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NIGHT SIGHT (AN/TAS-4A)
NIGHT SIGHT (AN/TAS-4A) Subcourse Number MM4812 EDITION 9 United States Army Ordnance Missile and Munitions Center and School 4 Credit Hours Edition Date: August 1989 SUBCOURSE OVERVIEW This subcourse is designed to teach you the characteristics, purpose, and functional operation of the major assemblies and subassemblies of the AN/TAS-4A night sight. Contained within this subcourse are instructions on all assemblies and subassemblies to ensure the student's understanding of the overall operation of the AN/TAS-4A night sight. There are no prerequisites for this subcourse. This subcourse reflects the doctrine which was current at the time the subcourse was prepared. In your own work situation, always refer to the latest publications. The words "he," "him," "his," and "men," when used in this publication, represent both the masculine and feminine genders unless otherwise stated. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE TASK: You will identify the characteristics and state the purpose of: major assemblies, subassemblies, and associated Test Equipment used to support and train personnel for the AN/TAS 4A night sight. You will have the subcourse book and will work without supervision. You will answer 19 of 25 questions passing score for this subcourse. i correctly for a
........................................... Lesson 1: Introduction to the Night Sight (AN/TAS-4A) ........ ii MM4812 ............................................. PLEASE DISREGARD ALL REFERENCES TO THE 75% REQUIREMENT..... Practice Exercise ........... Practice Exercise ... Practice Exercise ...... Answer Key and Feedback ..................... Lesson 3: Night Sight Test Equipment and Maintenance .......................................................... Answer Key and Feedback .......... Lesson 2: Functional Theory of the AN/TAS-4A .... Page i 1 12 14 16 46 48 50 69 71 * * * IMPORTANT NOTICE * * * THE PASSING SCORE FOR ALL ACCP MATERIAL IS NOW 70%........................................................... Answer Key and Feedback .....TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Subcourse Overview .......
The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publications: TM TM TM TM TM 9-5855-450-24. function. 9-5855-885-24. LEARNING OBJECTIVE: ACTIONS: When you have completed this lesson. 9-5855-884-24. You will have this subcourse book. In this lesson you will be introduced to the functional operation of the night vision sight. and operation of the Night Sight (AN/TAS-4A) in accordance with the information contained in this subcourse. and operation of the Night Sight (AN/TAS-4A). The night sight detects thermal energy and converts it into electrical signals that are converted into a visible light image. 9-1425-450-12. therefore allowing the TOW Weapon System to be used day or night in all weather and all terrain conditions.LESSON ONE INTRODUCTION TO THE NIGHT SIGHT. You will identify the purpose. you should be able to identify the purpose. infrared AN/TAS-4A. function. INTRODUCTION The AN/TAS-4A Night Sight is a long-wavelength infrared sensing system.(AN/TAS-4A) Soldier's Manual Task: OVERVIEW TASK DESCRIPTION: Provide technical assistance to night sight repairers. 9-5855-883-24. its assemblies and test equipment. and will work without supervision. 1 MM4812 093-411-3913 CONDITIONS: STANDARDS: REFERENCES: .
and these signals are then converted to visible light. 2 MM4812 . The Night Sight (Figure 1-1) is a passive device. and has adjustments to aline the night sight with the optical sight. Figure 1-1. Night Sight. and degraded field conditions. has narrow field-of-view (NFOV)(12X) and wide field-of-view (WFOV)(4X). It receives infrared energy from the target area. daylight. Listed in the figure are the external controls and assemblies. The night sight operates using a battery power conditioner or vehicle power conditioner.Night Sight (AN/TAS 4A). This visible light is presented to the gunner to permit real time tracking or observation of a target. The infrared energy is converted to electrical signals. uses a closed cycle cooler to cool infrared (IR) detectors. The night sight enables the operator to track targets in darkness.
Night Sight Fields of View. Figure 1-2.Night Sight Controls and Indicators. The night sight fields of view (Figure 1-2) are wide field-of-view (WFOW) and narrow field-of-view (NFOV). Fields of View. 3 MM4812 .
Night Sight Controls and Indicators (Figures 1-3. Figure 1-3.5). 4 MM4812 .4. Night Sight Controls and Indicators.
Figure 1-4. 5 MM4812 . Night Sight Controls and Indicators.
Night Sight Controls and Indicators.Figure 1-5. 6 MM4812 .
Electronic Function: Provide Provide Convert Convert Process signals to drive the scanning mechanism. Focus infrared energy on the detectors. Secure the night sight to the mounting fixture. and mechanical. Display real time scene through the eyepiece. Allow target image to be focused. The night sight is effectively three functional groups (Figure 1-6): optical. Prevent the escape of stray light from the eyepiece. Image visible light. Mechanical Function: Switch lens for different fields-of-view. the video signals. 7 MM4812 . signals to the detectors. Night Sight Functional Groups. video signals to a visual display. Figure 1-6.Night Sight Functional Groups. Optical Functions: Collect infrared energy. electronic. the incoming IR energy to video signals.
Figure 1-7. The afocal assembly gathers IR energy and focuses it onto the scan mirror. and converts the IR energy to electrical signals.Functional Description. The IR energy is converted by the detectors into video signals. The video signals are processed by the video electronics and then converted to visible light by the light emitting diodes in the emitter assembly. Night Sight (AN/TAS-4A). The IR energy from the scan mirror is focused by the IR imager optics onto the infrared detectors in the detector/Dewar assembly. These signals are processed into video signals (video) and then to visible light by the light-emitting diode (LED) array which displays the visible light as a real-time scene for viewing by an observer. The visual collimator collimates the visible light onto the scan mirror. The objective lens/roof mirror assembly images the visible light from the scan mirror onto the reticle for viewing through the eye piece. 8 MM4812 . The night sight (Figure 1-7) receives heat emissions (IR energy) from a target area.
The battery power conditioner (Figure 1-8) contains two nonrechargeable batteries to supply the input power. Battery Power Conditioner. and 16. Figure 1-8.Night Sight Equipment. and supplies the voltage to the night sight junction box. battery power conditioner (BPC).8 volts direct current (VDC) regulator converts the battery voltage to regulated 4. The battery power conditioner will power the night sight for about 10 hours when vehicle power is not available.8 VDC. The 4. Equipment used with the night sight includes the boresight collimator. and the vehicle power conditioner (VPC).8 VDC. 9 MM4812 . Battery Power Conditioner.8/16.
Vehicle Power Conditioner. 10 MM4812 .8 and 16. The vehicle power conditioner (Figure 1-9) accepts 20 to 40 VDC from the vehicle and supplies regulated 4.Vehicle Power Conditioner. Figure 1-9.8 VDC through connector J2 and cable W2 to the night sight junction box.
and mechanical components to produce two parallel beams of energy which are used to aline the night sight to the optical sight. Boresight Collimator.Boresight Collimator. IR energy is obtained when power is applied through lamp and heater control circuit card (3A1) to the IR source heater on the back of the reticle. The boresight collimator (Figure 1-10) uses electronic. but is not visible to the human eye. 11 MM4812 . There are two energy sources generated: visible energy and infrared (IR) energy. This causes the reticle to emit IR energy that can be detected by a night sight. optical. Figure 1-10. Visible energy is produced by an incandescent visible source lamp directly into visible energy that can be seen by the human eye.
B. 4.LESSON ONE Practice Exercise The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in this lesson. B. D. Telescopic. To focus the image. 1. 3. Recycle. the following What type of cooler does the night sight use to cool the IR detectors? A. There is only one correct answer for each item. To adjust azimuth boresight. Coolant cartridge. 2. C. C. 12 MM4812 . study again that part of the lesson which contains the portion involved. Situation: You have been asked by a subordinate questions pertaining to the Night Sight (AN/TAS-4A). D. To adjust night sight line-of-sight. D. What is the purpose of the field-of-view selector on the night sight? A. check your answers with the answer key that follows. To let the gunner choose field-of-view seen in the night sight. Infrared active. Medium. When you have completed the exercise. B. Open cycle. Half. What type of device is the AN/TAS 4A Night Sight? A. D. C. Closed cycle. B. Long. Photo. C. If you answer any item incorrectly. What wavelength sensing system is the night sight? A. Infrared passive. Short.
Detectors. D.5. prevent emission of light from the eyepiece. What is the purpose of the security shutter in the night sight? A. Visual collimator. optical. 7. Post amplifier. what part(s) of the night sight has power applied? A. B. Optical. Afocal cover. Night sight and cooler. infrared. C. D. Cooler only. Electrical. Night Sight. 10. What are the functional groups of the night sight? A. B. Visual collimator. Which assembly in the night sight converts IR energy to video signals? A. 13 MM4812 . optical. 8. D. What collimates the visible light onto the scan mirror? A. C. protect the eyepiece. D. B. Afocal assembly. C. B. C. 6. and and and and infrared. Mechanical. Mechanical. optical. 9. Detectors. B. C. filter unwanted light. D. mechanical. B. With the power ON/OFF/STBY switch in the standby position. Roof mirror. Boresight. electrical. Objective lens/roof mirror assembly. Imager optics. infrared. C. To To To To protect the gunner. D. Detectors. Objective lense/roof mirror. What images the visible light from the scan mirror onto the reticle? A.
The AN/TAS-4A Night Sight is a passive infrared system. 2. (Page 5. but the AN/TAS-4A has a closed cycle cooler.) 14 MM4812 . Cooler only. C. B. Figure 1-2. Figure 1-7. To let the gunner choose field-of-view. Introduction) 4.) 3.) 6. A. (Page 8. 1. Depending upon terrain conditions and other considerations the gunner may wish to view the target from narrow or wide field-of-views. While there are some infrared devices that have shortwavelength sensing systems.LESSON ONE PRACTICE EXERCISE ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK Item 1. Para. Figure 1-4. Correct Answer and Feedback A. (Page 1.) 2. Some infrared sights and devices have coolant cartridges to cool the detectors. Infrared passive. D. Detectors. The cooler is the only part of the night sight to have power applied with the power ON/OFF/STBY switch in the standby position. Closed cycle.) 5. the AN/TAS-4A has a longwavelength system. (Page 2. In the night sight the detectors are used to convert IR energy to video signals. (Page 2. C. (Page 3. Long. Para.
Objective lens/roof mirror assembly. Figure 1-7. Visual collimator. electrical. To prevent emission of light from the eyepiece.) 10. electrical. Optical. a security shutter is installed. (Page 6.) 9. In the AN/TAS-4A Night Sight. To prevent light escaping from the night sight eyepiece. and mechanical. Figure 1-5. (Page 8. D. B. 1. (Page 7. Para.7. The visible light is collimated onto the scan mirror by the visual collimator in the AN/TAS-4A Night Sight.) 8. (Page 8. C. and mechanical. The AN/TAS-4A Night Sight is designed with three functional groups: optical. A. Figure 1-7. the objective lens/roof mirror assembly images the visible light on the reticle for viewing.) 15 MM4812 .
The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publications: TM 9-5855-450-24 TM 9-5855-247-24 TM 9-5855-450-24 093-411-3913 CONDITIONS: STANDARDS: REFERENCES: INTRODUCTION The TOW2 and Dragon Missile Systems provide the soldier with a reliable method of countering enemy armor on the battlefield. You will identify the purpose. During this lesson you will learn the functional theory of the Night Sight AN/TAS-4A. you should be able to identify the purpose. and operation of the Night Sight (AN/TAS-4A) IAW the information contained in this subcourse. and operation of the Night Sight (AN/TAS-4A) You will have this subcourse book. and will work without supervision. In the previous lesson you were introduced to the Night Sight AN/TAS-4A and test equipment used with the TOW2 weapon system. LEARNING OBJECTIVE: ACTIONS: When you have completed this lesson. function. 16 MM4812 . The night sight greatly extends the capability of the anti-armor missiles. function.LESSON TWO FUNCTIONAL THEORY OF THE AN/TAS-4A Soldier's Manual Task: OVERVIEW TASK DESCRIPTION: Provide technical assistance to night sight repairers.
Facts about the Night Sight. 17 MM4812 . The video is converted to visible light by an emitter assembly (LED array). When incorporated into the TOW2 launcher system. The AN/TAS-4A Night Sight (Figure 2-1) consists of an afocal telescope. The detectors convert IR energy to video signals. The video signals are processed by the video electronics. The afocal assembly optics gathers IR energy and focuses it onto the scan mirror. The night sight is an electro-optical system that includes both IR and visible light optics. Either of two magnifications may be used. and control circuits. Night Sight Block Diagram. detector/Dewar assembly. the night sight provides the dual function of a missile-tracking sensor and a gunner's night sight. and electronic amplification. The objective lens/roof mirror assembly optics directs this light onto the display reticle for viewing through the eyepiece optics. Figure 2-1. The collimator transfers the visible light from the emitter assembly onto a scan mirror. The IR imager optics (optical imager) focuses the IR energy from the scan mirror into infrared detectors in the detector/Dewar. scanning mirror. visible light optics.
This multiplexer combines the eight video channels to allow this information to be changed into digital data by an analog to digital converter located inside the missile guidance set. Night Sight to Missile Guidance Path. which input line will be monitored) is made by five-bit selector lines. 18 MM4812 . The eight-channel selector can select 8 of 56 video input signals. Figure 2-2.Night Sight to Missile Guidance Path. called video. Selection control (i. The postamplifier assembly outputs (video thermal tracker channels 1-8) are sent to the missile guidance set into a multiplexer. The postamplifier assembly contains an eight-channel selector and a programmable gain postamplifier.e. During the night sight to missile guidance path (Figure 2-2) the infrared scene is projected on the scan mirror that reflects the scene to the 60 element detector. and passed to a 60 channel preamplifier inside the night sight. The eight-channel postamp provides not only video amplification but also some 16 different selectable gain levels. Here it is changed into electrical impulses. A missile guidance set software program controls these five postamp channel select bits.
Figure 2-3. The IR energy is converted to video signals by the light emitting detectors (LEDs). The video signals are processed by the video electronics and then converted to visible light by the emitter assembly. The night sight (Figure 2-3) is a passive device that receives infrared energy from a target area. The visual collimator alines the visible light from the emitter assembly onto the scan mirror. The night sight does this as follows: The afocal assembly optics gathers IR energy and focuses it onto the the scan mirror. 19 MM4812 . The IR imager optics (optical imager) focuses the IR energy from the scan mirror onto the infrared detectors in the detector/Dewar assembly. Night Sight Signal Path. The objective lens/roof mirror assembly optics images this light onto the display reticle for viewing through the eyepiece optics. The infrared (IR) energy is converted to electrical signals and then to visible light. The visible light is then displayed as a real time image.Night Sight Signal Path.
8 VDC through a junction box to the cooler assembly and to a consumables monitor/bias regulator in the night sight. A switch on the junction box controls power to the cooler assembly and night sight.POWER DISTRIBUTION. A battery power conditioner or vehicle power conditioner (Figure 2-4) supplies +4. Input Power Distribution. Input Power Distribution.8 and +16. Figure 2-4. 20 MM4812 .
Power from the battery power conditioner or vehicle power conditioner (Figure 2-5) is converted to various DC voltages by the regulator and DC-DC converter (power supply). Figure 2-5. Input Power Distribution. The following paragraphs explain the function distribution of the various DC voltages. 21 MM4812 .
Figure 2-6.6 VDC to the boresight diode. 22 MM4812 . the consumables monitor/bias regulator supplies +3 VDC to the video preamplifiers and to the detectors. Regulator Output Power Distribution.Regulator Output Power Distribution. The consumables monitor/bias regulator (Figure 2-4) supplies +4.6 VDC from the DC-DC converter.8 VDC through a fuse to the DC-DC converter.6 VDC and -9. Upon receiving +9. and -9.
and +9.DC-DC Converter Output Power Distribution. +9. The DC-DC converter (Figure 2-7) distributes +4. -4.6 VDC to the video postamplifier control drivers. and scan and interlace circuit. Figure 2-7. video auxiliary.6.8. DC-DC Converter Output Power Distribution.8. and -9. 23 MM4812 .6 and -9.6 VDC to the consumables monitor/bias regulator.
Afocal Assembly Optics. either vertically or horizontally. The interchangeable lenses provide 4. with an objective lens.5X and 1.5X Wide Field-OfView (WFOV) lens is a single IR lens. Figure 2-8. The lenses are mounted so that an approximate 90-degree rotation about a horizontal axis brings one lens into position and stows the other to accomplish an FOV change. Afocal Assembly Optics. The afocal/cover assembly optics has two interchangeable field-of-view (FOV) telescope lenses. common to both fields of view. made of special IR passive material. The 4. The afocal/cover assembly optics (Figure 2-8) gathers IR energy and focuses it onto the scan mirror.5X Narrow Field-Of-View (NFOW) lens set consists of two IR lenses. Both lenses are mounted on the same frame which is moved longitudinally for focus and laterally. for boresight. 24 MM4812 . The 1.5X magnifications of the fields-of-view.
Figure 2-9. The focus coupling connects the range focus knob to the bevel gear.Afocal Assembly Focus. adjusting the viewed image focus. The narrow field-of-view (NFOV) and the wide field-of-view (WFOV) lens assemblies (Figure 2-9) are mounted on the same housing. Rotation of the range focus knob causes the screw and shaft assembly to move the focus frame (with attached lens assemblies) longitudinally. Focus Assembly. 25 MM4812 . The bevel gear meshes with and drives the screw and shaft assembly. The screw and shaft assembly is screwed into the focus nut which is secured to the focus frame.
Figure 2-10. The fork straddles a pin on one end of the link assembly. Operating the FOV handle causes the lens switching housing to rotate approximately 90 degrees about a horizontal axis to change FOV.Afocal/Cover Lens Switching (NFOV-WFOV). Operating the FOV handle rotates the FOV lens switching housing approximately 90 degrees about a horizontal axis to bring one lens into operating position and to stow the other. The other end of the connecting link is connected to a pin on the lens switching housing. The switch contacts are closed in WFOV and open in NFOV. Lens switching (Figure 2-10) is accomplished manually by operating the night sight field-of-view (FOV) handle. The external FOV handle is attached directly to the fork inside the afocal/cover housing. The link assembly has a pin through each end and is loaded against the focus frame by a helical spring. The position information generated by the switch is supplied to the TOW guidance circuitry via the night sight postamplifier assembly. A linkage in the FOV lens switching mechanism operates a switch mounted on the basic sight assembly. The pin engaged by the fork goes through the link assembly and attaches to the connecting link. 26 MM4812 . Lens Switching.
The night sight is boresighted (Figure 2-11) by rotating the AZ boresight adjustment and EL boresight adjustment knobs.096inch for boresight adjustment. MM4812 . allowing the spring-loaded yoke assembly to push the boresight frame horizontally toward the AZ boresight adjustment knob.Afocal/Cover Boresight. Rotating the AZ boresight adjustment knob counterclockwise screws the boresight drive nut in. Rotation of the AZ boresight adjustment knob causes the boresight frame to move left or right about 0. The AZ boresight adjustment knob is attached to one end of the boresight screw and the boresight drive nut is screwed on the other end. The EL boresight knob performs an identical mechanical function in the vertical plane. pushing the boresight frame with afocal optics lens switching assembly against the spring-loaded yoke assembly. Figure 2-11. Rotating the AZ boresight adjustment knob clockwise screws the boresight drive nut out. Rotating the lock releases the AZ boresight adjustment knob. 27 Boresight.
the scan axis tilts. Scanning Mirror. As the scan mirror reaches one end of its travel. The front side of the scan mirror directs incoming IR energy through the optical imager onto an array of IR detectors. This action creates a 2:1 interlace scan pattern. As the scan mirror reaches the opposite end of its travel. 28 MM4812 . Figure 2-12. the scan axis tilts to its original position. The back of the mirror receives the visible light output of the LED array from the visual collimator and reflects it through the objective lens/roof mirror optics into a visible display optics assembly. The scan mirror (Figure 2-12) oscillates about the scan axis.Scanning Mirror.
Mechanical Scanner. interlace transducer (2 places). scan mirror. The back of the scan mirror is coated for peak reflectivity in the red LED array visual band. interlace drive solenoid (2 places). A position transducer is located between the solenoids to provide angular position information to the interlace drive electronics. and scan return spring. 29 MM4812 . scan drive torque motor. scan drive tachometer. The front side of the scan mirror is coated for peak reflectivity in the IR band and directs the incoming IR energy through the imaging optics onto the array of IR detectors. These motions are combined so the IR image is moved in a continuous parallelogram shaped path over detectors to create the 2:1 interlace pattern. The scan mirror oscillates about the scan axis and interlace axis. The scan mirror is rotated about the scan axis by the scan drive torque motor. and directs the LED array output through a set of collimating optics into a visible display. The lower torque motor is used as a scan drive tachometer to provide scan velocity information to the drive electronics. interlace flexible pivot bearings.Mechanical Scanner. The mechanical scanner (Figure 2-13) contains the scan and interlace gimbal (double axis). Figure 2-13. Two interlace drive solenoids pivot the gimbal assembly about the interlace axis during the time the scan return arms are in contact with the return springs.
30 MM4812 . The scan and interlace circuitry (Figure 2-14) consists of two control loops: the scan loop and the interlace loop.Scan and Interlace Circuitry. The interlace loop is a position servo loop using two magneto-resistive transducers for gimbal position information to synchronize shift of the interlace gimbal solenoid at the end of each scan of the mirror. Figure 2-14. The scan loop is a rate servo loop using the scan mirror's bottom torque motor B-1 as a tachometer for scan velocity information. Scan and Interlace Loop.
causing the scan drive signal to drive the mirror back across the field of view at a constant velocity.Scan Loop. 31 MM4812 . Scan Loop. The comparator generates an error signal which is used to drive and control the speed of torque motor B2. Also applied to the comparator is the scan mirror velocity signal. Figure 2-15. The scan drive signal maintains a constant scan mirror velocity across the field-of-view. The reference signal for the scan loop is a square wave that is applied to the comparator. a square wave signal reverses its polarity. When the scan mirror velocity reaches zero and the mirror arm fully compresses the return spring. The scan loop (Figure 2-15) is a rate servo loop that causes the scan mirror to cross the field-of-view at a constant velocity.
The interlace loop (Figure 2-16) is a position servo loop. Figure 2-16. The reference signal is developed by the differentiator and drive circuit. 32 MM4812 . l and is balanced with the signal from the differentiator to operate solenoid No.Interlace Loop. The error signal is used to operate solenoid No. Both solenoids hold the interlace gimbal in the proper position during the scan sweeps. 2. The gimbal position signal is amplified and compared with the reference signal by the driver and comparator circuit which generates an error signal. Interlace Loop. The position of the gimbal is determined and positioned by the scan mirror velocity.
Visible Light Display Optics. Optical Imager. The optical imager (Figure 2-17) focuses IR energy from the scan mirror onto the IR detector array in the detector/Dewar. The optical imager has three IR imaging lenses and a folding mirror. IR energy passes through lens No. 1 and lens No. 2 to the folding mirror. The folding mirror reflects the IR energy 90 degrees and transmits it through temperature compensating focus lens No. 3 to the IR detector array. Lens No. 3 is mounted on thermal compensating rods that maintain a constant focal distance with changes in temperature.
Detector/Dewar Assembly. The Detector/Dewar Assembly (Figure 2-18) is a multi-element detector array contained in an insulating vacuum. The insulating vacuum assists in maintaining the necessary cryogenic temperature required for efficient operation of the detectors. The detector/Dewar is optimized for low heat loss and long vacuum life. The cooler assembly coldfinger mechanically slipfits into the detector with a small gap between the coldfinger and the detector array. As independent modules, the detector/Dewar and cooler assembly can be separated and reassembled for test and replacement. The detector/Dewar contains the mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdte) IR detector array, detector bias resistors, and the interconnecting leads to the connector pins. The connector permits external connection of the detector/Dewar to the video preamplifier modules. The detector consists of a monolithic 60-active-element linear array of HgCdte photoconductive detectors and the detector bias resistors to maintain the proper bias level of each detector.
Detector/Dewar Assembly. 34 MM4812
Video Postamplifier. The video postamplifier control driver (Figure 2-19) provides 60 channels of additional signal amplification, variable gain control, video gating, and drive current for the LED array. Each of the three video postamplifier control drivers contains 20 channels of video amplification. Since operation of each of the 20 channels is the same, operation of only one channel is described. The amplifier video signal is input to amplifier No. 1. The voltage gain of this stage is controlled by gain command 1. The polarity control applied to amplifier No. 1 is fixed by the voltage divider polarity control circuit. The amplifier video signal from amplifier No. 1 is applied through the gain balance adjustment circuit to the input of amplifier No. 2. Gain command 2, a variable gain control voltage level, controls the gain of amplifier No. 2. The output from amplifier No. 2 is applied to amplifier No. 3. Amplifier No. 3 provides the final stage of video signal amplification. The gate and level function is used to adjust the average brightness during the active scan period and to shut off the video channel during the scan mirror turnaround periods to conserve power. This stage requires two positive supplies, +9.6 and +4.8 VDC, and a negative supply, -4.8 VDC. The current limiter circuit provides current limiting in case a short circuit occurs across the output of a video channel. The currentlimiting circuit provides the video drive signals that are applied to the LED array.
Video Postamplifier. 35 MM4812
Scene brightness depends on the BRT and CRT control settings. The LEDs. The visible light emitted by the LED array varies directly with the input drive signals. LEDs located outside of the video display illuminate the boresight diode at the center of scan mirror travel in order to produce a boresight pulse. The video drive signals from the video postamplifier control drivers are applied to the current-normalizing series resistors. The LED array consists of one multi-element LED array with integral individual current-normalizing series resistors. which are connected to the LEDs and generate normalized current signals in each LED. Figure 2-20.Light Emitting Diode Array. Light Emitting Diode Array. The LED array (Figure 2-20) converts video drive signals to visible light. The LED array contains 180 elements of gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) diodes arranged in a format matching the IR detector array with only the center 60 elements used for video display. 36 MM4812 . Operating current for the three boresight elements is provided by the DC-DC converter.600 Angstrom units (A). emit visible red light at a wavelength of 6. when forward-biased. a visible scene is formed corresponding to the IR scene scanned simultaneously by the front of the scan mirror. When the LED array is scanned by the back of the scan mirror.
Visual Collimator. Figure 2-21.Visual Collimator. Visible light from the LED array (Figure 2-21) is transferred through the visual collimator into the mechanical scanner. The phase shift lens and scan mirror are located in the mechanical scanner. 37 MM4812 . The visual collimator contains four fixed lenses.
38 MM4812 . The optical elements consist of a double-objective lens. One element of this lens is moved by a bimetallic annular disc to effect temperature compensation. an optical reticle.67X telescope. The objective lens is part of a 2.Objective Lens/Roof Mirror Assembly/Eyepiece. a roof mirror which orients the scene. and a three-element eyepiece lens with diopter adjustment. a field lens to control exit pupil location. Figure 2-22. Objective Lens/Roof Mirror Assembly. The objective lens/roof mirror assembly (Figure 2-22) directs the scan mirror image onto the optical reticle for viewing through the eyepiece assembly optics.
Rotating the diopter adjustment grip moves the eyepiece lens assembly in or out of the eyepiece housing assembly to focus the reticle. The eyepiece assembly (Figure 2-23) contains mechanical shutters and a diopter focus mechanism. 39 MM4812 . Eyepiece assembly (part number 13251629)(Figure 2-24) contains a NOT READY LIGHT which illuminates when the night sight is not ready for operation.Eyepiece Assembly. The diopter focus mechanism allows reticle focus adjustments. Figure 2-23. Eyepiece Assembly. The shutters prevent light from passing out of the eyeshield except during operator use. Figure 2-24. Eyepiece Assembly. Pressing the collapsible eyecup into the eyeshield assembly causes the shutters to fold away from the viewing path. The shutters are attached to the inside of the collapsible eyecup.
The motor drives a piston and regenerator to achieve and maintain the operating temperature. The cooler (Figure 2-25) maintains a cryogenic environment for the IR detector. which is mated to the coldfinger cooling surface. Cooler.8 VDC.Cooler. A motor. 40 MM4812 . operating on +16. drives the cooler. The cooler is a Stirling-cycle cryogenic refrigerator capable of maintaining a temperature of approximately 80 degrees Kelvin (K). This low temperature is necessary for the proper operation of the mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) IR detector array. Figure 2-25.
the junction box supplies +4. ON/OFF/STBY switch S1 controls the power.8 VDC to the night sight and the boresight collimator.Junction Box. and supplies a switched +16.8 and +16. without excessive battery drain during the time when the night sight is not needed. When the ON/OFF/STBY switch S1 is set to on. The junction box (Figure 2-26) distributes +4. Junction Box. 41 MM4812 . boresight collimator.8 VDC to the night sight via connector J3 and to the boresight collimator via connector J4. Figure 2-26.8 VDC to the cooler via connector J2. Setting the ON/OFF/STBY switch S1 to STBY activates the cooler control circuit and disables the +4.8 VDC power via input connector J1 to the night sight. The standby circuit operates the cooler sufficiently to obtain usable video within 30 seconds after setting the ON/OFF/STBY switch S1 to ON. The cooler control circuit senses the detector temperature via J5 and cycles the cooler power on and off about a referenced voltage to maintain an optimum detector operating temperature. and cooler.
42 MM4812 .Mount Assembly. The mount assembly latch handle secures the mount assembly to the cam post on the optical sight. The latch handle moves in a horizontal arc of approximately 55 degrees. Mount Assembly. The mount assembly (Figure 2-27) secures the night sight to the optical sight so that the sights are precisely aligned. Figure 2-27.
Boresight Collimator. when operating sights location changes. boresight the night sight at the start of each night sight operation. Before boresighting the night sight.Boresight AN/TAS-4A. and whenever the optical sight is boresighted during a system self-test. Figure 2-28. when the night sight has been repaired. The boresight collimator can then be used to aline the night sight's LOS with the optical sight's LOS. Using the boresight collimator. This brings the optical sight's line-of-sight (LOS) into alinement with the weapon's LOS (aiming point). Figure 2-28 shows how the boresight collimator mates with the AN/TAS4A in preparation for boresighting the night sight to the optical sight. you must boresight the optical sight. 43 MM4812 . These operations include when the night sight is transferred from one weapon system to another.
44 MM4812 . The pattern shown is the display you might expect to see while performing the boresight alinement. Reticle Boresight Display Patterns. One monitor is for voltage and the other is for air pressure. Figure 2-29.Reticle Boresight Display Patterns. optical. The two circles at the bottom of the reticle display pattern are monitors: these monitors are indicator lamps that warn of shortages. The boresight collimator (Figure 2-29) uses electronic. and mechanical components to produce two parallel beams of energy which are used to aline the night sight to the optical sight.
The IR energy (Figure 2-30) from the afocal/cover assembly is scanned by the mechanical scanner. Video Chain. 45 MM4812 . The IR energy is reflected from the scan mirror. Video Chain. and is focused on the coolerdetector assembly. Video from the preamplifiers is applied to video postamplifier control drivers and to postamplifiers in the postamplifier assembly. Contrast (CTRS) and brightness (BRT) controls adjust the video gain and level. it is transmitted then to the eyepiece for viewing by the operator. Video from the video postamplifier control drivers is applied to an LED array. Figure 2-30. The cooler-detector assembly detects variations in IR energy and generates low-level video signals that are amplified by video preamplifiers. The video auxiliary control generates two gain commands and a video gate and level control signal to the video postamplifier control drivers. Output signals from the postamplifiers are applied to the missile guidance set. The LED array produces visible light which is transmitted to the mechanical scanner.Electronic Amplification and Control Circuits. The scanner provides the scan and interlace circuit with position and speed information.
46 MM4812 . Detector/Dewar. C. weapon system with the target. When you have completed the exercise. IR detectors. Eyepiece. study again that part of the lesson which contains the portion involved. Where does the light come from that is applied to the back of the scan mirror? A. Detector/Dewar. 4. There is only one correct answer for each item. Afocal/cover. B. Mechanical scanner. D. check your answers with the answer key that follows. launch tube with the optical sight. B. D. 1. C. What is the purpose of the boresight alinement? A. Optical imager. To To To To aline aline aline aline the the the the night sight with the optical sight. C. Objective lens/roof mirror. What focuses IR energy from the scan mirror on to the detector array? A. 3. Scan mirror. D. If you answer any item incorrectly. the following What assembly contains the scan mirror? A. LEDs. B. 2. C. D. optical sight with the traversing unit. B. Situation: You have been asked by a subordinate questions pertaining to the Night Sight (AN/TAS-4A). Eyepiece.LESSON TWO Practice Exercise The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in this lesson. Visual collimator.
C. D. What type of loop is the scan loop? A. 4 5 6 7 6. D. C. B. How many lenses are contained in the visual collimator? A. IR detectors. How many detector elements are contained in the detector/Dewar assembly? A. Interlace. B. C. D. Scan mirror. B. Open. What positions the gimbal in the interlace loop? A. Scan mirror velocity. D. Optical imager. IR detectors. B. Detector/Dewar assembly.5. Video electronics. 8. B. C. D. Detector/Dewar. 20 30 40 60 47 MM4812 . Scan loop. 7. What directs the scan mirror image on to the optical reticle? A. C. Objective lens/roof mirror assembly. Rate tachometer. Missile guidance set. D. C. 10. B. Where are the output signals of the postamplifiers applied? A. Detector/Dewar. 9. Rate servo.
LESSON TWO PRACTICE EXERCISE ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK Item 1. 1) 6. Optical imager. (Page 29. 7. Para. A. 3) 5. C. The assembly which contains the scan mechanical scanner. 2) 4. LEDs. Aline the night sight with the optical sight. (Page 37. Correct Answer and Feedback A. The scan loop is a rate servo loop. 1) 3. A. The purpose of the boresight alinement is to aline night sight with the optical sight. Para. A. 4 There are four lenses contained in the visual collimator. The output signals from the postamplifiers are sent to the missile guidance set. Para 1) 48 MM4812 the gimbal in the (Page 31. B. (Page 43. The scan mirror velocity positions interlace loop. Para. 1) mirror is the the . Para 1) 8. Para. (Page 19. Para 1) 2. (Page 32. The IR energy from the scan mirror is focused on to the detector array by the optical imager. Rate servo. The light that is applied to the back of the scan mirror comes from the LEDs. Scan mirror velocity. Missile guidance set. (Page 17. C. Para. (Page 45. D. Mechanical scanner.
60 The detector/Dewar assembly contains 60 detector elements. D. (Page 19. (Page 34. The scan mirror image is directed on to the optical reticle by the objective lens/roof mirror. Para 1) 49 MM4812 . Objective lens/roof mirror assembly. Para 6) 10.9. A.
Only limited repairs. you should be able to identify the purpose. you will learn the components and functions of the night sight test equipment.LESSON THREE NIGHT SIGHT TEST EQUIPMENT AND MAINTENANCE Soldier's Manual Task: OVERVIEW TASK DESCRIPTION: Provide technical assistance to night sight repairers. INTRODUCTION To perform the necessary maintenance on the night sight. You will identify the purpose. TM 9-4935-455-14. 50 MM4812 . and operation of the Night Sight (AN/TAM-3A) test equipment in accordance with the information contained in this subcourse. function. The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publications: 093-411-3913 CONDITIONS: STANDARDS: REFERENCES: TM 9-5855-255-14. checks or alinements can be performed on the night sight without the test set. In this lesson. function. and will work without supervision. and operation of the Night Sight test equipment You will have this subcourse book. LEARNING OBJECTIVE: ACTIONS: When you have completed this lesson. specific test equipment is required.
51 MM4812 . the night sight maintenance facility (NSMF)(Figure 3-1) is required. Purging kit. The NSMF is listed as shop equipment guided missile An/TAM 6 and is used at the general support area. Figure 3-1.Night Sight Maintenance Facility. The NSMF shelter can be mounted on a 2 1/2 ton truck and moved as required. The AN/TAM 6 contains the following equipment: Test set. Night Sight Maintenance Facility (NSMF). To test and support the night sight. Amplifier test set AN/TAM 5. Boresight collimator test set (BCTS). night vision AN/TAM 3A.
AN/TAM-3A. Each provides storage for the unit under test (UUT) mount assembly. A third container is the thermal sight collimator. and interface needed to test and repair the night sight. 52 AN/TAM-3A. MM4812 . The closed cycle cooler test set is stored inside the thermal sight collimator container. Figure 3-2. The AN/TAM-3A test set (Figure 3-2) is used to support the AN/TAS-4A night sight. This test set includes two special tool containers in the night sight maintenance facility (NSMF).
Figure 3-3. stop/start. to gainbalance the Video buffers. A part of the test set is the boresight alinement fixture. The boresight alinement fixture is used to perform alinement of the night sight eyepiece reticle assembly.Amplifier Test Set (AN/TAM 5). and reset switches. When testing the night vision sight. 53 MM4812 . use the test set in conjunction with the night vision test set AN/TAM-3A. The amplifier test set contains one circuit card and a power module. The Amplifier Test Set is used to isolate a fault in the postamplifier assembly to a single replaceable subassembly. Amplifier Test Set and Boresight Alinement Fixture. The mode of operation is determined by the manual/auto. and to aline the Night Sight eyepiece reticle assembly. Major controls of the amplifier test set are video channel select. gain select. and signal select.
BPC Test Cable 7W7: Connects BPC to bench power supply. the test set includes: Cooler Extension Cable 7W8: Connects BPC or VPC directly to the cooler input power cable and the night sight power input when the junction box is removed. Connects BPC or VPC to the night Night Sight Power Cable 8W1: sight junction box.7 ohm loads for Vehicle Power Conditioner: Converts 20 to 40 VDC from a vehicle to 4. Stored in the collimator container. and the cables necessary to check the operation of the closed cycle cooler. a BPC/VPC load box. 54 MM4812 . BPC/VPC Load Assembly: Provides testing the 4. Figure 3-4.8 and 16. 3.8 VDC for the closed cycle cooler in the night sight. The closed cycle cooler test set contains a vehicle power conditioner (VPC).Closed Cycle Cooler Test Set.16 and 13.8 and 16.8 VDC. Closed Cycle Cooler Test Set.
valve. The kit has a regulator. Purging Equipment. The purging kit is used along with the nitrogen bottle to fill the night sight with dry nitrogen. 55 MM4812 . The purging equipment consists of a purging kit and a nitrogen bottle. Figure 3-5.Purging Equipment. hose and adapter.
Optical.Thermal Sight Collimator. In the IR energy path. Temperature controller assembly power cable Wl. 56 MM4812 . the IR energy is emitted from the heated reticle through the hole in the folding mirror. It is reflected by the collimating mirror to the folding mirror and then goes through the IR window to the night sight. The thermal sight collimator (Figure 3-6) is used to check out and aline the night sight. The thermal sight collimator is an electrooptical system that includes both IR and visible light optics. The thermal sight collimator contains: Temperature controller assembly. The thermal sight collimator has three functions: Electronic. Thermal Sight Collimator. Figure 3-6. Shroud. Different paths are taken through the unit depending on the source of energy. Mechanical.
5 degree C temperature differential. Input power of 115 VAC and 0. which supplies heater current to A2R1. The temperature controller assembly and target source assembly provide a control temperature differential between target source and ambient temperature.5 ampere is applied through circuit breaker CB1. The voltage differential of the sensors is applied to the temperature comparator A1A1. causing the POWER ON indicator DS2 to illuminate. and temperature sensor A2A2 monitors the ambient temperature.Temperature Controller Assembly. Transformer T1 steps the voltage down to 24 VAC. Figure 3-7. Electronic Function.5 degrees C) is maintained by sensing the target source ambient temperatures and then regulating the current through a heater. Temperature sensor A2A1 monitors the temperature of the target. The temperature comparator provides heater A2A1 current as required to maintain a 4. 57 MM4812 . The 24 VAC is fullwave rectified by the temperature comparator to produce 24 VDC. Electronic Function (Figure 3-7). Temperature differential (4.
The electronic circuits of the boresight collimator are the lamp circuit and the reticle heater control circuit. Figure 3-8. The output from the comparator and feedback from the heater driver control the differential amplifier. which is located on the back of the reticle. where it is compared with the output of the background temperature sensor. The differential amplifier provides the input to the heater driver.Electronic Circuit Function. a reference voltage is supplied to the differential amplifier and to the constant current source. 58 MM4812 . Electronic Circuit Function. which raises the temperature differential between the source and the reticle (target) to produce the IR pattern. A constant current from the constant current source is supplied to the background temperature sensor and to the reticle temperature sensor. In the reticle heater control circuit. The output of the reticle temperature sensor is applied through an amplitude control to the comparator. The output of the heater driver powers the IR source heater.
Azimuth movement is accomplished with a platform that is pivoted about a point located near the front of the mount. The UUT mount assembly consists of a platform that is movable in azimuth and in elevation. 59 MM4812 . UUT Mount Assembly. Movement of the wedge against the cam causes the platform to move about its pivot point. As the elevation adjustment control is rotated. Elevation movement is accomplished with a platform that is hinged and pivoted at its front edge. Angular limits of travel are 4 degrees in both planes. a wedge moves forward or backward against a cam that is attached to the platform.Mechanical Function. The rear of the platform rides on a rubber-ringed wheel that is rotated by turning the azimuth adjustment control. UUT Mount Assembly. Figure 3-9. Stablization of the UUT mount assembly is provided by a brace that folds out from the base plate.
Temperature Controller Assembly. 60 MM4812 . Figure 3-10. The shroud protects the temperature controller assembly from temperature variations and air currents which could affect target temperature. A detent is used to lock the target in position. Temperature Controller Assembly. The mechanical function of the thermal sight collimator consists of the target select knob on the temperature controller assembly to select one of the six target plates for viewing by the thermal sight under test.
Figure 3-11. The folding mirror is used to achieve the 58-inch focal length in a shorter actual length. The target source provides images of target patterns to a night sight. Each beam of visible light passes through a visible light window where it may be viewed as a visible image. These rays can be viewed with the night sight being tested.Optical Function. The thermal sight collimator radiates infrared energy from the temperature controller assembly. The energy is reflected from a collimating mirror to present a collimated beam of infrared rays. Optical Function. The focal length of the collimating mirror is 58 inches. The target source is placed near the focal point of the collimating mirror. The thermal collimator is used to provide a 58-inch focal length for the night sight testing and alinement. 61 MM4812 . The infrared energy from the target source is reflected from a folding mirror to the collimating mirror.
8 VDC. The BPC/VPC load box (Figures 3-12. The power conditioner output cable connects to the load assembly connector J1. The jacks are connected across an internal 3. The jacks are connected across an internal 13.7 ohm load resistor.16 ohm load resistor. Figure 3-12. Load assembly test jacks J2 and J3 are used to measure +4. BPC/VPC Schematic 62 MM4812 .8 VDC. BPV/VPC Load Box Assembly. 13) is a load for testing the Battery Power Conditioner (BPC) or the Vehicle Power Conditioner (VPC). Load assembly test jacks J4 and J5 are used to measure +16.BPC/VPC Load Box Assembly. Figure 3-13.
VPC Load Box Assembly. Figure 3-15. The load assembly panel has two test terminals for voltage measurements. The VPC load box assembly (Figures 3-14. Figure 3-14.16 ohm load resistor within the load assembly. VPC Schematic.VPC Load Box Assembly. 63 MM4812 .15) provides a load for testing a vehicle power conditioner. A BNC connector connects the vehicle power conditioner to a 3.
The AN/TAM-3A Box 1 Special tools container (Figure 3-16). 64 MM4812 . a two piece unit provides storage for the following items: Figure 3-16.AN/TAM-3A Box 1. AN/TAM-3A Box 1.
The Tektronix DM 501 digital multimeter is a small lightweight meter that can read out voltage. It operates from an input of 115 VAC supplied by the mainframe. AN/TAM-3A Box 2. and ohms. The Tektronix SC 502 is a two channel oscilloscope allowing two signals to be viewed at the same time. and a power supply (6284A). The meter is protected from overloads using shunt resistors. oscilloscope (SC 502). mainframe (DM 503). Figure 3-17. It operates from an input of 115 VAC. The Hewlett Packard 6284A power supply has an output voltage of 0 to 20 VDC and an output current of 0 to 3 amps DC. The mainframe houses both the multimeter and oscilloscope. The meter will show a plus or minus sign next to the readout.AN/TAM-3A Box 2. current. 65 MM4812 . and will place the decimal point in the correct position. The AN/TAM-3A electronic test equipment (Figure 3-17) contains a digital multimeter (DM 501). and a frequency of between 48 and 440 Hz.
Night Sight Maintenance Concept. Notifying direct support to perform the 180 day verification check. and depot. Like other systems and equipment. 66 MM4812 . The following paragraphs will explain the different levels. and what services each level performs. intermediate (DS/GS). and includes: Doing checks and operator adjustments. Spot painting. General cleaning of equipment. Unit Maintenance. Those levels are: Unit. Figure 3-18. Night Sight. Unit maintenance is the maintenance performed on a piece of equipment by the using unit. Handling boresight adjustment procedures (Aline night sight with the optical sight). the night sight has a three level concept for maintenance.
Intermediate Maintenance (DS/GS). The intermediate maintenance units will provide checkout and fault isolation for the night sight. Intermediate maintenance operations include: Providing technical supply system. DS/GS Maintenance. Providing Contact Support Teams (CSS). Providing and maintaining an Operational Readiness Float. Evacuating unserviceable PCBs and subassemblies intermediate GS/depot level repair facilities. 67 MM4812 . Maintenance support equipment for the night sight is the AN/TAM-3A. directly to Figure 3-19.
Figure 3-20. Providing repair parts supply for the theater. the interface between depot and DS/GS maintenance Routing repaired items into the supply system. and also repairs those pieces of equipment that the intermediate GS is not capable of repairing. Alabama. Performing diagnosis and repair of SRUs.Depot Maintenance. Depot Maintenance. Depot maintenance facility for the night sight is the Anniston Army Depot located in Anniston. This maintenance facility repairs the overflow from intermediate GS units. Depot maintenance operations include: Providing units. 68 MM4812 .
check your answers with the answer key that follows. following What is the designator of the digital multimeter that is part of the AN/TAM-3A? A. 115 VAC. A2R1. 503. SC C. 24 VDC. ohm. What is the load applied to the 16. SC 501.LESSON THREE Practice Exercise The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in this lesson. ohm.9 D. 220 VAC. A2A2. C.16 B. 504. Which component maintains constant current through the ambient temperature source? A. ohm. There is only one correct answer for each item. B.7 C. DM B. 54. 502. A2A1. C. D. study again that part of the lesson which contains the portion involved. TM D. AlA1. output of transformer T1 in the Boresight 2. When you have completed the exercise. Situation: You have been asked by a subordinate the questions pertaining to the Night Sight Test Equipment. 3. 1.9 ohm. 4. 34. What is the Collimator? A. D.8 VDC output of the BPC/VPC for testing? A. If you answer any item incorrectly. 24 VAC. 3. B. 13. 69 MM4812 .
What are the angular limits of the UUT Mount Assembly? A.6 B. 6. 48 C. degrees. What is the focal length of the thermal collimator? A. + or or or or 2 3 4 5 degrees. C. 52 D. 3. degrees. 4 D. 36 B. + C. 70 MM4812 . degrees. 3 C. BPC/VPC load box assembly. 7. 4. + D. 8. How many target plates can be selected by the controller assembly in the boresight collimator? A. Collimator container. C.8 C. 10. Where is the Closed Cycle Cooler Test Set stored? A. inches. 2 B. AN/TAS-4A container. 58 inches. 3. Boresight alinement fixture. AN/TAM-5 container.5 D. What item of test equipment is used to aline the night sight eyepiece reticle? A. AN/TAM-3A container. B. 4. inches. Boresight collimator. What temperature differential is maintained between the target source and ambient sensors in the boresight collimator? A. 6 temperature 9. C.5. B. Closed cycle cooler test set. D. C. D. inches. C. + B.8 degrees degrees degrees degrees C.
7 ohms. The load that is applied to the 16. The component that maintains constant current through the ambient temperature source is AlAl. (Page 57. AlAl. 24 VAC. B. (Page 57. 3) 4.LESSON THREE PRACTICE EXERCISE ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK Item 1. (Page 65. (Page 62. Para. Para 1) 2. 1) 71 MM4812 .8 VDC output of the VPC or BPC is 13. 2) 3. Correct Answer and Feedback A.7 ohm. DM 501. The output of transformer T1 in the boresight collimator is 24 VAC. 13. A. Para. The digital multimeter that is part of the AN/TAM-3A test set is DM 501. Para. C.
C. Para 1) 9. Collimator container. D.4 degrees. The angular limits of the UUT mount assembly is + or . 4.5 degrees C is maintained between the target source and ambient. The boresight alinement fixture is used to perform alinement of the night sight eyepiece reticle assembly. The closed cycle cooler test set is collimator container. Para 1) 72 MM4812 . C. 6 The target select knob on the temperature controller assembly can select one of six target plates for viewing.5 degrees C. A. A temperature differential of 4. 1) 6. D. C. The focal length of the thermal collimator is 58 inches. + or . 58 inches. (Page 57. Para. Boresight alinement fixture. (Page 60. (Page 59.4 degrees. 1) 7. (Page 61. Para 1) 10. (Page 53. Para. (Page 54.5. Para 1) stored in the 8.
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