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Elemental Geosystems, 5e (Christopherson) Chapter 13 The Oceans, Coastal Processes, and Landforms

1) Approximately what percentage of the population of the United States lives in a coastal area? A) 1/20

1/!

")

1/2

#)

2/$

Answer%

" 2) &he present ocean salinity on 'arth was achieved approximately A) one million years ago( ) one )illion years ago( ") two )illion years ago( #) since the last ice age( Answer%

$) *hich of the following cannot )e considered an efflux of material from the ocean water? A) sediment deposition )

runoff ") formation of silicate compounds #) sin+ing of s+eletal remains Answer%

!) After water itself, what are the primary elements that occur in sea water? A) chlorine and sodium ) potassium and chlorine ") hydrogen and sodium #) sodium and magnesium Answer% A -) &he average salinity of sea water may )e expressed as A) $(- percent, or $- parts per thousand( ) $-,000 parts per million( ") $- grams per +ilogram( #) All of these are correct( ') .one of these is correct as stated(

Answer% # /) rac+ish water would most li+ely occur A) in the su)tropics( ) in the 0editerranean region( ") in a tropical lagoon( #) in a deltaic swamp( Answer% #

1) &he fact that the mixing 2one in the ocean constitutes a 33333333 percentage of the total ocean volume means that wastes dumped into the ocean will )e 33333333 diluted( A) large4 5uic+ly ) large4 slowly ") small4 5uic+ly #) small4 slowly Answer% # 6) *hich of the following is true of the ocean deep 2one? A) &emperatures remain approximately ! degrees " 7$8 degrees 9) within most of this layer( ) &he water in this 2one does not free2e )ecause of the intense pressure exerted )y the weight of overlying water( ") &he water in this 2one does not free2e )ecause of its salinity( #) All of these are true( Answer% # 8) &he littoral 2one extends inland to A) the foreshore dune( ) the )ac+shore dune(

") the trough )etween the primary and secondary dune( #) the highest water line that occurs during a storm( Answer% # 10) &he coast extends inland A) to the foreshore dune( ) to the )ac+shore dune( ") to the trough )etween the primary and secondary dune( #) to the highest water line that occurs during a storm( ') from the high tide level to the first ma:or landform change( Answer% ' 11) &he coastal environment is considered to extend seaward A) usually to depths of /0 m 7200 ft), where storm waves can no longer move sediments( ) only to the contact point )etween the sea and the land, i(e(, the shoreline( ") out to as far as you can see the )ottom( #) into the )rea+ers( Answer%

A 12) *hich of the following is true regarding mean sea level? A) A consistent value has yet to )e determined due to all the varia)les involved in producing the tides( ) ;t is at the same level along the entire .orth American coast( ") ;t is calculated )ased on average tidal levels recorded hourly at a given site over a period of many years( #) &he sea level along the <ulf "oast is the lowest for the coasts of the lower !6 states( Answer% " 1$) *hich of the following is incorrectly matched? A) rising tides flood tides ) e)) tides falling tides ") spring tides high tides only #) spring tides maximum tidal range Answer% " 1!) *hich of the following is not true of tides? A) &hey are produced solely )y the gravitational pull of the Sun( )

&hey are complex daily oscillations in sea level( ") &hey are influenced )y the si2e, depth, and topography of ocean )asins( #) &hey are influenced )y shoreline configuration and latitude( Answer% A 1-) *hich of the following occurs when the Sun, 0oon, and 'arth are in alignment 7i(e(, in opposition or con:unction)? A) maximum tidal ranges occur ) neap tides occur ") a lower tidal range occurs #) .one of thesethis type of alignment does not happen in nature( Answer% A 1/) =egular patterns of smooth, rounded waves are called A) )rea+ers(

wave ripples( ") wave trains( #) swells(

Answer%

# 11) #angerous >sleeper waves> result from A) earth5ua+es( ) volcanic eruptions( ") su)marine landslides( #) constructive, in?phase interference( Answer% # 16) *hich of the following is true of waves that travel in wave trains? A) &hey are produced )y storm centers and generating regions far distant from the shore where they may )rea+( ) &hey usually form relatively close to the affected coastline( ") &hey experience refraction )y the deep seafloor( #) &hey are called )rea+ers as they travel in the open sea( Answer% A 18) ;n deep water, a wave is not really migrating )ut is transferring energy through the water in simple cyclic undulations( &hese are called A) waves of translation( )

swells( ") waves of transition( #) tidal waves( Answer% "

20) *aves in shallow water that >feel )ottom> are 33333333 and more 33333333 spaced than the swell they are related to( A) taller4 closely ) taller4 widely ") smaller4 closely #) smaller4 widely Answer% A 21) As a wave approaches the shoreline and enters shallower water, energy and water move forward causing the water to rise and cascade down from the wave crest as a )rea+er( &hese waves are called A) waves of translation( ) swells( ") waves of transition( #) tidal waves( Answer% A 22) *ave action wor+s to straighten a coast as wave energy focuses around headlands and tends to disperse energy in coves and )ays in a process called A) longshore current( )

)rea+ers( ") wave refraction( #) tidal )ore( Answer% " 2$) A sea stac+ 7i(e(, an isolated pillar of roc+ located offshore) is the erosional remnant of a A) volcanic nec+( ) spit( ") tom)olo( #) roc+y headland( Answer% # 2!) A longshore current involves all of the following except A) effective wind direction( ) effective wave direction( ") waves of transition( #) transportation of large amounts of sand and coastal materials( Answer% "

2-) @articles of sand, gravels, and shells that move along the shore form the A) )rea+ers(

longshore current( ") )each drift( #) translation effects( Answer% "

2/) *hen people go surfing or swimming along a coast, they often find after spending time in the waterthat they are no longer in the area in which they first entered the water( ;n other words, they find that they have moved downshore, even though they did not deli)erately move in that direction( &his occurs )ecause of A) tsunamis(

)each drift( ") longshore currents( #) tidal currents( Answer% " 21) An earth5ua+e, su)marine landslide, or eruption of an undersea volcano is capa)le of producing a A) tsunami(

tidal wave(

")

slow?moving giant swell( #) wave in the open ocean of great height( Answer% A 26) *hich of the following is not true of tsunamis? A) &hey can travel at a speed of several hundred miles per hour( )

&hey have very long wavelengths in the open ocean( ") &hey are very tall in the open ocean( #) &hey slow down as they approach shore( Answer% " 28) Several years ago, a movie was made a)out a cruise ship that was overturned )y a tsunami while at sea( &his plot is not valid )ecause A) tsunamis do not have the energy to overturn a ship of that si2e( ) tsunamis do not occur in the open ocean( ") tsunamis do not form high waves while in the open ocean( #) All of these are true( Answer% " $0) &he height of a tsunami grows as it approaches a coastline primarily )ecause A) its energy level increases( ) its wavelength shortens( ") the height of the surf is added to the height of the tsunami( #) .one of the a)ove are truethe height of a tsunami remains constant from the time of its origin( Answer%

$1) *hich of the following is not true of the #ecem)er 200! tsunami? A) &he earth5ua+e that triggered it involved 1$(1 m 7!- ft) of uplift( ) 'arthAs rotation was slowed )y $ milliseconds( ") *ave heights in the open ocean were 11($ m 72! ft)( #) 'nergy from the waves travelled around the world several times( Answer% " $2) *hich of the following is true of worldwide sea level? A) Bver the long term, levels have )een very constant( ) "hanges in sea level are usually unrelated to tectonic processes( ") "hanges seem to occur without any relation to glo)al average temperatures( #) ;t was a)out 1$0 m 7!$0 ft) lower 16,000 Answer% # $$) <iven present glo)al warming trends and predicted climate change for the next century, sea level is estimated to rise A) )etween 11 cm and 66 cm 7!($ in to $!(/ in)( ) (@(, and a)out 10 cm lower 100 years or so ago(

in an amount unrelated to the temperature of the ocean( ") more than $0 m 7100 ft)( #) in a way that will not threaten coastal inha)itants( Answer% A $!) *hich of the following would not )e found along a tectonically active shoreline? A) sea stac+s ) terraces ") )arrier islands #) cliffs Answer% " $-) *hich of the following is not an example of an erosional coastal landform? A) sea arch ) tom)olo ") wave?cut platform #) notched cliff Answer%

$/) A terrace is A) an uplifted sea stac+( ) an uplifted wave?cut platform( ") an erosional surface created )y a massive tsunami( #) an uplifted foreshore dune( Answer%

$1) *hich of the following is not an example of a depositional coastal landform? A) wave?)uilt terrace ) )arrier spit

")

)ay )arrier

#)

wave?cut platform Answer% # $6) Sand that extends from a coast into open water is called a A) )arrier island( ) lagoon(

")

)arrier spit( #) tom)olo(

Answer%

" $8) <enerally spea+ing, >)eaches> span the 2one A) )etween high and low spring tides( ) from several feet a)ove high tide to several feet )elow low tide( ") )etween high and low neap tides( #) from the high tide line during a spring tide to the low tide line during a neap tide( Answer%

!0) ;n order to preserve their )eaches, cities located along a coast will often )uild groins that protrude into the sea( *hat is the result of this process? A) Sediment is deposited on the side of the groin facing into the current, and this results in deposition in the desired location( ) 0ore sediment is made availa)le to areas downshore, so they also )enefit from this engineering process( ") Cess sediment is availa)le to areas downshore, so their )eaches )egin to erode( #) )oth A and ') )oth A and " Answer% ' !1) Duman intervention along a coastline intended to interrupt )each drift can include all of the following except A) tom)olo placement( ) :etty(

")

)rea+water( #) protected har)or entrance( Answer% A !2) *hich of the following conditions is not conducive to the formation of )arrier islands? A)

tectonically active coasts ) sediment supply from rivers ") low tidal range #) presence of continental shelf Answer% A !$) &he most extensive chain of )arrier islands in the world is along A) the western coast of Australia( ) the coasts that surround the periphery of the ;ndian Bcean( ") the Atlantic and <ulf coasts of .orth America( #) the coast of "alifornia, Bregon, *ashington, and Answer% " !!) arrier islands ma+e 33333333 sites for real estate development )ecause 33333333( A) good4 they provide excellent scenery ) good4 they are made of roc+ and are 5uite sta)le ") poor4 they are unsta)le and often mo)ile #) poor4 they can )e overrun )y storm surges ritish "olum)ia(

') )oth " and # Answer% ' !-) arrier )eaches and islands occur worldwide, lying offshore of nearly 33333333 of 'arthAs coastlines( A) 10 percent

-0 percent

")

10 percent

#)

80 percent Answer% A

!/) &he @acific =im can )e characteri2ed as A) a place of em)ayments( ) )eing dominated )y estuaries( ") )eing dominated )y )arrier islands( #) tectonically active and emerging( Answer% # !1) "oral formations A) tend to occur poleward of $0E latitude( ) survive in a )road ecological range )ecause they are tolerant of temperature, salinity, and depth variation( ") re5uire water that is high in sediment concentration( #) are made of animals living sym)iotically with simple algae( Answer% # !6) ecause the algae that live in sym)iotic relationship with coral perform 33333333, corals 33333333( A) chemosynthesis4 must live in water that is penetrated )y light ) chemosynthesis4 can live at virtually any depth in the sea ")

photosynthesis4 must live in water that is penetrated )y light #) photosynthesis4 can live at virtually any depth in the sea Answer% " !8) An atoll is approximately 33333333 in shape )ecause it forms 33333333( A) circular4 around seastac+s ) circular4 around su)merged volcanic islands ") linear4 along )arrier islands #) linear4 along continental shorelines Answer%

-0) "oral )leaching refers to A) the +illing of coral formations )y chlorine )leach pollution( ) the replacement of normal, colored algae )y white algae( ") the loss of algae from the coral( #) All of the a)ove are included within the definition of coral )leaching( Answer% " -1) "oral )leaching may result from

A) pollution(

disease(

")

glo)al warming( #) sedimentation( ') all of these Answer% ' -2) *hich of the following is false regarding coral )leaching? A) y the end of 2000 $0 percent of reefs were lost( ) ;t is only occurring in the southern hemisphere( ") ;t may )e caused )y glo)al warming( #) ;t may )e caused )y local pollution and sedimentation( Answer%

-$) As regards wetlands, which of the following is correctly matched? A) salt marsh )etween the e5uator and the $0th parallel in )oth hemispheres ) salt marsh poleward of the $0th parallel in either hemisphere ") mangrove swamps poleward of the $0th parallel in either hemisphere #) salt marshes low productivity due to the salinity Answer%

-!) &he geographic )oundary )etween salt marshes and mangrove swamps is determined )y A) tectonic activity( ) salinity( ") the occurrence of free2ing conditions( #) precipitation levels( Answer% " --) "ape Datteras is an example of A) a )arrier island( ) the ;nner an+s( ")

a type of )rea+water( #) a sta)le landform that is a good site for development( Answer%

-/) &he sinuous, )ranching channels that characteri2e a salt marsh result from A) spawning )eds made )y fish( ) storm trac+s( ") manmade drainage canals( #) the e)) and flow of tides( Answer% # -1) *hich of the following areas along a coast is most tolerant of construction? A) )each ) primary dune ") secondary dune #) )ac+ dune Answer% # -6) Approximately two thirds 7// percent) of the worldAs population lives in or near a coastal region(

Answer% &rue

9alse -8) *ater can )e considered a >universal> solvent( Answer%

&rue 9alse /0) &he salinity of seawater averages $(- percent, or $- parts per thousand( Answer%

&rue 9alse /1) Although many elements are dissolved in seawater, no gases are dissolved in it( Answer% &rue

9alse /2) &he coastal environment is also +nown as the littoral 2one( Answer%

&rue 9alse /$) #etermining mean sea level re5uires measurement of tidal levels hourly for at least a period of several years( Answer%

&rue 9alse /!) A wave in the open ocean consists of water molecules traveling in the direction of wave propagation( Answer% &rue

9alse /-) @lunging )rea+ers develop where the )ottom profile of the coast is steep( Answer%

&rue 9alse //) Deadlands are the location of diverging wave action, whereas )ays receive converging wave action( Answer% &rue

9alse /1) &sunamis generated )y earth5ua+es can form giant waves while traveling in the open ocean( Answer% &rue

9alse /6) A tom)olo cuts off a portion of the ocean along a coast, forming a lagoon( Answer% &rue

9alse /8) A mere one foot rise in sea level along the shores of .orth America could cost hundreds of )illions of dollars in damages( Answer%

&rue 9alse 10) A )each acts to sta)ili2e a shoreline )y a)sor)ing wave energy, even though materials are in almost constant motion( Answer%

&rue 9alse 11) A single groin can produce )oth sand erosion and deposition( Answer%

&rue 9alse 12) arrier islands are sta)le islands that are suita)le for development( Answer% &rue

9alse 1$) *orldwide, corals are healthy and appear not to )e affected )y pollution, changes in surface ultraviolet radiation, or increases in ocean temperatures at this time( Answer% &rue

9alse 1!) "oral )leaching results in the death of corals( Answer%

&rue 9alse 1-) &he )arrier islands off the Couisiana shore have )een growing at fast rates in recent decades( Answer% &rue

9alse 1/) Seawater is a solution, and the concentration of dissolved solids in it is referred to as its 33333333( &he term 33333333 is applied to water that exceeds the average of $- percent, whereas 33333333 is the term used to descri)e water that is less than $- percent( Answer% salinity4 )rine4 )rac+ish