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REPULSIVE GRAVITATIONAL INTERACTION BETWEEN

MATTER AND ANTIMATTER




Pier Francesco Roggero, Michele Nardelli
1,2
, Francesco Di Noto


1
Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra
Universit degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Largo S. Marcellino, 10
80138 Napoli, Italy


2
Dipartimento di Matematica ed Applicazioni R. Caccioppoli
Universit degli Studi di Napoli Federico II Polo delle Scienze e delle Tecnologie
Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia (Fuorigrotta), 80126 Napoli, Italy


Abstract:

In this paper we examine in detail the hypothesis that matter and
antimatter instead of attract each other have a gravitational repulsion.
Furthermore, we have also described some new possible mathematical
connections with some sectors of Number Theory and String Theory












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Index:

1. ANTIMATTER.................................................................................................................................... 3
2. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATIONAL CONSTANT G........................................................................... 4
3. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATIONAL FORCE....................................................................................... 5
4. CONSEQUENCES ON CURRENT THEORIES............................................................................... 6
5. MATHEMATICS OBSERVATIONS............................................................................................... 10
5.1 FINE STRUCTURE CONSTANT.................................................................................................. 12
6. REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................. 18



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1. ANTIMATTER

Antimatter is the set of particles, corresponding to the mass of the particles that make up
ordinary matter, but with opposite charge. For example, an atom of "antihydrogen" is
composed of a negatively charged antiproton, around which orbit a positron
(antielectron) positively charged.
If the particle and antiparticle are in contact they are transformed into high-energy
photons (gamma rays) or other particle-antiparticle pairs, such that the sum of the total
energy, preceding and following the impact, remains constant.
The antimatter has short life and cannot be stored, as it annihilates the first contact with
the matter. We can only generate very small quantities in the physics laboratory for
particles.



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2. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATIONAL CONSTANT G

The universal gravitational constant is the constant of proportionality that appears in
the law of universal gravitation, formulated in the late seventeenth century by Newton,
but also in the general theory of relativity of Einstein.
The universal gravitational constant is a nature constant, independent of any physical
property of the interacting bodies.
Its value experimentally determined in the international system turns out to be equal to:
( )
2
3
11
10 00067 , 0 67428 , 6
s Kg
m
G

=


This constant is often approximated to:

2
3
11
10 67 , 6
s Kg
m
G

=



This constant has a positive value when applied to systems where they are only
attractive forces between matter and matter and antimatter-antimatter.

In case, however, we consider the interactions between matter-antimatter the value is
negative.

This assumption is considered to be a postulate, such as the maximum speed given by
light.

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3. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATIONAL FORCE

The gravitational interaction (gravity in common parlance) is one of the four
fundamental interactions.
In classical physics is interpreted as a force of attraction between bodies conservative
agent, whose most obvious manifestation in everyday experience is the weight force.
In general relativity the gravitational interaction is seen as a consequence of the
curvature of space-time created by the presence of bodies with mass or energy.
The law of universal gravitation states that two point masses attract each other with a
force of intensity directly proportional to the product of the masses of individual bodies
and inversely proportional to the square of their distance.

2
r
GMm
F =
where G is the universal gravitational constant, which is worth about 6,67 10
-11

Nm/kg
2
, M and m are the masses of the two bodies, r the distance between the two
bodies.
This law has the value G positive if we want the attraction between two bodies of
matter-matter or if we are the attraction between two bodies of antimatter-antimatter.

If, however, we mean the interaction between matter and antimatter, G takes a negative
value and the law becomes:


2
r
GMm
F =

So we have a repulsive force between matter M and antimatter m.
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4. CONSEQUENCES ON CURRENT THEORIES


1) Violation of CP symmetry would make no sense
In the theory of the Big Bang, matter and antimatter in the universe initial had to
be present in equal proportions. The process of annihilation NOT occurred
because the matter and antimatter repel each other with a repulsive gravitational
force that prevents their mutual destruction.
Currently it is believed that there has been a slight imbalance in favor of matter
(known as CP violation) so that it would not be completely annihilated by
antimatter, making possible the formation of the universe in which we live
through the process of baryogenesis.
But this theory is not sufficient to explain the real observed asymmetry today.

2) Lack of local antimatter
Antimatter and matter repel each other gravitationally, forming separate galaxies
of matter and antimatter, which for more, they tend to repel each other, thus
avoiding possible collisions and annihilation.
Its for this reason that we cannot have, eg. antimatter in our galaxy.

3) Expanding universe and its acceleration without introducing the theory of
dark energy
This same galactic repulsion is valid for the observation of an accelerating
universe. If gravity is always attractive, one might expect that the expansion of
the universe slows and eventually contracts in a big crunch. Using the
observations of the red shift, astronomers and physicists estimate that, instead, the
size of the universe is expanding and the rate of expansion is accelerating at a rate
roughly constant.
The galaxies consist of matter and those consist of antimatter moved away from
them and avoid clash and destroy each other.
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Several theories have been proposed to explain this observation in the context of
a gravity always attractive.
The most accredited is relative to dark energy, as plausible explanation would
make no more sense to exist. The acceleration, according to this theory implies
that the universe could be made up to a 75% dark energy which has never been
observed directly and that would also be evenly distributed in the universe.
On the other hand, if the antigravity between matter and antimatter is mutually
repulsive, equal amounts of matter and antimatter precisely compensate any
attraction.
The galaxies moving away from us have a redshift and are simply made up of
antimatter. This could even imply that there is no expansion and acceleration
even with its necessary a more accurate and timely in-depth review of the theory
of the Big Bang.

4) It is not necessary to have a cosmological constant
From Einstein's relativistic cosmological model characterized by a volume space
finite but unbounded, such a finite universe is destined to collapse in on itself
because of its own gravity. Einstein, believing that the universe should be
globally static, needed a repulsive force to prevent their collapse.
He realized that in order to express the equations of relativity in their most
general form, it was to introduce an additive constant which, if greater than zero,
it acts in terms of a Newtonian repulsive force and that, assuming a critical value,
compensates implosion of the universe. It was for this reason that was
introduced.
With the repulsive force between matter and antimatter the cosmological constant
is no longer needed in the theory of general relativity.

5) The electromagnetic radiation passes through both matter and antimatter
Since the photon is its own antiparticle explains why electromagnetic radiation
can pass through both galaxies made up of matter and galaxies made up of
antimatter without being absorbed.
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The antiphoton would be absorbed (or destroyed and not having mass it cannot be
rejected by the gravitational force) when passing through a galaxy made up of
matter and also the photon would be absorbed when passing through a galaxy
made up of antimatter.
Since there is an experimental evidence, the photon is also its own antiparticle
and it can cross both galaxies of matter and galaxies of antimatter.
In this way only if there are galaxies consist of matter the antiphoton would be
absorbed and the photon would pass through. But then one wonders why exists
also the antiphoton? It is a "indirect" test that must exist also antimatter galaxies!

Besides the electromagnetic radiations as well as also the light are deflected from
their paths from the masses consist of matter or antimatter in the same way.

6) The gravitational interaction is attractive and repulsive as the other three
fundamental forces
There are four fundamental forces or interactions, which are the basis of energy
exchanges between the particles, which are responsible for the structure of the
universe: the gravitational interaction, the electromagnetic interaction, the strong
nuclear force and the weak nuclear force.
If matter and antimatter repel would explain that the gravitational interaction is
repulsive and like the other 3 forces can be both attractive to repulsive.
Therefore we have a SYMMETRY also in the formulas describing the four
fundamental forces, which in the current theory does not exist where the
gravitational force is always attractive.

7) The Higgs boson is also its own antiparticle, and also gives the mass to the
antimatter
The Higgs boson is the bearer of strength of the Higgs field, which according to
current theory permeates the universe giving mass to elementary particles.
Being also its own antiparticle also gives rise to the mass of the antiparticle and
then to antimatter.

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8) The gravitational field equation of general relativity for the interaction
between matter and antimatter is negative and therefore repulsive
The form of the field equation is:

T
c
G
g R g R
4
8
2
1
= +

But with negative G, we have:

R

2
1
g

T
c
G
4
8
=

It must therefore be considered in the solutions of the field equation even those
with negative G and which give rise to a repulsive gravitation.
The cosmological constant has been suppressed as described in point 4.



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5. MATHEMATICS OBSERVATIONS


From the mathematical point of view, we can observe that the value of G = 6.67428:

( )
2
3
11
10 00067 , 0 67428 , 6
s Kg
m
G

=



corresponds to about 1,618033
4
= 6,854085, with very small difference
6,85408 6,67428 = 0.1797 (1,618033 + 1,618033)/2 -1
=(1,27 + 1,12)/2 -1 = 0,19 0,1797 real difference
So a possible connection with the golden ratio seems possible in the formula of
gravitational constant.
The universal constants must often rely on mathematical ones, and the latter often also
prime numbers, with some connection to the number e, of Euler, 2,728, =3,14, but
also by =1,618
An example we find in the formula the strength of the Casimir effect:


The Casimir force per unit area ( ) A F
c
/ , in the ideal case of perfectly conductive metal
plates between which it was created the vacuum, is calculated as:



where we have the symbol .

So it might also be possible that =1,618 is connected to the universal
gravitational constant, as indicated above, that is,




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1,618033
4
= 6,854085, with very small difference
6,85408 6,67428 = 0.1797 0,18 (1,618033 + 1,618033)/2 -1
=(1,27 + 1,12)/2 -1 = 0,19 0.1797 0,18 real difference, to the nearest 1 cent = 0,19-
0,18 = 0.01 between the two values.

Also in the formula of the fine structure constant will find as we describe in the
following Section.



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5.1 FINE STRUCTURE CONSTANT


The fine structure constant, denoted by the Greek letter , is a parameter that correlates
the main physical constants of electromagnetism. It expresses the coupling constant that
characterizes the intensity of the electromagnetic.
The fine structure constant was introduced by Arnold Sommerfeld in 1916 as a measure
of the deviation in the relativistic spectral lines than the Bohr model. For this reason it is
also called Sommerfeld constant.

The fine structure constant in MKS, is defined as:

c
ke
hc
e
c
e
h h
2
0
2
0
2
2 4
= = =


where:
e is the electric charge of the electron = -1,6 10
-19
[C]

0
is the electric permittivity of vacuum = 8,852 10
-12
[C]
2
[m]
-2
[N]
-1

h is Planck's constant = 6,626075 10
-34
[J][s]

2
h
= h
c is the speed of light in vacuum = 299 792 458 [m][s]
-1

k is Coulomb's constant [N] [m]
2
[C]
-2
.


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The formula and its value are:
( )
( ) 44 035999074 , 137
1
10 24 2973525698 , 7
4
3
0
2
= = =

c
e
h

Shortly after the value calculations were completed, it was discovered a small error in
the data, but also it was decided to publish this result in 2008 waiting for more precise
measurements expected for the beginning of 2011.


As the value 7.2973, we note that it is very near to the square of the Euler number:

e = 2,7182818284 We have that: e
2
= 7,3890560989, with

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO VALUES EQUAL TO 0.09170 0.1
PRACTICALLY A TENTH OF UNIT

and with ratio 7,3890/7,2973 = 1,01256 1,015150
32
618 , 1

1.015746
64
718 , 2 .

The fine structure constant could therefore approach to

= e
2
/
64
718 , 2 = 7,3890560989 / 1, 01574606300 = 7,2745111874,

with difference 0,022 = two cents of the actual value 7,2973 , or more precisely 22
thousandths.

Now, we note that the number 8, and thence the numbers
2
8 64 = and 8 2 32
2
= , are
connected with the modes that correspond to the physical vibrations of a
superstring by the following Ramanujan function:

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( )
(
(

|
|

\
|
+
+
|
|

\
|
+

(
(
(

4
2 7 10
4
2 11 10
log
'
142
'
cosh
' cos
log 4
3
1
8
2
'
'
4
0
'
2
2
w t
itw e
dx e
x
txw
anti
w
w
t
w x

.

This shows how the physical constants depend on those mathematics as , and e,
and these in turn by the primes, as we will see later with a work in progress on the
numerical series and mathematical constants, which then appear in the physical: as we
have seen in the formula of the Casimir force and the constant fine structure appears ,
and in the number 6,85352 could get in

=1,618, being very near to its fourth power, i.e. 6,85352

With ratio 6,85352 / 6,67428 = 1,026856 1,03053 =
16
618 , 1

then the number 6.67428 could approximate to

1,618
4
/
16
618 , 1 = 6,85352 / 1,03053= 6,65222 6,67428,

with difference 6,67428 -6,65222 = 0,022, the same 22 thousandths

encountered for the APPROXIMATION OF CONSTANT FINE STRUCTURE IS
THIS SOMETHING PURELY RANDOM?

We note that also here, 16 = 8 * 2, thence we have the mathematical connection with the
number 8, i.e. with the modes that correspond to the physical vibrations of a
superstring by the following Ramanujan function:


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( )
(
(

|
|

\
|
+
+
|
|

\
|
+

(
(
(

4
2 7 10
4
2 11 10
log
'
142
'
cosh
' cos
log 4
3
1
8
2
'
'
4
0
'
2
2
w t
itw e
dx e
x
txw
anti
w
w
t
w x

.



A CONNECTION BETWEEN OUR MOST NOTES MATHEMATICS CONSTANT
IS 'THE FOLLOWING:


Our possible connection between all three constants e, e :

e

64
(1)

In fact,

e
=
618033 , 1
718 , 2
= 1,0189665




64
= 1,0180472

A more precise formula is:



e

64
/
2
2048 1024
+


which gives as a result 1,0181126, nearest to 1,0180472, with a difference of
0,0000656, that is, of only 656 ten millionths.
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Also here, the values 1024 = 8
3
* 2 and 2048 = 8
3
* 2
2
are connected with the number 8
i.e. with the modes that correspond to the physical vibrations of a superstring by
the following Ramanujan function:



( )
(
(

|
|

\
|
+
+
|
|

\
|
+

(
(
(

4
2 7 10
4
2 11 10
log
'
142
'
cosh
' cos
log 4
3
1
8
2
'
'
4
0
'
2
2
w t
itw e
dx e
x
txw
anti
w
w
t
w x

.




ANOTHER CONNECTION, ALREADY KNOWN, BUT ONLY BETWEEN e and ,
is the following:
e is connected to by Euler's formula

e
ix
= cos (x) + i sen(x) (2)

which becomes

e
i
+ 1 = 0 (3)

in the particular case x = (Euler's identity).

These mathematical constants are in some way related to the numbers also according to
the first harmonic series, (as we will see in the next work) then appear in some physical
constants, such as the formula for the fine structure constant and many others, and this
is how the prime numbers eventually adjust some physical laws of nature, gravitation
included, see Einstein's equation:

Let's review the formulas of field equation:


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The field equation is:

T
c
G
g R g R
4
8
2
1
= +

But with negative G we have:

R

2
1
g

T
c
G
4
8
=



Note that is present here as well as its multiples (in the latter case as 8) equivalent to
powers of 2 in these formulas: 2 , 4 , 8 , in the various formulas in this paper.

Why not 3 , 5 , or 6 ?

Its a case, or will there be a specific physical / mathematical reason that prefer the
power of 2, i.e. 2, 4 and 8? More research are necessary.

Besides the fine structure constant is increasingly important in string theories, and so
consequently also in the future TOE, or Theory of Everything.



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6. REFERENCES


1)Wormhole
Teoria delle stringhe

Ing. Pier Francesco Roggero, Dott. Michele Nardelli, P.A. Francesco Di Noto

2) Note in Italian
L'Ams scova positroni nei raggi cosmici.
"Potrebbero essere tracce di materia oscura"
Sul sito
http://www.repubblica.it/scienze/2013/04/03/news/caccia_antimateria-
55861299/L'Ams scova positroni nei raggi cosmici. "Potrebbero essere tracce di materia
oscura"
L'annuncio al Cern: dal 2011 lo spettrometro posizionato sulla ISS ha catturato
quasi 400 mila di queste "strane particelle" con una precisione senza precedenti
nella tempesta che spazza l'universo. "Ora serve capire qual la loro origine" di
ELENA DUSI
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Come un retino, Ams va a caccia di strane particelle nello spazio. Simile a un
satellite, ma fissato a un braccio della Stazione Spaziale Internazionale, oggi
l'occhio della fisica a 400 chilometri di altezza chiamato "Alpha Magnetic
Spectrometer" ha messo in mostra il suo primo raccolto di "farfalle". Da quando i
suoi rivelatori sono entrati in funzione - nel maggio 2011 - Ams ha catturato
400mila positroni: elettroni con carica positiva che fanno parte di quel regno
dell'antimateria che sempre nell'universo indizio di fenomeni interessanti e
misteriosi.

I positroni di Ams non fanno eccezione. Raccolti con una precisione senza
precedenti in mezzo alla tempesta di raggi cosmici che spazza costantemente
l'universo, sono stati contati uno a uno e selezionati a seconda della loro energia. I
primi risultati (la raccolta dei dati dovrebbe durare ancora un decennio) sono stati
annunciati oggi al Cern, alla Nasa e pubblicati su Physical Review Letters. Le
particelle di antimateria sono piovute negli strumenti di Ams da ogni direzione. Un
aspetto interessante che la quantit di positroni aumenta all'aumentare della loro
energia (almeno fino a un certo livello, poi il loro numero cessa di crescere). "Ma la
nostra curiosit ora capire l'origine di queste particelle" spiega Roberto
Battiston, il fisico dell'Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare e dell'universit di
Trento che di Ams numero due. "Pu darsi che provengano da un tipo di stella
chiamato pulsar all'interno della nostra galassia. Ma potrebbero anche essere una
traccia di quel fenomeno ancora sconosciuto che la materia oscura".

Di materia oscura composto oltre il 20% dell'universo. Ma da quali particelle sia
composta resta un mistero totale. "Ipotizziamo che siano piuttosto pesanti -
spiega Battiston - che non interagiscono con la luce. Ogni tanto, al centro della
galassia, dove la materia pi densa, potrebbero scontrarsi e annichilirsi,
liberando energia e positroni". I frammenti di antimateria raccolti da Ams -
una delle ipotesi - nascono dalla fusione della materia oscura. "Come la cenere
pu darci informazioni sul legno da cui proviene, cos questi positroni sono forse
messaggeri di notizie importanti sulla materia oscura che li ha prodotti" spiega il
fisico italiano.
Esperimenti sulla materia oscura sono in corso anche nei laboratori del Gran
Sasso e nello spazio con i due satelliti Pamela e Fermi. Ams superiore per
dimensioni e precisione "in un campo - aggiunge Battiston - in cui il dettaglio
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delle misure tutto, perch i fenomeni che analizziamo sono debolissimi".

Costato 2 miliardi di dollari, pesante 7 tonnellate e realizzato con il contributo
italiano dell'Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare e dell'Agenzia Spaziale Italiana,
Ams il pi importante esperimento a bordo della Stazione Spaziale
Internazionale (spesso accusata di non aver mantenuto le sue promesse in fatto di
contributi alla scienza). Alla raccolta e all'analisi dei suoi dati lavorano 600 fisici e
ingegneri di 16 paesi.

Il "retino" spaziale considerato uno strumento complementare a Lhc. Il Large
Hadron Collider, l'acceleratore di particelle del Cern di Ginevra, fa scontrare
protoni ad altissima energia per studiare i frammenti delle collisioni. Ams nello
spazio svolge un ruolo simile, sfruttando le energie ancora pi estreme raggiunte
dai raggi cosmici al di fuori dell'atmosfera terrestre. Per costruirlo ci sono voluti
18 anni pieni di difficolt. Il progetto, guidato dal premio Nobel per la fisica
Samuel Ting, stato dato pi volte per spacciato e solo il colpo di scena di un volo
dello Shuttle programmato dalla Nasa solo per lui (l'ultima missione
dell'Endeavour prima del pensionamento) gli ha permesso due anni fa di attivare il
suo potente magnete: l'occhio di Ams capace di scrutare nella parte oscura
dell'universo.

"I dati di AMS - osserva Fernando Ferroni, presidente Istituto Nazionale di Fisica
Nucleare (INFN) - sono una interessantissima conferma, con precisione maggiore,
dei dati rilevati dagli esperimenti spaziali Pamela e Fermi in questi ultimi anni.
Una conferma che non risolve certo il rebus dell'antimateria in eccesso. Ma che
indica come i dati dei due esperimenti (anche questi a fortissima presenza italiana)
avessero visto giusto nel rivelare questa anomalia. Che sia o meno materia oscura
non pu che dirlo un ulteriore sforzo per produrre nuovi dati e analizzarli. Un
lavoro che, come giustamente sottolinea il team AMS, richiede ancora del tempo e
della prudenza".

(03 aprile 2013)
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3) Note in Italian

Cern, una nuova anomalia nelluniverso


Luned, 29 aprile 2013 - 08:22:00
Un gruppo di scienziati - tra cui alcuni italiani - impegnati in sofisticate esperienze con
il potente anello LHC large hadron collider, la stessa macchina del Cern di Ginevra
con la quale stato scoperto, sempre da unquipe coordinata da ricercatori italiani il
bosone di Higgs nel luglio scorso-, ha osservato un fenomeno che potrebbe portare a
chiarire la tanto discussa asimmetria tra materia e antimateria. lUniverso,
immediatamente dopo il Big Bang, doveva essere costituito da eguali quantit di
materia e antimateria.
Come mai invece luniverso che conosciamo fatto di materia, dove andata a
finire lantimateria? Il fatto che successivamente lantimateria sia completamente
scomparsa uno degli enigmi pi affascinanti della scienza. Ma oggi,proprio grazie a
macchine come LHC, siamo in grado di fabbricare artificialmente pezzetti di
antimateria come positroni, -antiparticella dellelettrone-, e antiprotoni, -antiparticella
del protone-, che hanno la stessa massa delle loro gemelle, ma carica elettrica opposta.(
Tra laltro proprio grazie allantimateria che siamo oggi in grado di curare alcune
forme tumorali con la Pet, letteralmente Positron emission tomography) Cos, grazie
alle collisioni che si realizzano allinterno di un acceleratore di particelle, qual LHC,
oggi i fisici sono in grado di produrre quotidianamente migliaia di miliardi di particelle
di antimateria.
E possono studiare con precisione il loro comportamento, confrontandolo con
quello delle gemelle di materia. Se particelle e antiparticelle avessero propriet
esattamente speculari non riusciremmo a giustificare la scomparsa dellantimateria
dallUniverso. Viceversa negli esperimenti si osservano piccole asimmetrie di
comportamento. Lasimmetria rilevata nellesperimento del Cern abbastanza
significativa :circa il 30 per cento degli eventi registrati viola la simmetria. Lentit di
questa asimmetria di comportamento molto grande spiega Vincenzo Vagnoni
dellINFN di Bologna e uno dei firmatari dellarticolo pubblicato su Physics Review
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Letter - e la misura effettuata apre un nuovo settore dindagine che potr portare una
migliore comprensione dei fenomeni alla base della violazione della simmetria e
spiegare il mistero della scomparsa di antimateria dal nostro Universo.