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INORGANIC NOMENCLATURE

Chemistry is a lot like living in a foreign country. If you speak the language, life is more fun! Learning inorganic nomenclature is the first step toward learning the language of chemistry. Learning the relationship between chemical formulas and chemical names is essential for understanding chemical problems. Inorganic nomenclature is a systematic way of naming the thousands of inorganic compounds we encounter. Your textbook discusses nomenclature of inorganic compounds. his handout is intended to supplement and complement your book. here are certain elements, cations, and anions that you !"# know before you get started. $osition in the periodic table can help you remember many, but not all. %or any name you should be able to write the formula and for any formula you should be able to write the name including spelling. &. You should know the first '( elements and )u, ", )g, #n, *g, Cd, #b, I, +e, Cs, ,a, -n, -a, and $b .. Compounds with common names/ *.0 1 water *.0. 1 hydrogen peroxide 2*' 1 ammonia '. Cations 2ames Lithium ion, sodium ion, etc. ,eryllium ion, magnesium ion, etc. *ydronium ion )luminum ion Iron5II6, Iron5III6 Copper5I6, Copper5II6 #ilver ion !ercury5I6, !ercury5II6 Lead5II6, Lead5I76 )mmonium ion Cadmium ion 9inc ion 2ickel5II6, 2ickel5I76 :old5I6, :old5I76 Cobalt5II6, Cobalt5III6 in5II6, in5I76 #ymbols Li3, 2a3, 43, -b3, Cs3 ,e.3, !g.3, Ca.3, #r.3, ,a.3 *3 )l'3 %e.3, %e'3 Cu3, Cu.3 )g3 *g..3, *g.3 $b.3, $b83 2*83 Cd.3 9n.3 2i.3, 2i83 )u3, )u83 Co.3, Co'3 #n.3, #n83

Chromium5II6, Chromium5III6

Cr.3, Cr'3

8. Common !onatomic )nions 2ame *ydride %luoride Chloride ,romide #ymbol *1 %1 Cl1 ,r1 2ame Iodide 0xide #ulfide #elinide #ymbol I1 0.1 #.1 #e.1 2ame elluride 2itride $hosphide )rsenide #ymbol e.1 2'1 $'1 )s'1

;. Common $olyatomic )nions 5two or more atoms6 2ame 2itrate $ermanganate *ydroxide Cyanide $erchlorate hiocyanate ,icarbonate 0xalate >. )cids #ulfuric $hosphoric 2itric *ydrochloric =. ,ases Lithium hydroxide #odium hydroxide $otassium hydroxide Cesium hydroxide -ubidium hydroxide Li0* 2a0* 40* Cs0* -b0* !agnesium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide #trontium hydroxide !g50*6. Ca50*6. #r50*6. *.#08 *'$08 *20' *Cl $erchloric Chloric *ydrobromic *ydroiodic *Cl08 *ydrocyanic *C2 *Cl0' Chlorous *Cl0. *,r *ypochlorous *Cl0 *I 2itrous *20. %ormula 20'1 !n081 0*1 C21 Cl081 #C21 *C0'1 C.08.1 2ame #ulfate Carbonate Chromate $hosphate $eroxide Chlorate ,isulfate ,romate %ormula 2ame %ormula

#08.1 2itrite 20.1 .1 .1 C0' <ichromate Cr.0= Cr08.1 #ulfite #0'.1 '1 1 $08 Chlorite Cl0. .1 0. *ypochlorite Cl01 1 Cl0' )cetate C.*'0.1 1 *#08 )rsenate )s08'1 ,r0'1

here are four main classes of inorganic compounds we will learn how to name/ &. .. '. 8. Compounds made from single valence metals. Compounds made from multivalent metals. Compounds containing only nonmetallic elements. )cids.

COMPOUNDS MADE FROM SINGLE VALENCE METALS In general, these compounds are made using at least one of the metals in :roups I), II), and III). hese metals donate electrons readily 5they have a low ioni?ation energy6 and always have oxidation numbers corresponding to their group number. %or example, 4, 2a, Cs, etc., have oxidation numbers of 3& only. )ll we have to do is specify the cation 5the ionic metal6 followed by the anion. @e must also ensure that the sum of the oxidation numbers is ?ero 5for we are dealing with neutral molecules6. *ere are some examples/ 2a* Cs.0 ,a%. *C2 #r'2. Ca50*6. Li'$08 sodium hydride cesium oxide barium fluoride hydrogen cyanide 5cyanic acid6 strontium nitride calcium hydroxide lithium phosphate

!g#08 magnesium sulfate 2ow, you try a couple/ a. 2a.Cr08 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

b. magnesium fluoride AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA In Buestion 5a6, the cation is 2a3 5sodium6 and the anion is Cr08.1 5chromate6. hus, the

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compound is sodium chromate. In Buestion 5b6, magnesium exists in compound form as !g.3. %luoride is the %1 anion. o make the compound neutral, we need two %1Cs. herefore, the formula for magnesium fluoride is !g%.. If we have an ionic compound that contains hydrogen along with the cation, then we need to specify the number of hydrogen atoms in the compound. %or instance, 2a*C0' 2a.*$08 2a*.$08 sodium hydrogen carbonate or sodium bicarbonate sodium monohydrogen phosphate sodium dihydrogen phosphate

In the above examples, we use :reek prefix before the word DhydrogenE to specify the number of hydrogens. In case youFve forgotten, here are the prefixes/ mono1 di1 tri1 tetra1 penta1 hexa1 hepta1 octa1 nona1 deca1 & 5omitted if no other prefixes are used6 . ' 8 ; > = ( G &H

2otice that for 2a*C0', the number of hydrogens is not specified. his is because carbonate has a I. chargeJ if sodium 52a36 combines with C0'.1, there is only DroomE for one hydrogen. hus, the mono1 is inferred in this case. COMPOUNDS MADE FROM MULTIVALENT METALS (STOCK SYSTEM) 2onionic metals can usually have more than one oxidation state. Iron, for instance, can be found as %e'3 and as %e.3. !ost other transition metals can also assume more than one oxidation state. he way we distinguish between compounds which differ in oxidation numbers is by using -oman numerals, which is known as the #tock system. he -oman numeral indicates the oxidation number of the cation and is enclosed in parentheses immediately after the metal name. ake a look at these examples/ %e#08 %e.5#086' $b0. #n520'6. CuC2 iron5II6 sulfate iron5III6 sulfate lead5I76 oxide tin5II6 nitrate copper5I6 cyanide

*g50*6.

mercury5II6 hydroxide

2ote the sum of the oxidation number5s6 of the metal exactly cancels the sum of the negative charge5s6 of the anion. 2ote also that you need not memori?e the oxidation number of the metal because you can always back calculate its value by knowing the charge on the anion. In other words, !K!0-I9K the anions, both name and charge. LetFs try a couple/ a. Cu#08 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

b. iron5III6 carbonate

In 5a6, remember to key off the anion! #ince youFve already memori?ed 5L6 the anions, you know that sulfate has a I. charge. o make the compound neutral, you know that copper must have a 3. charge. #ince copper is multivalent, we will express its oxidation state when we name the compound/ copper5II6 sulfate. %or 5b6, the 5III6 tells us that the iron is in the 3' state 5%e'36. @e know from our memori?ed list of anions that carbonate has a I. charge 5C0'.16. o make a neutral iron5III6 carbonate formula, we must balance the negative and positive charge. wo %e'3Fs and three C0'.1Cs would balance the charge at 3> and I>/ %e.5C0'6'. )s with most topics in chemistry, there are always some exceptions. ) number of metals exist which are not in :roups I or II and have one oxidation state. %or these compounds, you do not specify the oxidation state in parenthesis. he exceptions you should know are )g53&6, Cd53.6, 9n53.6, and )l53'6. *ere are some examples of what weFre talking about/ )g!n08 CdCl. )l*' 9n50*6. silver permanganate cadmium chloride aluminum hydride ?inc hydroxide

-emember, we used no -oman numerals in naming these exceptions. 2ote also that most transition metals can exhibit a 3. ion due to ioni?ation of the .s electrons.

COMPOUNDS CONTAINING ONLY NONMETALLIC ELEMENTS LetFs move to the opposite end of the periodic table. *ere we find the nonmetallic elements which are defined as having a high 5negative6 electron affinity. In general, the nonmetallic elements include those elements to the right and above the dark, solid stair1step line on the periodic table that forms a diagonal from boron 5,6 to astatine 5)t6. Compounds formed solely from these elements will be covanlent in nature. @hen naming these molecules, we use :reek prefixes because the oxidation number for each element is not always obvious. he compound name begins with the most electropositive atom 5the least electronegative6 and then the other element is named 5once again with the DideE ending as in the anion6. LetFs look at some examples/ C,r8 $%' 2.0; +e%> carbon tetrabromide phosphorus trifluoride dinitrogen pentoxide xenon hexafluoride

*ere are a couple for you to try! a. 20 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

b. sulfur hexafluoride AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA he formula in 5a6 is nitrogen monoxide. If there is only one of the more electropositive atoms, the Dmono1D prefix can be dropped. he Dmono1D prefix is always used for the more electronegative atom. In 5b6, no prefix on the sulfur implies one sulfur. *exafluoride means six %1Cs. herefore, the formula is #%>. ACIDS )s a final note, we should talk about naming acids. You should be familiar with some common names, such as the following/ *.#08 *'$08 sulfuric acid phosphoric acid

!ost acids used in the laboratory can be classified as either binary or oxyacids 5acids containing hydrogen, oxygen and a third element6. )ll acids are named after the name of the anion. hree general rules apply/ If the anion ends in Iide, then the acid is named hydro anion name1ic acid If the anion ends in Iate, then the acid is named anion name1ic acid If the anion ends in Iite, then the acid is named anion name1ous acid

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%or example, *Cl *,r *Cl08 *Cl0. *.Cr08 *20. hydrochloric acid 5from chloride6 hydrobromic acid 5from bromide6 perchloric acid 5from perchlorate ion6 chlorous acid 5from chlorite ion6 chromic acid 5from chromate ion6 nitrous acid 5from nitrite ion6

!ost of the time, we will add the abbreviation for aBueous 5aB6 after the compound to indicate that it is dissolved in water and is, therefore, an acid. %or instance, *I5aB6 would be called hydroiodic aicd where as *I would be termed hydrogen iodide. 2omenclature is an important part of the language of chemistry. :et used to naming these compounds. YouFll be seeing much more of them throughout the year!!! he next page is a nomenclature worksheet. "se this to help you practice your nomenclature skills!!!

NOMENCLATURE WORKSHEET
2ow, letFs see how much youFve learned! "se the following to practice your nomenclature skills!!! 2ame the following/ 52*86.C0' AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 2.0 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA $80> AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA *.#08 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA )l.0' AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA #nCl8 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA ,aCl. AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 2a* AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Cu.# AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA !n# AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 4*#08 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA ,e#08 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA C0. AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA *,r AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 52*86.*$08 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA $%; AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA %e.0' AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA $80&H AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Ca5!n086. AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA *Cl08 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA :ive formulas for the following/ ammonium sulfate AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA barium iodide AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA calcium oxide AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA sodium sulfide AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA potassium permanganate AAAAAAAAAAAAAA iron5II6 sulfate AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA silver phosphate AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA sulfur trioxide AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA copper5II6 oxide AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA aluminum sulfide AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA magnesium iodide AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA carbonic acid AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA titanium5I76 chloride AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA vanadium576 oxide AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA