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lab works consist of:
lab 1: Ohm's Law
lab 2: Voltage division
lab 3: Superposition Theorem
lab 4: Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

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- Thevenin's Theorem
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Contents

1. LAB 1: Ohms Law ................................................................................................................... 3 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2. AIM: ................................................................................................................................... 3 APPARATUS: ................................................................................................................... 3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: ..................................................................................................... 3 METHODOLOGY: .......................................................................................................... 4 RESULTS: ......................................................................................................................... 5 DISCUSSION:................................................................................................................... 6 CONCLUSION: ................................................................................................................ 8

LAB 2: Voltage Division ........................................................................................................... 9 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 AIM: ................................................................................................................................... 9 APPARATUS: ................................................................................................................... 9 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: ................................................................................................... 10 METHODOLOGY: ........................................................................................................ 11 RESULTS: ....................................................................................................................... 12 DISCUSSION:................................................................................................................. 13 CONCLUSION: .............................................................................................................. 14

3.

LAB 3: Superposition Theorem............................................................................................. 15 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 AIM: ................................................................................................................................. 15 APPARATUS: ................................................................................................................. 15 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: ................................................................................................... 16 METHODOLOGY: ........................................................................................................ 17 RESULTS: ....................................................................................................................... 18 DISCUSSION:................................................................................................................. 19 CONCLUSION: .............................................................................................................. 21

4.

LAB 4: Thevenins Equivalent Circuit ................................................................................. 22 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.5 4.6 4.7 AIM: ................................................................................................................................. 22 APPARATUS: ................................................................................................................. 22 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: ................................................................................................... 23 METHODOLOGY: ........................................................................................................ 23 Method A (Open circuit test and a load test) ....................................................... 23 Method B (Two load tests) ..................................................................................... 24 Verification method ................................................................................................ 24 RESULTS: ....................................................................................................................... 25 DISCUSSION:................................................................................................................. 26 CONCLUSION: .............................................................................................................. 28

5.

REFERRENCES..................................................................................................................... 28

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1.2 APPARATUS: The apparatus needed for this lab are: Variable voltage DC supply Digital multimeter Three resistors, 12 k, 100 k, and 20 k

Ammeter

Voltmeter

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The lab was done following the procedures instructed carefully. First, the value of each resistors were measured using the digital multimeters and the measured values were recorded. Then, the circuit was constructed as shown in Figure 1 above. The power supply was adjusted to get a voltage of 2 V. After the setup process, the current flowing through each resistor was read and recorded in Table 1 as can be seen in result and discussion part below. The values of the currents were used to get the value of the calculated resistors using the formula: Resistors () = Finally, the percentage error between the resistance calculated and resistance measured were achieved using the formula: Error (%) = x 100

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Resistor () listed

Voltage (V)

Current (A)

Resistance () Calculated

% error

2.0 4.0 12 k 6.0 8.0 10.0 2.0 4.0 100 k 6.0 8.0 10.0 2.0 4.0 20 k 6.0 8.0 10.0

0.18 m 0.24 m 0.52 m 0.68 m 0.82 m 0.02 m 0.04 m 0.06 m 0.08 m 0.1 m 0.1 m 0.2 m 0.32 m 0.42 m 0.52 m

11.11 k 11.76 k 11.54 k 11.76 k 12.19 k 100.0 k 100.0 k 100.0 k 100.0 k 100.0 k 20.0 k 20.0 k 18.75 k 19.05 k 19.23 k

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EE1002 [Lab report] 1.6 DISCUSSION: a) Has Ohms Law been verified? Yes. b) State the facts supporting your decision.

After the lab was done, it can be seen that the Ohms Law which is V = IR has been successfully verified. This is because the resistance values can be achieved using the current measured and the voltage supply. So, basically this fulfills the requirements of an Ohms Law which stated that voltage is equal to current times the resistance. This can also be seen in the graph plotted as attached at the end of this report. The graph shows that current is proportional to the voltage. So the higher the voltage is, the higher he current will be. c) State the probable factors which contributed to the discrepancies in the results. First of all, a security measures during conducting this lab needed to be acknowledged and practiced. When measuring the resistors value, the best and safest way to do it is by plugging it into the bread board then only read the resistance value using the multimeter, not by holding the resistor with bare hand. By doing this, the measured valued of the resistors will be accurate as nearly as 100% with the listed value. Then, before connecting a supply voltage to the circuit, the circuit need be checked first by the supervisor in charge. This is to prevent short circuit inside the lab. But sometimes the error in reading the values of the resistors happened because of some technical problems such as multimeter failure or power supply that is over or under the desired voltage. All of the factors that have been discussed above contribute to the discrepancies in the results.

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Voltage (V)

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0.18 0.24

Current (mA)

0.52 0.68 0.82

Voltage (V)

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0.02 0.04

Current (mA)

0.06 0.08 0.1

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Voltage (V)

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0.1 0.2

Current (mA)

0.32 0.42 0.52

1.7 CONCLUSION: As for the conclusion, it can be seen that the main purpose of having this lab is a complete success. The Ohms Law has been successfully verified. This can be seen from the result itself. A resistance of a circuit can be calculated using the Ohms Law if the value of the supply voltage and the current are there. The discrepancies between the measured resistance and the calculated resistance maybe occurred because of some circumstances such as human error in reading the value of the current. This is because the current values were read by using an analog meter, so the reading wont be 100 % accurate compared to reading by a digital multimeter. The discrepancies may also occur because of some technical error such as unstable power supply or a failure multimeter.

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2.1 AIM: The aims of having this lab are: To verify that the total resistance of a series circuit equals the sum of individual resistances To verify the voltage divider rule. This rule states that the output voltage from a voltage divider is equal to the input voltage multiplied by the ratio of the resistance between the output terminals to the total resistance, which is:

VX = VS

2.2 APPARATUS: The apparatus needed for this lab are: Variable voltage DC supply Digital multimeter Four resistors, 1 k, 2 k, 3 k, and 1.5 k

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First of all, theories mention that when several resistors are used, the output is generally taken with respect to the ground as for example in Figure 7 below:

VX

In Figure 7 above, the value of output voltage VX can be calculated by using formula:

VX = VS VX = VS

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After understanding of this concept, the experiment was started. Each resistor was measured using the digital multimeter and these data were recorded as shown in Table 2 below. Then, the total resistance for a series connection was computed by adding the measured values and again the data were recorded in Table 2 below. By referring to the circuit in Figure 5, the connection was constructed. With the power off, the total resistance of the series connection was measured and the result was verified with the computed value. The voltage divider rule was then applied to each resistor one at a time to calculate the voltage across each of them. The measured values of resistances and a source voltage of 10V were used in this calculation. These data were again recorded in Table 2. Finally, the power supply of 10V was turned on and the voltage across each resistor was measured using the voltage meter. These results were added along with previous results in Table 2.

2.5 RESULTS:

Resistor Listed Value Measured Value VX = VS (RX / RT) VX (measured) R1 R2 R3 R4 RT 1 k 2 k 3 k 1.5 k 7.5 k 0.99 k 1.95 k 2.93 k 1.42 k 7.29 k 1.32 V 2.6 V 3.91 V 1.89 V 9.72 V 1.36 V 2.66 V 4.03 V 1.97 V 10.02 V

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EE1002 [Lab report] 2.6 DISCUSSION: a) Has the two points of the aim been achieved? Yes.

b) State the facts supporting your decision for each point of the aim. For the first aim which is to verify that the total resistance of a series circuit equals the sum of the individual resistances, it can be seen the aim has been proved to be correct as the results in Table 2 row number 5. If we add up the resistances that are connected in series, the sum will be equal with the total value of each individual resistance. The second aim which is to verify the voltage divider rule also has been proved to be correct. This can be seen in the result of the experiment in Table 2 column number 4. When compared to the measured values of the voltage across each resistor, the percentage error is small; hence it shows that the voltage divider rule has been applied correctly during the calculation. This also proves that the output voltage from a voltage divider is equal to the input voltage multiplied by the ratio of the resistance between the output terminals to the total resistance c) State the probable factors which contributed to the discrepancies in the results. As can be seen in the result tabulation data in Table 2 above, the value of the voltage measured and the value of the voltage calculated using the voltage divider rule is a little bit different. These discrepancies in the results may occur because of some circumstances such as ignoring the safety measures or some technical errors from the apparatus used. A security measures during conducting this lab need to be acknowledged and practiced. When measuring the resistors value, the best and safest way to do it is by plugging it into the bread board then only read the resistance value using the

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multimeter, not by holding the resistor with bare hand. By doing this, the measured valued of the resistors will be accurate as nearly as 100% with the listed value. Then, before connecting a supply voltage to the circuit, the circuit need be checked first by the supervisor in charge. This is to prevent short circuit inside the lab. But sometimes the error in reading the values of the resistors happened because of some technical problems such as multimeter failure or power supply that is over or under the desired voltage. All of the factors that have been discussed above contribute to the discrepancies in the results.

2.7 CONCLUSION: As for the conclusion, it can be seen that the main purpose of having this lab is a complete success. The Ohms Law has been successfully verified. This can be seen from the result itself. A resistance of a circuit can be calculated using the Ohms Law if the value of the supply voltage and the current are there. The discrepancies between the measured resistance and the calculated resistance maybe occurred because of some circumstances such as human error in reading the value of the voltage. This is because the voltage values were read by using an analog meter, so the reading wont be 100 % accurate compared to reading by a digital multimeter. The discrepancies may also occur because of some technical error such as unstable power supply or a failure multimeter.

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3.1 AIM: The aims of having this lab are: To verify that the superposition theorem

In any linear network containing several independent sources, the voltage across (or the current through) any element is the sum of the individual voltages (or sources) produced by each source acting alone. When determining the voltage (or current) due to an independent source, any remaining voltage sources are replaced by short circuits, and any remaining current sources are replaced by open circuits. The total current through any element is equal to the algebraic sum of the currents produced independently by each source. For a two-source network, if the current produced by one source is in the direction opposite to that produced by the other source, the resulting current is the difference of the two and has the direction of the larger. If the individual currents are in the same direction, the resulting current is the sum of the two and in the direction of either current. This rule holds for the voltages across any element as determined by the voltage polarities.

3.2 APPARATUS: The apparatus needed for this lab are: Variable voltage DC supply Digital multimeter Three resistors, 4.7 k, 6.8 k, and 10 k

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Figure 8: (a)

Jumper B D

Figure 9: (b)

+ +

Jumper B

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First of all, the resistance value of each resistor was measured and recorded in Table 3 as can be seen below. Then, as per circuit diagram in Figure 8, the connection was constructed. After that, the 10 V source was removed and a jumper was placed between point C and D as shown in Figure 9. The total resistance seen by the 5 V source was computed, then the 5 V source was removed and then the resistance between point A and B was measured to confirm the calculation. These values of measured and computed resistances were recorded in Table 4. Then, the total current, IT, supplied by the 5 V source was computed. This current through R1 was recorded as I1 in Table 4. Using the value of current I1, voltage divider rule was applied to determine the current that flows through R2 and R3. This calculation was made using the formula: I2 = IT ( ) and I3 = IT ( )

After that, using the currents computed from above and the measured resistances values, the expected voltage across each resistor of Figure 9 was

calculated. Then, the 5 V supply voltage was connected and the actual voltages present in the circuit was measured. These values were again recorded in Table 4. Then, the 5 V voltage supply was removed from the circuit and point A to B was connected by a jumper. The total resistance between point C and D was then computed. Again, the resistance between point C and D was measured to confirm the calculation. These values of resistances were also recorded in Table 4. Figure 10 was the constructed and the current through each resistor was computed. Total current that flows through R2 were divided between R1 and R3. The direction of the currents were also noted and recorded in Table 4. Again, using the values of the current computed above and the measured resistances, the voltage drop value across each resistor was computed. Then, the 10 V supply voltage was connected as shown in Figure 9 and the voltages across each

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resistor was measured. These values of voltage also were recorded in Table 4. Soon after that, the algebraic sum of the currents and voltages recorded in Table 4 was computed. Finally, the jumper between point A and B was removed and replaced by a 5 V supply voltage as shown in Figure 8. The voltage across each resistor was measure and the values of the voltage should agree with the algebraic sums.

3.5 RESULTS:

Table 3: Tabulated data for value of resistors

Computed Computed Measured Resistance Resistance 8.74 k 8.59 k 0.57 0.34 0.23 Current (A) I1 I2 I3

2.63 2.29 9.997 k 9.830 k 0.68 Total Step 10 1 0.32 3.14 6.74 0.11 0.66 0.55 0.51 4.45

2.14

2.72 2.29

2.29

2.98 5.12

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EE1002 [Lab report] 3.6 DISCUSSION: a) Has the superposition theorem been verified? Yes.

b) State the facts supporting your decision for each point of the aim In any linear network containing several independent sources, the voltage across (or the current through) any element is the sum of the individual voltages (or sources) produced by each source acting alone. This can be proven by the result of this experiment. It can be seen that the result shows that the voltage and current across each element is the sum of the individual voltage and current source.

c) State the probable factors which contributed to the discrepancies in the results. As can be seen in the result tabulation data in Table 3 above, the value of the resistance listed and the value of the resistance measured using the multimeter is a little bit different. These differences may occur because of the multimeter itself. The multimeter will show more accurate values compared to the listed values announced by the factory that produced the resistors. As for the results in Table 4, it can be seen that the computed values of voltages and the measured values for the voltages also are a little bit different. These discrepancies in the voltage readings may occur because of some circumstances such as ignoring the safety measures or some technical errors from the apparatus used. A security measures during conducting this lab need to be acknowledged and practiced. When measuring the resistors value, the best and safest way to do it is by plugging it into the bread board then only read the resistance value using the

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multimeter, not by holding the resistor with bare hand. By doing this, the measured valued of the resistors will be accurate as nearly as 100% with the listed value. Then, before connecting a supply voltage to the circuit, the circuit need be checked first by the supervisor in charge. This is to prevent short circuit inside the lab. But sometimes the error in reading the values of the resistors happened because of some technical problems such as multimeter failure or power supply that is over or under the desired voltage. All of the factors that have been discussed above contribute to the discrepancies in the results.

d) Prove that Kirchhoffs voltage law is valid for the circuit of Figure 8 using the algebraic sums from Table 4.

Figure 11: Figure 8 with the polarities according to the voltage supply

From the results gained by the experiment, it can be seen that the Kirchhoffs voltage law have been proved. This is because the calculation of the voltage across each resistor using the algebraic sums agrees with the measurement values.

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d) Prove that Kirchhoffs current law is valid for the circuit of Figure 8 using the algebraic sums from Table 4. + -

Figure 12: Figure 8 with the polarities according to the voltage supply

From the results gained by the experiment, it can be seen that the Kirchhoffs current law have been proved. This is because the calculation of the current across each resistor using the algebraic sums agrees with the measurement values.

3.7 CONCLUSION: As for the conclusion, it can be seen that the main purpose of having this lab is a complete success. The superposition theorem has been successfully verified. This can be seen from the result itself. The voltage across (or the current through) any element is the sum of the individual voltages (or sources) produced by each source acting alone. The discrepancies between the measured voltage and current and the calculated voltage and current maybe occurred because of some circumstances such as human error in reading the values. This is because the voltage and current values were read by using an analog meter, so the reading wont be 100 % accurate compared to reading by a digital multimeter. The discrepancies may also occur because of some technical error such as unstable power supply or a failure multimeter.

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4.1 AIM: The aims of having this lab are: To determine, by two methods, the Thevenins equivalent circuit of a linear network containing several resistors To verify the validity of the equivalent circuit so obtained

4.2 APPARATUS: The apparatus needed for this lab are: A 12 V dc supply Digital multimeter Six resistors, R1 = 2.7 k, R2 = 5.6 k, R3 = 6.8 k, RL1 = 1.8 k, RL2 = 4.7 k, and RL3 = 8.2 k

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a Voltmeter b

Figure 13

Ammeter

4.4 METHODOLOGY:

4.4.1

Method A (Open circuit test and a load test) First of all, the value of the load resistors RL1, RL2, and RL3 were

measured and recorded in Table 5. Then as shown in Figure 13, the connection was made. The supply voltage was adjusted to 12 V and this value was maintained along the experiment. Then, the open circuit voltage at terminal a and b was measured. This open circuit voltage is also known as the Thevenins voltage, Veq of the equivalent voltage source. The value was recorded into Table 6. Then, load resistance RL1 was connected to terminals a and b. The potential difference between terminal a and b with the load resistance connected was measured and the value was recorded. Finally, the Thevenins resistance of the equivalent source was calculated using formula: Req = (RL1) (E V) / V

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First of all, the circuit as shown in Figure 13 was connected. Then, the load resistance, RL1 was connected to terminal a and b. The supply voltage was adjusted to 12 V and maintained along the experiment. Then, the open circuit voltage at terminal a and b was measured and the value was recorded in Table 7. Soon after that, the resistor RL1 was replaced with resistor RL2. Then, the potential difference between terminals a and b was measured and the value was recorded. The Thevenins resistance was then calculated using formula: Req = RL1RL2 (V2 V1) / (V1RL2 V2RL1) While the Thevenins voltage of the equivalent source was calculated using formula: Veq = V1 (Req + RL1) / RL1 After calculating values above, the average values of Thevenins resistance and Thevenins voltage were calculated. The Thevenins equivalent circuit was drawn and the values of the parameters were indicated. 4.4.3 Verification method To verify the methods above, firstly an ammeter and load resistor RL3 were connected to terminal a and b of the source. After adjusting the voltage supply to 12 V, the current flowing in the load resistor and the voltage drop through it were measured and recorded in Table 8. Then, based on the Thevenins equivalent circuit of the source, the current flowing in the load resistor and the voltage drop across it were calculated and recorded as well in Table 8.

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Table 5: Tabulated data for value of load resistors

Thevenins resistance

12

1.67

8.57

7.49

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a) Make a comparison of the parameters of the Thevenins equivalent circuit obtained by the two methods using the relevant test results. What conclusions can you draw about the two circuits? The two circuits gained using the two tests were implying that the theory is valid and can be proven. As can be seen, both tests produced almost consistent results toward each other.

b) Do the results of the verification test indicate that the Thevenins equivalent circuit obtained by each method is valid? Substantiate your answer by reference to the results. As can be seen from the above results, the verification method indicates that both two tests using the two methods are valid.

c) State the factors that are most likely to have caused the differences in values of the parameters of the equivalent circuits obtained by the two methods? The discrepancies between the measured voltage and current and the calculated voltage and current maybe occurred because of some circumstances such as human error in reading the values. This is because the voltage and current values were read by using an analog meter, so the reading wont be 100 % accurate compared to reading by a digital multimeter. The discrepancies may also occur because of some technical error such as unstable power supply or a failure multimeter.

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d) State the advantage that the Thevenins theorem offer for computing the load voltage across each of the load resistors tested in this experiment. The advantage in performing the Thevenin conversion to the simpler circuit in this experiment is that it makes load voltage and load current so much easier to solve than in the original network. In real life, the advantage of using Thevenins theorem is that it can quickly determine which part of a circuit that goes wrong and need replacement without having to go through a lot of analysis again.

e) Figure 14 below shows a linear circuit and its Thevenins equivalent circuit. Explain why R1 has no effect on the Thevenin circuit.

Figure 14

As can be noticed, R1 is not taken into consideration, because the calculations were done in an open circuit condition between a and b, therefore no current flows through this part, which means there is no current through R1 and therefore no voltage drop along this part.

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As for the conclusion, it can be seen that the main purpose of having this lab is a complete success. The Thevenins equivalent circuit of a linear network containing several resistors has been successfully determined. This can be seen from the result itself. The first method which is an open circuit test and load test has produced the Thevenins voltage and resistance of the circuit. The second method which is a two load test also has been successfully produced the Thvenins voltage and resistance. These two methods produced the same result consistent to each other. The discrepancies between the measured voltage and current and the calculated voltage and current maybe occurred because of some circumstances such as human error in reading the values. This is because the voltage and current values were read by using an analog meter, so the reading wont be 100 % accurate compared to reading by a digital multimeter. The discrepancies may also occur because of some technical error such as unstable power supply or a failure multimeter.

5. REFERRENCES

Dorf, Richard C. & Svoboda, James A. (2006) Introduction to Electric Circuits, John Wiley Irwin, David J.(1993) Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, Macmillan Publishing Company Boylestad, Robert L.(2003) Introductory Circuit Analysis, Prentice Hall Hayt, W. H., Kemmerly, J. E. & Durbin, S. M.(2007) Engineering Circuit Analysis, McGraw Hill. Nilsson, J. W. & Riedel, S. A.(2001) Electric Circuits, Prentice Hall

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