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The fate of a warrior culture
Nancy Sherman on Jonathan Lear’s Radical Hope (Harvard: 2006)
Published online: 3 April 2009 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009
Abstract Jonathan Lear in Radical Hope tackles the idea of cultural devastation, in the speciﬁc case of the Crow Indians. What do we mean by ‘‘annihilation’’ of a culture? The moral point of view that he imagines as he reconstructs the eve and aftermath of this annihilation is not second personal, of obligation, but ﬁrst personal, in the collective and singular, as told by the Crows, with Lear as ‘‘analyst.’’ Radical Hope is a study of representative character of a people—of virtue, courage, resilience, and hope in the face of cultural collapse. The leading questions are shaped by ancient Greek ethics, but with a twist: On the brink of cultural death, what counts for us as good living and what is the nature of the virtues or excellences that constitute it? How might a leader, a phronimos, exemplify it? This puts it too narrowly. The questions, also, are Wittgensteinian: How does a nation go on, when the concepts and way of life it has lived by for centuries are no more? What does it mean to go on? What does it mean to stop when the marks of going on are no longer? Keywords Vulnerability Á Revenge Á Warrior culture Á Grief Á Courage Á Eudaimonia Á Women warriors Á Cultural collapse Á Resilience
1. In 1831 in the landmark case Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 5 Peters (1831) Chief Justice Marshall argued that the Cherokee Nation should be regarded not as a foreign nation, but as a ‘‘domestic dependent nation.’’ By this, he meant, ‘‘they are in a state of pupilage; their relation to the United States resembles that of a ward to his guardian. They look to our government for protection: rely upon its kindness and its power; appeal to it for relief to their wants; and address the president as their
N. Sherman (&) Department of Philosophy, Georgetown University, 215 New North, 37th and O Streets, NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA e-mail: email@example.com
the practices. and hope in the face of cultural collapse.utulsa. From their very weakness and helplessness. but the point I want to draw out is the underlying political and moral perspective of the court regarding vulnerability. as they have been in the past.’’ (p. …. when the concepts and way of life it has lived by for centuries are no more? What does it mean to go on? On the ﬂip side of this. but more ﬁrst personal. and the treaties in which it has been promised. a historian of early America who was at Yale. Jonathan Lear in Radical Hope also spotlights the profound vulnerability of the Indians. the last great chief of the Crow nation: ‘‘After this nothing happened. that ‘‘Indian tribes are the wards of the nation. 40 for mention of the two legal cases in this paragraph. But the real vulnerability.—dependent largely for their daily food. Sherman great father. the meaning of a way of life (more than just the means for living) have been annihilated by circumstance and conquest. there arises the duty of protection. The leading questions are shaped by ancient Greek ethics. 2 123 . 2) 1 As cited in http://www. the Court followed the precedent. (though admittedly. is not of need or dependency. ‘‘When the buffalo went away the hearts of my people fell to the ground. the Court addresses the special obligations that arise toward the acutely vulnerable.htm. but with a twist: On the brink of cultural death. They … are communities dependent on the United States.HTM. resilience. and they could not lift them up again. Radical Hope is a study of representative character of a people– of virtue. ‘‘those words lodged within me and never left. 180) The words are those of Chief Plenty Coup’s. in the collective and singular. So in 1885.edu/law/classes/rice/ussct_cases/US_V_KAGAMA_1886. and with it the power. The rituals. The moral point of view that he imagines as he reconstructs the eve and aftermath of this annihilation is not second personal. courage. The buffalo is no more.’’ In fuller context. speciﬁcally. but of cultural devastation. exemplify it? But this puts it too narrowly and misses the full philosophical punch Lear delivers. the Crow nation. a phronimos. 5) The leitmotif of this study is a quote Jonathan heard some 20 years ago in a lecture given by William Cronin. The relationship of ‘‘the great father’’ and ‘‘ward’’ may offend.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/two/cherokee. How does a nation go on. As cited in://www. His leading questions are not just Aristotelian.’’2 In essence. of obligation.72 N. so largely due to the course of dealing of the federal government with them. As Lear acknowledges.’’1 The theme was developed later throughout Reconstruction and after. See Goodin (1985) p. After this nothing happened. but often Wittgensteinian. what counts for us as good living and what is the nature of the virtues or excellences that constitute it? How might a leader. but so too the means of existence that were part of that nomadic life. as he portrays it. dependent for their political rights. It is one of moral obligation.pbs. The Indians are under our ‘‘pupilage’’ because of our conquest and the demise of the hunting and warrior life that were part of the land. what does it mean to stop when the marks of going on are no longer? What is ‘‘the structure of temporality’’? (p. in this case those who are dependent because we have made them so. the account is told from the third person).’’ (p.
it does not rely on the repeatability of data of social science experiments or of neuroscience labs and brain imaging through functional MRI’s. At its best. and the self-constituting aspect of those excellences in individuals through the work of ego ideals and mechanisms of shame and guilt. character excellences. we might say. but informed throughout by actual narrative and case study. it doesn’t. The book is fascinating and insightful about how to do moral psychology in a way that is framed by the conceptual. can be thinned out yet remain plastic enough to survive radical culture shifts. of almost nihilism. 4) According to Lear. and its expansion to include interpretations of dreams. He is too good a writer for that. He supplements philosophy with anthropology. What is striking in all this is that it is an exercise in moral psychology that is. empirical. and Freudian reference points: What are the conditions for the possibility of…? In this case of this historical example imaginatively rebuilt. ‘‘If he is talking about the Crow people becoming depressed. an empirical investigation of the claim that incurring ‘‘collateral 123 . Lear’s intent is not to have the book read top down. and rejects the second as neither true to the case nor revealing of much new. could look at it as a clinician might. with moral and philosophical concepts incipient in their own thinking. and history. but my own view is that the border crossing is both welcome and done extremely well. and survival when accident change borders on substance change (what Lear calls ‘‘ontological vulnerability’’). what are the conditions for the possibility of new possibilities (and meanings) in the face of Crow cultural annihilation? This is the overall project. ‘‘nothing happened. in terms of the challenges facing immigrant groups who must ﬁnd a way to preserve their identities following dislocation or absorption. One. about how thick virtues. And there is a Kantian transcendental question that frames the whole discussion and is as familiar an element in some of Lear’s work as the Aristotelian.’’ The questions worth puzzling over are conceptual. yet in some sense. Lear’s account of Plenty Coups and his people is conceptual at all its junctures. Wittgensteinian. There is also discussion of practical reason. and the imaginative work of the unconscious that feed into deliberation and problem solving. the story unfolds through the voices of Plenty Coups and his contemporaries.’’ (p. A lot happened. And by and large. this may displease. 5) This makes the words ‘‘nothing happened’’ even more enigmatic. But Lear is not interested in the ﬁrst. nor is it an exploration of the parts of the brain that light up when different variants of the trolley problem are posed. such as courage. poems. Jonathan appeals to a fulsome mix of disciplines in unpacking the enigma. psychoanalysis. for example. So. about conceptions of moral development that involve social roles and rituals. Jonathan’s task is to press the viability of those concepts. (p. we can understand him in a minute and move on. For discipline purists. in its own way.The fate of a warrior culture 73 One could look at those words as a sociologist might. too. it is not a survey of the trolley problem among young children with the hypothesis that certain deontological structures may be native in the way Chomsky claimed deep grammar is. Plenty Coup shows few signs of being depressed—he remained an active and prize-winning farmer for the rest of his life and a persistent lobbyist in Washington for the rights of the Crow tribe. as a statement of depression and despair. Granted. or relatedly. about the metaphysics of change—corruption and generation.
See Doris (2002). 4 5 123 . 2. I want to focus on the speciﬁc issue of warrior culture. But war narratives run the risk of idealizing war and its heroes. Other empirical moral philosophers have argued that even if we generally think it is morally alright to cause harm as a side effect when the overall beneﬁts are great enough. Never could that scalped Sioux hope to become a warrior. the poet’s voice is decisive. He waited a few years.3 Moral psychology is incredibly rich these days and my task here is not to assess it. jumped the Sioux. To study the Crow people through the eyes of its chieftain is to study a war culture. To be fair. In a sense.’’ we are less likely to think it morally permissible. sprang to his feet. Achilles’ rage transgresses the decorum of war: ‘‘that man without a shred of decency in his heart. it is to be Homeric. Alachiaahush [Plenty Coups’ actual Crow name. honor. Narrative and anecdote. then he and his partners sneaked up on a Sioux hunting party. as narratives go. dreams and interviews. manhood. he would be 3 There is a body of empirical studies suggesting that we mentally represent in an unconscious and hardwired way (as a part of a deep ‘‘moral grammar’’) a signiﬁcant moral difference between directly harming an innocent in a way that uses them as a mere means and causing them harm as a foreseen side effect. Homer himself is no hero-worshipper. which means ‘‘Many Achievements’’] then a young boy. As a Sioux warrior was chasing a wounded buffalo. Some dialogue with critics of historical moral psychology might be fruitful here. revenge. He was disgraced.4 This is not philosophy in an armchair. with its implicit notions of martial courage. of leaving to the side the grisly underbelly of war—the moral cost of revenge. the unﬁnished business of grief. and scalped him alive. until he was sixteen. Sherman damage’’ up close and personal is registered differently by us than collateral damage which is remote. Harmon (2003). Fagles (1999). the transmission of rage to future generations in the name of identity. Achilles is ﬂawed in his revenge. For the remainder of my remarks. but rather.74 N. central to Lear’s project. His beloved older brother had been killed in an expedition against the Sioux. are part of the case study. philosophy in the ﬁeld. It is to study warrior ethos. I have in mind the work of John Doris and Gil Harmon who point to social psychology experiments by Darley and Batson (among others) that suggest doing what is right is more a matter of the serendipity of situation than character. In his case. especially on the issue of constancy of character. My limited point is that Jonathan’s is an important addition to many of these contemporary projects in moral psychology and a reminder of how to do historical and conceptual moral psychology well.’’ outrages even ‘‘the senseless clay in all his fury. for discussion. see Greene (2007). Also. see Darley and Batson (1973). and shame.’’5 I thought of revenge and decency in war as I read about the ﬁrst propitious signs of the young Plenty Coups’ warrior mettle. see John Mikhail’s (2007) philosophical computational model of double effect dilemmas. a concrete historical example is taken as an evidentiary starting point. Here is Lear’s account: The story of his ﬁrst coup is legendary. was devastated—and sought revenge. in cases where that harming is ‘‘up close and personal. The author who recorded this incident comments: ‘‘Far more merciful to have sent an arrow down into his heart. both how Jonathan portrays it and what I think he leaves out. When he drags Hector’s corpse facedown around Patroclus’ tomb. young Plenty Coups waited until the warrior was almost upon him.
’’ (p.000 and divided into about 200 Chagnon (1988).6 But it also undermines its own utility: it is a ‘‘runaway emotion.’’ ‘‘Girls as well as boys derived their names from a famous man’s exploit. being a prayer for revenge. and more critically. 1. was critical. We might recognize variants of that kind of warrior ethos in our own troops. and worry with the Stoics about just how leaders. in Cooper and Procope ¨ numbered 15. reprisals against rival tribes are symbols of In the Yanomamo manhood that advertise courage and male strength. drawn from an account by Napoleon Chagnon. their recognition ‘‘that the Crow had made their mark. They are ridiculed and 6 7 ´ (1995).’’ ‘‘Women danced wearing scalps. is marked in Aristotelian terms: it is manifest ‘‘in the right place. but of ‘‘the whole population. Consider a parallel anthropological study of an Indian tribe in the Amazons. through their mockery of this now neutered man. Anger ‘‘whets the mind for the deeds of war. forced to wear the dress of a squaw. Lear points to the anthropological records of Robert Lowie in describing the Crow warrior culture. The Stoics. As we see in the young Plenty Coups legendary coup. On Anger. famously part ways with Aristotle and reject anger as a tractable weapon of war. war and martial glory were the concern not just of men. and enemy macho mockery that one their own has been stripped of his manhood by you goes to the heart of Crow warrior courage.’’ It exacts from the Sioux. Yanomamo politically independent subgroups.’’ (p. act of tribal revenge. but recognition by the enemy of your victory (pp. Men who do not respond quickly are branded as cowards. hitting someone before harming them so as to ensure not just victory. the ¨ Indians. was saturated with military episodes…’’ (p. 20) Lear is eager to draw from this that the revenge that delivers ‘‘the fate worse than death’’ ‘‘goes beyond humiliation. such as the young Plenty Coup comes to be.’’ says Seneca reporting the conventional ancient view. enemy concession of defeat.7 Yanomamo ¨ community. we might wonder whether courage motivated by revenge is typically as restrained and proportionate as Lear suggests. says Lear. It did not matter just who the revenge was committed against. The mark of the coward was upon him. with all the markers of revenge propelled by male honor and tribal identity. At the time of the study.’’ that more often than not oversteps reason and enslaves those who use it. unﬁt for the role of group protector. as needed. 21) But we can read the story of the young Plenty Coups as. in battle. and from the right motivations.9. that the victim was Sioux was the relevant factor. 12). at bottom. drawing a boundary that cannot be crossed. derived honor from their husband’s deeds…a woman’s lamentations over a slain son was the most effective goad to a punitive expedition… The Sun Dance. 16–18). To achieve boundary recognition. and must henceforth crawl through life in utter ignominy. The ﬁneness of that courage. at the right time. he waited for years to ﬁnd the right moment to revenge his brother. can rev up revenge in young men and then rein it in. Aristotelian style. And that a male Sioux was humiliated. According to this account. and recognized as such by his tribe.’’ The war ritual of the coup stick itself (and conveyed by the name ‘‘Plenty Coups’’) involves planting a stick that cannot be felled. 123 . And when we do. for example.The fate of a warrior culture 75 ostracized by his tribe.
instead. like a Jack Bauer in Fox TV’s ‘‘24. stoked by womenfolk consuming portions of a dead man’s ashes in order to rev up warrior rage before a new raid.’’10 But the tension remains. the revenge of a CIA counterterrorism agent. Moreover.8 Revenge becomes the means for recuperating male honor. Iraq. grief. ‘‘their Yanomamo very notion of bereavement implies violence: they describe the feelings of the bereaved as hushuwo. What I have more familiarity with is American military culture and the role of revenge. revenge is often the displacement of grief. however much one goes into war knowing that is the likely outcome. see Miller (2006). loss in war is not easy to tolerate. I have been told from several sources that the head of West Point paid a visit directly to the producer of the program to insist that ‘‘24’’ was misleading cadets about proper interrogation techniques and corrupting core values that the Academy teaches. the rampage by the Kilo Company. and honor in that culture. Very brieﬂy. Writes Chagnon. For an interesting account of revenge in Icelandic saga. For the story in Jerusalem. see Blumenfeld (2002). a word that can be translated as ‘‘anger verging on violence. Loss is refreshed and aggression refueled for future generations who are obligated to take up the vengeance. Sherman shamed. 2005 as a kind of reprisal raid. it is not a stretch of the imagination to view the Marine killings of 24 civilians in Haditha. the volatile blend of grief and persecutory ¨ s describe. struggle mightily to dismantle this notion of warrior honor and inculcate. its ethics education programs of which I have been a part. The deaths were ﬁrst reported as collateral damage involved in return ﬁre. persecutions that demand retribution against a traditional enemy. whether because of stoic.’’ Natural ills are often viewed as enemy sponsored malevolence. measured than most professions a culture of conspicuous honor (like Homeric time in status and rank. On the battleﬁeld. Group identity becomes a more or less fungible means for exacting kinship obligations. of the Third Battalion. November 19. the kill is usually of the ﬁrst man spotted from the rival tribe. for the ¨ . First Marines. in badges and decorations easily read off a uniform across a room. J. and their wives become easy prey to other men’s sexual attention. and in particular. In this regard. what I know about the Yanomamo as much as I have said. Our own military. The alloy of grief and aggression can linger for years. undoubtedly further feeds the revenge. For the military retains more ˆ ). these may have less palpable meaning to the foot soldier than the honor in the kill and payback in a high body count when one’s own have been taken. can fuel revenge. The common deferral of grief in war. Demonization of the enemy by individual anger that the Yanomamo soldiers as well as by a command climate that invokes righteousness against the forces of evil. (known as the ‘‘3/1’’ or ‘‘Thundering Third’’) followed a roadside bomb attack of a company humvee that killed Lance Corporal Miguel (T.) Terrazas.9 ¨ s or the Crows. While the hope in reprisal raids is to ﬁnd the original killer of one of their own. To be sure. a notion of honor rooted in inner virtue—in conscience and in integrity freed from Rambo revenge or to update it. not unlike the hushuwo. but they were later 8 9 Relevant here is the work of Volkan (2006). 123 . 10 Indeed. macho notions of decorum or lack of time for collective griefwork. What I know about Now I am no scholar of either the Yanomamo ¨ s is about the Crows comes from Lear’s account.76 N.
to go to the woods and dream. both before and after cultural collapse. Four Marines were eventually charged with murder and another four with dereliction of duty in covering up the facts as they sent them up the chain of command. ‘‘Probing Bloodbath. This brings me to a ﬁnal theme. on the surface. And he also dreamt of himself as an old man sitting in the shade. a discussion of how. Even if retaliation is proportionate. they worry about fathers and brothers. a role for forgiveness that doesn’t emasculate? 3. 70) Yellow Bear. is dream. according to Lear.’’ (p. transgenerationally. A voice tells him to notice the Chicadee in a tree. 70). As such. like the young 8-year-old Plenty Coups.11 as well as the psychological and moral pressures involved in repeat. is an important part of practical reason that he hopes to bring to bear in this reconstructed historical example. how is revenge. and later husbands. girls and women shared derivatively in traditional warrior life. see Newsweek. it seems safe to say that the recuperation of honor through revenge is common to this warrior culture. it is not implausible to describe what happened as a revenge reprisal of the sort Chagnon ¨ s—to seek out the enemy. He never intrudes. I do not know enough about the Crow warrior culture to know how and if a combatant/noncombatant distinction is observed. and perhaps in most accounts of Crow culture. The case is complex and a full review would examine such factors as command moral climate. to look for the describes in discussing the Yanomamo killer.The fate of a warrior culture 77 determined to be direct assaults of civilians. and keep alive loss and the need for restitution. girls dance war dances. Nothing escapes his ears which he has sharpened by constant use. But from Lear’s account. there you will ﬁnd the Chicadeeperson listening to their words. 123 .’’ (p. prolonged deployments. 2006. Group identity. as a motive reined in to meet Aristotelian standards of the mean? Is there ultimately. To glean from Lear’s account. Whenever others are talking together of their successes and failures. This. as Lear tells the Crow story. never speaks in strange company. Still.’’ June 12. 10 of whom were women and children. revenge interferes with the work of grief would be helpful. ‘‘They were strange animals from another world. And this is a lesser told tale story in Lear’s account. And that is the story of young Crow girls and women: What is their courage and sense of hope like. if at all. the wisest of the elders. In Plenty Coups case. perhaps they do much of the grieving. The question strains because the study is about male warrior courage. or more accurately. the adequacy of training in counterinsurgency techniques and its requirements of force restraint. Nor do I know how grief is typically resolved and what its rituals are during and after battle. and bring back the dream for collective interpretation and guidance on how the tribe is to move forward. But in all his listening he tends to his own business. be authorized. becomes the salient marker. But what they don’t seem to do. they play with scalps. but then to take vengeance on ready-to-hand targets. and yet never misses a chance to learn from others. For one account of events at Haditha. about how courage can make sense and endure when war is no longer its medium. the young 8-year-old dreamt of creatures that were no longer buffalo. again. ‘‘The Chickadee is a good listener. interpreted the young prophet’s words: ‘‘The tribes who have fought the white man have all been 11 For an excellent discussion of new models for the use of force. see Pfaff (2005).
offered a more formal account of the expansion of practical reason to include the dynamic unconscious. or with a glimpse in sight of a new nonwarrior life. 60) Lear also quotes Pretty Shield lamenting about how she struck her granddaughter harshly as punishment for running off to a dance with a ‘‘bad young man. Agnes Yellowtail Deernose said of this period. [the trapper. ‘‘this imaginative capacity might help us to respond 123 . 72). What Lear offers here is an exhilarating case study of a collective use of a dream. perhaps. This part of Lear’s account is thrilling.’’ (p. ‘‘Destruction of the buffalo and the shift to a reservation left young men and women in a state of social limbo. shards of real and fantastic. ‘‘Hummm. What if an eight-year-old Crow girl were to go out and dream. ‘‘The medicine woman Pretty Shield told Linderman. Even with the collapse of the nomadic way of life. All this is the stuff of imagination. in much of his work. what of girls and elder women? Girls do not go to the woods and cut their ﬁnger tops off as the boys do to induce the pain that might hasten frenzied dream thought. again. On Lear’s plausible view.’’ She was deeply ashamed of having used the saddle-strap on the girl. But we might imagine the dreaming to be precisely about a girl/woman becoming a warrior. mixes of wish and truth.’’ (p. 62) These. So. or of having prophetic voice and standing in the community. But. And yet they. who might take seriously the imaginative life of the young girl and use it to think about what lies at the horizon.’’ (p. like medicine woman. Yet in the written records of women’s experience there is also expression of confusion.’’ (p. They will need to know how to act appropriately in the absence of war and hunt organizing life. and of bringing the dream home to elders. too. 56) Lear comments further: One would expect that with a traditional society like the Crow there would be more stability among the social roles accorded women. He can follow twisted logic. So dreamwork and interpretation becomes part of collective wisdom and foreign policy about how to proceed in the hard times ahead. We see some glimmers of the perspective from women. He is clearly one who has listened to many a dream on the other side of the couch. As one of the granddaughters later said of her grandmother. there were still families that needed support. but more nearsighted practical reasoning. Pretty Shield. cowboy historian of the Crows] ‘‘I am trying to live a life I do not understand. By listening as the Chicadee listens we may escape this and keep our lands. wiped out. let us do a little imagining here ourselves. she would often sigh. Sherman beaten. In Lear’s words. will face a new world order where the old concepts will be emptied of meaning. it was the shame of not knowing how to be a good parent when the culture and expectations had so quickly changed. hunter. Perhaps. are contexts for dreaming. aahh’’ ‘‘I’m living a life I don’t understand. there were still meals to cook. Richard Wollheim.78 N. of new educational opportunities or new challenges for how one grows up as a girl and becomes a woman. and show how each can supplement tidier. too. Lear notes that we would expect traditional roles of this patriarchal society to be retained across the divide of cultural collapse. It becomes a part of reasoning about eudaimonia for the group in radically different times.
or at least one principal aspect of it. Some may still be leaders. The point is that this is a place for ‘‘radical hope’’ of the sort Lear describes. The project may not be one of thick courage becoming thinned out. it is not clear if Crow girls and women start with a socially valued and acknowledged form of courage that is the basis for a new transformation. but just enough to 123 . But let us assume some variant of cultural change that is signiﬁcant and even perhaps. But others may not come through as well. be resourceful. may no longer have application. set moral examples. perhaps even more so. yet still constituting an adequate form of resilience and practical wisdom. the need for radical imagination. its stresses and pace. They may do it only sometimes. socially sanctioned. yet courage remains robust and vibrant. Visible and invisible wounds of war can unravel character. its carnage and guilt. excellence and eudaimonia in the face of such change. then moral philosophy speciﬁc to the theme ‘‘after this now nothing happened’’ seems overdrawn. 117) I suspect women have long used the work of imagination and dream to break out of traditional role and status. Is there in fact a qualitative difference between cultural devastation of the sort Lear describes and more familiar cultural shifts such as women may have experienced (or African Americans) through their various enfranchisements? Might the difference be more quantitative than qualitative? For think of women who move from thickly patriarchal roles to roles of greater equality. If anything. This is not to idealize the warrior ethos. be there for others. for the horizons may be more distant. or no real virtue at all. is the loss of a warrior way of life. or is he describing something more familiar to many individual’s experiences when they must redeﬁne what is conventional or appropriate? If it is the latter.’’ (p. battleﬁeld courage. know how to advise others. the relevant cultural change. but fully human virtue. burrow deep. Unlike Crow boys and men. to move from one set of historical circumstances to another is critical. They may harm themselves and harm others whom they love. and to cultivate virtue that is not just a woman’s virtue. take risks. intermittently. The reality may be closer to how Aristotle understood it. is Lear giving an account of moral development and resilience sui generis to radical culture shift. radical. But it is to appreciate that war’s habits and attachments. the work of imagination is here every bit as crucial as it is for young boys. with its underlying capabilities and entitlements.The fate of a warrior culture 79 better to the world’s challenges than we would be able to do without it. per se. with women having a defective kind of virtue. and not just bodies and minds. Don’t they routinely face the same kinds of questions Lear poses—about what counts as a proper sense of shame or a proper sense of the ﬁne? Don’t they work to thin out and then rethicken notions of the virtues and reconceive what counts as good living? Don’t they internalize the process with new ego ideals that help them move forward? In short. I don’t want to belabor the metaphors. 4. for some. People who were good may no longer be so good. now and in the past. Crow woman are no different. And if that is so. And for women in many cultures. This brings us to a related point. For Lear. As on Lear’s account of Plenty Coups. certain capacities of imagination might actually be constituents of a courageous soul. soldiers returning home from the current wars and leaving behind a way of life that war has been imprinted on their souls. The general query Lear raises is about the survival of good character. This has a contemporary variant—namely.
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