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Recall that exp : C C is surjective (onto), that is, given w C with w = (cos + i sin ), = |w|, = Arg w we have ez = w where z = ln + i (ln stands for the real log) Since exponential is not injective (one one) it does not make sense to talk about the inverse of this function. However, we also know that exp : H C is bijective. So, what is the inverse of this function? Well, that is the logarithm. We start with a general denition Denition 1. For z C we dene log z = ln |z | + i argz. Here ln |z | stands for the real logarithm of |z |. Since argz = Argz + 2k, k Z it follows that log z is not well dened as a function (it is multivalued), which is something we nd dicult to handle. It is time for another denition. Denition 2. For z C the principal value of the logarithm is dened as Log z = ln |z | + i Argz. Thus the connection between the two denitions is Log z + 2k = log z for some k Z. Also note that Log : C H is well dened (now it is single valued). Remark: We have the following observations to make, (1) If z = 0 then eLog z = eln |z|+i Argz = z (What about Log (ez )?). (2) Suppose x is a positive real number then Log x = ln x + i Argx = ln x (for positive real numbers we do not get anything new). = (3) Log i = ln |i| + i 2 Log (i) = ln | i|

i , Log 2 + i = 2

(4) The function Log z is not continuous on the negative real axis R = {z = x + iy : x < 0, y = 0} (Unlike real logarithm, it is dened there, but useless). To see this consider the point z = , > 0. Consider the sequences {an = ei( n ) } and {bn = ei(+ n ) }. Then limn an = limn bn = z

1 but limn Log an = limn ln + i( n ) = ln + i and limn Log bn = ln i.

1 1

(5) z Log z is analytic on the set C \ R . Let z = rei = 0 and (, ). Then Log z = ln r + i = u(r, ) + iv (r, ) with u(r, ) = ln r and v (r, ) = .

1

Then ur = 1 v = 1 and vr = 1 u . Thus the CR equations are satised. r r r Since ur , u , vr , v are continuous the result follows from a previous theorem regarding converse of CR equations. (6) The identity Log (z1 z2 ) = Logz1 + Log z2 is not always valid. However, the above identity is true i Arg z1 + Arg z2 (, ] (why?). In calculus, interesting examples of dierentiable functions, apart from polynomials and exponential, are given by trigonometric functions. The situation is similar for functions of complex variables. If x R then using Taylor series for sine and cosine we get

eix =

n=0

(ix)n = n!

(1)n

n=0

Taking clue from the above, we now dene z 2n (1) cos z = , (2n)! n=0

n

sin z =

n=0

(1)n

It is easy to see by ratio test that the radius of convergence of these two power series is . It now follows easily that eiz = cos z + i sin z (Eulers formula) and hence eiz eiz eiz + eiz sin z = , cos z = . 2i 2 Using the above formulae the following theorem follows easily. Theorem 3. For any z C (1) sin(z ) = sin z, cos(z ) = cos z, sin(z +2k ) = sin z, cos(z +2k ) = cos z, sin2 z + cos2 z = 1. (2)

d (sin z ) dz

= cos z,

d (cos z ) dz

= sin z.

ex ex , 2

(3) sin z = sin(x + iy ) = sin x cosh y + i cos x sinh y, and cos z = cos(x + iy ) = cos x cosh y i sin x sinh y where sinh x = cosh x =

ex +ex . 2

There is an important dierence between real and complex sine functions. Unlike the real sine function the complex sine function is unbounded. To see this notice that | sin z |2 = | sin(x + iy )|2 = sin2 x cosh2 y + cos2 x sinh2 y = sin2 x + sinh2 y. As limy sinh y = (check this!) it follows that for each xed x0 R, limy | sin(x0 + iy )| = . Similar is the case for cos z. Now using sine and cosine we can dene tan z, sec z, cosec z as in the real case. We can also dene complex analogue of the hyperbolic functions sinh z = (ez ez )/2

and cosh z = (ez + ez )/2. The following theorem follows just by applying the denitions Theorem 4. (1) sin(z1 + z2 ) = sin z1 cos z2 + cos z1 sin z2 , sin 2z = 2 sin z cos z,

sin(z + ) = sin z, sin(z + 2 ) = sin z. (2) cos(z1 + z2 ) = cos z1 cos z2 sin z1 sin z2 , cos 2z = cos2 z sin2 z.

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