Rubble Trench Foundation

Team Rubblution
Annie Bartholomew Nathan Braun Curran Hamilton Chris Wells
Introduction to Design Engr. 215 Spring 2010

Table of Contents .............................................................................................................................ii Table of Figures ................................................................................................................................v Tables .............................................................................................................................................. 1 1. Problem Formulation .............................................................................................................. 2 1.1. 1.2. 2. 2.1. 2.2. 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.3. 2.3.1. 2.3.2. 2.3.3. 2.3.4. 2.3.5. 2.3.6. 2.3.7. 2.3.8. 2.3.9. Introduction .............................................................................................................. 2 Objective Statement................................................................................................. 2 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 3 Problem Analysis ...................................................................................................... 3 Specifications............................................................................................................ 3 Considerations .......................................................................................................... 3 Criteria & Constraints ............................................................................................... 3 Literature Review ..................................................................................................... 4 Overview of Haiti ...................................................................................................... 4 Economic Demographics .......................................................................................... 4 Geography, Erosion, and Landslides ........................................................................ 4 Earthquake effects ................................................................................................... 5 Landslide/Erosion Prevention and Protection ......................................................... 5 Gabion Basket........................................................................................................... 5 Gravity Walls............................................................................................................. 6 Live, Mixed, and Inert Construction ......................................................................... 7 Gabion Mattress ....................................................................................................... 8

Table of Contents

Problem Analysis & Literature Review ................................................................................... 3

2.3.10. Retaining walls.......................................................................................................... 8 2.3.11. Structures: Commercial/Non-Commercial ............................................................... 8 2.3.12. Green Gabion ........................................................................................................... 9 2.3.13. Recycled Rubble as a Coarse Aggregate................................................................... 9 3. Alternative Solutions............................................................................................................. 11 ii

3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.3.1. 3.3.2. 3.3.3. 3.3.4. 3.3.5. 3.3.6. 3.3.7. 3.3.8. 3.3.9.

Introduction ............................................................................................................ 11 Brainstorming ......................................................................................................... 11 Alternate Solutions: ................................................................................................ 11 Recycled Concrete as a Material to Rebuild Haiti .................................................. 11 Build Your House upon Rocks................................................................................. 12 Highway to Haiti ..................................................................................................... 13 Living Gabion River Bed .......................................................................................... 13 A Series of Tubes .................................................................................................... 14 Ditching Rain Water ............................................................................................... 15 Gravity Walls........................................................................................................... 15 Gabion Foundations ............................................................................................... 16 Rubble Sandwich .................................................................................................... 17

3.3.10. Water Walls ............................................................................................................ 17 4. Decision Section .................................................................................................................... 19 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. 4.5. 5. 5.1. 5.2. 5.2.1. 5.2.2. 5.3. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 19 Criteria .................................................................................................................... 19 Solutions ................................................................................................................. 19 Decision Process ..................................................................................................... 20 Final Decision.......................................................................................................... 22 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 22 Description of Solution ........................................................................................... 22 Trench Dimensions ................................................................................................. 23 Fill Layers and Pipe ................................................................................................. 24 Cost ......................................................................................................................... 25

Specification of Solution ....................................................................................................... 22

5.3.1 Design Cost (hours) ...................................................................................................... 25 5.3.2 Implementation Cost ................................................................................................... 25 5.3.3 Maintenance Cost ........................................................................................................ 26 5.4. Instructions for Implementation ............................................................................ 26 iii | P a g e

....................................................... 31 245 Bags Total ...................................... 31 Bag Dimensions .......... 31 Works Cited ..................................................4..................................................... Concrete Rubble and Drain Pipe ................................................................................................................................................................ 32 iv | P a g e ................. 5.............................................................................1................................................................................................... 27 Bag Weight Calculations ...5................................................................ 27 Results ....................................................5.............

.................S...........................4 Drawing of a Series of Tubes (Braun 2010) ...................................... 27 v ...........................5 Compaction Method ...3 Cross Section of Rubble Trench Foundation.......................... 24 Figure 5........................... 4 Figure 2........ 9 Figure 2.............................................2 Picture of Highway to Haiti (Bartholomew 2010).......................................7 Gabion Foundations (Wells 2010) .. 26 Figure 5...... 14 3.... 8 Figure 2........ CB 2009) ................................................net 2009) .. 16 Figure 3.................................................... 18 Figure 5............................. 6 Figure 2..............5 A mixed gabion wall............................................................................................ 10 Figure 3............................................... 9 Figure 2.....................................................6 A Retaining Wall (Maccaferri 2009) ..............................................1 Black Box Diagram ..............8 'Green Gabions' (Maccaferri 2009) ......................................................................4 Stacking types of gravity walls ...... 17 Figure 3.............................................................................................................. 24 Figure 5............ 7 Figure 2.8 Rubble Sandwich (Wells 2010) ...................................3 A gravity wall used to support a steep hill.......................................................................... Department of Transportation..............................................................................6 Water Drainage ......................... 13 Figure 3.......9 Water Walls (Wells 2010) .......Table of Figures Figure 1...........................................................S......................................................... 25 Figure 5....................................................2 CAD drawing of solution and placement of PVC pipe ....................... 16 Figure 3...................................7 Gabion Buildings (GabionBaskets...4: Design Hours .................1 Map of Haiti ....................................................................................................................................5 Ditching Rain Water (Bartholomew 2010).....................................................................................................6 Drawing of rubble gravity wall (Braun 2010) .............. 15 Figure 3........................... 14 3........................ (Qiaoshi Gabion Factory) ....2 Picture of Effected Earthquake Area (U........................... 23 Figure 5............................................ 7 Figure 2...... 2007) .................9 Rough Aggregate in Concrete (U.................1 Drawing of rubble trench foundation (Bartholomew 2010) .......................................1 Rubble Trench Foundtion .. 13 Figure 3........................... 2 Figure 2....3 Drawing of Living Gabion River Bed (Braun 2010)................................ 5 Figure 2...............................................

............................7 Cross Section of tested trench ....Figure 5............ 27 Figure 5...... 28 vi | P a g e ..............................................8 Humangineers soil-bag relief structure with two different size heights .............

.... 22 Table 5......................1 Materials and Costs ............................2 Measurements and Settling Calculations ............... 28 1|Page ......................................... 25 Table 5......................................................1 Completed Delphi Method Table ...........................................................................................Tables Table 4..............................................2 Pugh Method Decision Table ................................. 21 Table 4.............

Figure 1.1.2. as well as the world after the design solution. Black Box Output: Haiti has a definitive solution that uses the rubble and local labor to create secure foundation systems that can be used to rebuild Haiti.1 Black Box Diagram 2|Page . The Black Box Model in Figure 1. Problem Formulation 1. 1. Objective Statement The objective of this project is to design a solution for the massive rubble problem created by the January earthquake in Haiti.1. Input: Haiti devastated with huge amounts of unused rubble in the streets that blocks the progress of humanitarian workers and rescue personal.1 will help define the problem and the world before the design solution. and to turn that rubble into a resource that can be used to aid Haiti. Introduction The purpose of Section One of the design process is to create an objective statement. which will provide definition to the project and allow the design team to come to a design solution.

the problem becomes more tangible and allows the team to research possible solutions in the Literature Review section. Interaction between soil conditions and weight distribution is essential in determining design choices. By defining the criteria for which the solution must be created. hurricane. by clearing and using as much rubble as possible from the streets of Haiti. geography. and Gabion Baskets. which are then refined by the team members. Criteria & Constraints The criteria & constraints that define the project can be read here. 2. retaining walls.2. Criteria • • • • • • Safety Cost Level of Labor Creation Ease of Assembly Ease of Mass Production Use of local materials • • • • • • Constraint Must be earthquake.2. and landslide resistant Product must be inexpensive in design. The design must also be durable. Considerations Supply and location of the rubble is pertinent to the transport of the design. Specifications The design must incorporate rubble from Haiti as a main building material. 2. Problem Analysis 2.2.2. building with rubble. 2. Problem Analysis & Literature Review 2. Introduction The purpose of the Problem Analysis section and Literature Review section is to define the criteria and constraints set by the client. and assembly Must utilize Haitian Labor Force Must be able to be reproduced by unskilled laborers Product must be able to be produced on a large scale Utilize as much local material as possible 3|Page .1.2.1. including information pertaining to demographics. The literature review covers all the topics that pertained to the project. production.3.2.

Overview of Haiti Haiti is a nation on the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean Sea. Economic Demographics The Economic Demographics section gives details on the economic demographics of Haiti. Haiti covers 10.1. Haiti has 355 square miles (920 km2) of irrigated land (CIA 2009). One of the primary goals of World Shelters is to employ as many Haitians as possible as stated by the client. and 80% of the population is below the poverty line. and $1.3. Haiti experiences occasional flooding. inadequate supplies of potable water.4% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is allotted to education. (U.3. Literature Review 2. earthquakes.714 square miles (27..3. Soil erosion is the cause of soil degradation which leads to reduced agricultural productivity including 4|Page . World Shelters. The deforestation of the island allows the rain water runoff to cause flash flooding which in turn causes more erosion. Some of the natural hazards are enhanced by heavy deforestation.1 and had a population of nine million as of 2009. 50% of the population is literate.3. Agriculture is 28% of GDP and includes 66% of the Haiti labor force.S. Figure 2.2. The topography of Haiti is mostly hilly and mountainous. and Landslides The geography of Haiti is diverse and can be credited for erosion and many landslides. and 1. which is among many reasons that Haiti cannot support its own population with agriculture (CIA 2009).2. and heavy soil erosion (CIA 2009).6 billion every year. 2. More than 2/3 of the population doesn’t hold an official job.300 per capita. and the recent earthquake has worsened the economy and the living conditions of Haitians (CIA 2009). 47% of the population lives in urban areas. Department of State 2009)(Central Intelligence Agency 2009). The island of Hispaniola is located in the middle of the hurricane belt and is subject to severe storms from June to October. Haiti is an impoverished country.1 Map of Haiti 2. Haiti has a tropical climate except for semiarid mountains in the east. Geography.750 km2) of the western third of the island as seen in Figure 2.643 million or 1/3 of the population.3. In Haiti. Haiti’s GDP is $11. The labor force includes 3. and periodic droughts. Erosion.

(AASHTO 2009) Landslides are a direct result of geological transformation. or damaged leaving much of the population without a stable income.6.S. earthen material in order to be used as ‘building blocks’ for a variety of structures.000 people were killed and 200. Haiti’s transportation network is predominantly unpaved. AID 2010). Landslide/Erosion Prevention and Protection There are many possible solutions used to prevent and protect the people of Haiti from landslides due to hurricanes and earthquakes. (U.5. making roads susceptible to erosion and contributing to the danger of roadway travel in Haiti (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2010).4.fewer nutrients for crops and reduced yield of the harvest (CIA 2009). Landslide prone areas include landscapes with fragile geology. as well as the local economies. and high amounts of precipitation (Marui 1988).8 million Haitians in 37 communes (counties). and internal earth forces are the main components of landslides. Many family providers died in collapsing buildings. Gabion Basket Gabion Baskets are wire baskets that are used to contain heavy materials such as rock and other heavy.S.3. Landslides from erosion were common before the earthquake in January. 2. making walls for future slides. Agency for International Development 2010) Most buildings in the affected areas of Haiti were destroyed. 2. Solutions include reinforcing unstable hillsides. Census Bureau 2009). many businesses were destroyed.2 Picture of Effected Earthquake Area (U. external. and redirecting current water flow.000 injured during the earthquake. leaving families without any source of income (U.3. 2. but more landslides and increased loosening of soil may have been caused by the earthquake (CDCP 2010).S. and how they affected an estimated 3. Department of Civil Protection estimates that approximately 115. The U.S.S. steep topography. CB 2009) Three cities.2 shows the effects of the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Climate. Gabion Baskets are most frequently made from welded steel wire 5|Page . After the earthquake.3. Earthquake effects Figure 2. Figure 2. were affected by the earthquake (U. including Port-au-Prince.

The appropriate construction of a batter. 2. a wall leaning towards the applied force. Gabion Baskets can also be used in the protection of coastlines with the use of timber (Matthews 1913). Gravity walls are typically less expensive than other in situ (underground) walls and provide easier access to high-risk areas.3 A gravity wall used to support a steep hill. Gabion Baskets can be used as retaining walls. or as building’s walls (Maccaferri 2009). The area near the bottom of a slope is referred to as the toe of the landslide.4 shows these stacking types from a side view. or gabions filled with a mixture of rock. A massive wall has more friction and less possibility of moving when the horizontal force of the landslide pushes against it. These different types are bulkhead.A need for a gravity wall arises after a cut has been made to the earth.3. and concrete. structural support for small. Gabion Baskets are also used to protect earth embankments. and laid strait. rock-filled gabion baskets as seen in Figure 2. Most gravity walls are made from concrete. Gravity walls are usually placed near the toe of the landslide as a preventative device leaving room for other practices to be used (Seattle 2010). line rivers. Figure 2. Figure 2. (Zelo. The mass and angle of the wall determines its strength. soil. Gravity Walls can be used for many different conditions such as deep-seated and shallow landslides. These walls are most frequently used where the horizontal force of the landslide is relatively weak. or weakened structures. stepped. a cut that changes the slope of the hill (Paaswell 1920). Gravity Walls Gravity Walls use their own weight and stability to resist the forces put upon by landslides.3. and manage or divert stream flow (Coche 1995).in the shapes of rectangles or hexagons and may come in varying thicknesses (EngNet 2009). 2000) 6|Page . When stacking gravity walls. three different forms of stacking are used. will lower the possibility of overturn or rotation from its original position.7. This type of construction requires qualified contractors to calculate the necessary mass and angle for these types of walls.

2. Mixed Construction Mixed construction includes constructions made with barriers.8. (Qiaoshi Gabion Factory) 2. and Inert Construction When gabions or gravity walls are constructed. and tieback walls (Gray 1996).3.5 shows an example of mixed construction where the plants rooting system is growing into the space between the rocks.5 A mixed gabion wall. Some Inert construction methods are concrete gravity walls.8. The roots reinforce the structure below ground making the slope more stable (Gray 1996). Inert Construction Inert construction consists of using concrete or any other non-living material. Live.3.3. The use of plants in gabion baskets also holds an aesthetic value. three different methods can be used: live construction.8. Mixed. cylinder-pile walls. 2. Soil and bark mulch may be put over the baskets so that willow and cottonwood can grow over them.1. 2. Types of mixed construction are based on how porous the gabion basket is and how much plant mass is being grown. sod. The purpose of living plants is for the roots in the gabion basket to spread into the soil of the hill being detained by the baskets.4 Stacking types of gravity walls 2. mixed construction. Figure 2. Live Construction Live construction consists of using grass seed.Figure 2.8. Figure 2. such as gabion baskets mixed with living plants (Gray 1996).3.3. and inert construction (Gray 1996). or other types of plants to strengthen the soil in a landslide prone area. Native plant species that grow in low quality soil may be used for the baskets in Haiti. 7|Page .

11.62. wider. as seen in Figure 2. gabion mattresses are put on top of these banks to redirect water flow away from landslide prone areas. The filling of dirt bags for these banks could open employment opportunities for the people of Haiti.3. creating problems for roads and other structures in landslide prone areas (DAI 2009). Other methods such as geo-tubes can also be used. Because of the wired frame of the baskets. With Haiti’s geography being mountainous. and thinner than standard gabion baskets. Gabion baskets may be stacked multiple times.9. Gabion baskets could be applied as retaining walls and flood canals. 8|Page . The main difference of the gabion mattress is its dimensions. Gabion Mattress A different form of the gabion basket is the gabion mattress. many rivers flow from the peaks. but using only one bag far larger than the average dirt filled bag. Structures: Commercial/Non-Commercial A primary goal of World Shelters is providing shelter to displaced Haitians.2.62. endangering possible sites of earthquake relief.10. Figure 2. as seen in Figure 2.6 A Retaining Wall (Maccaferri 2009) 2.7. making them a more permanent structure (EngNet 2009). Retaining walls Flooding and landslides may cause loose soil. Gabion mattresses are much longer. to create a reinforced wall with a lifespan of three to five years. Gabion mattresses may be used for help with these problems. metal sheets may be applied as roof tops. gabion baskets could be used as an irrigation canal that could channel runoff into farmlands. A geo-tube is the same idea as dirt bags. protecting the perimeter of Haitian communities and diverting water from flowing into inhabited areas. These walls can be solidified by adding a concrete layer to the outside of the gabion baskets to support the walls. providing a source of flowing water (Maccaferri 2009).3. or areas of relief. By manipulating water flow. With the construction of these banks.3. 2. Dirt can be used to create a river bank for gabion mattress to be put on.6.

Green Gabion Green gabions are similar to wire gabions.3. Recycled Rubble as a Coarse Aggregate Rubble may be recycled and used as a coarse aggregate in new concrete. Figure 2. and presence of organic material in the rubble. with little cement reinforcing the mixture. Figure 2.13. An aggregate in concrete.7 Gabion Buildings (GabionBaskets.12.8 shows how a coconut mat covers the outward-facing side of a gabion. (Fouad. According to World Shelters.8 'Green Gabions' (Maccaferri 2009) 2. The coconut mat contains nutrients for plants to grow on after soil washes over the gabion.Figure 2. Haitian Rubble is mostly comprised of sand. Plants may grow into the mat and enhance structural stability and giving the retaining structure a natural aesthetic quality (Maccaferri 2009).net 2009) 2. strength.3.9. 2007) For rubble to be reused as a coarse aggregate. but also contain PVC piping allowing water drainage and a supplementary coconut mat. it is important that the rubble contains a consistent strength and composition ratio. is the different sizes and compositions of rock that make up a concrete mixture as shown in Figure 2. Some properties that limit the use of rubble as a coarse aggregate include the composition. 9|Page .

cement would be imported from an outside supplier. 10 | P a g e .9 Rough Aggregate in Concrete (U.Figure 2. it would need to be crushed into smaller select pieces. Department of Transportation.S. 2007) For rubble to be used as a coarse aggregate. This may be accomplished by purchasing a mechanical rock crushing device. or by using local labor to sort and crush rubble into usable pieces. For rubble to be used as a coarse aggregate in Haiti.

We came up with twelve specific ideas which were split between the four people in our group. we had a more organized brainstorming session in which we came up with specific ideas that we researched further. alternative solutions.3. • • • • • • • • • • Alternate Solutions: Recycled Concrete Material to Rebuild Haiti Build Your House Upon Rocks Highway to Haiti Living Gabion River Bed A Series of Tubes Ditching Rain Water Gravity Walls Gabion Foundations Rubble Sandwich Water Walls 3. Introduction Section three. The solutions were fine tuned with the criteria and constraints in mind but by not limiting the creativity. We were all together in a new place hoping for new ideas.3.3.1. Before we started the Literature Review we had an unorganized brainstorming session with a web chart. virgin aggregate. water. Alternative Solutions 3. Brainstorming Brainstorming is the process by which we found what ideas we were going to pursue in our project. consists of solutions for our objective statement. We further developed these ideas and met again to share them. multiple ideas were being recorded on a white board. The brainstorming sessions are documented in Appendix A. 3. This first session stimulated our ideas and allowed us to progress further in our project. Later on. before we started the Alternative Solutions section. Recycled Concrete as a Material to Rebuild Haiti Recycled Concrete as a Material to Rebuild Haiti uses rubble in Haiti as a component piece in new concrete that will be used to make new structures for future use in Haiti. and then we complete our research and put this list of solutions together. Multiple different criteria were in mind when considering the solutions. The recycled rubble is broken down into smaller coarse aggregate as well as ground into fine aggregate.2.1. and Portland cement. Rubble concrete has four main components: recycled rubble concrete. The solutions are compiled here and will be given further consideration during the selection process. when brainstorming began. The virgin aggregate is 11 | P a g e . We took a small break then continued with the brainstorming allowing for more solutions to be considered. 3.

money is saved by not having to use as much concrete. The rubble acts as a French Drain System and drains out water that accumulates around the foundation. This project will also provide employment to locals in the jobs of washing and crushing the concrete. The water is readily available in Haiti. The Portland cement will need to be imported. Build Your House upon Rocks Build Your House upon Rocks uses rubble to create a trench foundation that can be used as a foundation for buildings. The rest of the trench is filled with rubble and tamped at ground level.1 shows that on top of the first layer of gravel is placed a continuous 4’’ perforated drain pipe which is sloped to sunlight to allow drainage to the surface. This foundation system uses a trench 1’ deep by 18‘’ wide filled with rubble and capped by an 8‘’ high grade beam with three separate 1 /2 ‘’ continuous rebar for structural support. 3. Figure 3.imported or taken from surrounding environments and consists of crushed stone for coarse aggregate and sand for fine aggregates. Because the trench is filled with rubble instead of concrete. By using rubble with a grade beam instead of a solid cement foundation.2. The Rubble Trench Foundation has several benefits above standard foundation systems. The benefit of using concrete with recycled rubble to build future buildings in Haiti is that this will reduce that amount of concrete rubble currently resting in the streets of Haiti and this idea is less expensive than importing completely new concrete for new buildings. 12 | P a g e . because while Haiti’s water is unclean in many parts this is due to microbes and not corrosive chemicals or solids in the water. Both the recycled and virgin aggregates have the same physical characteristics. The rubble placed in the trench is an average of 1. and mixing and laying the new concrete. Figure 3.5 cubic inches and is made from recycled concrete rubble that has been washed. Coarse aggregates are 3/8” to 3/2” in diameter and fine aggregates pass through a 3/8” sieve. water cannot gather around the foundation. The packed rubble also distributes the weight put on the grade beam as opposed to a concrete foundation where weight is placed on the concrete foundation and not on the ground surrounding it. First the bottom of the trench is tramped (packed down) and then filled with 4‘’ of rubble which is also tramped.3.1 shows the steel reinforced grade beam is cast directly on the rubble foundation.

2 which is then tamped down.1 Drawing of rubble trench foundation (Bartholomew 2010) 3. The end result is a gravel layer that is 10” to 12” thick. If executed correctly the road may last for decades and be safer than standard dirt roads. The gravel stabilizes dirt roadways and reduces erosion of roadways. Rubble crushed to the size of baseballs by Haitians is then placed on the filter fabric to a depth of 4 inches as shown in Figure 3.3. Figure 3. The roadway is first cleared of organic material such as sticks and leaves. One disadvantage is the risk of water gathering on the road and creating pot holes. Every layer of 4 inches of crushed rubble after the first will be smaller.4.3.2 Picture of Highway to Haiti (Bartholomew 2010) 3. Figure 3. Living Gabion River Bed The Living Gabion River Bed uses plant life to increase the quality of gabion baskets used to prevent erosion. Highway to Haiti Highway to Haiti uses the rubble from Haiti to cover unsupported roadways with gravel.Figure 3. down to the size of marbles. each layer will also be tamped.3 shows the Living Gabion River Bed in its 13 | P a g e . Four inches of top soil are removed and a filter fabric is placed on the ground to stop the soil mixing with the gravel.3.

This extra step is the geotube. To divert water. Diverting water requires more steps than simply laying rubble filled gabion mattresses on riverbeds. 3. Haiti gabion mattresses use rubble transported from disaster areas. Figure 3.4 shows the geotube in use with the gabion mattresses. Figure 3. After the new riverbed is in place the gabion mattresses would be applied to the top along with a dirt layer and seedlings allowing growth in the gabions in the same way as explained in the Living Gabion River Bed section. This water could be used to redirect water for irrigation. The growing roots of these plants will give more stability to the gabion mattresses and to the riverbank. Living plants are also incorporated into the mattress after it is filled with the Haitian rubble. A Series of Tubes Like the Living Gabion River Bed.3 Drawing of Living Gabion River Bed (Braun 2010) 3. The gabion mattresses are 2 m by 1 m sub parts with a depth depending on the conditions of the surrounding area. An optional geotextile fabric can be placed under the mattresses on the banks of the river to prevent the leaching (the drain of a substance from its contained area) of soil particles. The main use of gabion mattresses is for protection against erosion against riverbeds.3.implemented form with the optional geotextile. imported from World Shelters is used for gabion mattresses in riverbeds for more flexibility when trying to shape the mattress to Haiti’s existing rivers banks.4 Drawing of a Series of Tubes (Braun 2010) 14 | P a g e . a geotube or dirt filled bags are used to seemingly create a man made riverbed with a geotextile layer over it.5. riverbanks. or wastewater. 3mm in diameter. Wire. as referred to in the Literature Review. drinking. and coastal areas. a series of tubes uses gabion mattresses to divert water.

the forces acting upon the wall need to be detected and measured. it consists of making sure the force of the wall falls in the middle third of the wall’s base. Mixed construction uses different plant species. Gabion trenches are constructed alongside Haiti’s existing roads by using local labor to remove soil. We would construct a wall in areas where landslides would do the most damage. Figure 3. The fill material must be able to endure the effects of water and weathering. Construction would involve a gabion mattress made to easily open for filling of rubble.3.6. four main factors are included. Gabion mattress construction matches the dimensions and materials of the Living Gabion River Bed. 3. By using gabion mattresses alongside Haiti’s roadways.3. construct gabion mattresses. First. The rubble being used in Haiti is not as strong as hard stone so the effectiveness of rubble being used as a retaining wall is in question.5.3. such as off the sides of roads or at the foothills where cities are. The third factor is checking if the sliding resistance of the gravity wall exceeds the active horizontal force of the earth by a suitable safety factor. Second.6 shows a gravity wall with fill material and the mixed construction added. dangerous driving conditions and potholes will be reduced. to grow on top of the rubble to create rooting systems that help keep the gabions connected.7. the possibility of the wall falling or overturning needs to be analyzed. and transport rubble to the site. Using mixed construction methods may increase the rubbles strength and its ability to endure weathering. extra stability could be created with wire crosses inside the gabions or the use of smaller sized sub parts. When building retaining walls with gabions.5 Ditching Rain Water (Bartholomew 2010) 3. Ditching Rain Water Ditching Rain Water decreases water damage to Haiti’s roadways by using gabion filled trenches to remove rain water on Haiti’s roads as shown in Figure 3. Fill material for gravity walls usually contains materials that have high compressive strength and durability making hard stone a qualified fill material. When designing a wall. Gravity Walls The gravity wall uses its own weight to resist the lateral pressures of the earth being retained by the wall. usually species that can grow in low quality soil. 15 | P a g e . the fill material is very important. The final step is only needed when a vertical wall is being built.

Gabion Foundations Because Haiti has a moist environment.6 Drawing of rubble gravity wall (Braun 2010) 3.8.Figure 3. but does not move or destroy the buildings build upon the foundation. To avoid any moving of weaker buildings during a landslide. landslides are a constant hazard.7 Gabion Foundations (Wells 2010) 16 | P a g e . A gabion structure built off of these foundations has a cement layer that is applied after the first tier of baskets is placed marking the wall positions. To address these hazards gabion mattresses will be laid out on a sturdy area and have a thin layer of concrete poured on top of the mattress. gabions are placed on top of the ground rather than in the ground. This allows the water and top soil to collect around the gabions.3. Figure 3.7. as shown in Figure 3. to create a sturdy foundation that can be built upon.

making it difficult for fitting to specific sizes.3. but will be focused in the building of small rooms or structures in Haiti.3. as seen in Figure 3. The Ruble Sandwich can be used in many applications. works to reuse as much water as possible. but minimize the amount of cement used. the Rubble Sandwich. These boards are ideal for moist locations such as Haiti because they are not very absorbent and can have a water-proof coating applied to it to improve resistance. After walls are placed and fixed. 17 | P a g e . building walls. It takes many tools to cut and trim cement boards. to create a continual water supply. where this water collects and can be used.3. Water Walls.8 Rubble Sandwich (Wells 2010) 3. along with a small funnel to catch and redirect water to the ultimate destination. Within a basic gabion basket. or foundations. To avoid water back up.9. Depending on the location the thicknesses and use of the Rubble Sandwich will be determined. The system of pipes meet at one end of the structure at a spout. or reservoir is set by the exit. Rubble Sandwich To thicken walls. Water Walls Because of Haiti’s tropical location and extreme rainfall. This type of water catchment system could be put inside of any gabion structures including retaining walls.9. Figure 3. the interiors are filled with rubble. Cement boards are less reactant to temperature changes and are very durable.10. as shown in Figure 3. The main purpose behind the water walls is to keep moisture out of the gabions avoiding corrosion and providing a water source for Haiti. a small well. A cement ‘plug’ is then poured on top to close the top opening.8 uses two thin cement walls trapping rubble in the space between. making the walls sturdier. a PVC pipe is placed inside during the filling stage.

Figure 3.9 Water Walls (Wells 2010) 18 | P a g e .

Level of Labor Creation: the final design should stimulate economic growth in Haiti. production. The cost of reproducing the final solution in Haiti may amount to more than $350. The solution must be easy to assemble by unskilled laborers. Safety: Due to the geographic location and meteorological activity of Haiti. Criteria In the Literature Review. testing. Using the Delphi and Pugh methods. and landslides as potential safety hazards. criterion was selected and assigned a score based on importance to the client.1. Decision Section 4. the solution must incorporate as much local material as possible. The solution should optimize the use of local labor in order to fulfill this criterion. Solutions There are ten possible alternative solutions under consideration for the final design. employing as many Haitians as possible. and implementation of the final solution. 4. and development. The criteria will be used to score and determine a chosen design solution.2. There is a maximum team cost of $350 for design. 4. The solutions with the highest score advanced in the design process. the ten solutions discussed in Section 3 were given a score based on weighted criteria.3. Detailed information and diagrams of these alternative solutions are located in Section 3. Introduction The purpose of the Decision Section is to collectively decide on one solution for further production. Ease of Mass Production: The solution must be reproduced in different locations across Haiti. Cost: The solution must be inexpensive in design. Ease of Assembly: The solution needs to be easily produced by unskilled laborers in Haiti. earthquakes.4. World Shelters. Ease of assembly is important for employing as many Haitians as possible. Use of Local Materials: Because of shipment costs from outside locations. the final solution must take into consideration hurricanes. • • • Gabion Foundations Rubble Sandwich Water Walls 19 | P a g e .

After the Pugh Method. a minus denoted a score lower than the datum. a score of ten indicating a solution that fulfilled the criteria the most. Decision Process To decide on the final solution.• • • • • • • Recycled Concrete Rubble Foundation Highway to Haiti Gabion River Beds Pitching Loose Water Gravity Walls Geo Tubes 4. A plus denoted a higher score than the datum. all criteria were weighted equally and were compared to a single solution. This can be seen in Table 4. Geo Tubes. the Pugh Method was utilized. different criteria were unanimously assigned a number weight on a scale from one to ten. For each individual solution. Using the Pugh Method. 20 | P a g e . As a group. The three highest scores were Geo Tubes. Each solution score was given a cumulative total.1. minus. Each solution’s individual score was multiplied by the assigned weight of the criteria to give the overall score. the Rubble Trench Foundation received a score greater than the datum. To decide upon the final solution. During the Delphi Method. the Delphi Method was used to aid in decision making. Rubble Foundation. the number was hidden to not influence group members during the decision making process. and a criterion with a weight of ten indicated the criterion with the most importance. and was selected as the final solution.4. The results of Pugh Method are shown in Table 4. and an S denoted a score with a similar score to the datum solution. the datum. a number from one to ten was assigned for how well the solution fulfilled each criterion. Each solution received a plus. Once weight was decided upon. and Gravity Walls.2. Geo Tubes received the highest score and was used as the datum in the Pugh Method. A Criterion with a weight of one indicated a criterion with the least importance. or similar system score.

1 Completed Delphi Method Table Criteria List Safety Alternative Solutions Solutions Gabion Foundations Rubble Sandwich Water Walls Recycled Concrete Rubble Foundation Highway to Gabion River Pitching Gravity Walls Geo Tubes Haiti beds loose Water Weight 10 50 500 50 90 900 40 300 240 50 560 400 80 250 400 70 480 560 40 240 240 80 800 60 360 60 480 70 350 60 480 50 300 60 600 40 240 80 640 60 300 70 560 40 240 90 900 50 300 90 720 50 250 70 560 50 300 70 700 70 420 70 560 70 350 50 400 60 360 80 800 80 480 60 480 70 350 50 400 50 300 100 1000 60 360 60 480 70 350 50 400 50 300 60 600 80 480 80 640 80 400 60 480 60 360 100 1000 60 360 80 640 70 350 50 400 50 300 Cost 6 70 Level of Labor Creation Ease of assembly Ease of Mass Production Use of local materials 8 5 50 8 60 6 40 Total 2330 2740 2770 2580 3030 2790 2810 2890 2960 3050 21 | P a g e .Table 4.

and could be used in other locations. Rubble Foundations received the highest score. Introduction Section 5 of the document is the final step in the project. This section includes a detailed description of the Rubble Trench Foundation in its final form. instructions for implementation and use. 22 | P a g e Gr av it Ge o yW S S S all s . Rubble Foundations. description of testing and the final results of testing. implementation and maintenance. Description of Solution The Rubble Trench Foundation uses recycled concrete rubble created during the earthquake in Haiti. This design will provide more support during earthquakes and hurricane season than previous foundation systems used in Haiti.1. the Pugh Method was used to compare our top three alternative solutions to the highest ranking alternative solution.2. 5. Rubble Foundations received the highest score because it met the client criteria the best.5. After discussing the criteria rankings and final solutions with a World Shelters’ representative. and Gravity Walls. Specification of Solution 5. a report of costs incurred and cost of production. the Delphi Method was used to obtain the top three solutions. Geo Tubes. The Rubble Trench Foundation can provide work for unskilled laborers in Haiti and other areas of disaster relief.2 Pugh Method Decision Table Fo un da tio n Tu be s Ru bb le Safety Cost Level Of Labor Creation Ease of Assembly Ease of Mass Production Use of Local Material S + S + S + 4. After completing the Pugh Method chart.Table 4. Geo Tubes. in January. 2010. 5. Final Decision To determine the final solution. The Rubble Trench Foundation can be used to support various new building structures in Haiti built by World Shelters and other organizations.

The dug out trench needs thorough compaction to support the weight of any structure placed on top of it. The strength of the foundation is optimized when the rubble is compacted to a uniform level. The trench is filled with recycled rubble an average of 1 ½” in diameter. Trench Dimensions The Rubble Trench Foundation is a trench foundation that starts with a base. The trench bottom is made of tamped down compacted soil. Figure 5. 23 | P a g e .2 shows the dimensions of a possible structure and the placement of the PVC pipe mentioned in the next setion.Figure 5.1.2. 18” wide and 1’ deep trench.1 Rubble Trench Foundtion 5.

compacted completely. Layer C is the rest of rubble filling.2 CAD drawing of solution and placement of PVC pipe 5. Fill Layers and Pipe As shown in Figure 5.2. The Layer A is four inches of compacted rubble. Layer B is a 3” perforated PVC pipe. tamped down into the trench.3 Cross Section of Rubble Trench Foundation 24 | P a g e .2. the Rubble Trench Foundation System has several layers.Figure 5. Figure 5.3.

68.36 Market Cost free $5.1 Design Cost (hours) Throughout the length of the project work time has been recorded the time we have spent on each phase of the process.3. The total cost for the half scale representation totaled at $11.36 25 | P a g e . Figure 5. as seen in Figure 5. When made in full scale.4: Design Hours 5.2 Implementation Cost The costs for the Rubble Trench Foundations were fairly low as shown in Table 5. the cost of Rubble Trench Foundations totals at $23.1 Materials and Costs Materials Rubble 3" x 10' PVC Pipe Total Full Scale Structure Quantity 12 ft3 2 Our Cost free $5.36. In total we have spent 143 hours on our project.4.68 $22. Table 5.3.84 $11.3.1.5.84 $11. Cost 5.68 $22.

and none in the opposite corner. The Trench should be dug with shovels.5. Once the ground has been tamped. to the point that no more compaction can be produced with simple tools. Figure 5. This will provide a slope for water in the drain pipe to flow out of the foundation as shown in Figure 5. The sides of the trench should be squared using a square shovel or a digging bar.6 The drain pipe should be placed at the center of the trench on-top of the newly placed rubble.4. A single inch of rubble should be placed at one corner of the structure. On-top of the pipe should be placed enough rubble to fill the trench to the top of the foundation. The trench should be dug 18” wide and 1’ deep.3. Figure 5. The rubble should be tamped down in the same manner as the soil earlier. a 4” layer of concrete rubble at an average size of 1 ½” in diameter should be placed at the bottom of the trench. This rubble should be tamped down in the same style as the first and second steps. pickaxes. The pipe should have a drain to outside the foundation at the lowest end of the foundation.5 demonstrates compaction method for the Rubble Trench Foundation. 3/4 of an inch on the two adjacent sides. a half inch on the nonadjacent sides. there is no way this design could undergo maintenance until said structure is removed. and digging bars. The soil at the bottom of the trench should be tamped or compacted with sledge hammers or logs. Instructions for Implementation The Rubble Trench Foundation is designed to be implemented by unskilled Haitian workers in Haiti.5 Compaction Method 26 | P a g e . 5.3 Maintenance Cost Because Rubble Trench Foundations will most likely have immovable structures place on top of it.

The trench was built to a half scale model for an 8’ x 6’ structure.Figure 5. The concrete rubble should broken into pieces with an average size of 1 ½” in diameter. The drain pipe should be 6” in diameter Charlotte PVC pipes with prefabricated holes in one side. rocks. or heave machinery if available. During installation.6 Water Drainage 5.1. These bags were placed directly on top of the trench and provided direct weight on top of the Rubble Trench Foundation. Concrete Rubble and Drain Pipe The concrete rubble should be crushed using sledge hammers. Team Humangineers used dirt as a resource to build relief structures out of soil-filled bags.7 Cross Section of tested trench 27 | P a g e . these holes should be facing upward for water catchment.5.4. A cross section view is show in Figure 5. 5.7 Figure 5. Safety should be a prime concern. as concrete chips can be dangerous to soft flesh. Results The Rubble Trench Foundation that was tested by Team Rubblution in cooperation with Team Humangineers. due to rock chips and flying sparks. Rubble breaking should also not be done near any flammable material.

precipitation. it is recommended to place weight greater than 2. These measurements are recorded in Table 5. It is also recommended to first build a test rubble trench in new locations to test the settling for different variables including soil composition. donated by Kernan Construction. To determine how hurricanes would affect the Rubble Trench Foundation. The difference in these heights was divided by the number of pounds placed on top of the Rubble Trench Foundation. Table 5. was used in the Rubble Trench Foundation. Heights of the North and South Side Walls were recorded before and after rainfall.8 Humangineers soil-bag relief structure with two different size heights To recreate the rubble in Haiti.2. the settling of the soil-bag structure was calculated after exposure to three days of rainfall.8 These Figure 5. From the settling values located in Table 4.2 Measurements and Settling Calculations South Side Wall North Side Wall Weight on Structure (lbs) 3500 1900 Initial Height (in) 48 24 Final Height (in) 46 23 2 1 Settling Height (in) Calculated Settling (lbs/in) 1800 1900 28 | P a g e . and distance from the water table. a mixture of rubble concrete and rock. The calculations used to determine weight placed upon the structure is located in appendix 5.000 pounds directly on top of the Rubble Trench Foundation.Walls of two different heights and weights were placed on top of the Rubble Trench Foundation as shown in Figure 5.

Appendix 29 | P a g e .

30 | P a g e .

36 lbs = 38 lbs bag bag 31 | P a g e .7 tons 245 Bags Total 4.88 lbs = 3500 lbs 830 in3 bag South Side Wall Weight: 40320 in3 x 1 bag x 38 lbs = 1891.Bag Weight Calculations 3.8 tons (sand) +0.55 lbs = 1900 lbs 830 in3 bag = 38.77 tons = 4.97 tons (clay) 4.7 tons x 2000 lbs x 1 1 ton 245 bags North Side Wall Dimensions: 52” x 96” x 15” = 74880 in3 South Side Wall Dimensions: 28” x 96” x 15” = 40320 in3 Bag Dimensions 2” x 27” x 15” = 830 in3 North Side Wall Weight: 74880 in3 x 1 bag x 38 lbs = 3512.

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