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Integrating + Dynamic approach (from 80’s – today). Cognitist linguists wanted to study real language. For cognitive linguistics, semantics is the head of linguistics. Founding fathers of semantics are Chomky’s students: Lakoff, Langacker, Filmore, Talmy… European cognitist: Enrique Bernárdez + Geezerts. C.S. is not born out of an individual. The meaning of C.S. for us is integration; Lg is integrated withing the body, within the cognitive system. The different levels of grammar overlap, they are integrated. Also integrated within a social, cultural and physical environment in Lg (context must be taken into account). Today we are all work with social cognitive system.


Relationship between form and meaning in Lg. Motivation is the opposite of arbitrariness. Lots of Lgs are motivated. An example: a clear relationship between form and meaning is a “cucu” (the form represents the sound; cucu is an onomatopoeic word). Polysemy is a clear example of motivation. Iconic principles (they come from biology): 1. Formal complexity corresponds to more lexical complexity  more form, more meaning. 2. Conceptual distance matches linguistic distance. Eg.: the motivated order of the adjectives (pepperoni pizza). 3. Lgs in the world tend to follow the chronological sequence / order of events.


The elements at this level are monomorphemic. Prototype is the best clearest representative member of the category. Intentionally. semantic fields / categories overlap. Eg: the overlapping between birds and mammals (experts theories overlapd. but many scientists disagree). It is central to the study of cognition. for me it is “Jenny”. the different meanings of a word are also prototypically organized. store and structure in our memory these words. however for structuralist categories are organized in a mosaic (they are perfectly limited). It is the reference point to the category (diff from culture to culture. CATEGORIZATION The capacity of categorizing makes sense of the complex phenomena that we experience in the world to process. Extensionally. Networks: categories are flexible. diff over time.3. prototypically organized. 2 . Radial networks / Family resemblance model: how words are organized  Categories are hierarchically structured: - - - - - NOTE: The basic level of categorization is the perceptually and conceptually more important. it is “Lana”. nevertheless for Ali. diff within the same culture). categories are flexible. The different members of categories are prototypically organized. For cognitists. Eg: prototypical example of dog is our own dog. Structuralists prefer the term semantic fields but cognitists choose the term categories. Human sized words are basic level terms because they are words which we use as non-experts.

concepts / words have fixed properties. - Individual connotations: for structuralists. We have individual connotations depending on our experience. Example: GUESS: Where shall I sit? HOST: Can you sit in the apple juice seat? Evidence: we need the frame to understand the conversation.- Categories are closely related to socio-cultural and physical context: this means that categories are embodied. Cognitive domains do not need to be made explicit because they are shared cultural knowledge. in order to understand what a nackle (“nudillo”) is. For instance. you need to know what a finger is. Domain refers to the cognitive representations with respect to which most linguistic units are characterized. Every single word has its own properties. We need the context / frame all the time. 3 .