nature of the bay. Oturia This is the traditional name for the hill that is referred to today as 'The Trig1. The name takes its origin from the fact the this hill is a 'prominent and upstanding' vantage point, and the 'highest1 point on the Peninsula. Wharewhanake This is the traditional name for the area generally referred to today as The Totaras'. It was an old seasonal occupation site named from the 'whare' or traditional Maori houses thatched with the coarse leaves of the 'whanake' variety of the cabbage tree. Te Kauere This is the traditional name for the small bay located immediately north east of Sandy Bay. The name is thought to apply to a 'puriri tree' which was a landmark in the vicinity. Te Kakaka This name traditionally applied to the area of coastline known generally referred to as The Yellow Rocks'. 'Kakaka' is thought to apply to the 'brownish' colour of the rocks and beach gravel in this area.

56

I I I I I I I I I I I I t I I I I I I I

Rauporoa This is the traditional name for the small stream and gully located on the northern side of the Peninsula to the west of the Point. The name originates from the tract of 'tall raupo' which once grew in this gully. Tokamai This is the traditional name for the bay located on the northern side of the Peninsula immediately west of the Point itself. The name originates from the 'landing place formed by the flat rock platform' found in this area. Huna a Tane This is the traditional name for an unlocated spot in the vicinity of Whakakaiwhara Point itself. It was the name for the karaka tree planted by Tane Whakatia a crew member of the Tainui canoe which called at Whakakaiwhara Point in the fourteenth century. The tree was said to have grown out of a rock fissure, and to have still been in existence in the mid nineteenth century. The name simply means the 'tree of (or planted by) Tane'. Whakakaiwhara As explained in the text of this history the name 'Whakakaiwhara' originated when the Tainui canoe visited the Peninsula in the fourteenth century. The crew of the Tainui went ashore on the southern side of the Point and ate a meal harvested from the fruits of the luxuriant coastal forest that then clothed the land. From this action came the traditional name 'Whaka-kai-whara' which literally means 'the act of eating the edible bracts of the kiekie vine' and other edible plants. The name Whakakaiwhara applies specifically to the Point and generally to the entire Peninsula. It was the name given to the entire 600 acre (243 ha.) Maori land block which Thomas Duder purchased from the Ngai Tai chief Hori Te Whetuki in 1866. The Regional Park includes a 148.2 ha. portion of the original Whakakaiwhara Block. Tararahi This is the traditional name for the hillock which stands immediately inland of Whakakaiwhara Pa. The name literally means the 'prominent pointed peak'. Te Tauranga o Tainui This is the traditional name for the large bay located on the southern side of Whakakaiwhara Point. It means'the anchoring place of the Tainui canoe'. It was in this bay that the Tainui canoe sought shelter and anchored during a storm in the fourteenth century. Te Wharau This is the traditional name for the bay that is generally referred to today as 'Malua Bay'. The narrow flat behind the beach was used until the 1850s as a seasonal occupation site by Ngai Tai while they were fishing and gathering shellfish in the area. Here they erected temporary shelters, hence the name 'Te Wharau' or the 'temporary shelter*.

57

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Waipokaia This is the traditional name for what is today generally referred to as 'Duck Bay'. The origin of the name lies both in the flocks of birds that traditionally inhabited the bay and in the practice of burying the dead in the vicinity. (R.N. Zister 1987)

Mawherawhera
This is the traditional name for the 'extensive flats' that lie on the south western edge of the regional park. There was a Ngai Tai settlement of this name located to the west of Te Oue Pa near what is now the North Road.

TeOue
This is the name of the large Ngai Tai Pa located on the south eastern edge of the Whakakaiwhara Block. The name is said to have originated from 'oue' which a very special variety of flax known as 'oue'. It was used to weave garments for the rangatira of the tribe and was symbolic of chiefly mana or prestige. (R.N. Zister 1987)

58

t I I I I I I t I I I I t t I I I I I I

APPENDIX II European Placenames (Compiled from information provided by Ian and Fred Duder, April 1996) Duder's Beach This is the European name for Umupuia Beach. It is named after the Duder family who have lived at the eastern end of the beach since 1866. The name came into common usage from the early 1900s. Rozel This is the name given to the Duder family homestead constructed in 1890 by Messrs Evans and Davis. The house was named after Jannett Duder's childhood home of 'Rozel1 located at Fort George on the island of Guernsey. Snapper Bay This is the little bay located just east of the Te Kuiti Stream mouth. It was a favourite snapper fishing spot for the Duder family from the nineteenth century. The Totaras This name applies to a grove of totara trees growing in a gully located between Snapper Bay and Sandy Bay. Its traditional name is Wharewhanake. Sandy Bay This bay is located just to the east of the Te Kuiti Stream on the northern side of the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula. It takes its name from the fact that it is one of the few bays on the Peninsula that has a Sandy Beach. Its traditional Maori name is 'Waiapu'. The Trig This is the high point and trig station located on the main ridge inland of Sandy Bay. At 85 metres the Trig' is the highest point on the Peninsula. It has been used as a survey point since 1865. Its traditional Maori name is Oturia. The Yellow Rocks This group of rocks is located on the foreshore on the northern side of the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula approximately one kilometre west of Whakakaiwhara Point. They take their name from the distinctive yellow colour of the rocks. The traditional Maori name is Te Kakaka. The Kowhais This place name applies to the grove of mature kowhai trees growing beside the hay shed at the eastern end of the 'Hay Paddock'.

Green mil
This is the name of the hill located to the east of the Hay Paddock. Its name originates from the fact that its green pasture and bush forms a prominent landmark when viewed from the south.

59

I I I I I I I I I I I I t I I I I I I I

The Point This is simply the common European name for Whakakaiwhara Point. Baffle Point This is the oldest European name for Whakakaiwhara Point. The name comes from the fact that the Point acts like a baffle in providing shelter from northerly winds for boats anchoring on the southern side of the Peninsula. Wind conditions around the Wairoa River mouth are heavily influenced by the Peninsula. The Burma Road This name applies to the steep section of farm road extending from the hill above the 'Fern Paddock' to the hay shed to the west of the Point. It was built by Air Force bulldozers in 1942. It takes its name from the 'Burma Road' in South East Asia that was in the news at the time it was constructed. Horseshoe Bay This small bay is located 500 metres to the south west of the Point on the southern side of the Peninsula. Its name originates from the fact that it is shaped like a horseshoe. It is also known as Queen Mary Bay. Queen Mary Bay This is another name for Horseshoe Bay that was used by the Duder family from the 1930s. In this period Dick Waterhouse the brother in law of Jack Duder kept a small flat bottomed punt in this bay for fishing. This punt was jokingly referred to as the 'Queen Mary' and the bay where it was kept became known as 'Queen Mary Bay'. Gamlen's Rock This is a small rock located on the foreshore 100 metres west of the southern end of Horseshoe Bay. It takes its name from a Mr. Gamlen. He was a keen fisherman who fished from this rock on a regular basis in the early 1900s. Malua Bay This bay is located on the southern side of the Peninsula midway between Duck Bay and the Point. It takes its name from the yacht 'Malua' which was stolen from its moorings in Auckland in December 1887 and abandoned on the beach at Malua Bay. Bailey's Hammock This name applies to the two large poplar trees growing beside the beach at Malua Bay. They grew from two poplar poles driven into the ground in the 1910s by a member of Bailey family who were well known boatbuilders and yachtsmen. The poles were erected to support a hammock and the two trees that grew from them became known as 'Bailey's Hammock.' Snapper Rock This name applies to the rocky reef which is located at the southern end of Malua Bay. It was a favourite spot from which to fish for snapper hence its name 'Snapper Rock'.

60

I I I I I I I I I I I I t I I I I I I I

The Quarry This quarry is located just to the north east of Duck Bay at the eastern end of the road constructed by the Air Force in 1942. The quarry was opened by the Duder family in the early 1950s to provide metal for use on the farm. Duck Bay This large bay is located on the south western edge of the Whakakaiwhara Peninsula. It takes its name from the ducks which were always found in profusion on its foreshore and adjoining swampy flats. Its traditional Maori name is Waipokaia. Humps and Hollows This area lies inland of Duck Bay on the southern side of the Peninsula. These swampy flats were first drained in the late nineteenth century. The name 'humps and hollows' refers to the drainage system installed in the paddock by Brian Duder using a tractor and grader blade in c. 1960. The Big Bush This is the outstanding coastal tawa forest remnant that is located to the west of Duck Bay. It has a canopy of tawa, taraire, puriri and karaka, and contains a very large kauri. It has a mid tier of mahoe, hangehange, kohekohe, karaka, ponga and mamaku over a ground cover of ferns and saplings. It was identified as a Recommended Area for Protection as the best and only example of its vegetation type in the Hunua Ecological District in 1989. The 'Big Bush* has been preserved throughout the Duder family's stewardship of the land and has been ring fenced since 1969. The Air Force Road This is the road constructed by the Air Force between the North Road in 1942. It is now the main access road to the regional park.

61

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

APPENDIX III Paddock Names (Compiled from information supplied by Ian Duder.) The Quinces Paddock This small paddock is located to the east of the former cowshed. It takes its name from the quince trees located on its western edge. They are remnants of the orchard planted by William and Jannett Duder in the 1870s. House Paddock This is a small holding paddock located across the Te Kuiti Stream from the Homestead and to the north east of the Quinces Paddock. It was partly ploughed and disced in the early 1960s.

The Holes Paddock
This is the steep paddock located on the western side of the First Ridge immediately south of the House Paddock. It takes its name from the 'tomos' or sinkholes which occur in the paddock. The Totaras Paddock This paddock is located on the northern coastline of the Peninsula between the headland above the eastern side of the Te Kuiti Stream mouth and the Trig. It takes its name from the grove of mature totara trees located on a natural terrace in the middle of the paddock. The lower portion of this paddock was ploughed and disced in 1960-61. The Water Tank Paddock This paddock is located between the eastern edge of House Paddock and the coast to coast fence erected in 1938. It takes its name from the Water Tank erected on its highest point when a reticulated water supply was installed in 1970. End of Hill Paddock This is the large paddock located on the southern end of the First Ridge. First Gully Paddock This paddock is located in the first gully to the east of the First Ridge. Second Ridge Paddock This paddock is located on the second north-south running ridge on the Peninsula. It is located north of Duck Bay on the eastern side of First Gully, and to the south of the Watertank Paddock. It was ploughed by local Maori in the 1890s. Sandy Bay Paddock This large north facing paddock lies inland of the sandy bay from which it takes its name. The lower part of it was ploughed in 1948.

62

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Second Gully Paddock This large, steep paddock lies to the east of the Second Ridge. The top of this paddock was ploughed and disced in 1943-44. Airstrip Paddock This large paddock lies to the north east of Duck Bay. It takes its name from the airstrip developed within it for aerial topdressing in 1961. Herb's Paddock This large paddock is to the north of the Airstrip Paddock and to the west of Malua Bay. It was ploughed and stumped in 1945-46. It takes its name from the fact that Herb Porteous built a holiday bach in the south eastern comer of the paddock around 1950. Green Hill Paddock This paddock lies to the east of the Hay Paddock on the high point known as Green Hill. The Hay Paddock This paddock is a relatively small north facing paddock of easy contour. It is located to the east of the Sandy Bay Paddock and to the north west of Green Hill. It was ploughed in 1948. This paddock has been the main hay paddock on die farm since 1960. The Dredge Paddock This small paddock is located on the northern coastline of the Peninsula to the north of the hay paddock. It was fenced in 1963. It takes its name from the Me Callum Bros, shingle dredge which sank off this part of the coast while under tow to the breakers yard in c. 1938. The Yellow Rocks Paddock This steep paddock is located on the northern coast of the Peninsula between the Dredge Paddock and the North Point Paddock. It takes its name from the distinctive yellow rocks located on the foreshore. The Fern Paddock This relatively steep paddock lies inland and to the north of Malua Bay. It was dozer disced in 1958. It takes its name from the bracken fern which grew in the paddock before it was developed. North Point Paddock This paddock is located on the northern side of the Point. The lower part of the paddock was ploughed and the upper part disced in 1959. It was fenced off from the South Point Paddock in 1968. South Point Paddock This paddock is located on the southern side of the Point. It was ploughed in 1947 and fenced off from the North Point Paddock in 1968.

63

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

The Pit Paddock This small paddock is located immediately to the east of the present car park at the eastern end of Cookhouse Paddock. It takes its name from the ensilage pit that was located in the paddock. The Cow Paddock This small flat paddock is located to the south of the Pit Paddock on the southern edge of the regional park. Being low lying and having a high water table it provided an excellent summer paddock for the Duder family dairy herd in the early days. Thus it became known as the Cow Paddock. Cookhouse Paddock This is the small narrow paddock through which the park entrance road (Air Force Road) runs. It takes its name from the Cookhouse constructed beside the Air Force Road by the Construction Squadron in 1942.

64

1 I I I I I I

APPENDIX IV History of Land Ownership of the Whakakaiwhara Block 600 acres (243 ha.) as related to that land which now makes up the Regional Park. November 18 1865 - The block was surveyed by D.L. Duffus at the request of Hori Te Whetuki on behalf of Ngai Tai. March 7 1866 - Ownership of the Whakakaiwhara Block was investigated by the Native Land Court at Thames by Judge Mackay. April 121866 - A Crown Grant to the Block was awarded by Sir George Grey K.C.B. to Hori Te Whetuki. July 16 1866 - The Whakakaiwhara Block was sold to Thomas Duder for 422 pounds. June 241875 - Transfer of Title from Thomas Duder to William Thomas Duder. November 1906 - Following the accidental death of William Thomas Duder on September 5 1906 Trustees to his estate (including the Whakakaiwhara Block)were appointed. They included: Jannett Duder, Archibald McNicol, Gertrude Isabella Duder and Thomas John Duder. April 231934 - Gertrude Isabella Duder became the sole trustee for the estate of William Thomas Duder and the title to the Whakakaiwhara Block was transferred to Willie (William Thomas) Duder. March .6 1946 - Willie Duder subdivided the Whakakaiwhara Block into Lot 6 of 523 acres and Lot 7 of 115 acres. Four beach front sections each of 0.1.0 acres were also surveyed off. (The Regional Park comprises part of Lot 6) July 5 1954 - Title to Lot 6 (523 acres) was transferred to Jack Duder. June 29 1882 - Title to Lot 6 was transferred to Umupuia Farms Ltd. October 3 1995 - Title was transferred to The Auckland Regional Council.

I I
• ^

I I I I I I I

The Maraetai No.l North Block The access road to the regional park is located on part of the Maraetai No. 1 North Block (66ac.3r.8p.) It was originally part of the Maraetai Block to which title had been awarded by the Native Land Court to Hori Te Whetuki, Te Watene Makuru, Manihera Maxwell and Honatana Te Irirangi on behalf of Ngai Tai. The Maraetai Block was partitioned on June 12 1893. Title to Maraetai No.l was awarded to Riria Te Whetuki, Harata Te Whetuki, Rawiri Te Ua, Te Wana Te Ua, Te Arani Henare, Hera Henare and Te Okihi Henare.

65

I
• August 1905 - Maraetai No. 1 was partitioned into five blocks. August 4 1915 - A Partition Order to the Maraetai No. 1 North Block was awarded to Pare and Hauwhenua Kirkwood. January 11 1916 - The Maraetai No. 1 North Block was sold to Fred Collins. December 12 1919 - Title was transferred to Alexander Bell and Cunningham Atchison. | • August 18 1943 - Title was transferred to James Bell. August 9 1960 - Title was transferred to Jack Duder. June 29 1982 - Title was transferred to Umupuia Farms Ltd. • October 3 1995 - Title was transferred to The Auckland Regional Council.

I
g

I I I I I I I I I I I

I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

BIBLIOGRAPHY Published Sources Aitchison M. Clevedon Presbyterian Church 1858 -1958, 1958 Ashby E. Phantom Fleet: the scows andscowmen of Auckland 1975 Auckland Automobile Association Trips and Camping Spots Around Auckland 1926 Barber L. New Zealand • A Short History 1989 Campbell J.L. Poenamu 1881 Campbell M.V. All Souls Church Clevedon, New Zealand 1861-1961, 1961 Cyclopaedia of New Zealand Vol n Auckland Provincial District 1902 Cowan J. The New Zealand Wars Vol I 1955 Duder H. The Duders ofDevonport in the Auckland-Waikato Historical Journal No. 20 April 1972 Drummond A. (ed) The Auckland Journals ofVicesimus Lush 1850-1843, 1971 Evans B.L. A History of Agricultural Production and Marketing in New Zealand 1969 Featon J. The Waikato War 1923 Harsant W.J. Excavations at Oue Pa, N43/35, South Auckland in Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum : 18 Kelly L. Tainui - The Story ofHoturoa and his descendants 1949 Laxon W. Steamers Down The Firth 1966 Lennard M. The Road to War, the Great South Road 1862-1864, 1986 Me Lauchlan G. The Farming of New Zealand - an illustrated history of New Zealand Agriculture 1981 Makiwhara A. Te Tuhi a Manawatere in G. Graham J.P.S Vol. 30 Makiwhara A. Te Heke o Nga Tokotoru in G.Graham J.P.S. Vol. 31 Maraetai School Committee The Magic ofMardetai - A History ofMaraetai School and District 1981 Munro C.C. Clevedon (late Wairoa South) Centennial 1852-1952, 1952 Murdoch G.J. Historical Perspectives on the Lower Waikato and the Wairoa Valley 1988 Murdoch G.J. A Brief History of the Human Occupation of the Hunua CatchmentParkland (ARC Regional Parks Service) 1993 Orange C. The Treaty ofWaitangi 1987 Philson M. The Duder Family in New Zealand 1990 Rodgers L. (ed) The Early Journals of Henry Williams, New Zealand 1826-1840, 1961 Sexton R. H.M. S. Buffalo 1984 Tait G.A. (ed) Farms and Stations of New Zealand Vol. II 1958 Taua Te W. in La Roche A. The History ofHowick and Pakuranga 1991 Taua Te W. Tainui Garden of Memories 1991 The New Zealand Yachtsman (magazine) various 1909-1918 The Weekly News (newspaper) May 27 1865, March 30 1867 Tonson A.E. OldManukau 1966 Turton H.H. Maori Deeds of Old Private Purchases in New Zealand 1815-1840, 1882 Tyrrell M. et al Hunua Ecological District - Survey Prepared for the PNAP 1996 White J. The Ancient History of the Maori Vol. V 1888 Young A. The excavation of an undefended settlement at S11/108, Clevedon 1992

67

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Unpublished Sources ARC Regional Parks Service Files (various) ARC Regional Parks Service Archaeological Sites • Umupuia Regional Park 1995 Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, Sheep Records 1891-1930 Church Missionary Society Records Mission Books 7 & 11 (microfilm AUL) Deeds Registers, Certificates of Title, Deposited Plans, (various) Land Registry Auckland Duder B. An Interview with W.T. Duder, undated manuscript (held by Ian Duder) Duder W.T. Day Book 1875-1906 (a manuscript held by Ian Duder) Fairburn E. Maharatanga - Reminiscences 1901 NZMS 91 APL Hilton M. Mapping Whakakaiwhara Pa 1979 (typescript held by Ian Duder) Kidd H. Computer Records - re the Wairoa River and the yachts 'Malua'and 'Lillian' Lawlor I.T. Archaeological Survey of Umupuia Regional Park September 1995 Murdoch G. J. Cultural Influences on the Ecology of the Hunua Ecological District 1992 Murdoch G. J. Mrtes of Interviews with Ian and Fred Duder 1996 Native Land Court Minute Books Hauraki 1 (Whakakaiwhara) & 6 (Maraetai), Auckland 4, (Maraetai Partition) New Zealand Meat and Wool Board Sheep & Beef Farm Survey 1982-1993 (I. Duder) Puna H. Historical Notes of some famous War canoes of the Hauraki Tribes 1905 (translated by G. Graham, Ms. 120 M 13, AI & M Library Old Land Claim Files 589 - 590 Fairburn's Claim , DOSLI Auckland Maps Maori Land Plans - Maraetai Block 1534,7794,10817,12939,14754,14452, 14586, 14625, Whakakaiwhara Block 123, Papepape Block 127 DOSLI NZMS 1:25000 Series, Wairoa 1943 Survey Ordinance Plans - 30672,43995,45852,47030,47851 DOSLI Survey Plan A515 Sketch of the River Thames New Zealand 1821 (Copy) Survey Plan of A Piece of Land Reserved for the Natives by Gov. FitzRoy at Maraetai (copy held by Ian Duder)

68

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful