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SUBCOURSE MM4812

EDITION 9

NIGHT SIGHT (AN/TAS-4A)

NIGHT SIGHT (AN/TAS-4A) Subcourse Number MM4812 EDITION 9 United States Army Ordnance Missile and Munitions Center and School 4 Credit Hours Edition Date: August 1989 SUBCOURSE OVERVIEW This subcourse is designed to teach you the characteristics, purpose, and functional operation of the major assemblies and subassemblies of the AN/TAS-4A night sight. Contained within this subcourse are instructions on all assemblies and subassemblies to ensure the student's understanding of the overall operation of the AN/TAS-4A night sight. There are no prerequisites for this subcourse. This subcourse reflects the doctrine which was current at the time the subcourse was prepared. In your own work situation, always refer to the latest publications. The words "he," "him," "his," and "men," when used in this publication, represent both the masculine and feminine genders unless otherwise stated. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE TASK: You will identify the characteristics and state the purpose of: major assemblies, subassemblies, and associated Test Equipment used to support and train personnel for the AN/TAS 4A night sight. You will have the subcourse book and will work without supervision. You will answer 19 of 25 questions passing score for this subcourse. i correctly for a

CONDITIONS: STANDARDS:

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Subcourse Overview ............................................. Lesson 1: Introduction to the Night Sight (AN/TAS-4A) .......... Practice Exercise .................................... Answer Key and Feedback .............................. Lesson 2: Functional Theory of the AN/TAS-4A .................. Practice Exercise .................................... Answer Key and Feedback .............................. Lesson 3: Night Sight Test Equipment and Maintenance ........... Practice Exercise .................................... Answer Key and Feedback .............................. Page i 1 12 14 16 46 48 50 69 71

* * * IMPORTANT NOTICE * * * THE PASSING SCORE FOR ALL ACCP MATERIAL IS NOW 70%. PLEASE DISREGARD ALL REFERENCES TO THE 75% REQUIREMENT.

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LESSON ONE INTRODUCTION TO THE NIGHT SIGHT.(AN/TAS-4A) Soldier's Manual Task: OVERVIEW TASK DESCRIPTION: Provide technical assistance to night sight repairers. LEARNING OBJECTIVE: ACTIONS: When you have completed this lesson, you should be able to identify the purpose, function, and operation of the Night Sight (AN/TAS-4A). You will have this subcourse book, and will work without supervision. You will identify the purpose, function, and operation of the Night Sight (AN/TAS-4A) in accordance with the information contained in this subcourse. The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publications: TM TM TM TM TM 9-5855-450-24. 9-1425-450-12. 9-5855-883-24. 9-5855-884-24. 9-5855-885-24. INTRODUCTION The AN/TAS-4A Night Sight is a long-wavelength infrared sensing system. The night sight detects thermal energy and converts it into electrical signals that are converted into a visible light image, therefore allowing the TOW Weapon System to be used day or night in all weather and all terrain conditions. In this lesson you will be introduced to the functional operation of the night vision sight, infrared AN/TAS-4A, its assemblies and test equipment. 1 MM4812 093-411-3913

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Night Sight (AN/TAS 4A). The Night Sight (Figure 1-1) is a passive device. It receives infrared energy from the target area. The infrared energy is converted to electrical signals, and these signals are then converted to visible light. This visible light is presented to the gunner to permit real time tracking or observation of a target. The night sight enables the operator to track targets in darkness, daylight, and degraded field conditions. The night sight operates using a battery power conditioner or vehicle power conditioner, has narrow field-of-view (NFOV)(12X) and wide field-of-view (WFOV)(4X), uses a closed cycle cooler to cool infrared (IR) detectors, and has adjustments to aline the night sight with the optical sight. Listed in the figure are the external controls and assemblies.

Figure 1-1.

Night Sight.

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Night Sight Controls and Indicators. Fields of View. The night sight fields of view (Figure 1-2) are wide field-of-view (WFOW) and narrow field-of-view (NFOV).

Figure 1-2.

Night Sight Fields of View. 3 MM4812

Night Sight Controls and Indicators (Figures 1-3,4,5).

Figure 1-3.

Night Sight Controls and Indicators. 4 MM4812

Figure 1-4.

Night Sight Controls and Indicators.

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Figure 1-5.

Night Sight Controls and Indicators.

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Night Sight Functional Groups. The night sight is effectively three functional groups (Figure 1-6): optical, electronic, and mechanical. Optical Functions: Collect infrared energy. Focus infrared energy on the detectors. Image visible light. Display real time scene through the eyepiece.

Electronic Function: Provide Provide Convert Convert Process signals to drive the scanning mechanism. signals to the detectors. the incoming IR energy to video signals. video signals to a visual display. the video signals.

Mechanical Function: Switch lens for different fields-of-view. Secure the night sight to the mounting fixture. Prevent the escape of stray light from the eyepiece. Allow target image to be focused.

Figure 1-6.

Night Sight Functional Groups. 7 MM4812

Functional Description. The night sight (Figure 1-7) receives heat emissions (IR energy) from a target area, and converts the IR energy to electrical signals. These signals are processed into video signals (video) and then to visible light by the light-emitting diode (LED) array which displays the visible light as a real-time scene for viewing by an observer. The afocal assembly gathers IR energy and focuses it onto the scan mirror. The IR energy from the scan mirror is focused by the IR imager optics onto the infrared detectors in the detector/Dewar assembly. The IR energy is converted by the detectors into video signals. The video signals are processed by the video electronics and then converted to visible light by the light emitting diodes in the emitter assembly. The visual collimator collimates the visible light onto the scan mirror. The objective lens/roof mirror assembly images the visible light from the scan mirror onto the reticle for viewing through the eye piece.

Figure 1-7.

Night Sight (AN/TAS-4A). 8 MM4812

Night Sight Equipment. Equipment used with the night sight includes the boresight collimator, battery power conditioner (BPC), and the vehicle power conditioner (VPC). Battery Power Conditioner. The battery power conditioner (Figure 1-8) contains two nonrechargeable batteries to supply the input power. The 4.8/16.8 volts direct current (VDC) regulator converts the battery voltage to regulated 4.8 VDC, and 16.8 VDC, and supplies the voltage to the night sight junction box. The battery power conditioner will power the night sight for about 10 hours when vehicle power is not available.

Figure 1-8.

Battery Power Conditioner. 9 MM4812

Vehicle Power Conditioner. The vehicle power conditioner (Figure 1-9) accepts 20 to 40 VDC from the vehicle and supplies regulated 4.8 and 16.8 VDC through connector J2 and cable W2 to the night sight junction box.

Figure 1-9.

Vehicle Power Conditioner. 10 MM4812

Boresight Collimator. The boresight collimator (Figure 1-10) uses electronic, optical, and mechanical components to produce two parallel beams of energy which are used to aline the night sight to the optical sight. There are two energy sources generated: visible energy and infrared (IR) energy. Visible energy is produced by an incandescent visible source lamp directly into visible energy that can be seen by the human eye. IR energy is obtained when power is applied through lamp and heater control circuit card (3A1) to the IR source heater on the back of the reticle. This causes the reticle to emit IR energy that can be detected by a night sight, but is not visible to the human eye.

Figure 1-10.

Boresight Collimator.

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LESSON ONE Practice Exercise The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in this lesson. There is only one correct answer for each item. When you have completed the exercise, check your answers with the answer key that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, study again that part of the lesson which contains the portion involved. Situation: You have been asked by a subordinate questions pertaining to the Night Sight (AN/TAS-4A). 1. the following

What type of cooler does the night sight use to cool the IR detectors? A. B. C. D. Closed cycle. Open cycle. Recycle. Coolant cartridge.

2.

What type of device is the AN/TAS 4A Night Sight? A. B. C. D. Infrared active. Infrared passive. Telescopic. Photo.

3.

What wavelength sensing system is the night sight? A. B. C. D. Short. Medium. Long. Half.

4.

What is the purpose of the field-of-view selector on the night sight? A. B. C. D. To adjust night sight line-of-sight. To focus the image. To adjust azimuth boresight. To let the gunner choose field-of-view seen in the night sight.

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5.

Which assembly in the night sight converts IR energy to video signals? A. B. C. D. Detectors. Imager optics. Roof mirror. Afocal cover.

6.

With the power ON/OFF/STBY switch in the standby position, what part(s) of the night sight has power applied? A. B. C. D. Night sight and cooler. Night Sight. Cooler only. Post amplifier.

7.

What is the purpose of the security shutter in the night sight? A. B. C. D. To To To To protect the gunner. filter unwanted light. protect the eyepiece. prevent emission of light from the eyepiece.

8.

What are the functional groups of the night sight? A. B. C. D. Mechanical, optical, Optical, electrical, Electrical, optical, Mechanical, optical, and and and and infrared. mechanical. infrared. infrared.

9.

What collimates the visible light onto the scan mirror? A. B. C. D. Visual collimator. Boresight. Objective lense/roof mirror. Detectors.

10.

What images the visible light from the scan mirror onto the reticle? A. B. C. D. Afocal assembly. Detectors. Objective lens/roof mirror assembly. Visual collimator.

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LESSON ONE PRACTICE EXERCISE ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK Item 1. Correct Answer and Feedback A. Closed cycle. Some infrared sights and devices have coolant cartridges to cool the detectors, but the AN/TAS-4A has a closed cycle cooler. (Page 2, Para. 2.) 2. B. Infrared passive. The AN/TAS-4A Night Sight is a passive infrared system. (Page 2, Para. 1.) 3. C. Long. While there are some infrared devices that have shortwavelength sensing systems, the AN/TAS-4A has a longwavelength system. (Page 1, Introduction) 4. D. To let the gunner choose field-of-view. Depending upon terrain conditions and other considerations the gunner may wish to view the target from narrow or wide field-of-views. (Page 3, Figure 1-2.) 5. A. Detectors. In the night sight the detectors are used to convert IR energy to video signals. (Page 8, Figure 1-7.) 6. C. Cooler only. The cooler is the only part of the night sight to have power applied with the power ON/OFF/STBY switch in the standby position. (Page 5, Figure 1-4.)

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7.

D. To prevent emission of light from the eyepiece. To prevent light escaping from the night sight eyepiece, a security shutter is installed. (Page 6, Figure 1-5.)

8.

B. Optical, electrical, and mechanical. The AN/TAS-4A Night Sight is designed with three functional groups: optical, electrical, and mechanical. (Page 7, Para. 1.)

9.

A. Visual collimator. The visible light is collimated onto the scan mirror by the visual collimator in the AN/TAS-4A Night Sight. (Page 8, Figure 1-7.)

10.

C. Objective lens/roof mirror assembly. In the AN/TAS-4A Night Sight, the objective lens/roof mirror assembly images the visible light on the reticle for viewing. (Page 8, Figure 1-7.)

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LESSON TWO FUNCTIONAL THEORY OF THE AN/TAS-4A Soldier's Manual Task: OVERVIEW TASK DESCRIPTION: Provide technical assistance to night sight repairers. LEARNING OBJECTIVE: ACTIONS: When you have completed this lesson, you should be able to identify the purpose, function, and operation of the Night Sight (AN/TAS-4A) You will have this subcourse book, and will work without supervision. You will identify the purpose, function, and operation of the Night Sight (AN/TAS-4A) IAW the information contained in this subcourse. The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publications: TM 9-5855-450-24 TM 9-5855-247-24 TM 9-5855-450-24 093-411-3913

CONDITIONS: STANDARDS:

REFERENCES:

INTRODUCTION The TOW2 and Dragon Missile Systems provide the soldier with a reliable method of countering enemy armor on the battlefield. The night sight greatly extends the capability of the anti-armor missiles. In the previous lesson you were introduced to the Night Sight AN/TAS-4A and test equipment used with the TOW2 weapon system. During this lesson you will learn the functional theory of the Night Sight AN/TAS-4A. 16 MM4812

Facts about the Night Sight. The AN/TAS-4A Night Sight (Figure 2-1) consists of an afocal telescope, scanning mirror, detector/Dewar assembly, visible light optics, and electronic amplification, and control circuits. When incorporated into the TOW2 launcher system, the night sight provides the dual function of a missile-tracking sensor and a gunner's night sight. The night sight is an electro-optical system that includes both IR and visible light optics. The afocal assembly optics gathers IR energy and focuses it onto the scan mirror. Either of two magnifications may be used. The IR imager optics (optical imager) focuses the IR energy from the scan mirror into infrared detectors in the detector/Dewar. The detectors convert IR energy to video signals. The video signals are processed by the video electronics. The video is converted to visible light by an emitter assembly (LED array). The collimator transfers the visible light from the emitter assembly onto a scan mirror. The objective lens/roof mirror assembly optics directs this light onto the display reticle for viewing through the eyepiece optics.

Figure 2-1.

Night Sight Block Diagram. 17 MM4812

Night Sight to Missile Guidance Path. During the night sight to missile guidance path (Figure 2-2) the infrared scene is projected on the scan mirror that reflects the scene to the 60 element detector. Here it is changed into electrical impulses, called video, and passed to a 60 channel preamplifier inside the night sight. The postamplifier assembly contains an eight-channel selector and a programmable gain postamplifier. The eight-channel selector can select 8 of 56 video input signals. Selection control (i.e. which input line will be monitored) is made by five-bit selector lines. A missile guidance set software program controls these five postamp channel select bits. The eight-channel postamp provides not only video amplification but also some 16 different selectable gain levels. The postamplifier assembly outputs (video thermal tracker channels 1-8) are sent to the missile guidance set into a multiplexer. This multiplexer combines the eight video channels to allow this information to be changed into digital data by an analog to digital converter located inside the missile guidance set.

Figure 2-2.

Night Sight to Missile Guidance Path.

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Night Sight Signal Path. The night sight (Figure 2-3) is a passive device that receives infrared energy from a target area. The infrared (IR) energy is converted to electrical signals and then to visible light. The visible light is then displayed as a real time image. The night sight does this as follows: The afocal assembly optics gathers IR energy and focuses it onto the the scan mirror. The IR imager optics (optical imager) focuses the IR energy from the scan mirror onto the infrared detectors in the detector/Dewar assembly. The IR energy is converted to video signals by the light emitting detectors (LEDs). The video signals are processed by the video electronics and then converted to visible light by the emitter assembly. The visual collimator alines the visible light from the emitter assembly onto the scan mirror. The objective lens/roof mirror assembly optics images this light onto the display reticle for viewing through the eyepiece optics.

Figure 2-3.

Night Sight Signal Path. 19 MM4812

POWER DISTRIBUTION. Input Power Distribution. A battery power conditioner or vehicle power conditioner (Figure 2-4) supplies +4.8 and +16.8 VDC through a junction box to the cooler assembly and to a consumables monitor/bias regulator in the night sight. A switch on the junction box controls power to the cooler assembly and night sight.

Figure 2-4.

Input Power Distribution.

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Power from the battery power conditioner or vehicle power conditioner (Figure 2-5) is converted to various DC voltages by the regulator and DC-DC converter (power supply). The following paragraphs explain the function distribution of the various DC voltages.

Figure 2-5.

Input Power Distribution.

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Regulator Output Power Distribution. The consumables monitor/bias regulator (Figure 2-4) supplies +4.8 VDC through a fuse to the DC-DC converter. Upon receiving +9.6 VDC and -9.6 VDC from the DC-DC converter, the consumables monitor/bias regulator supplies +3 VDC to the video preamplifiers and to the detectors, and -9.6 VDC to the boresight diode.

Figure 2-6.

Regulator Output Power Distribution. 22 MM4812

DC-DC Converter Output Power Distribution. The DC-DC converter (Figure 2-7) distributes +4.8, -4.8, +9.6, and -9.6 VDC to the video postamplifier control drivers, video auxiliary, and scan and interlace circuit, and +9.6 and -9.6 VDC to the consumables monitor/bias regulator.

Figure 2-7.

DC-DC Converter Output Power Distribution. 23 MM4812

Afocal Assembly Optics. The afocal/cover assembly optics (Figure 2-8) gathers IR energy and focuses it onto the scan mirror. The afocal/cover assembly optics has two interchangeable field-of-view (FOV) telescope lenses, with an objective lens, made of special IR passive material, common to both fields of view. The interchangeable lenses provide 4.5X and 1.5X magnifications of the fields-of-view. The 4.5X Narrow Field-Of-View (NFOW) lens set consists of two IR lenses. The 1.5X Wide Field-OfView (WFOV) lens is a single IR lens. Both lenses are mounted on the same frame which is moved longitudinally for focus and laterally, either vertically or horizontally, for boresight. The lenses are mounted so that an approximate 90-degree rotation about a horizontal axis brings one lens into position and stows the other to accomplish an FOV change.

Figure 2-8.

Afocal Assembly Optics.

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Afocal Assembly Focus. The narrow field-of-view (NFOV) and the wide field-of-view (WFOV) lens assemblies (Figure 2-9) are mounted on the same housing. The focus coupling connects the range focus knob to the bevel gear. The bevel gear meshes with and drives the screw and shaft assembly. The screw and shaft assembly is screwed into the focus nut which is secured to the focus frame. Rotation of the range focus knob causes the screw and shaft assembly to move the focus frame (with attached lens assemblies) longitudinally, adjusting the viewed image focus.

Figure 2-9.

Focus Assembly. 25 MM4812

Afocal/Cover Lens Switching (NFOV-WFOV). Lens switching (Figure 2-10) is accomplished manually by operating the night sight field-of-view (FOV) handle. Operating the FOV handle rotates the FOV lens switching housing approximately 90 degrees about a horizontal axis to bring one lens into operating position and to stow the other. The external FOV handle is attached directly to the fork inside the afocal/cover housing. The fork straddles a pin on one end of the link assembly. The link assembly has a pin through each end and is loaded against the focus frame by a helical spring. The pin engaged by the fork goes through the link assembly and attaches to the connecting link. The other end of the connecting link is connected to a pin on the lens switching housing. Operating the FOV handle causes the lens switching housing to rotate approximately 90 degrees about a horizontal axis to change FOV. A linkage in the FOV lens switching mechanism operates a switch mounted on the basic sight assembly. The switch contacts are closed in WFOV and open in NFOV. The position information generated by the switch is supplied to the TOW guidance circuitry via the night sight postamplifier assembly.

Figure 2-10.

Lens Switching.

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Afocal/Cover Boresight. The night sight is boresighted (Figure 2-11) by rotating the AZ boresight adjustment and EL boresight adjustment knobs. The AZ boresight adjustment knob is attached to one end of the boresight screw and the boresight drive nut is screwed on the other end. Rotating the lock releases the AZ boresight adjustment knob. Rotating the AZ boresight adjustment knob clockwise screws the boresight drive nut out, pushing the boresight frame with afocal optics lens switching assembly against the spring-loaded yoke assembly. Rotating the AZ boresight adjustment knob counterclockwise screws the boresight drive nut in, allowing the spring-loaded yoke assembly to push the boresight frame horizontally toward the AZ boresight adjustment knob. Rotation of the AZ boresight adjustment knob causes the boresight frame to move left or right about 0.096inch for boresight adjustment. The EL boresight knob performs an identical mechanical function in the vertical plane.

Figure 2-11. 27

Boresight. MM4812

Scanning Mirror. The scan mirror (Figure 2-12) oscillates about the scan axis. As the scan mirror reaches one end of its travel, the scan axis tilts. As the scan mirror reaches the opposite end of its travel, the scan axis tilts to its original position. This action creates a 2:1 interlace scan pattern. The front side of the scan mirror directs incoming IR energy through the optical imager onto an array of IR detectors. The back of the mirror receives the visible light output of the LED array from the visual collimator and reflects it through the objective lens/roof mirror optics into a visible display optics assembly.

Figure 2-12.

Scanning Mirror.

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Mechanical Scanner. The mechanical scanner (Figure 2-13) contains the scan and interlace gimbal (double axis), scan drive tachometer, scan mirror, scan drive torque motor, interlace flexible pivot bearings, interlace transducer (2 places), interlace drive solenoid (2 places), and scan return spring. The scan mirror oscillates about the scan axis and interlace axis. These motions are combined so the IR image is moved in a continuous parallelogram shaped path over detectors to create the 2:1 interlace pattern. The front side of the scan mirror is coated for peak reflectivity in the IR band and directs the incoming IR energy through the imaging optics onto the array of IR detectors. The back of the scan mirror is coated for peak reflectivity in the red LED array visual band, and directs the LED array output through a set of collimating optics into a visible display. The scan mirror is rotated about the scan axis by the scan drive torque motor. The lower torque motor is used as a scan drive tachometer to provide scan velocity information to the drive electronics. Two interlace drive solenoids pivot the gimbal assembly about the interlace axis during the time the scan return arms are in contact with the return springs. A position transducer is located between the solenoids to provide angular position information to the interlace drive electronics.

Figure 2-13.

Mechanical Scanner. 29 MM4812

Scan and Interlace Circuitry. The scan and interlace circuitry (Figure 2-14) consists of two control loops: the scan loop and the interlace loop. The scan loop is a rate servo loop using the scan mirror's bottom torque motor B-1 as a tachometer for scan velocity information. The interlace loop is a position servo loop using two magneto-resistive transducers for gimbal position information to synchronize shift of the interlace gimbal solenoid at the end of each scan of the mirror.

Figure 2-14.

Scan and Interlace Loop. 30 MM4812

Scan Loop. The scan loop (Figure 2-15) is a rate servo loop that causes the scan mirror to cross the field-of-view at a constant velocity. The reference signal for the scan loop is a square wave that is applied to the comparator. Also applied to the comparator is the scan mirror velocity signal. The comparator generates an error signal which is used to drive and control the speed of torque motor B2. The scan drive signal maintains a constant scan mirror velocity across the field-of-view. When the scan mirror velocity reaches zero and the mirror arm fully compresses the return spring, a square wave signal reverses its polarity, causing the scan drive signal to drive the mirror back across the field of view at a constant velocity.

Figure 2-15.

Scan Loop.

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Interlace Loop. The interlace loop (Figure 2-16) is a position servo loop. The position of the gimbal is determined and positioned by the scan mirror velocity. The reference signal is developed by the differentiator and drive circuit. The gimbal position signal is amplified and compared with the reference signal by the driver and comparator circuit which generates an error signal. The error signal is used to operate solenoid No. l and is balanced with the signal from the differentiator to operate solenoid No. 2. Both solenoids hold the interlace gimbal in the proper position during the scan sweeps.

Figure 2-16.

Interlace Loop.

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Visible Light Display Optics. Optical Imager. The optical imager (Figure 2-17) focuses IR energy from the scan mirror onto the IR detector array in the detector/Dewar. The optical imager has three IR imaging lenses and a folding mirror. IR energy passes through lens No. 1 and lens No. 2 to the folding mirror. The folding mirror reflects the IR energy 90 degrees and transmits it through temperature compensating focus lens No. 3 to the IR detector array. Lens No. 3 is mounted on thermal compensating rods that maintain a constant focal distance with changes in temperature.

Figure 2-17.

Optical Imager.

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Detector/Dewar Assembly. The Detector/Dewar Assembly (Figure 2-18) is a multi-element detector array contained in an insulating vacuum. The insulating vacuum assists in maintaining the necessary cryogenic temperature required for efficient operation of the detectors. The detector/Dewar is optimized for low heat loss and long vacuum life. The cooler assembly coldfinger mechanically slipfits into the detector with a small gap between the coldfinger and the detector array. As independent modules, the detector/Dewar and cooler assembly can be separated and reassembled for test and replacement. The detector/Dewar contains the mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdte) IR detector array, detector bias resistors, and the interconnecting leads to the connector pins. The connector permits external connection of the detector/Dewar to the video preamplifier modules. The detector consists of a monolithic 60-active-element linear array of HgCdte photoconductive detectors and the detector bias resistors to maintain the proper bias level of each detector.

Figure 2-18.

Detector/Dewar Assembly. 34 MM4812

Video Postamplifier. The video postamplifier control driver (Figure 2-19) provides 60 channels of additional signal amplification, variable gain control, video gating, and drive current for the LED array. Each of the three video postamplifier control drivers contains 20 channels of video amplification. Since operation of each of the 20 channels is the same, operation of only one channel is described. The amplifier video signal is input to amplifier No. 1. The voltage gain of this stage is controlled by gain command 1. The polarity control applied to amplifier No. 1 is fixed by the voltage divider polarity control circuit. The amplifier video signal from amplifier No. 1 is applied through the gain balance adjustment circuit to the input of amplifier No. 2. Gain command 2, a variable gain control voltage level, controls the gain of amplifier No. 2. The output from amplifier No. 2 is applied to amplifier No. 3. Amplifier No. 3 provides the final stage of video signal amplification. The gate and level function is used to adjust the average brightness during the active scan period and to shut off the video channel during the scan mirror turnaround periods to conserve power. This stage requires two positive supplies, +9.6 and +4.8 VDC, and a negative supply, -4.8 VDC. The current limiter circuit provides current limiting in case a short circuit occurs across the output of a video channel. The currentlimiting circuit provides the video drive signals that are applied to the LED array.

Figure 2-19.

Video Postamplifier. 35 MM4812

Light Emitting Diode Array. The LED array (Figure 2-20) converts video drive signals to visible light. The LED array consists of one multi-element LED array with integral individual current-normalizing series resistors. The video drive signals from the video postamplifier control drivers are applied to the current-normalizing series resistors, which are connected to the LEDs and generate normalized current signals in each LED. The visible light emitted by the LED array varies directly with the input drive signals. The LED array contains 180 elements of gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) diodes arranged in a format matching the IR detector array with only the center 60 elements used for video display. LEDs located outside of the video display illuminate the boresight diode at the center of scan mirror travel in order to produce a boresight pulse. Operating current for the three boresight elements is provided by the DC-DC converter. The LEDs, when forward-biased, emit visible red light at a wavelength of 6,600 Angstrom units (A). When the LED array is scanned by the back of the scan mirror, a visible scene is formed corresponding to the IR scene scanned simultaneously by the front of the scan mirror. Scene brightness depends on the BRT and CRT control settings.

Figure 2-20.

Light Emitting Diode Array.

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Visual Collimator. Visible light from the LED array (Figure 2-21) is transferred through the visual collimator into the mechanical scanner. The visual collimator contains four fixed lenses. The phase shift lens and scan mirror are located in the mechanical scanner.

Figure 2-21.

Visual Collimator.

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Objective Lens/Roof Mirror Assembly/Eyepiece. The objective lens/roof mirror assembly (Figure 2-22) directs the scan mirror image onto the optical reticle for viewing through the eyepiece assembly optics. The objective lens is part of a 2.67X telescope. The optical elements consist of a double-objective lens. One element of this lens is moved by a bimetallic annular disc to effect temperature compensation, a roof mirror which orients the scene, a field lens to control exit pupil location, an optical reticle, and a three-element eyepiece lens with diopter adjustment.

Figure 2-22.

Objective Lens/Roof Mirror Assembly. 38 MM4812

Eyepiece Assembly.

Figure 2-23.

Eyepiece Assembly.

The eyepiece assembly (Figure 2-23) contains mechanical shutters and a diopter focus mechanism. The shutters prevent light from passing out of the eyeshield except during operator use. The diopter focus mechanism allows reticle focus adjustments. The shutters are attached to the inside of the collapsible eyecup. Pressing the collapsible eyecup into the eyeshield assembly causes the shutters to fold away from the viewing path. Rotating the diopter adjustment grip moves the eyepiece lens assembly in or out of the eyepiece housing assembly to focus the reticle.

Figure 2-24.

Eyepiece Assembly.

Eyepiece assembly (part number 13251629)(Figure 2-24) contains a NOT READY LIGHT which illuminates when the night sight is not ready for operation. 39 MM4812

Cooler. The cooler (Figure 2-25) maintains a cryogenic environment for the IR detector, which is mated to the coldfinger cooling surface. The cooler is a Stirling-cycle cryogenic refrigerator capable of maintaining a temperature of approximately 80 degrees Kelvin (K). This low temperature is necessary for the proper operation of the mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) IR detector array. A motor, operating on +16.8 VDC, drives the cooler. The motor drives a piston and regenerator to achieve and maintain the operating temperature.

Figure 2-25.

Cooler.

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Junction Box. The junction box (Figure 2-26) distributes +4.8 and +16.8 VDC power via input connector J1 to the night sight, boresight collimator, and cooler. ON/OFF/STBY switch S1 controls the power. When the ON/OFF/STBY switch S1 is set to on, the junction box supplies +4.8 VDC to the night sight via connector J3 and to the boresight collimator via connector J4, and supplies a switched +16.8 VDC to the cooler via connector J2. The cooler control circuit senses the detector temperature via J5 and cycles the cooler power on and off about a referenced voltage to maintain an optimum detector operating temperature. Setting the ON/OFF/STBY switch S1 to STBY activates the cooler control circuit and disables the +4.8 VDC to the night sight and the boresight collimator. The standby circuit operates the cooler sufficiently to obtain usable video within 30 seconds after setting the ON/OFF/STBY switch S1 to ON, without excessive battery drain during the time when the night sight is not needed.

Figure 2-26.

Junction Box. 41 MM4812

Mount Assembly. The mount assembly (Figure 2-27) secures the night sight to the optical sight so that the sights are precisely aligned. The mount assembly latch handle secures the mount assembly to the cam post on the optical sight. The latch handle moves in a horizontal arc of approximately 55 degrees.

Figure 2-27.

Mount Assembly. 42 MM4812

Boresight AN/TAS-4A. Before boresighting the night sight, you must boresight the optical sight. This brings the optical sight's line-of-sight (LOS) into alinement with the weapon's LOS (aiming point). The boresight collimator can then be used to aline the night sight's LOS with the optical sight's LOS. Using the boresight collimator, boresight the night sight at the start of each night sight operation. These operations include when the night sight is transferred from one weapon system to another, when operating sights location changes, when the night sight has been repaired, and whenever the optical sight is boresighted during a system self-test. Figure 2-28 shows how the boresight collimator mates with the AN/TAS4A in preparation for boresighting the night sight to the optical sight.

Figure 2-28.

Boresight Collimator. 43 MM4812

Reticle Boresight Display Patterns. The boresight collimator (Figure 2-29) uses electronic, optical, and mechanical components to produce two parallel beams of energy which are used to aline the night sight to the optical sight. The pattern shown is the display you might expect to see while performing the boresight alinement. The two circles at the bottom of the reticle display pattern are monitors: these monitors are indicator lamps that warn of shortages. One monitor is for voltage and the other is for air pressure.

Figure 2-29.

Reticle Boresight Display Patterns.

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Electronic Amplification and Control Circuits. Video Chain. The IR energy (Figure 2-30) from the afocal/cover assembly is scanned by the mechanical scanner. The scanner provides the scan and interlace circuit with position and speed information. The IR energy is reflected from the scan mirror, and is focused on the coolerdetector assembly. The cooler-detector assembly detects variations in IR energy and generates low-level video signals that are amplified by video preamplifiers. Video from the preamplifiers is applied to video postamplifier control drivers and to postamplifiers in the postamplifier assembly. Output signals from the postamplifiers are applied to the missile guidance set. Video from the video postamplifier control drivers is applied to an LED array. The LED array produces visible light which is transmitted to the mechanical scanner; it is transmitted then to the eyepiece for viewing by the operator. Contrast (CTRS) and brightness (BRT) controls adjust the video gain and level. The video auxiliary control generates two gain commands and a video gate and level control signal to the video postamplifier control drivers.

Figure 2-30.

Video Chain. 45 MM4812

LESSON TWO Practice Exercise The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in this lesson. There is only one correct answer for each item. When you have completed the exercise, check your answers with the answer key that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, study again that part of the lesson which contains the portion involved. Situation: You have been asked by a subordinate questions pertaining to the Night Sight (AN/TAS-4A). 1. What is the purpose of the boresight alinement? A. B. C. D. 2. To To To To aline aline aline aline the the the the night sight with the optical sight. launch tube with the optical sight. optical sight with the traversing unit. weapon system with the target. the following

What assembly contains the scan mirror? A. B. C. D. Afocal/cover. Mechanical scanner. Visual collimator. Objective lens/roof mirror.

3.

Where does the light come from that is applied to the back of the scan mirror? A. B. C. D. Detector/Dewar. Eyepiece. LEDs. IR detectors.

4.

What focuses IR energy from the scan mirror on to the detector array? A. B. C. D. Eyepiece. Scan mirror. Detector/Dewar. Optical imager.

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5.

How many lenses are contained in the visual collimator? A. B. C. D. 4 5 6 7

6.

What type of loop is the scan loop? A. B. C. D. Rate servo. Rate tachometer. Open. Interlace.

7.

What positions the gimbal in the interlace loop? A. B. C. D. Scan mirror velocity. IR detectors. Scan loop. Detector/Dewar.

8.

Where are the output signals of the postamplifiers applied? A. B. C. D. Detector/Dewar. Scan mirror. Missile guidance set. IR detectors.

9.

What directs the scan mirror image on to the optical reticle? A. B. C. D. Objective lens/roof mirror assembly. Video electronics. Detector/Dewar assembly. Optical imager.

10.

How many detector elements are contained in the detector/Dewar assembly? A. B. C. D. 20 30 40 60

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LESSON TWO PRACTICE EXERCISE ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK Item 1. Correct Answer and Feedback A. Aline the night sight with the optical sight. The purpose of the boresight alinement is to aline night sight with the optical sight. (Page 43, Para 1) 2. B. Mechanical scanner. The assembly which contains the scan mechanical scanner. (Page 29, Para. 1) 3. C. LEDs. The light that is applied to the back of the scan mirror comes from the LEDs. (Page 17, Para. 2) 4. D. Optical imager. The IR energy from the scan mirror is focused on to the detector array by the optical imager. (Page 19, Para. 3) 5. A. 4 There are four lenses contained in the visual collimator. (Page 37, Para. 1) 6. A. Rate servo. The scan loop is a rate servo loop. 7. A. Scan mirror velocity. The scan mirror velocity positions interlace loop. (Page 32, Para 1) 8. C. Missile guidance set. The output signals from the postamplifiers are sent to the missile guidance set. (Page 45, Para 1) 48 MM4812 the gimbal in the (Page 31, Para. 1) mirror is the the

9.

A. Objective lens/roof mirror assembly. The scan mirror image is directed on to the optical reticle by the objective lens/roof mirror. (Page 19, Para 6)

10.

D. 60 The detector/Dewar assembly contains 60 detector elements. (Page 34, Para 1)

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LESSON THREE NIGHT SIGHT TEST EQUIPMENT AND MAINTENANCE Soldier's Manual Task: OVERVIEW TASK DESCRIPTION: Provide technical assistance to night sight repairers. LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
ACTIONS: When you have completed this lesson, you should be able to identify the purpose, function, and operation of the Night Sight test equipment You will have this subcourse book, and will work without supervision. You will identify the purpose, function, and operation of the Night Sight (AN/TAM-3A) test equipment in accordance with the information contained in this subcourse. The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publications:

093-411-3913

CONDITIONS: STANDARDS:

REFERENCES:

TM 9-5855-255-14. TM 9-4935-455-14. INTRODUCTION To perform the necessary maintenance on the night sight, specific test equipment is required. Only limited repairs, checks or alinements can be performed on the night sight without the test set. In this lesson, you will learn the components and functions of the night sight test equipment.

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Night Sight Maintenance Facility. To test and support the night sight, the night sight maintenance facility (NSMF)(Figure 3-1) is required. The NSMF is listed as shop equipment guided missile An/TAM 6 and is used at the general support area. The NSMF shelter can be mounted on a 2 1/2 ton truck and moved as required. The AN/TAM 6 contains the following equipment: Test set, night vision AN/TAM 3A. Boresight collimator test set (BCTS). Amplifier test set AN/TAM 5. Purging kit.

Figure 3-1.

Night Sight Maintenance Facility (NSMF).

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AN/TAM-3A. The AN/TAM-3A test set (Figure 3-2) is used to support the AN/TAS-4A night sight. This test set includes two special tool containers in the night sight maintenance facility (NSMF). Each provides storage for the unit under test (UUT) mount assembly, and interface needed to test and repair the night sight. A third container is the thermal sight collimator. The closed cycle cooler test set is stored inside the thermal sight collimator container.

Figure 3-2. 52

AN/TAM-3A. MM4812

Amplifier Test Set (AN/TAM 5). The Amplifier Test Set is used to isolate a fault in the postamplifier assembly to a single replaceable subassembly, to gainbalance the Video buffers, and to aline the Night Sight eyepiece reticle assembly. When testing the night vision sight, use the test set in conjunction with the night vision test set AN/TAM-3A. Major controls of the amplifier test set are video channel select, gain select, and signal select. The mode of operation is determined by the manual/auto, stop/start, and reset switches. The amplifier test set contains one circuit card and a power module. A part of the test set is the boresight alinement fixture. The boresight alinement fixture is used to perform alinement of the night sight eyepiece reticle assembly.

Figure 3-3.

Amplifier Test Set and Boresight Alinement Fixture.

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Closed Cycle Cooler Test Set. The closed cycle cooler test set contains a vehicle power conditioner (VPC), a BPC/VPC load box, and the cables necessary to check the operation of the closed cycle cooler. Stored in the collimator container, the test set includes: Cooler Extension Cable 7W8: Connects BPC or VPC directly to the cooler input power cable and the night sight power input when the junction box is removed. BPC/VPC Load Assembly: Provides testing the 4.8 and 16.8 VDC. 3.16 and 13.7 ohm loads for

Vehicle Power Conditioner: Converts 20 to 40 VDC from a vehicle to 4.8 and 16.8 VDC for the closed cycle cooler in the night sight. BPC Test Cable 7W7: Connects BPC to bench power supply. Connects BPC or VPC to the night

Night Sight Power Cable 8W1: sight junction box.

Figure 3-4.

Closed Cycle Cooler Test Set.

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Purging Equipment. The purging equipment consists of a purging kit and a nitrogen bottle. The purging kit is used along with the nitrogen bottle to fill the night sight with dry nitrogen. The kit has a regulator, valve, hose and adapter.

Figure 3-5.

Purging Equipment.

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Thermal Sight Collimator. The thermal sight collimator (Figure 3-6) is used to check out and aline the night sight. The thermal sight collimator is an electrooptical system that includes both IR and visible light optics. Different paths are taken through the unit depending on the source of energy. In the IR energy path, the IR energy is emitted from the heated reticle through the hole in the folding mirror. It is reflected by the collimating mirror to the folding mirror and then goes through the IR window to the night sight. The thermal sight collimator contains: Temperature controller assembly. Shroud. Temperature controller assembly power cable Wl.

The thermal sight collimator has three functions: Electronic. Mechanical. Optical.

Figure 3-6.

Thermal Sight Collimator. 56 MM4812

Temperature Controller Assembly. Electronic Function (Figure 3-7). The temperature controller assembly and target source assembly provide a control temperature differential between target source and ambient temperature. Temperature differential (4.5 degrees C) is maintained by sensing the target source ambient temperatures and then regulating the current through a heater. Input power of 115 VAC and 0.5 ampere is applied through circuit breaker CB1. Transformer T1 steps the voltage down to 24 VAC. The 24 VAC is fullwave rectified by the temperature comparator to produce 24 VDC, causing the POWER ON indicator DS2 to illuminate. Temperature sensor A2A1 monitors the temperature of the target, and temperature sensor A2A2 monitors the ambient temperature. The voltage differential of the sensors is applied to the temperature comparator A1A1, which supplies heater current to A2R1. The temperature comparator provides heater A2A1 current as required to maintain a 4.5 degree C temperature differential.

Figure 3-7.

Electronic Function.

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Electronic Circuit Function. The electronic circuits of the boresight collimator are the lamp circuit and the reticle heater control circuit. In the reticle heater control circuit, a reference voltage is supplied to the differential amplifier and to the constant current source. A constant current from the constant current source is supplied to the background temperature sensor and to the reticle temperature sensor, which is located on the back of the reticle. The output of the reticle temperature sensor is applied through an amplitude control to the comparator, where it is compared with the output of the background temperature sensor. The output from the comparator and feedback from the heater driver control the differential amplifier. The differential amplifier provides the input to the heater driver. The output of the heater driver powers the IR source heater, which raises the temperature differential between the source and the reticle (target) to produce the IR pattern.

Figure 3-8.

Electronic Circuit Function. 58 MM4812

Mechanical Function. UUT Mount Assembly. The UUT mount assembly consists of a platform that is movable in azimuth and in elevation. Angular limits of travel are 4 degrees in both planes. Azimuth movement is accomplished with a platform that is pivoted about a point located near the front of the mount. The rear of the platform rides on a rubber-ringed wheel that is rotated by turning the azimuth adjustment control. Elevation movement is accomplished with a platform that is hinged and pivoted at its front edge. As the elevation adjustment control is rotated, a wedge moves forward or backward against a cam that is attached to the platform. Movement of the wedge against the cam causes the platform to move about its pivot point. Stablization of the UUT mount assembly is provided by a brace that folds out from the base plate.

Figure 3-9.

UUT Mount Assembly.

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Temperature Controller Assembly. The mechanical function of the thermal sight collimator consists of the target select knob on the temperature controller assembly to select one of the six target plates for viewing by the thermal sight under test. A detent is used to lock the target in position. The shroud protects the temperature controller assembly from temperature variations and air currents which could affect target temperature.

Figure 3-10.

Temperature Controller Assembly. 60 MM4812

Optical Function. The thermal collimator is used to provide a 58-inch focal length for the night sight testing and alinement. The thermal sight collimator radiates infrared energy from the temperature controller assembly. The energy is reflected from a collimating mirror to present a collimated beam of infrared rays. These rays can be viewed with the night sight being tested. The target source is placed near the focal point of the collimating mirror. The target source provides images of target patterns to a night sight. The focal length of the collimating mirror is 58 inches. The infrared energy from the target source is reflected from a folding mirror to the collimating mirror. The folding mirror is used to achieve the 58-inch focal length in a shorter actual length. Each beam of visible light passes through a visible light window where it may be viewed as a visible image.

Figure 3-11.

Optical Function. 61 MM4812

BPC/VPC Load Box Assembly. The BPC/VPC load box (Figures 3-12, 13) is a load for testing the Battery Power Conditioner (BPC) or the Vehicle Power Conditioner (VPC). The power conditioner output cable connects to the load assembly connector J1. Load assembly test jacks J2 and J3 are used to measure +4.8 VDC. The jacks are connected across an internal 3.16 ohm load resistor. Load assembly test jacks J4 and J5 are used to measure +16.8 VDC. The jacks are connected across an internal 13.7 ohm load resistor.

Figure 3-12.

BPV/VPC Load Box Assembly.

Figure 3-13.

BPC/VPC Schematic 62 MM4812

VPC Load Box Assembly. The VPC load box assembly (Figures 3-14,15) provides a load for testing a vehicle power conditioner. A BNC connector connects the vehicle power conditioner to a 3.16 ohm load resistor within the load assembly. The load assembly panel has two test terminals for voltage measurements.

Figure 3-14.

VPC Load Box Assembly.

Figure 3-15.

VPC Schematic. 63 MM4812

AN/TAM-3A Box 1. The AN/TAM-3A Box 1 Special tools container (Figure 3-16), a two piece unit provides storage for the following items:

Figure 3-16.

AN/TAM-3A Box 1.

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AN/TAM-3A Box 2. The AN/TAM-3A electronic test equipment (Figure 3-17) contains a digital multimeter (DM 501), oscilloscope (SC 502), mainframe (DM 503), and a power supply (6284A). The Tektronix DM 501 digital multimeter is a small lightweight meter that can read out voltage, current, and ohms. The meter will show a plus or minus sign next to the readout, and will place the decimal point in the correct position. The meter is protected from overloads using shunt resistors. The Hewlett Packard 6284A power supply has an output voltage of 0 to 20 VDC and an output current of 0 to 3 amps DC. It operates from an input of 115 VAC, and a frequency of between 48 and 440 Hz. The Tektronix SC 502 is a two channel oscilloscope allowing two signals to be viewed at the same time. It operates from an input of 115 VAC supplied by the mainframe. The mainframe houses both the multimeter and oscilloscope.

Figure 3-17.

AN/TAM-3A Box 2.

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Night Sight Maintenance Concept. Like other systems and equipment, the night sight has a three level concept for maintenance. Those levels are: Unit, intermediate (DS/GS), and depot. The following paragraphs will explain the different levels, and what services each level performs. Unit Maintenance. Unit maintenance is the maintenance performed on a piece of equipment by the using unit, and includes: Doing checks and operator adjustments. Spot painting. General cleaning of equipment. Handling boresight adjustment procedures (Aline night sight with the optical sight). Notifying direct support to perform the 180 day verification check.

Figure 3-18.

Night Sight. 66 MM4812

Intermediate Maintenance (DS/GS). The intermediate maintenance units will provide checkout and fault isolation for the night sight. Maintenance support equipment for the night sight is the AN/TAM-3A. Intermediate maintenance operations include: Providing technical supply system. Providing Contact Support Teams (CSS). Providing and maintaining an Operational Readiness Float. Evacuating unserviceable PCBs and subassemblies intermediate GS/depot level repair facilities. directly to

Figure 3-19.

DS/GS Maintenance. 67 MM4812

Depot Maintenance. Depot maintenance facility for the night sight is the Anniston Army Depot located in Anniston, Alabama. This maintenance facility repairs the overflow from intermediate GS units, and also repairs those pieces of equipment that the intermediate GS is not capable of repairing. Depot maintenance operations include: Providing units. the interface between depot and DS/GS maintenance

Routing repaired items into the supply system. Performing diagnosis and repair of SRUs. Providing repair parts supply for the theater.

Figure 3-20.

Depot Maintenance. 68 MM4812

LESSON THREE Practice Exercise The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in this lesson. There is only one correct answer for each item. When you have completed the exercise, check your answers with the answer key that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, study again that part of the lesson which contains the portion involved. Situation: You have been asked by a subordinate the questions pertaining to the Night Sight Test Equipment. 1. following

What is the designator of the digital multimeter that is part of the AN/TAM-3A? A. DM B. SC C. TM D. SC 501. 502. 503. 504. output of transformer T1 in the Boresight

2.

What is the Collimator? A. 24 VAC. B. 24 VDC. C. 115 VAC. D. 220 VAC.

3.

Which component maintains constant current through the ambient temperature source? A. A2A1. B. A2R1. C. AlA1. D. A2A2.

4.

What is the load applied to the 16.8 VDC output of the BPC/VPC for testing? A. 3.16 B. 13.7 C. 34.9 D. 54.9 ohm. ohm. ohm. ohm.

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5.

What are the angular limits of the UUT Mount Assembly? A. + B. + C. + D. + or or or or 2 3 4 5 degrees. degrees. degrees. degrees.

6.

What is the focal length of the thermal collimator? A. 36 B. 48 C. 52 D. 58 inches. inches. inches. inches.

7.

Where is the Closed Cycle Cooler Test Set stored? A. AN/TAM-3A container. B. AN/TAM-5 container. C. Collimator container. D. AN/TAS-4A container.

8.

How many target plates can be selected by the controller assembly in the boresight collimator? A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. 6

temperature

9.

What temperature differential is maintained between the target source and ambient sensors in the boresight collimator? A. 3.6 B. 3.8 C. 4.5 D. 4.8 degrees degrees degrees degrees C. C. C. C.

10.

What item of test equipment is used to aline the night sight eyepiece reticle? A. Boresight alinement fixture. B. Boresight collimator. C. Closed cycle cooler test set. D. BPC/VPC load box assembly.

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LESSON THREE PRACTICE EXERCISE ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK Item 1. Correct Answer and Feedback A. DM 501. The digital multimeter that is part of the AN/TAM-3A test set is DM 501. (Page 65, Para 1) 2. A. 24 VAC. The output of transformer T1 in the boresight collimator is 24 VAC. (Page 57, Para. 2) 3. C. AlAl. The component that maintains constant current through the ambient temperature source is AlAl. (Page 57, Para. 3) 4. B. 13.7 ohm. The load that is applied to the 16.8 VDC output of the VPC or BPC is 13.7 ohms. (Page 62, Para. 1)

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5.

C. + or - 4 degrees. The angular limits of the UUT mount assembly is + or - 4 degrees. (Page 59, Para. 1)

6.

D. 58 inches. The focal length of the thermal collimator is 58 inches. (Page 61, Para. 1)

7.

C. Collimator container. The closed cycle cooler test set is collimator container. (Page 54, Para 1) stored in the

8.

D. 6 The target select knob on the temperature controller assembly can select one of six target plates for viewing. (Page 60, Para 1)

9.

C. 4.5 degrees C. A temperature differential of 4.5 degrees C is maintained between the target source and ambient. (Page 57, Para 1)

10.

A. Boresight alinement fixture. The boresight alinement fixture is used to perform alinement of the night sight eyepiece reticle assembly. (Page 53, Para 1)

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