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Log-Log Plots

R Horan & M Lavelle The aim of this package is to provide a short self assessment programme for students who wish to acquire an understanding of log-log plots.

Copyright c 2003 rhoran@plymouth.ac.uk , mlavelle@plymouth.ac.uk Last Revision Date: March 11, 2004 Version 1.0

Table of Contents

1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Straight Lines from Curves Fitting Data Final Quiz Solutions to Exercises Solutions to Quizzes

Section 1: Introduction

1. Introduction

Many quantities in science can be described by equations of the form, y = Axn . It is, though, not easy to distinguish between graphs of dierent power laws. Consider the data below:

It is not easy to see that the red points lie on a quadratic (y = Ax2 ) and that the blue data are on a quartic (y = Ax4 ). It is, however, clear that the black points lie on a straight line! Results from the packages on Logarithms and Straight Lines enable us to recast the power curves as straight lines and so extract both n and A.

Section 1: Introduction

Example 1 Consider the equation y = xn . This is a power curve, but if we take the logarithm of each side we obtain: log(y ) = log(xn ) = n log(x) since log(xn ) = n log(x)

If Y = log(y ) and X = log(x) then Y = nX . This shows the linear relationship. Plotting Y against X , i.e., log(y ) against log(x), leads to a straight line as shown below.

log(y )

6 n 1 log(x)

Here n is the slope of the line. Thus: from a log-log plot, we can directly read o the power, n.

Section 1: Introduction

log(y )

b c 4 d 2 1 2 6

0 | 2 | 4 log(x)

(a) a

(b) b

(c) c

(d) d

Note that the scales on the two axes are not the same.

Example 2 Consider the more general equation y = Axn . Again we take the logarithm of each side: = log(Axn ) = log(A) + log(xn ) log(y ) = n log(x) + log(A) log(y ) since log(pq ) = log(p) + log(q ) since log(xn ) = n log(x)

The function log(y ) is a linear function of log(x) and its graph is a straight line with gradient n which intercepts the log(y ) axis at log(A).

log(y )

6 n 1 log(x)

log(A) 0

Quiz Referring to the lines, a, b, c and d below, which of the following statements is NOT correct?

log(y ) a

b

If b corresponds to y = x3 , then d would describe y = x3 . Lines a and c correspond to curves with the same power n. In the power law yielding c the coecient A is negative. If b is from y = x3 , then in a the power n satises: 0 < n < 3.

Exercise 1. Produce log-log plots for each of the following power curves. In each case give the gradient and the intercept on the log(y ) axis. (Click on the green letters for the solutions). (a) y = x 3 (c) y = 10x2

1

Quiz How does changing the base of the logarithm used (e.g., using ln(x) instead of log10 (x)), change a log-log plot? (a) The log-log plot is unchanged. (b) Only the gradient changes. (c) Only the intercept changes. (d) Both the gradient and the intercept change. Note that in an equation of the form y = 5 + 3x2 , taking logs directly does not help. This is because there is no rule to simplify log(5+3x2 ). Instead we have to subtract the constant from each side.We then get: y 5 = 3x2 , which leads to the straight line equation: log(y 5) = 2 log(x) + log(3).

3. Fitting Data

Suppose we want to see if some experimental data ts a power law of the form, y = Axn . We take logs of both sides and plot the points on a graph of log(y ) against log(x). If they lie on a straight line (within experimental accuracy) then we conclude that y and x are related by a power law and the parameters A and n can be deduced from the graph. If the points do not lie on a straight line, then x and y are not related by an equation of this form. Example 3 Consider the following data: x y 2 4.24 30 16.4 70 25.1 100 30.0 150 36.7

To see if it obeys, y = Axn , we take logarithms of both sides. Here we use logarithms to the base 10. This gives the new table: log10 (x) log10 (y ) 0.30 0.63 1.48 1.21 1.85 1.40 2 1.48 2.18 1.56

10

log(y )

6 (( log(x)

( ( 1 .5 (( ((( ( 0 1| 2| 3|

It is evident that the red data points lie on a straight line. Therefore the original x and y values are related by a power law y = Axn . To nd the values of A and n, we rst continue the line to the log10 (y ) axis which it intercepts at the blue dot: log10 (A) = 0.48. This means that A = 100.48 = 3.0 (to 1 d.p.). The gradient of the line is estimated using two of the points log(y2 ) log(y1 ) 1.56 0.63 n= = = 0.5 (to 1 d.p.) log(x2 ) log(x1 ) 2.18 0.3 So the original data lies on the curve: y = 3x 2

1

11

Exercise 2. In the exercises below click on the green letters for the solutions. (a) Rewrite the following expression in such a way that it gives the equation of a straight line y = 4x + 2 (b) What is the dierence between two power laws if, when they are plotted as a log-log graph, the gradients are the same, but the log(y ) intercepts dier by log(3)? (c) Produce a log-log plot for the following data, show it obeys a power law and extract the law from the data. x y 5 10 15 90 30 360 50 1000 95 3610

12

4. Final Quiz

Begin Quiz Choose the solutions from the options given.

2 1. The intercept and slope respectively of the log-log plot of y = 1 2x 1 (a) 2 & log(2) (b) log(2) & 2 (c) log(2) & 2 (d) log(1/2) & log(2)

2. If the log(y ) axis intercept of the log-log plot of y = Axn is negative, which of the following statements is true. (a) n < 0 (b) A = 1 (c) 0 < A < 1 (d) n = A 3. The data below obeys a power law, y = Axn . Obtain the equation and select the correct statement. x 5 15 30 50 95 y 10 90 360 1000 3610 (a) n = 3 End Quiz (b) A =

3 2

(c) n = 4

(d) A =

1 2

Solutions to Exercises

13

Solutions to Exercises

Exercise 1(a) For y = x 3 , we get on taking logs: log(y ) = 1 3 log(x). This describes a line that passes through the origin and has slope 1 3. It is sketched below:

log(y ) 1 6

1

3|

log(x)

Solutions to Exercises

14

Exercise 1(b) For y = 10x5 , we get on taking logarithms of each side: log(y ) = 5 log(x) + log(10). This describes a line that passes through (0, log(10)) and has slope 5. It is sketched below:

log(y )

6 5 6 ?

1

log(10) 0

log(x)

Solutions to Exercises

15

Exercise 1(c) The relation y = 10x2 , can be re-expressed as log(y ) = 2 log(x) + log(10). This is sketched below.

log(y )

6

2 0

log(10)H

HH

HH 1

H HH H

log(x)

Solutions to Exercises

16

3 , then log(y ) = 3 log(x) + log( 1 Exercise 1(d) If y = 1 3 ). This 3x can also be written as log(y ) = 3 log(x) log(3). It is the equation of a line with slope 3 and intercept at log(3). The line is sketched below.

log(y ) 6 0 log(3)

log(x)

@ @ @

3

@ @ 6 ?@

@ 1 @

Solutions to Exercises

17

Taking logarithms of each side yields 1 log(y 4) = log(x) + log(2) 2 Thus plotting log(y 4) against log(x) would give a straight line with slope 1 2 and intercept log(2) on the log(y 4) axis. Click on the green square to return

Solutions to Exercises

18

Exercise 2(b) If y = Axn then the log-log plot is the graph of the straight line log(y ) = n log(x) + log(A) So if the slope is the same the power n is the same in each case. If the coecients A1 and A2 dier by log(A1 ) log(A2 ) = log(3) A1 then log = log(3) since log(p/q ) = log(p) log(q ) A2 so it follows that the coecients are related by A1 = 3A2 . Click on the green square to return

Solutions to Exercises

19

Exercise 2(c) To see if it obeys, y = Axn , we take logarithms to the base 10 of both sides. The table and graph are below: log10 (x) log10 (y )

log(y ) 3 6 2 .0 1 .0 0 1 1| 2|

0.70 1

1.18 1.95

1.48 2.56

1.70 3

1.98 3.56

log(x)

The data points are tted by a line that intercepts the log(y ) axis at log(A) = 0.40, so A = 100.40 = 0.4. The gradient can be calculated from n = (3 1)/(1.70 0.70)= 2. So the data lie on y = 0.4x2 . Click on the green square to return

Solutions to Quizzes

20

Solutions to Quizzes

Solution to Quiz: The curve is y = x2 . Taking logs of both sides gives: log(y ) = log(x2 ) = 2 log(x), i.e., the log-log plot is a straight line through the origin with gradient 2. Line b passes though the origin and through the point (x = 2, y = 4). From the package on Straight Lines we know that the gradient, m, of a straight line passing through (log(x1 ), log(y1 )) and (log(x2 ), log(y2 )) is given by m= log(y2 ) log(y1 ) log(x2 ) log(x1 )

we see that the gradient of line b is given by 40 mb = =2 20 This is therefore the correct log-log plot.

End Quiz

Solutions to Quizzes

21

Solution to Quiz:

log(y )

PP 0

b c

PP(( ((((PPP PP

(((( ((((

log(x)

PP d PP P

If c corresponds to y = Axn , then log(y ) = n log(x) + log(A). The intercept of line c on the log(y ) axis is negative. This implies that log(A) < 0, which means that 0 < A < 1. It does not signify that A itself is negative. (Of course we also cannot take the logarithm of a negative number like this.) It may be checked that the other statements are correct. End Quiz

Solutions to Quizzes

22

Solution to Quiz: The equation of a log-log plot is: log(y ) = n log(x) + log(A) If we change the base of the logarithm that is used, then the gradient n is unchanged but the intercept, log(A), is altered. For example the log-log plot of y = 3x4 in terms of logarithms to the base 10 is: log10 (y ) = 4 log10 (x) + log10 (3) which has an intercept at log10 (3) = 0.477 (to 3 d.p.) Using natural logarithms the equation would become ln(y ) = 4 ln(x) + ln(3) This has the same gradient, but the intercept on the ln(y ) axis is now at ln(3) = 1.099 (to 3 d.p.) The only exception to this is if A = 1, since logN (1) = 0 for all N . End Quiz

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